Sunday, February 26, 2017

This Day, February 27, In Jewish History by Mitchell A. Levin


February 27

272:  Birthdate of Constantine the Great, Roman Emperor from 306 to 337.  Constantine adopted Christianity as the state religion for the Roman Empire which marked a turning point (negative) for the Jews of Europe.[ There is plenty of agreement that Constantine was born on February 27 but there is not agreement on the year.  It ranges from 272 to 289]

380: Theodosius I, Gratian, and Valentinian II jointly issued The Edict of Thessalonica which made Christianity the state religion of the Roman Empire.

1514: King Sigismund I appointed Michael Yosefovich “senior” of all Lithuanian Jews

1562: Pius IV issued Dudum e felicis recordationis, a papal bull that confirmed the papal bulls of Paul IV including those that put restrictions on where Jews could live and how they could earn a living.

 1670: Leopold I ordered the Jews expelled from Austria.

1680: Seventy-nine year old Puritan theologian Thomas Goodwin the author of Moses and Aaron: Civil and Ecclesiastical Rites, Used by the Ancient Hebrews passed away today.

1717: Birthdate of German bible scholar Johann David Michaelis one of whose “dissertations was a defense of the antiquity and divine authority of the vowel points in Hebrew.”

1755: Birthdate of Shalom Ullman, the Hungarian born rabbi and Talmudist whose son and grandson followed in his footsteps by serving as rabbis at Lackenbach.

1771: “Mr. Isaac De Peza presented the Synagogue in Barbados with 6 Silver Purim Cups.

1799: Birthdate of Frederick Catherwood the English artist architect.  In 1833, he made a detailed survey of the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem.  He probably was the first westerner since the days of the crusades to have access to this shrine which is located on the Temple Mount.  Catherwood was one of a veritable army of English visitors to “the holy land” who helped to excavate and map the area in the 19th century.

1801: Pursuant to the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801, Washington, D.C. is placed under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Congress. “The first recorded Jewish resident of the city was Isaac Polock. He arrived in 1795. Polock, a grandson of a founder of the Newport, Rhode Island synagogue, was a small time real estate developer. He built a number of fine homes along present day Pennsylvania Ave. An early renter of one of Polock's houses and his neighbor was James Madison, a later President.”  Major Alfred Mordecai was another of D.C.’s first Jewish residents. The North Carolina native entered West Point at the age of 15 and was in the first graduating class when he completed his studies in 1823.  Mordecai came to Washington in 1828 where he served as the commander of the Washington Arsenal. Washington Hebrew Congregation founded in 1852 was the city’s first Jewish Congregation.  Adas Israel, which was originally founded as an Orthodox synagogue in 1869 received a donation from President Grant for its building fund. The congregation later switched to the Conservative movement.  Today the downtown location of Adas Israel is remembered as the Historic 6th& amp; I Synagogue.  For me, the synagogue at 6th & I was the place in the late 1940’s and 1950’s where I went for my first Simchat Torah Services, my first Megillah readings and a whole lot more.  The synagogue at 5th& amp; I was famous because Al Jolson’s father had been its cantor and Jolson sang their as a little boy.  Adas Israel moved to its Connecticut and Porter where it remains today. During the 1950’s Ambassador Eban spoke from its pulpit on more than one occasion much to the congregation’s joy and delight.  For more about the history of the Jewish community in Washington you might want to look at the website of the Jewish Historical Society of Greater Washington.

1805(28th of Adar I, 5565): Naphtali Herz (Hartwig) Wessely passed away. Born in Hamburg in 1725, he “was a 18th-century German Jewish Hebraist and educationist born at Hamburg.”

1807: In Portland, Maine Zilpah Wadsworth Longfellow and Stephen Longfellow gave birth to Henry Wadsworth Longfellow the poet famed for such famous poetic works as “Paul Revere’s Ride” and “Evangeline” as well as “Judas Maccabaeus”  an 1872 five-act verse tragedy a Hebrew version of which  was published in 1900.

1811: In Charleston, SC, Mr. Solomon Hyams officiated at the wedding of Montague Jackson to Hannah Hyams.

1821: Birthdate of Selig Cassel, the brother of Jewish historian and author David Cassel, who converted and became Paulus Stephanus Cassel who was then able to further his academic career as well as taking on the role of being a missionary trying to convert other Jews.

1827(30th of Shevat, 5587): Rosh Chodesh Adar

1827(30th of Shevat, 5587): Samuel Marx, the chief rabbi of Trier and an uncle of Karl Marx passed away today.

1831(14th of Adar, 5591): Purim

1831(14th of Adar, 5591): “Austrian historian and educator” Adolf Beer passed away today.

1841: In the Netherlands Eliezer Eduard Hirschel Kann and Hyacintha Kann gave birth to Livia Amalia Kann.

1844: The Dominican Republic (then known as Santa Domingo) on the island of Hispaniola gained its independence from Haiti.  During the 16th and 17th century Sephardic merchants settled on the island, many of them coming from Curaco. “The oldest Jewish grave (on the island) is dated 1826.”  Jews of this period assimilated into the general population and lost their identity.  In the 1930’s the Dominican Republic became a haven for Jews escaping Hitler’s Europe and most of today’s vibrant Jewish community traces its origins to this period.

1844: Birthdate of Moses Ha-Levi Horowitz, the Romanian born Yiddish actor and playwright who came to the United States in 1882 where he was known as the famous Morris Horowitz.

1846; “In Darmstadt-Eberstadt, Hesse-Darmstadt, Germany, Emanuel Bamberger and the former Helen Fleisch gave birth to  Simon Bamberger, “the fourth Governor of the state of Utah who was the first non-Mormon, the first Democrat and the first (and so far only) Jew to hold this post.

1847: Birthdate of English actress Ellen Terry, whose portrayal of Portia in the Merchant of Venice was one of her signature role.  She performed with Sir Henry Irving whose greatest dramatic success came with his performances in “The Bells.”

1852: Benjamin Disraeli began serving as Chancellor of the Exchequer.  It was the first of three times he would hold this office.

1853(19th of Adar I, 5613): Sixty-eight year old Jacob Aaron passed away in London.

1855: A concert designed to raise funds for the Hebrew Benevolent Society is scheduled to be held today.

1856: Estra (Therese) Wiesner and Rabbi Jonas Wiesner gave birth to Emilie Wiesner.

1859: Birthdate of Bertha Pappenheim “the founder of the Jüdischer Frauenbund (League of Jewish Women).”

1861(17th of Adar): Rabbi David Tevele ben Moses of Minks author of Bet David passed away today

1861: In Frankfurt, Selig Meir Goldschmidt and Clementine Fuld, the daughter of Herz Salomon Fuld and Caroline Schuster gave birth to Hedwig Goldschmidt who after her marriage was known as Hedwig Cramer.

1864(20th of Adar I, 5624): Chaia Basia, the daughter of Rabbi Yehoshua Usher Rabinowicz of Parysow passed away.

1865(1st of Adar, 5625): Rosh Chodesh Adar

1865: Birthdate of Jacques Mieses, the native of Leipzig who became a journalist and world-class chess champion.

1865: Birthdate of Armand Bloch, the native of Strasbourg who was the grandson of Rabbi Moses Bloch known as of 'Hokhom (the Wise) of Uttenheim, who served in a variety of rabbinic and communal roles in France and Algeria. In 1931, the French government named him as Chevialier of the Legion of Honor in recognition of his service to his co-religionists and his country.

1868: Benjamin Disraeli begins serving as Prime Minister for the first time.

1870: In New York City, James (Jacob) Seligman, the son of Fanny and David Seligman, and Rosa Seligman gave birth to Fleurette Guggenheim, the future wife of Wife of Benjamin Guggenheim

1870: The Chicago Tribune reported that the Constitutional Convention will not be amending the Illinois State Convention mandating a day of the week for observing the Sabbath.  The Jews and the Seventh Day Adventists had petitioned the convention include a provision making the 7th day of the week the Sabbath.  Since this would be based on the 4th commandment of the Decalogue, the biblical source would make it more likely that the populace would enjoy a day of rest. Other groups wanted to disregard the literal biblical reading and follow the first day of rest practice.  Rather than offend any group, the committee hearing the matter decided the convention should take no action.

1871: In Newark, NJ, the Ladies’ Temple Association opened a grand fair at Turn Hall.  The fair is scheduled to be open for the next four nights and is a fund-raiser for the Temple on Washington Street.

1873: A national convention of those who want to amend the U.S. Constitution so that it will state that the United States is a Christian nation met today in Pittsburgh, PA.  There were 500 people at the opening session and more than a thousand attending the evening session.  Attendees claim that their move is part of a fight against atheism, something that Catholics and Jews of the time might have found difficult to believe.

1873: In New York, Isaac and Adeline Phillips gave birth to portrait painter J. Campbell Phillips whose last work was a portrait of his cousin Bernard Baruch completed just two months before his death in 1948.

1874: It was reported today that the annual Purim reception at the Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews in New York will be held on March 1st and 2nd.

1874: Birthdate of Dr. David Nunes Nabarro, the son of London merchant who became President of the Medical Society for the Study of Venereal Diseases, President of the Association of Clinical Pathologists and President of the London Jewish Hospital Medical Society.

1877(14th of Adar, 5637): Purim

1877: The Young Men’s Hebrew Association hosted a Purim Ball this evening at Cooper Hall in Jersey City, New Jersey.

1877: Birthdate of Chaim Mordechai Rumkowski “the head of the Council of Eldgers in the Lodz Ghetto who was murdered at Auschwitz in 1944.

1878: The parents of Lucy Shereck, a young Jewess, “wept bitterly” as they watched the baptism of their daughter at the Marcey Avenue Baptist Church.

1879: Constantine Fahlberg discovered the artificial sweetener saccharine which Ellen Glotz described in The Accidental Epicure.

1880(15th of Adar, 5640): Shushan Purim

1880: Over 4,000 people attended the fancy dress ball given by the Purim Association at the Academy of Music. This year’s annual event raised an estimated $18,000 for Mount Sinai Hospital.

1880: It was reported today that “the war which has for some time raged in Germany between the natives and the Jews, seems to increase rather than to diminish…The crime of the Jews appears to be…their financial prosperity.” “If the Jews in Germany were poor, they would not be attacked.”  But many of them are very rich “and this is their offense.” [Editor’s note – this is fifty years before Hitler came to power]

1881: It was reported today that the second edition of the “History of Egypt Under the Pharaohs” by Dr. Henry Brugsch-Bey is now available.  The description of the Exodus presented in this edition is one of the many improvements made in this edition. In a special preface to the new volume, Brugsh-Gey claims that he bases his description of the change in direction taken by the Jews on “contemporary records and the evidence of the Egyptian monuments” to establish “the veracity of the scriptural record.”  He also co-authored “The True Story of the Exodus of Israel: Together with a Brief Review of the History of Monumental Egypt” with Francis Henry Underwood.

1882: In Hudson, Mass., Mary Elizabeth Rice (née Tyler) and Asa Leonard Wheeler, gave birth to Burton K. Wheeler, the U.S. Senator from Montana who in 1936 “said that anti-Semitism has not only gained a foothold in European countries like Germany, Poland, Rumania, Austria and Hungary, but has been imported in the Western Hemisphere by Mexico, Brazil and Ecuador” and that the “capacity for persecution” as embodied in anti-Semitism is not “foreign to American soil.”

1882: A review of “The Electorate and the Legislature” by Spencer Walpole, one of a series of books on the rights and responsibilities of an English Citizen, published today notes that “The House of commons kept one of the members elected for the city of London out of his seat for 11 years because he was a Jew.” This was based on the “historic intolerance and prejudice” of the Commons and its members which has not been fully overcome.

1883: Oscar Hammerstein patented the 1st cigar-rolling machine

1883(20th of Adar I, 5643): Sixty-two year old Julius Stern co-founder of the Stern Conservatory and conductor of the Berlin Symphony Orchestra from 1869 to 1871 passed away today.

1885: In Dublin “Maurice Solomons, an optician who practice is mentioned in Ulysses and his wife gave birth to Dr. Bethel Solomons who played rugby for Ireland was a “supporter of the 1916 Rising.” 

1888: Birthdate of Lotte Lehman German opera star who eventually moved to the United States and became known for the foundation in her name.  Lehman was not Jewish.  But her stepchildren (on their mother’s side) were Jewish.  When Hitler marched into Austria, Lehman got the children out, moved them to Paris and eventually brought all of them to the United States. 

1889: In Soroki, Bessarabia, Mindel and Yechiel Bronfman gave birth to Samuel Bonfaman founder of Distillers Corporation Limited which was renamed Seagram Co., Ltd whose products included Dewars scotch and a leader of the Canadian Jewish committee.

1891: Birthdate of David Sarnoff.  Born in Russia, Sarnoff became the head of R.C.A. and N.B.C.

1891: It was reported today that the Purim Association raised $15,000 at its annual ball which it will donate to the United Hebrew Charities.

1892(30th of Shevat, 5652): Rosh Chodesh Adar

1892(30th of Shevat, 5652): Seventy-three year old Chazan Moritz German passed away in Bresalua

1893: “Coming Exodus of Russian Jews” published today compared the doubling of the Jewish population in the United Kingdom over the last twenty years to the projected redoubling of that number in only another five years because of the mass migration of Jews from the lands of the Czar due to their cruel treatment.

1895: “Elsie Leslie’s Little Guests” published today described an afternoon at the theatre enjoyed by several hundred Jewish children who saw “The Prince and the Pauper” who were there as guest of the famous child actress.  As a sign of their appreciation they gave her an a bag which was elegantly embroidered with her initials – “E.L.L.”

1895: A debate opened in the Reichstag today over a motion to restrict the immigration of Jews from Russia and Austria.

1895: A large number of prominent Jewish citizens attended “the third reception for the season of the Young Ladies’ and Gentlemen’s League of the Montefiore Home took place this evening at Carnegie Hall.

1895: Rabbi Joseph Silverman of Temple Emanu-El delivered a speech tonight entitled “Charity” in which he said that charity was “the language of the heart…the very poetry religion.”  “The Jewish sages of old had said that the world existed on three pillars – education, religion and charity.  Some might be willing to strike of education, others would be willing to strike of religion and even some would go so far as to strike off both religion and education, but where is the man who would be willing to strike off the pillar of charity?”

1897: A visit to “the Hebrew theatres” was included in the tour of the Lower East Side slums by a group of Yale University divinity students which was followed by a symposium on the methods of organized charities that included Nathaniel S. Rosenthal of the United Hebrew Charities.

1898: “Jews Defended In Reichstag” described the debate during which “deprecated the promotion of Jews to the rank of officers and surgeons, on the ground of their ‘un-soldier like spirit.’” Herr Eugene “Richter vigorously repudiate this” He said that during the war with France in 1870,83 Jewish soldiers received the Iron Cross and 36 of the 70 Jewish surgeons received the same decoration.  General Heinrich von Gossler, the Minister of War, defended the Jews against the false accusation that they had sold defective rifles to the government.

1899: “A Bible Story Up To Date” published today described Abraham Gruber’s updated version of the Purim story which equated the behavior of Haman with anti-Dreyfus forces in France and the European bigots who falsely claim that Jews have their own laws which makes them disloyal of whatever country they are living in.

1899: In his on-going attempt to create a Jewish homeland, Herzl meets with Grossherzog Friedrich of Baden in Karlsruhe. He offers the Grossherzog the protectorate over the land company and requests another audience with the Kaiser. Herzl receives a recommendation to the Deutsche Bank in Berlin to act as a subscription agency for the Jewish Colonial Bank.

1902: In London, a group of Zionists formed the Anglo Palestine Company which became the Bank Leumi.

1903: In Pruzhany, Rabbi Moshe Soloveichik and Pesya Feinstein, the daughter of Rabbi Elihyahu Feinstein gave birth to Rabbi Joseph Ber Soloveitchik.

1906: As the Russian rulers issued an “imperial ukase” calling for the first meeting a Russian Parliament, some Jewish leaders have decided to form a political party and participate in the elections for members of this National Assembly.

1907: Jockey Walter Miller, the native of Brooklyn born in 1890 who rode his first race at the age of 14 and passed away in 1959 after having rode 1,094 winners, today road “winners in all vie races at Oakland Race Course.”

1908: Zionist leader Arthur Ruppin delivered an address to the Jewish Colonization of Vienna.

 1911: Twenty-four year old Matt Wells fought a twenty round bout at the National Sporting Club in London “to win the lightweight championship of Great Britain and take home the Lonsdale Belt.”

1913:  Birthdate of author Irwin Shaw. Two of his most famous works were The Young Lions, a novel about World War II that became a popular movie and Rich Man, Poor Man, a saga about department store tycoon that provided the basis for a television mini-series of the same name.

1916: “Dr. Stephen S. Wise spoke at the Free Synagogue” this morning on ‘Marriage and After,’ the fourth of his series of addresses on the deeper things of life”

1916: “The twenty-fifth anniversary of the founding of the Temple Israel Sisterhood of Personal Service was formally observed” this evening.

1916: Prior to Mark “Sykes’s departure to meet the Russian Foreign Minister in Petrograd today, Sir Herbert Samuel approached Sykes with “a plan in the form of a memorandum” concerning Palestine which later led Sykes to write to Samuel “suggesting that if Belgium should assume the administration of Palestine it might be more acceptable to France as an alternative to the international administration which France wanted and the Zionists did not.

1916: “E.M. Newman of Chicago delivered he first of his illustrated lectures for the current season at Carnegie Hall” tonight.

1916: The Morris Loeb Memorial Building and the Joseph B. Bloomingdale Memorial Auditorium were formally dedicated today during “the annual meeting of the Hebrew Technical Institute.

1916:  During his speech this afternoon at the annual meeting of the Young Women’s Hebrew Association, Dr. Cyrus Adler “said he did not altogether approve of young women soliciting for the relief funds on the street in the manner exhibited” during “tag day.”

1916: At today’s annual meeting of The Widowed Mothers’ Fund Association, Mrs. William Einstein, the President “made a plea against ‘machine ready’ charity.”

1916: “The new Hebrew Technical Institute” was dedicated today in New York

1916: This afternoon, “at the annual meeting of the Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society…President Sanders announced that Jacob H. Schiff had donated $25,000 to the organization as the nucleus of a fund with which to erect a new building” to help the society meet its increased needs.

1917: The Russian Revolution broke out in Petrograd. After three years of ruinous war the old regime collapsed. By March a provisional government under Kerensky was set up. During the ensuing revolution, the Jews were caught in the middle. Much of the conflict centered around the south and west where over 3 million Jews lived. It is estimated that over 2000 pogroms took place, especially in the Ukraine, leading to the death of 100,000-200,000 Jews within the next 3 years.

1917: Assemblyman Nathan D. Pearlman sponsored a bill today in the New York State legislature to allow New York City “to buy and sell food” “as an emergency measure” to relieve shortages,

1919: The Versailles Peace Conference opened. The American Jewish Congress was represented by Louis Marshall (President of the American Jewish Committee), Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, and Judge Julian Mack, President of the Congress. In France, they joined with other world Jewish organizations to form the Comite des Delegation Juives, with Julian Mack and then Louis Marshal as chairmen. Dr. Leo Motzkin, Zionist and publicist, was appointed secretary. They succeeded in passing a plan ensuring the right for minorities to establish their own schools and speak their own languages, while retaining full citizenship.

1922: Psychoanalyst Ernest Jones and his wife gave birth to Mervyn Jones the British author whose works included Joseph, a fictional tale based on the life of Stalin.

1925:  Birthdate of Sam Dash.  The Georgetown Law Professor would gain fame as the Chief Counsel for the House Judiciary Committee during the Watergate Scandal.

1926(13th of Adar, 5686): Parashat Tetzaveh; Shabbat Zachor; Erev Purim

1926: “The Einstein Theory of Relativity is not valid under a strict mathematical analysis according to a statement made” today by Charles Lane Poor, the Professor of Celestial Mechanics at Columbia University who attacked the mathematics of theory and “criticized Einstein for his errors in logic saying that he would prove the laws of logic false in order to make his theory hold.”

1927: In Detroit, MI, Abraham and Ruth Jaroff gave birth to Leon Morton Jaroff, “a science writer and editor who persuaded Time Inc. to start Discover magazine in 1980, became its top editor and for many years wrote the popular Skeptical Eye column challenging pseudo-sciences…” (As reported by Dennis Hevesi)

1927: Birthdate of Ariel Sharon, Israeli soldier and political leader.

1930: In Los Angeles, silent film writer and producer John Stone and the former Hilda Ness gave birth to Peter Hess Stone, the writer who won an Oscar, and Emmy and a Tony

1932: Birthdate of Elizabeth Taylor, American actress who converted to Judaism in the 1950’s when she married producer Michael Todd.

1933: Germany’s parliament building in Berlin, the Reichstag, was set on fire.  The Reichstag Fire was started by the Nazis who used the fire as an excuse to begin their subversion of the German legal and political system.

1933: As a result of the Reichstag Fire which he saw as the confirmation of the Nazis rise to power, Walter Benjamin left Germany.

1933: Along with all the Jewish and leftist actors, Wolfgag Heinz (David Hirsch) was dismissed from his work mark the start of an exile that would lead him from Holland to Britain and finally to Switzerland.

1935: Lazar Kaganovich began serving his first term as People’s Commissar for Transport.

1935: In the Bronx, Jeanette Efron and Sol Fineman gave birth to Eleanor Fineman, an “American photographer, author, and artist” whose works included “Vilna Nights” with dealt with lost Jewish culture.

1935: Harry Hoffman, who works at the Curb Exchange, is scheduled to compete in the 400-meter run at tryouts for the American Maccabi Team being held at the 102nd Engineers Armory today.  The “Jewish Olympics” are scheduled to be held in Tel Aviv starting on April 2 and finishing on April 7.

1935: Birthdate of Uri Shulevitz American author and illustrator. Born in Poland, he survied the bombing of Warsaw in 1939 and moved with his family first to Paris and finally to Israel, in 1949. During the Sinai War in 1956, Mr. Shulevitz joined the Israeli Army. Later, he joined the Ein Gedi kibbutz. He moved to New York City in 1959, studying painting at Brooklyn Museum Art School and working as an illustrator for a Hebrew children's book publisher. In 1962, an editor at Harper & Row saw his freelance portfolio and suggested he write children's book. He won the Caldecott Medal in 1969 for his illustration of The Fool of the World and the Flying Ship. He created his first picture book, The Moon in My Room, in 1963.

 1936: U.S. premiere of Liebelei a German film directed by Max Ophüls which was based on a play of the same name (Liebelei (de)) by Arthur Schnitzler, the Austrian playwright was the son of laryngologist Johann Schnitzler.

1936: “The Goes ‘Round” a musical comedy with a script co-authored Jo Swerling and starring Harry Richman was released in the United States today.

1936:  Mathematician Issai Schur returned from Switzerland via Karlsruhe, where his sister lived, to Berlin.

1936: “The plight of the Christian men and women who fled from Germany because of Nazi persecution and terrorism was described this afternoon and evening at a conference and dinner under the auspices of the American Christian Committee for German Refugees at the Hotel Astor.”

1936: “A street fight broke out today in front of a Warsaw synagogue when a group of Jews tried to prevent a number of Jewish tradesmen, who they alleged were continuing to import German goods, from entering the synagogue.”

1936: During a press conference today Count Henri de Baillet-Latour of Belgium, president of the International Olympic Committee sportswriters asked if Germany had lived up to all her promises and agreements to which he answered, “In every respect, the International Olympic Committee had not fault to find.  There Jews on the teams, among the officials and among the spectators.  There were no signs of discrimination.”

1937: New York Times columnist Arthur Krock hand an award winning “exclusive interview with the President of the United States.

1938: The Palestine Post reported that during his last day in Palestine, the departing High Commissioner, Sir Arthur Wauchope, laid the foundation stone of the Andrews Memorial Hospital in Netanya, and visited Pardess Hana, Hadera and Haifa.

1938: The Palestine Post reported that In New York the Joint Distribution Committee announced that the Soviet government's firm opposition to the immigration of Jews from outside of the Soviet Union to Birobidjan ended the practical prospect of the development, if not of the entire existence, of what was expected to become an autonomous Soviet Jewish republic. The report mentioned that out of some 27,000 foreign Jews who immigrated to Birobijan, 20,000 had later left the area. 

1939: Birthdate American Formula One driver Peter Revson, who won the 1973 British and Canadian Grand Prix events and was runner-up at the 1971 Indianapolis 500. He was killed during a practice run in 1974.

1939: As the multi-year Arab wave of violence continues, 32 people were killed today and another fifty persons were wounded in a series of explosions and shootings throughout Palestine today.

1940: Jewish scientists Martin Kamen and Sam Ruben discovered carbon-14, the critical material for the method known as “carbon dating.”

1940: The Land Transfer Regulations aimed at ending Jewish property acquisition in Palestine were put into effect by the British government.

1941: “So Ends Our Night” the movie version of the novel by the same name featuring Erich von Stroheim, Alexander Granach and Ernst Deutsch with music by Louis Gruenberg was released in the United States today.

1941: The Nazis completed the suppression of “the February Strike,” the first even if unsuccessful direct action taken against the “treatment of Jews in Europe.”

1941: In retaliation for an innocent incident in Amsterdam, the Germans arrested 425 Jewish men, beat them and deported 389 of them to Buchenwald concentration camp. Two months later 364 of them were transferred to Mauthausen concentration camp. Ten of them committed suicide. By autumn, none of the men were alive.

1942: In Kovno, the German issued an order stipulating “that the Jews were to submit all books in their possession” – which resulted in the confiscation of over 100,000 books. (Yad VaShem_

1942: The first transport of French Jews was sent to Nazi-Germany 

1942: A group of Aryan women staged a protest in Berlin against the arrest of their Jewish husbands whom the government was planning to ship off to concentration camps. 

1943: Birthdate of Jonathan Rosenbuam, the native of Florence, Alabama whose “childhood home was the Rosenbaum House designed by Frank Lloyd Wright” who “was the head film critic for the Chicago Reader from 1987 until 2008.”

1943: Work orders were increased in the Lodz Ghetto increased, easing tensions within the ghetto since more Jews would be needed to work and less would be exposed to deportation.

1943 (22nd of Adar I, 5703): On Shabbat, Rabbi Avraham Duber Shapiro, Chief Rabbi of Kovno, died in the Kovno Ghetto.  Shapiro was a famous Talmudic scholar.  He had been Chief Rabbi of Kovno since before World War I.  At the outbreak of World War II he was in Switzerland under a doctor’s care.  He insisted on returning to Kovno in Lithuania and revisited one of his son’s efforts to join in him in the United States.  Shapiro stayed with his fellow Jews.  When he died, the Nazis forbade any public demonstrations.  Thousands of Jews defied the decree and showed their affection by attending his funeral on the next day.

1943: U.S. premiere of “The Hard Way” “a musical drama directed by Vincent Sherman,” produced by Jerry Wald with a screenplay by Daniel Fuchs and Peter Viertel.

1944: This morning, there were reports of explosions at the income tax office in Jerusalem, Tel Aviv and Haifa.  There were no reports of casualties.  The Irgun Zvai Leumi is thought to have set off the devices that caused the explosions.

1945: During “The Hunting Season,” “Yaakov Tavi who was in charge of Irgun’s intelligence service was kidnapped at 11 a.m. at the corner of Dizengoff and Yirimiyahu streets.”

1945(14th of Adar, 5705): Final Purim celebrated during World War II.

1947: Louis B. “Mayer auctioned of his horses” today after having thrown Mendel Silberberg and “a gaggle of Jewish Leaders” when they “suggested that Mayer give up his involvement in horse racing because it was bad for the image of the Hollywood Jew.”

1948: The International Agriculture Institute which had been co-founded by David Lubin in 1908 “to help farmers share knowledge, produce systematically, establish a cooperative system of rural credit, and have control over the marketing of their products” was dissolved today.

1950: In the UK, Walter and Liesel (Alice) Schwab gave birth to Julia Schwab, the wife of Professor Anthony Neuberger, who gained fame as Rabbi Julia Babette Sarah Neuberger, Baroness Neuberger, the first female rabbi to have her own congregation (South London Liberal Synagogue) and the “full-time Senior Rabb at the West London Synagogue.”

1953: The Jerusalem Post reported that an Israeli soldier was killed when Jordanians opened fire on an Israeli patrol in the frequently infiltrated Beit Guvrin area.

1953: The Jerusalem Post reported that A Nahal group established a settlement at Ein Gedi, on the shores of the Dead Sea.

1953: The Jerusalem Post reported that A festive meeting celebrated the establishment of the first local council of Ashkelon, the Afridar housing suburb near Migdal Ashkelon. 

1956: Final broadcast on NBC of “The Tony Martin Show,” a 15 minute musical variety hosted by Tony Martin and produced by Bud Yorkin.

1957: Lazar Kaganovich completed his final term as a “Full Member” of the Politburo.

1958(6th of Adar, 5718):  Harry Cohn, CEO of Columbia Pictures passed away after suffering a heart attack.  Cohn was one of several Jewish movie moguls who shaped Hollywood and the entertainment business.

1964, Steve Lawrence opened at the 54th Street Theatre in a Broadway musical version of “What Makes Sammy Run?” which ran for 540 performances

1970:  Birthdate of science fiction writer Michael A. Burstein.  According to some, Burstein is not unique because he is a Jewish science fiction writer.  He is unique because he is a practicing Jew who writes science fiction. “Burstein appears at a number of science fiction conventions throughout the year, which can be a problem because they are inevitably held on weekends. “It can be difficult, but it is manageable," he said. He and his wife Nomi either bring kosher meals or arrange to have them delivered to the hotel. Other issues are more complicated. "One of the biggest problems is that a lot of hotels use electronic key cards," he explained. Burstein arranges with a non-Jewish friend to handle unlocking his room during Shabbat, when such usage might not be deemed appropriate. There are a number of Shabbat-observant fans at local science fiction conventions, and they often congregate in Burstein's room for a festive Friday night meal, complete with wine and challah. As for his science fiction, Burstein said there's been nothing particularly Jewish about it... so far. Although there are many Jews who have made it big in science fiction, including Robert Silverberg, Harlan Ellison, and Asimov himself, Burstein is one of the few who has succeeded in the genre who takes his religious obligations as seriously as his scientific ones.”

1975(16th of Adar, 5735): One day before his 86th birthday, Hyman Levy passed away in Wimbeldon.

1976: The World Sephardi Federation headed by Nessim Gaon met with King Juan Carlos of Spain. The WSF goal of helping to normalize relations with Israel and Spain did not come to fruition immediately, but over time a relationship developed and eventually the two countries recognized each other.

1978: The Jerusalem Post reported that the cabinet had agreed on a new settlement policy which apparently implied a virtual moratorium on new settlements in the administered territories. The cabinet, however, actually failed to make this statement official. At the same time the cabinet rejected any phrasing of the Palestine question in the declaration of principles, now being discussed with Egypt, which would go significantly further than the West Bank and Gaza autonomy scheme, already proposed to Egypt and the US by Israel.

1980: Egypt and Israel exchanged ambassadors for the first time.

1980(9th of Adar, 5740):  Seventy-eight year old character actor George Tobias passed away. Despite a long career that included performing in such hit movies as “Yankee Doodle Dandy” and “Sergeant York” most Americans will remember him as Abner Kravitz, the husband of the busybody neighbor Alice Kravitz on the television sitcom “Bewitched.”

1981 (22nd of Adar I, 5741): Former New York Congressman Jacob Gilbert passed away at the age of 60.  Gilbert served in Congress from 1960 to 1971.

1983(14th of Adar, 5743): Purim

1984: ABC broadcast the second and final episode of “Lace” featuring June Brown as “Mrs. Trelowney.”

1987: The Israeli Foreign Minister, Shimon Peres, announced today that he had agreed with Egyptian officials that there should be an international conference on Middle East peace this year.

The agreement, reached after two meetings here with President Hosni Mubarak of Egypt, reaffirmed in writing a call the two men made in Alexandria last fall, when Mr. Peres was the Israeli Prime Minister. Mr. Peres's commitment, announced at the end of a three-day visit here, was expected to provoke strong reaction from the current Israeli Prime Minister, Yitzhak Shamir, who vehemently opposes such a conference.

1988: Today, “TV presenter Esther Rantzen announced live on air that the people in the audience sitting around Nicky Winton were some of the children he had saved” which “was an overwhelming, unexpected and emotional moment and became the catalyst for an outpouring of written material tributes and accolades, including a knighthood in 2003…”

1989: U.S. premiere of “A Nightmare on Elm Street 3: Dream Warriors” with a script by Bruce Wagner.

1990(1st of Adar, 5750: Rosh Chodesh Adar

1990(1st of Adar, 5750): Eighty-two year old Brooklyn born NYU Law School graduate Samuel Perlman, the husband of the former Lucille Rabinowitz and “chief executive of L.M. Rabinowitz and Company” passed away today.

1990 (1st of Adar, 5750): Nahum N. Glatzer passed away. Born in the Austro-Hungarian Empire and educated in Germany, Glatzer moved to the United States in 1938 where he furthered his reputation as a literary scholar, theologian, and editor. A list of his works includes The Schocken Passover Haggadah, The Complete Stories of Franz Kafka and Franz Rosenzweig: His Life and Thought

1991(13th of Adar, 5751): Ta’anit Esther; Erev Purim

1991(13th of Adar, 5751): Eighty-five year old Nathan Perilman who served as the rabbi at Manhattan’s Temple Emanu-El passed away today.

1991: President George H.W. Bush announced the end of the first Gulf War. During the war, the Israelis agreed not to join the coalition and not to retaliate against the Iraqi’s when they began firing Scuds into their country.  It was the first time that the Israelis had entrusted their security to another country.

1995: Uzi Baram replaced Yithak Rabin as Minister of the Interior

1995(27th of Adar I, 5756): Sixty-seven year old financier Bernard “Bernie” Cornfeld passed away today.

1997:Funeral services were held in Manhattan today for 97 year old May W. Hartman, the widow of Judge Gustave Hartman and mother of Kenneth Hartman and Alicia Ashe who was “founder of the Gustave Hartman YM-YWHA and for 25 years she was President of the Gustave Hartman Home for Children.

1998: U.S. premiere of “Dark City” a sci-fi cinema with a script co-authored by David S. Goyer.

1998: The 25th European Athletics Indoor Championships in which Aleksandr Averbukh placed sixth in the Heptathlon opened today at Valencia.

2000: The opening ceremony of the temporary exhibition of photographs and artifacts, “The Jewish Community of Volos” took place, at the Jewish Museum of Greece.

2000: The European Indoor Championships during which Aleksandr Averbukh placed first in the Pole vault came to an end today in Ghent, Belgium.

2000: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Stroheim by Arthur Lennig.

2002: Thirty-four year old Gad Rejwan was shot by a Fatah terrorist north of Jeruslaem.

2003(25th of Adar I, 5763):  Eighty-nine year old Rabbi Noah Golinkin, the former spiritual leader of a Columbia synagogue who earned a national reputation for programs that taught Hebrew literacy to more than 150,000 Jewish adults, passed away  today at Levindale Hebrew Geriatric Center & Hospital of complications after surgery. .His one-day Hebrew Reading Marathon and its forerunner, the Hebrew Literacy Campaign, is credited with quickly giving adults enough knowledge of the language to follow the Hebrew prayer book. He wrote textbooks widely used to teach adults because he could not find any suitable for his programs. He is best known for his crash course, an eight-hour program that uses familiar Hebrew words, repetition, exercise, humor and encouragement to bring Hebrew reading familiarity to those who did not learn it as children.
2004: Today, in a case of a Jew honoring a Jew, actress Lauren Bacall, spoke at the posthumous induction of screenwriter Peter Stone into the American Theatre Hall of Fame.

2005:  The New York Times included reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Orientalist: Solving the Mystery of a Strange and Dangerous Life by Tom Reiss

2006: The Harlem Globetrotters, the creation of Abe Saperstein, extended their overall record to 22,000 wins.

2006:  The Jerusalem Post reported that a new Israeli tourism campaign will take center stage at Emirates Stadium, the London home of English soccer giants Arsenal, starting in August.

2007: Holocaust survivors from around the world gather in Warsaw to urge the Polish government to compensate them for property confiscated by the former communist regime.

2007: Israel got its first Arab President.  Acting President Dalia Itzik left for a week long trip to the United States.  During that time, Jajallie Whbee, a Druse who had attained the rank of Lt. Colonel before retiring from the IDF, served in the largely ceremonial post.

2007: Commander Mark Polansky visited the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum to meet Sophie Turner-Zaretsky.  He presented the replica of the bear called Refugee that had comforted Sophie during the Holocaust and a photo of an orphan from war-torn Dafur -- along with NASA space travel certificates -- to U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum chief of staff Bill Parsons, who said the Museum wanted to provide something that would be a timely reminder of history’s relevance. "Although we can send people into space, we still can’t seem to stop them from hating and killing one another. A child’s stuffed toy from the Holocaust and a photograph of a refugee from the genocide today in Darfur remind us the lessons of the Holocaust have yet to be learned."

2007: David Bromberg released “Try Me One More Time,” the first new studio album he had recorded since 1990.

2007: Teapacks performed four songs in a TV special, and the song "Push The Button" was chosen as the Israeli entry for the 2007 Eurovision Contest by popular vote

2008: The Finalist Grand Prize portion of The Second Annual Simply Manischewitz Cook-Off takes place in New York City.

2008 (21 Adar I 5768): Anthony Bernard Blond passed away.  The British publisher and author’s mother was a Sephardic Jew from Manchester and he was the cousin of Harold Laski, the noted British socialist and Laborite.

2008(21 Adar I): Myron Cope, "the voice of the Pittsburgh Steelers" passed away.

2008 (21 Adar I 5768): Approximately 50 Palestinian rockets hit the western Negev today, with one of them slamming into Sapir College near Sderot, killing a 47-year-old student. Another exploded on the helipad of Barzilai Hospital in Ashkelon, while the hospital was treating casualties from Sderot. The deceased, Roni Yechiah from the town of Btecha in the western Negev, was inside his car in Sapir's parking lot. He died of shrapnel wounds to the chest. Hamas claimed responsibility for the attack. Yechiah is survived by his wife, Esther, and four children: Niv, who is currently serving in the Israel Defense Forces, Lital, a 17-year-old high school pupil, her 14-year-old sister Coral and 8-year-old brother Idan.

2009: Palestinian terrorists in the Gaza Strip continued their attacks on Israeli civilian areas early this morning when they fired a Kassam that hit an open area in the Sdot Negev region.

2009: Rick Recht returns to Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, Iowa for another incomparable Musical Shabbat.  Rick is joined by the talented Abbe Silber, daughter of Dr. Bob & Laurie Silber, pillars of the Jewish community.

2009: Robert M. Morgenthau, the long-serving Manhattan district attorney and an institution in New York City politics, will not run for re-election this year. Outside New York, Mr. Morgenthau is most well-known as the model for the original district attorney, Adam Schiff, on the television show “Law & Order.” Mr. Morgenthau had a cameo on the show, portraying a judge.

2009: Former Iowa State University quarterback Sage “Rosenfels was acquired from the Texans by the Minnesota Vikings.”

2010: An Egyptian court overturned a lower court ruling today that called for a halt to natural gas exports to Israel, saying the deliveries should continue unhindered.

2010: An Israeli Arab rights committee sent a petition to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) today opposing the addition of Israel to the organization. After two years of official talks, the OECD will vote in May on whether to admit Israel.

2010(13th of Adar,5770): Shabbat Zachor!

2010:  In the evening, Purim and the reading of the Megillah.

2010: Glass falling from the atrium roof of the Sony Building in New York interrupted a Purim party. Ice reportedly broke through the glass roof of the midtown Manhattan building after 11 p.m. Saturday, injuring at least 10 of the 300 guests, according to reports.The party, reportedly given by Aish Hatorah, was attended by "Sex and the City" actor Chris Noth, as well as reality show "Jersey Shore" cast members Nicole "Snooki" Polizzi and Vinny Guadagnino. "Omg roof just collapsed!" Polizzi Tweeted from the party."I think me and @sn00ki felt the wrath for not being Jewish," Guadagnino Tweeted.The actors were not injured. 

2010(Adar 13, 5770): Eighty-nine year old Hank Rosenstein, who played in what is considered the National Basketball Association’s first game, in 1946, as an original member of the New York Knicks, died  today in Boca Raton, FL. (As reported by Vincent M. Mallozzi)

2010: Opening of Jewish Book Week in London, UK.

2011(27th of Adar I, 5771): Eighty-nine year old Philip Burgher, a World War II Army veteran passed away in Buffalo Grove, Illinois.

2011(27th of Adar I, 5771): Brazilian born author Moacyr Scliar, whose “The Centaur in the Garden,” was included among the 100 Greatest Works of Modern Jewish Literature by The National Yiddish Book Center, passed away today. (As reported by William Grimes)

2011: The Prince of Kosher Gospel, Joshua Nelson, is scheduled to perform at Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, IA.

2011: Closing night of the Atlanta Jewish Film Festival.

2011: Closing night of The “Voices From a Changing Middle East” festival.

2011: The Los Angeles Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Modigliani: A Life by Meryle Secrest and Endgame: Bobby Fischer's Remarkable Rise and Fall — From America's Brightest Prodigy to the Edge of Madness by Frank Brady

2011: Among the Jewish winners are tonight’s Oscar ceremonies were:
Israel-born Natalie Portman for her portrayal of a tortured ballerina in “Black Swan”
Emile Sherman one of the co-producers of “The King’s Speech” which was named best picture
David Seidler of “King’s Speech” winning for original screenplay
Aaron Sorkin of “The Social Network” for adapted screenplay
Danish director-writer Susanne Bier, took the best foreign-language film statuette for “In a Better World,”
American filmmakers Kirk Simon and Karen Goodman won in the short documentary category for “Strangers No More”  - a film based on the work of the Bialik-Rogozin School in south Tel
Director-writer Lee Unkrich accepted the award for his animated feature “Toy Story 3,”
Randy Newman won for his song “We Belong Together.”
Lora Hirschberg was one of the co-winners for the work of sound-mixing for “Inception.”
(As reported by JTA)

2012: Anna Kantar is scheduled to give a reading of poems by Leah Goldberg at the Stern College for Women in New York City.

2012: Open Women’s Mic Night featuring Poetry, Music, Comedy, whatever you do to entertain the ladies at David Lilimnick’s Off the Wall Comedy Club in Jerusalem

2012: The Tal Law cannot be extended by even one hour, and any attempt to ignore the issue is a mistake, Foreign Minister Avigdor Liberman said at a press conference in the Knesset today (As reported by Lahav Harkov)

2012: Workers at the Haifa, Ashdod and Eilat ports who had held a one-day strike over pension-related demands yesterday will return to work today after a truce was reached at a late-night National Labor Court meeting.

2012: Nurses across Israel went on a 24-hour strike this morning, after overnight negotiations between the Finance Ministry and the chairman of the national nurses’ union failed to reach an agreement to prevent the strike.

2013: L'Chaim Kosher Vodka is scheduled to sponsor the reception that follows The SHUFFLE Concert that will feature performances by Eliran Avni, piano, Moran Katz, clarinet, Linor Katz, cello, Hassan Anderson, oboe, Francisco Fullana, violin, and soprano Ariadne Greif

2013: “The Mexican Suitcase” Rediscovered Spanish Civil War Negatives by Capa, Taro and Chim is scheduled to open at the Musée d'art et d'histoire du Judaïsme

2013: The Weiner Library is scheduled to sponsor a lecture by Mary Fulbrook, author of A Small Town Near Auschwitz

2013: In Portland, the Oregon Jewish Museum is scheduled to host a reception marking the opening of “Pictures of Resistance: The Wartime Photographs of Jewish Partisan Faye Schulman.”

2013: A panel of judges at the International Convention Center Haifa awarded the title of Miss Israel to 21 year old Yityish Aynaw  “the young and gorgeous model, who came to Israel only about a decade ago from Ethiopia.” (As reported by Yori Yanover)

2014: The Consulate General of Israel in New York, the Jewish Community Relations Council of New York and the Jewish National Fund are scheduled to honor Dr. Clarence B. Jones, co-author of the “I Have A Dream Speech” at the annual commemoration of Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

2014: Eric Schmidt and Jared Cohen are scheduled to discuss their bestseller The New Digital Age at the Historic 6th & I Synagogue.

2014: “In the wake of an alleged attack by Israel on a Hezbollah arms convoy, the organization’s chief, Hassan Nasrallah, warned key military personnel of the possibility of war with the Jewish state, a Lebanese journalist with close ties to the organization said today. (As reported by Spencer Ho and Elhanan Miller)

2014: Soldiers are searching for the two Palestinian Arab men who robbed and stabbed an Israeli cab driver this evening near Ariel junction. (As reported by Maayana Miskin)

2015: In London, Jewish Book Week at the Jewish Museum is scheduled to come to an end.

2015: “A Happy End” by Iddo Netanayahu, the younger brother of Benjamin and Yonatan Netanyahu  is scheduled to be performed at Abingdon Theatre.

2015: “Deli Man” “Erik Greenberg Anjou’s forthcoming documentary about the dying (but perhaps reviving!) culture of Jewish delicatessens is a meal with many courses” is scheduled to begim “its theatrical run in Florida and Arizona” today.

2015(17th of Shevat, 5775): Eighty-three year old Leonard Nimoy passed away today. (As reported Virginia Heffernan)
http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/27/arts/television/leonard-nimoy-spock-of-star-trek-dies-at-83.html?smid=nytcore-ipad-share&smprod=nytcore-ipad&_r=0

2016: Shabbat Ki Tissa; for more see
http://downhomedavartorah.blogspot.com/

2016: “Einstein in the Holy Land” and “One in a Lifetime” are scheduled to be shown at the Washington Jewish Film Festival.

2016: In North Carolina, “Apples from the Desert” is scheduled to be shown at the Charlotte Jewish Film Festival.  (A reminder that there are thriving Jewish communities all over the United States)

2017(1st of Adar, 5777): Rosh Chodesh Adar; for more see http://downhomedavartorah.blogspot.com/

2017: “Through the Wall” a melodrama starring Noa Koller is scheduled to be shown at JW3 in London.

2017: The Temple Emanu-El is scheduled to host “Nuclear Weapons in the Trump Era.”

2017: The J Street annual convention is scheduled to continue for a third day at the Washington Convention Center.

2017: In Paris, “The State of Deception,” an exhibition that examines the Nazis use of “propaganda to win broad voter support, implement radical programs, and justify war and mass murder” is scheduled to come to an end today.

2017: Yiddish folk singer Cindy Paley is scheduled to lead a sing-along of Yiddish love songs at the Beverly Hills House Concert.