Saturday, October 25, 2014

This Day, October 26, In Jewish History by Mitchell A. Levin

OCTOBER 26

1235: King Andrew II of Hungary passed away. During the reign of King Andrew II (1205–1235) there were Jewish Chamberlains and mint-, salt-, and tax-officials. The nobles of the country, however, induced the king, in his Golden Bull (1222), to deprive the Jews of these high offices. When Andrew needed money in 1226, he farmed the royal revenues to Jews, which gave ground for much complaint. The pope (Pope Honorius III) thereupon excommunicated him, until, in 1233, he promised the papal ambassadors on oath that he would enforce the decrees of the Golden Bull directed against the Jews and the Saracens (by this time, the papacy had changed, and the Pope was now Pope Gregory IX; would cause both peoples to be distinguished from Christians by means of badges; and would forbid both Jews and Saracens to buy or to keep Christian slaves.

1407:  Mobs attacked the Jews in Cracow, Poland.  The so-called Cracow Accusations was one of the first libels in Poland. The Jews tried to defend themselves and were forced to take refuge in the Church of St. Anne which was surrounded and then set afire. Any children left alive were forcibly baptized.

1496: An edict expelling the Jews was signed in Naples.

1631: Birthdate of Cardinal Leopold Karl von Kollonitsch who advised the King to repopulate Hungary with Catholic Jews from Germany and who “held that the Jews could not be exterminated at once but must be weeded out by degrees as bad coin is gradually withdrawn from circulation.  To that end he called for the enforcement of the decree by the Diet of Pressburg, “imposing double taxation on the Jews” and deny them right to “engage in agriculture” or “to own any real estate.”

1689: General Piccolomini of Austria burned down Skopje in Macadeonia to prevent the spread of cholera. Skopje was part of the Ottoman Empire and it was one of the towns where Jews fleeing from Spain after 1492 found refuge and were able to prosper in the fields of trade, finance and medicine.  In the 21st century, most of the handful of Macedonian Jews lives in Skopje, the country’s capital.

1819: On the Isle of Jutland, Aaron Goldschmidt and Leah Rothschild gave birth to the “distinguished Danish poet, novelist and journalist,” Professor Meyer Aaron Goldschmidt.

1825: The Erie Canal opens with passage from Albany, New York to Lake Erie. Eventually the canal would provide a water access to Buffalo, thus opening a water route that would  stretch from the Atlantic Oceans to the all of the lands bordering on the Great Lakes.  This would create immeasurable commercial opportunities for all Americans, including the Jews.  It would lead to the creation of thriving Jewish communities in places like Cleveland, Detroit and Chicago.  Mordachai M. Noah, one of the most prominient Jews of the early 19th century was originally an opponent of the canal but changed his mind when he saw that successful development of the land along the Canal would help make  his dream of Ararat, A City of Refuge for Jews, a reality.

1826: John and Julia Solomons gave birth to Adolphus Simeon Solomons, the New York native who became “an influential Washingtonian with strong White House and Congressional connections.”

1841: Birthdate of Viennese born German dramatist Jacob Bettelheim

1844: Birthdate of American playwright and producer Edward “Ned” Harrigan the author and producer of “Mordecai Lyons” an 1882 drama which unlike some “Jew plays” is “serious and valuable” when it comes to portraying its Jewish characters.

1853: Dr. Raphall, a New York Rabbi, delivered an address about Russia at a meeting of the Young Men’s Literary Association. 

1853: Following Dr. Raphall’s address to the Hebrew Young Men’s Literary Association, Mr. Mosely Lyon delivered an address describing the purpose of the organizations.

1854: Hermann Mayer Salomon Goldschmidt discovered Asteroid 32 Pomona.

1858: Albert Goldsmid was promoted to the rank of major-general in the British Army.  Born in 1794, the son of Benjamin Goldsmid, he entered the army in 1811 which gave him the opportunity to fight the French in Spain to serve at the Battle of Waterloo.

1858: The Personal Column published today reported that a "A Moldavian Jew, Israel Benjamin, is preparing for a journey through Afghanistan and China. Since 1845, he has gone over the Eastern countries of Europe, as well as Egypt, Palestine, Persia, the Regencies of Tripoli and Tunis, Algeria, and Morocco. The Geographical Society of Berlin have charged him to solve several geographical and ethnographical questions. He has just published Eight Years Travel in Asia and Africa by Israel Benjamin

1859:  Bernhard Bettmann who had “established a men’s clothing business in 1856 at Cincinnati, Ohio married Tillie Wald of New York City with whom he had seven children.

1861: During the American Civil War, the 9th Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry Regiment was mustered into service as part of the United States under the command of Colonel Frederick C. Salomon.  When Salomon was appointed Brigadier General, he brother Charles became the Colonel commanding the regiment.  This may have made the 9th Wisconsin the only unit on either side of the conflict to be commanded successively by two brothers who were Jewish.

1864:  Myer Isaacs sent a strongly worded letter to President Lincoln warning him against a deal that he allegedly made with a group of New York Jews who, presenting themselves as leaders of the community, had promised to deliver the “Jewish vote” for him. This letter is one of the germinal documents of early Jewish participation in the American political process.

Your  Excellency,

As a firm and earnest Union man, I deem it my duty to add a word ... with reference to a recent "visitation" on the part of persons claiming to represent the Israelites of New York or the United States and pledging the "Jewish vote" to your support, and, I am informed, succeeding in a deception that resulted to their pecuniary profit.

Having peculiar facilities for obtaining information as to the Israelites of the United States, from my eight years' connection with the Jewish paper of this city and my position as Secretary of their central organization, the "Board of Delegates" . . . I feel authorized to caution you, Sir, against any such representations as those understood to have been made.

There are a large number of faithful Unionists among our prominent coreligionists — but there are also supporters of the opposition, and indeed the Israelites are not as a body, distinctly Union or democratic in their politics ... the Jews as a body have no politics.

Therefore, Sir, I am pained and surprised to find that you had been imposed upon by irresponsible men ... such acts are discountenanced and condemned most cordially by the community of American Israelites ...

There is no "Jewish vote" — if there were, it could not be bought. As a body of intelligent men, we are advocates of the cherished principles of liberty and justice, and must inevitably support and advocate those who are the exponents of such a platform — "liberty and union, now and forever."

Pardon the liberty I take in thus trespassing on your attention, but I pray that you will attribute it to the sole motive I have, that of undeceiving you and assuring you that there is no necessity for "pledging" the Jewish vote which does not exist — but at the same time that the majority of Israelite citizens must concur in the attachment for the Union and a determination to leave no means untried to maintain its honor and integrity.

Yours most Respectfully,
Myer S. Isaacs

1865: In Philadelphia, PA, “mining magnate Meyer Guggenheim” and his wife Barbara Meyers gave birth to their fifth son Benjamin Guggenheim whose marriage to Florette  Seligman would unite to of America’s wealthiest Jewish families and whose death at age 46 aboard the RMS Titanic was an unexpected tragedy.

1872: It was reported today that the Jews of Rumania want to immigrate to the United States en masse. They have written to the Interior Department to see if they can acquire a large enough section of public lands to meet the needs of a large colony. Current laws preclude the granting of their request.

1881(3rd of Cheshvan, 5642) Eighty-six year old Austrian Talmudist Aaron Kornfeld passed away today at his home town of Goltsch-Jenikau Bohemia.

1881: The Gunfight at the OK Corral takes placed in Tombstone, Arizona.  The most famous participant in the fight is Marshall Wyatt Earp. Earp was not Jewish but his last wife Josie was.  When Earp died she had his remains buried in the Marcus family plot in a Jewish cemetery in Coloma, California.  When Josie died, she was buried next to him.  The man with the star lies under the star – of David that is.

1882: “Mordecai Lyons” was performed tonight before a very large crowd at Theatre Comique in New York City.

1883: The Paris Figaro contained a detailed account of the duel between Hungarian attorney Dr. Jules Rosenberg and Count Battyany over the affections that the former had displayed for Mlle. Hona de Schossberger, the daughter of a Jewish family whose patriarch sought to marry his daughter off to a Hungarian nobeleman.

1882: The Troy (NY) Times reported that Harris Udovitch , who has been jailed on charges of assaulting Mrs. Louis Cohen claims that she was injured inadvertently during a fracas between him and Mr. Cohen over the latter’s refusal “to sell his cred with…for $150.”

1883: It was reported today that when Sir Moses Montefiore celebrated his 99th birthday two days ago he was hailed as “the most celebrated Hebrew now living England” and the most celebrated Hebrew of our generation with the exception of Benjamin Disraeli. “He is more than an ornament to the Jewish race; he is an ornament to mankind…”

 
1884: The Montefiore Centenary as described in book by Haim Gudella of the same name published in 1885 began today.

1884:  It was reported today that “Sir Moses Montefiore received hundreds of telegrams congratulating him” on reaching his 100th birthday “from all parts of world” including a large number from the United States.

1884: In a second day of celebration, Baltimore’s Hanover Street Synagogue was the scene of special ceremonies marking the one hundredth anniversary of the birth of Sir Moses Montefiore.

1884: “An Anglican Bishop For Jerusalem” published today described the failure of efforts to convert “Jews and Turks” living in Palestine.  The Church Missionary Society has spent more than £120,000 pounds in the last 33 years and “as can be proven from their own papers” has “never made a convert…”

1884: “The Czar’s Views of Justice” published today describes efforts to ameliorate the sentences imposed on those who took part in the anti-Jewish riots at Novogrod. In what appears to be the first decision of its kind, the Czar “has at least to some extent taken sides with the oppressed Jew” by refusing to show any leniency and expressing his determination “to take measures to prevent these bloody excesses.”

1884: It was reported today that “the chief rabbi at Naples” has been “rebuked by ultra-orthodox Jews for shortening the fast on the recent Day of Atonement” as a measure to avoid the cholera outbreak plaguing the city. The precaution must have been “a good one since not a single Jews has yet died of the disease. [Editor’s note – Fourteen thousand peopled died from Cholera in Naples in 1884.]

1884: It was reported today no Jews have died of cholera at Toulon, but five Jews died of the disease at Marseilles.

1884: It was reported today that “the reports of Sarah Bernhardt’s illness have been greatly exaggerated” and she will be able to perform in Sardou’s new play, “Theodroa” which is opening at the Porte Saint Martin Theatre.

1884: “Pereira, the Teacher of Deaf Mutes” published today traced the career of Jacob Rodrigues Pereira, the Portuguese born Sephardic French Jew whose first student was his sister who was born with the ability to speak or hear

1884: “Every pew was filled to over-flowing” and the galleries were completely filled as Temple Emanu-El held services to mark the one hundredth birthday of Sir Moses Montefiore.

1884: “Every seat…was occupied at Shearith Israel, the oldest synagogue in New York, when services honoring Sir Moses Montefiore began at three o’clock this afternoon.

1884: According to the dedicatory plaque, on this day “The Israelites of the City of New York” dedicated the Home for Chronic Invalids in honor of the centennial celebration of the birth of Sir Moses Montefiore

1885: The Patrick Divver Hebrew Association of the Sixth Ward held its annual ball today. (Divver who was Irish Catholic, was a Tammany Hall politician who understood the value of the Jewish vote)

1886: President M. Warley Platzek is scheduled to present an outline of the accomplishments of the Young Men’s Hebrew Association when it meets this evening.

1886: Samuel S. Cox, the U.S. Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire delivered an address to the Young Men’s Hebrew Association “on the condition of the Hebrews in the Orient.

1889: It was reported today that August Belmont has contributed $50,000 to New York City’s World’s Fair Fund and that Kuhn, Loeb & Co has contributed $60,000 to the same fund.

1889: It was reported today that that the Order of B’nai B’rith will take part in the upcoming Educational Fair being sponsored by the Jews of New York City.

1889: It was reported today that a dinner is going to be held in honor of Sir Julian Goldsmid during his visit to New York City.

1890: Rabbi Kaufman Kohler will conduct funeral services this morning for Joseph Rosenthal the New York merchant born in Bavaria in 1816 who came to the United States in 1845 where he has operated the dry goods firm of J. Rosenthal & Co. for the last forty-five years.

 
1890: “In the New York Clubs” published today provides a snapshot of the exclusive private clubs including the five whose members are primarily Jewish -- Harmonie, Progress, Fidelio, Metropolitan and Fredundschatt.

 
1890: In Philadelphia, PA, eighteen year old Roman Catholic Annie Eichert married Morris Stein who was Jewish – a union that Father Henry Dressman would try and put an end to when he told the family that she had to leave her husband because of his religion.

 
1890: It was reported today that Oscar Hammerstein’s “bold undertaking to establish grand opera in English permanently in New York City seems destined to succeed.”

 
1891: “An Indictment Russia” published today described events in the career of Jewish businessman Samuel Polyakov as well as their mistreatment at the hands of  “the infamous” Count Nikolay Pavlovich Ignatyev.
1892: The Ladies’ Uptown Aid Society gave $50 to the Hebrew Orphan Asylum “in commemoration of the Columbian anniversary” and presented “a gold medal to Colonel Martin Cohen the leader of the Military Bond.”

1892: “No Belgian Jews Wanted” published today described the demand by the Russian Government that Belgian passports to be used by those wishing to visit Russia show their religion which would mean that Belgian Jews will either be denied admission or “treated to many indignities if they visit Russia.”  The Belgians have not responded since failure to comply will close Russia to Belgian businessmen.

1894: Plans were announced for the upcoming meeting of the United Hebrew Charities in New York City.

1894: According to a list published today, the Hebrew Orphan Asylum received $79,000 from the Board of Estimates and Apportionment in 1894 and is asking for $80,000 in 1895 while the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society of New York Orphan Asylum received $82,000 in 1894 and is asking for $85,000 in 1895.

1894: In Newark, NJ, “a double force” of policemen under the command of Captain Bergen are standing guard at the non-union hat factory of J.L. Kreidel which has been surrounded by “a mob” of angry Polish and Russian Jewish “hatters” who have been fired by Kreidel’s nephew.

1894: Count George Leo of Caprivi who defended the Jews against the attacks of the
Anti-Semites led by, among other Herr Zimmerman, completed his service as Chancellor of Germany.

1898: A Zionist Delegation led by Theodor Herzl arrives in the port of Yaffo (Jaffa). They visit Mikveh Israel and Rishon LeZion.

1898: After visiting Nes Zionah, Rehovot and Herzl returns to Yaffo where he met with Reverend William Hechler.  William Hechler formed a committee of Christian Zionists to help move Russian Jewish refugees to Palestine after a series of pogroms. In 1884, Hechler wrote a pamphlet called “The Restoration of Jews to Palestine According to the Prophets.” A few years later, he befriended Theodor Herzl after reading Herzl’s book The Jewish State and joined Herzl to drum up support for Zionism. Hechler even arranged a meeting between Herzl and Kaiser Wilhelm II to discuss Herzl’s proposal to establish a Jewish state in Palestine. The two men remained close friends up until Herzl’s death in 1904.

1902: Feminist, Suffragette and Social Activist, Elizabeth Cady Stanton passed away. She helped to create The Women’s Bible “a collection of essays by a committee of women intellectuals on passages of the Judeo-Christian scriptures that discuss women.” “Stanton and her contributors highlighted  and heightened the role of the women” putting “particular emphasis on Miriam’s role in the quest for Jewish freedom, for instance” and “the important work of Deborah the judge.” At the same time she wrote, “We found nothing grand in the history of the Jews nor in the morals inculcated in the Pentateuch.... I know of no other books that     so fully teach the subjection and degradation of woman.”

1905; Norway becomes independent from Sweden. According to the census conducted at the turn of the century, there were 642 Jewish residents in a population totaling just over 2 million. In 1814, when control of Norway shifted from Denmark to Sweden, the Norwegians adopted “The Constitution of 1814 that contained “The Jew Clause” in the Constitution of 1814 which stated "No person of the Jewish creed may enter Norway, far less settle down there".  The clause was repealed in 1851 which opened a trickle of Jewish immigration to Norway while it was still part of Sweden.  In one of those quirks of history, the man most responsible for the repeal of the Jew Clause was the son of the man who led the fight to have included in the Constitution.

1906: Antoine Louis Targe who helped to clear Captain Dreyfus began serving as the Private Secretary to fellow Dreyfusard  George Picquart.

1909: The new ballroom of the Hotel Astor is the scene of an event celebrating the 25th anniversary of the founding of the Montefiore Home Gifts aggregating $101,500 were announced tonight as the birthday presents to the Montifore Home where . B.J. Greenhut, announces that gifts totaling $101,500 have been donated to support the institution. Greenhut, Chairman of the committee sponsoring the event, said that although he had not been authorized to make public the amount of the gifts and the names of the generous friends, he felt the occasion demanded it. The audience broke into applause when it was announced that J.H. Schiff had donated $50,000 to this worthy cause.

1910(23rd of Tishrei, 5671): Simchat Torah

1911:  Birthdate of NFL Coach, Sid Gillman.

1911: By an order of the Governor all Jews in the Russian Province of Ekaterinoslaff are subject to expulsion with some minor exceptions.

1912: As a result of the First Balkan War, Thessaloniki becomes part of modern day Greece. The leaders of the Jewish Community are immediately received by King George I and the Prime Minister Eleftherios Venizelos who promised to respect the rights of the community and offered full equality in the eyes of the Law.

1912:  Birthdate of movie director Don Siegel who directed Clint Eastwood in several of his finest films.

1913: During the First Balkan War, Bulgarian forces begin bombarding the city of Adrianople in what will become the Siege of Adrianople which would last until March of 1914.  Three thousand of the city’s Jews sought shelter in the local schools while another 9,200 were left with no place to go.

1913: Louis Marshall denied tonight that he would have any involvement Governor William Sulzer’s planned appeal of the decision of the High Court of Impeachment. Marshall, a prominent lawyer and leader of the Jewish Community, had reluctantly agree to represent the embattled governor.

 
1913: Rabbi Rudolph I. Coffee expressed his displeasure over the support that many New York rabbis had given to Governor Sulzer during his recent impeachment trial.  Coffee felt that there involvement in this partisan political issue compromised their roles as spiritual leaders of the Jewish people especially when one considers the sleazy nature of the Tammany and anti-Tammany forces.  Coffee, the rabbi at the Tree of Life Synagogue in Pittsburgh, has been visiting the city during the trial. He ended his comments by saying that “these Rabbis have hurt their religion and they certainly do not each nor practice its ideals.”

1913: Temple Sinai (First Hebrew Congregation of Oakland) broke ground at 28th and Webster on its new building which was completed in 1914.

1914: “Brandeis Speaks on Zionism” published today described a speech by the Boston lawyer who said that Zionist movement “must be considered by the Jews of American not only from the point of view of their own platform but from that of the needs born of the war” which meant that Palestine could a welcome refuge to the Jews of Eastern Europe “relieving in part the inevitable heavy immigration that otherwise must flow from the devastated battlefield countries to the United States.”

1917: In England, The Times “published a leading article attacking” the government for its repeated delays in issuing a statement support the Zionist cause. Ironically, the delay was caused, in part, by the concern among some English Jews that support for Zionism would call into question their loyalty to the Crown.

1918: During World War I, William Sawelson was posthumously awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for service at Grand-Pre, France. Sawelson served as a Sergeant, United States Army, Company M, 312th Infantry, 78th Division. His citation reads: “Hearing a wounded man in a shell hole some distance away calling for water, Sgt. Sawelson, upon his own initiative, left shelter and crawled through heavy machinegun fire to where the man lay, giving him what water he had in his canteen. He then went back to his own shell hole, obtained more water, and was returning to the wounded man when he was killed by a machinegun bullet.”

1922: Judge Bernard A. Rosenblatt, the accredited representative for Tel Aviv in the United states announced that “Harvey Fisk & Sons, Inc have been appointed commercial and fiscal agency in the United States for Tel Aviv, the modern section of Jaffa which is the principal port of Palestine.”  The announcement is important to commercial interests in the United States since Jaffa has become the principal port in Asia Minor following the destruction of Smyrna.

1926: In Paris, France, the trial of Sholom Schwartzbard comes to an end. A jury of 12 petit-bourgeois Parisians acquitted the Ukrainian-born Jewish immigrant and anarchist of the charge of murder for shooting to death former Ukrainian president Symon Petliura.

1930(4th of Cheshvan, 5691): Ninety year old Waldemar Mordecai Wolff Haffkine the Russian born bacteriologist who developed “vaccines used against cholera and bubonic plague” and who not only refused to convert to advance his career but was active in Jewish affairs, passed away today.




1931: In Manhattan, Romanian Jewish immigrants gave birth to their second child Larry Lieber, the “American comic book artist and writer” who was nine years younger than his brother “Stanley Martin Lieber, later best known as Marvel Comics editor and impresario Stan Lee.”

1932: The Canada Dry Program, starring Jack Benny is broadcast for the last time on the NBC Blue Network

1936: Birthdate of Deborah Tobias Portiz, the Brooklyn native who was the first woman to serve as the Attorney General of New Jersey and the first Chief Justice of the New Jersey Supreme Court.

1938: “The Gestapo was ordered to arrest and deport all Polish Jews living in Germany immediately resulting in the arrest of 12,000 Polish Jews who were “stripped of their property and herded aboard trains headed for Poland.”

1939: The Nazis prohibited Sh'chita in Poland supposedly on humanitarian grounds.

1939: The Nazis abolished its military government in Poland.  It is replaced by the Military Generalgouvernment under the command of Hans Frank. In his first speech he announced that “there will be no room for . . . Jewish exploiters in a territory under German sovereignty."

1939: The Labor Department of the Generalgouvernement of Occupied Poland issues the Arbeitspflicht (Work obligation) decree, which makes slave labor mandatory for all Polish men and women over the age of 14 and under age 60.

1939: Following a plan devised by Adolf Eichmann, the Nazis deport and "resettle" some 78,000 Jews to a "reservation" located in the Lublin-Nisko region of southeast Poland in a three and half month period ending in the middle of February, 1940.  The project is temporarily suspended when rolling rail stock is needed for German military campaigns against the Low Countries.

1941: After the Odessa Action which started on October 23 and ended on October 25 leaving 20,000 murdered Jews, another 10,000 more were sent to various concentration camps from that City.

1941: Cardinal Emmanuel CĂ©lestin Suhard, the Archbishop of Paris “addressed a dispatch to Hitler” in an attempt “to save hostages in Nantes"

1941: Germans inform Jews of Kalisz, Poland, that elderly Jews in convalescent homes are to be moved to another home the next day

1942: Birthdate of The Rev. Lawrence Boadt, a Roman Catholic priest, publisher and Bible scholar who used his study of the Old Testament as a vehicle for promoting understanding between Christians and Jews,

1942: In Oszmiana, Poland, 400 Jews were deported. To save the remaining 600, the head of the ghetto decided to send only the old so to make up the quota.

1943: At the Janowska camp in Lvov, the Nazis continued to shoot Jews and burn them on pyres. After the mothers and children would undress, the Germans would swing small children, smashing their heads into trees until they died. All this was done in front of the mothers who themselves would be beaten, hung or shot.

1943: Seventy-nine year old Sir Marc Aurel Stein, the Budapest born Jew who became a Lutheran to advance his career as an archaeologist passed away today in Kabul while on the last of his many expeditions to Central Asia.

1943: Three thousand Jews are deported from Kovno, Lithuania, to the slave-labor camp at Klooga, Estonia.

1946: Kurt Daluege, former SS-ObergruppenfĂĽhrer and deputy Reichsprotektor of Bohemia and Moravia, is hanged in Prague, Czechoslovakia, after being convicted of war crimes.

1946: “A Jewish agency spokesman said today the inner Zionist Council would call on Palestine Jews…to take certain specified measures in cooperation with the Government against the use of violence…” The move was part of bargain to gain the release of 700 Jews who have been held by the British without charges or trial since last June.  Among those who would be released is Moshe Shertok, head of the Jewish Agency’s political department.”  The deal would also allow Moshe Sneh head of the Haganah and David Ben-Gurion to return to Palestine from France where they have endured a self-imposed exile in an attempt to avoid imprisonment by the British.

1946: Holocaust survivor and future French political leader Simone Annie Liline Jacob became Simone Veil when she married Antoine Veil whom she met while study law at the University of Paris.

1947: The British ended their occupation of Iraq.  The British departure made it possible for the Arab population to move against the Jews of Iraq.  The situation would only grow worse once the Israelis defeated the Arab Armies, including the Iraqis the following year.  However, the violence against the Jews began before the UN partition and before there was a state Israel.

1947: Arabian King Ibn Saud warned President Harry Truman that American support of partition of Palestine was an unfriendly and useless act.  “The Arabs will isolate such a state from the world and lay siege to it until it dies by famine.”

1947: The day before the Hollywood 10 began testifying, the anti-HUAC celebrities aired the first of a two-part national broadcast called "Hollywood Fights Back!," co-written by Norman Corwin and Robert Presnell Jr., and featuring Garland, Kelly, Bacall, "Bogie," Robinson, Lancaster, Henreid, John Beal and William Holden. HUAC’s investigation into the Communist influence in the film business was tainted in many ways including a predilection for anti-Semitism.

1948(23rd of Tishrei, 5709): Simchat Torah

1951: Emanuel “Manny” Shinwell, Baron Shinwell completed his service Minister of Defense when the Labor Party was defeated in the “snap election” of 1951.

1951: Winston Churchill “became Prime Minister for the second time.” Chaim Weizmann, the first President of Israel, sends a message of genuine congratulations.  In his reply, Churchill refers to the Zionist leader as “my old friend.”

1951: Esta Greenberg and Jack Schnabel gave birth to American artist and filmmaker Julian Schnabel in Brooklyn.  He grew up in Brownsville, Texas.  Such a culture clash must have had an effect on his artistic creativity.

1954(29th of Tishrei, 5715): Eighty-eight year old Jennie Wallenstein Kohnstamm the oldest child of Esther Hellman Wallenstein, the founding president of the Hebrew Infant Asylum, passed away today.

1955: The last American occupation troops left Austria and Austria enacts laws of proclaiming permanent neutrality.  The American occupation had been a rather benign affair since the Austrians had been declared the first victim of Nazi aggression rather than a willing partner of the Third Reich.  Considering the number of Austrian Nazis, the number of Austrians who served in with the German military and the zeal with Austrian Nazis attacked and helped to exterminate the Jewish population, this was a total misreading of the situation. 

1957(1st of Cheshvan, 5718):  Dr. Gerty Theresa Cori, the first Jewish-American woman to receive the Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology passed away today at the age of 61.  An internationally known biochemist she and her husband Dr. Carl F. Cori and Dr. B.A. Houssay shared the 1947 Nobel Prize.

1959: “Burning Bright” produced by Lewis Freedman and Henry Weinstein was broadcast today as “The Play of the Week.”

1959:  Dr. Arthur Kornberg is awarded the Nobel Prize Physiology or Medicine 1959 for his discovery of "the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)" together with Dr. Severo Ochoa of New York University.

1972:  Dutifully playing his part to ensure the re-election of Richard Nixon, Henry Kissinger declares "Peace is at hand" in Vietnam.  The November elections would come and go and the war would drag on. 

1973: In violation of the ceasefire agreement, the Egyptian Third Army attempted to breakthrough surrounding Israeli; an attempt that was thwarted by the IDF and the IAF.

1974: In “Israel and the River Plate,” C. L. Sulzberger writes from Herzliya that “it would probably astonish most people to know that Israel counts on Argentina as potentially the largest remaining source of Jewish immigration that can answer this dynamic little country's constant clamor for more people.” To make things even better, the Argentinean Jewish community would provide an already-educated cadre of immigrants.

1975“A Talk With Amos Oz,”  by Hebert Mitgang  published today provides interesting insights into the life and thoughts of one Israel’s most prominent authors:

 
1978(25th of Tishrei, 5739): Alexander Gerschenkron a Russian-born American Jewish economic historian and professor at Harvard who was trained in the Austrian School of economics passed away. He is the grandfather of author Nicholas Dawidoff

1984: Birthdate of Olympic figure skater Sasha Cohen.

1986(23rd of Tishrei, 5747): Simchat Torah

1989: In Great Britain, Nigel Lawson completed his term as Chancellor of the Exchequer.

1990(7th of Cheshvan, 5751: William Paley, the founder and CEO of CBS died of a heart attack at the age of 89. (As reported by Jeremy Gerard)

1992: The Times quoted Jewish born financier George Soros as saying: "Our total position by Black Wednesday had to be worth almost $10 billion. We planned to sell more than that. In fact, when Norman Lamont said just before the devaluation that he would borrow nearly $15 billion to defend sterling, we were amused because that was about how much we wanted to sell."

1994: Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin of Israel and Prime Minister Abdel Salam Majali of Jordan signed a peace treaty in a ceremony attended by President Clinton.

1995:  Fathi Shikaki, a leader of the terrorist organization Islamic Jihad was assassinated while staying on the island of Malta.  It is claimed that Mossad agents were responsible for his death.

1997: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or on topics of special Jewish interesting including Wait Till Next Year: A Memoir by Doris Kearns Goodwin, The Stolen Legacy of Anne Frank: Meyer Levin, Lillian Hellman, and the Staging of the ''Diary” by Ralph Melnick and Panther in the Basement by Amos Oz; translated by Nicholas de Lange.

2000: Palestinian Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility for today’s bombing in the Gaza Strip.

2001(9th of Cheshvan, 5762): Ninety-six year old Laszlo Halasz, the Hungarian born musician who served as the first director of the New York City Opera in which capacity he mount the first performance of “The Dybbuk,” a three act opera by David Tamkin. (As reported by Allan Kozinn)

 
2003: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or on topics of special Jewish interesting including And the Dead Shall Rise:  The Murder of Mary Phagan and the Lynching of Leo Frank by Steve Oney and Gellhorn: A Twentieth-Century Life by Caroline Moorehead.

2004: Jewish Community Relations Council of San Francisco celebrates its 60th anniversary.

2004: Israel's parliament approved Prime Minister Ariel Sharon's plan for withdrawing from the Gaza Strip and parts of the West Bank.

2005: Jerry Reinsdorf’s Chicago White Sox win the World Series replacing Theo Epstein’s Red Sox at the top of the major league heap.

2005: Avram Grant announced his resignation as Israel’s national football team.

2005(22nd of Tishrei, 5766): Shmini Atzeret

2005(22nd of Tishrei, 5766): A suicide bomber who had been released from an Israeli prison a month ago and lived on the West Bank struck in Hadera killing five and wounding 55.  .

2006: A concert entitled “The Yiddish Voice of Love: Songs of Beyle Shaechnter-Gottesmanon ” is presented at the 92nd Street Y in New York City. 

2007: The New York Times featured a review of World War IV: The Long Struggle against Islamofasacism by Norman Podhoretz.

2007: In the evening, five kassam rockets fired by the Islamic Jihad from the Gaza Strip landed in open fields south of Ashkelon and near Sderot.

2008: Rutgers University presents a lecture on the psychological effects of terrorism on Israelis entitled "Does the War End When the Shooting Stops?" by Zahava Solomon, director of the Adler Research Center for Child Welfare & Protection at Tel Aviv University.

2008: The Center for Jewish History presents "Jewish Youth and Cultural Change:
A Conference on Rethinking American Jewish History" -- a
conference that brings together historians, anthropologists, and scholars of culture in order to reflect on the ways in which young Jews experienced their lives as Jews and Americans over the past two centuries, and how communal and cultural change were reflected in anxieties about Jewish youth.

2008: The Washington Post features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or on topics of special Jewish interesting including My Father’s Paradise: A Son's Search for His Jewish Past in Kurdish Iraq by Ariel Sabar, Hitler’s Private Library: The Books That Shaped His Life by Timothy W. Ryback, and the paperback edition of Janet Malcolm's dual biography of Gertrude Stein and Alice B. Toklas, entitled Two Lives which is "a meditation on literature and morality, built around the disquieting fact that Stein and Toklas, both Jewish, remained in Europe throughout World War II without either hiding or being swept up in the Holocaust."

2008: Kadima leader Tzipi Livni announced that her efforts to build a coalition government were unsuccessful, and recommended that early general elections be held.

 
2009: The Center for Jewish History and The Center for Traditional Music and Dance present “Celebrating a Lifetime in Yiddish Song,”  conversation and performance featuring Beyle Schaechter-Gottesman, America's leading Yiddish poet and songwriter, who will be joined by her son Itzik Gottesman, Associate Editor of the Yiddish Forward.

 
2009: Steven D. Levitt (a professor of economics at the University of Chicago) and Stephen J. Dubner (a former writer and editor at the New York Times Magazine) discuss their new book, SuperFreakonomics: Global Cooling, Patriotic Prostitutes, and Why Suicide Bombers Should Buy Life Insurance, in a program at The Washington Post Conference Center.

 
2009: At The Hyman S. & Freda Bernstein Jewish Literary Festival Melvin Urofsky discusses Louis D. Brandeis: A Life, his biography of the Supreme Court Justice (which is the annual Bernard Wexler Lecture on Jewish History)

 
2009: Yoel Kraus a member of ultra-Orthodox Eda Haredit community was conditionally released from prison today, a day after his arrest for allegedly spraying an ultra-Orthodox woman with tear gas in the capital's Mea She'arim neighborhood because she was walking on a "men only" sidewalk, and refused Kraus' demand that she move to the women's side.
 
2010: George Soros donated $1 million, the largest donation in the campaign, to the Drug Policy Alliance to fund Proposition 19 that would have legalized marijuana in the state of California if it had passed

 
2010: Sam Brylawski is scheduled to deliver a lecture styled Emile Berliner: Inventor of the Gramophone, Part II that is a follow up to an earlier lecture on the life of Jewish-German immigrant Emile Berliner who “emigrated as a young man from Hannover to Washington in 1870 and became famous internationally for his many inventions and business acumen.”

 
2010: The Historic 6th & I Synagogue is scheduled to host Challah & Chutney: An Indian Jewish cooking class where Shulie Madnick, an Indian Jewish food blogger, provides lessons in how to prepare a vegetarian Indian meal, traditional to the Jewish community of India.

2010: The annual trade show of the kosher food industry opened today at the Meadowlands Exposition Center in Secaucus, N.J.

2011: A program featuring a discussion “Odessa: Genius and Death in a City of Dreams” by Charles Kings is scheduled to take place at the Hyman S & Freda Bernstein Jewish Literary Festival in Washington, D.C.

2011: Rabbi Nissan Antine, the Associate Rabbi and Director of Education at Beth Sholom Congregation, is scheduled to lead a class entitled Responsa of the Holocaust at the JCC of Greater Washington.

2011: The International Conference on the Life and Work of Israeli author Aharon Applefeld is scheduled to open at the University of Pennsylvania.

2011: Former Shin Bet security service director Yuval Diskin defended Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas today, saying that Abbas is against terrorism.
 
2011: In excerpts of an interview released today from an upcoming interview on Sixty Minutes, the wife of the financial swindler Bernard Madoff claims that the couple attempted suicide by taking pills on Christmas Eve 2008 after his estimated $65 billion Ponzi scheme was exposed.  The attempt, which she described as “impulsive” left her “glad” that “we woke up.” 

 
2011: Three Grad rocket were fired from the Gaza Strip at the Ashdod and Bnei Aish areas shortly before midnight today. 
 

2012(10th of Cheshvan, 5773): Fifty-one year old television producer and comedy writer Alan Kirschenbaum passed away today.

 
2012(10th of Cheshvan, 5773): Eight year old Arnold Greenberg, the founder of Snapple passed away today. (As reported by Margalit Fox)

2012: Israeli Cellist Elad Kabilio is scheduled to lead the musical accompaniment to tonight’s performance of the Ballet Next Ensemble at the Joyce Theatre.

2012: “The Other Son” a film about “two young men–one Israeli, the other Palestinian–who discover they were accidentally switched at birth and the complex repercussions facing them and their respective families” is scheduled to appear for the first time in selected theatres in the United States.

 
2012: The British government opposed the establishment of the Nuremberg war crimes tribunals at the end of the second world war because it wanted selected Nazi leaders to be summarily executed and others to be imprisoned without trial, according to a contemporary account that was declassified today.

 
2012: Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu’s tie-up with far-right coalition partner Foreign Minister Avigdor Lieberman could backfire by eroding their lead ahead of Israel’s Jan. 22 ballot, a poll said today.  http://forward.com/articles/165001/netanyahus-hard-right-alliance-could-backfire/#ixzz2ARoW83Xe

 
2012: “Orchestra of Exiles,” a documentary that tells the tale of Bronislaw Huberman’s effort to create what became the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra opened today in New York.

 
2012: Sonja Spear is scheduled to give a talk about Halloween in America after the Shabbat Dinner being held at the University of Iowa Hillel House in Iowa City, Iowa.

2013: Beginning of Jewish Book Month 2013 sponsored by the Jewish Book Council

2013: Jewish Community Center of Northern Virginia is scheduled to host “A Bit of Bling.”

2013: The Eden-Tamir Music Center is scheduled to host a performance of “Don Giovanni” featuring Israel Wind Soloists:

Oboes: Amir Bakman, Josue Cordero
Clarinets: Danny Erdman, Daniel Gurfinkel
Bassoons: Mauricio Paez, Kristijonas Grigas
Contrabassoon: Isaac Ramon Leyva
Horns: Adrian Solis, Edo Hayek

2013: Australian police charged three people today over an anti-Semitic attack on five people in Bondi Beach, Sydney. The five Jews who were taken to St. Vincent’s Hospital included four men aged 27, 39, 49 and 66 wearing yarmulkes and a 62-year-old woman.

2013: Eight Israeli citizens and a Palestinian girl sustained moderate injuries when stones were hurled at the direction of vehicles traveling in south Mount Hebron (As reported by Itmar Fleishman)

2014: Aaron David Miller, the vice-president of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars os scheduled to be the keynote speaker at the annual Jewish Endowment Fund Brunch at the Hilton Hotel Riverside where Dr. Edward Soll and his wife Karne will be honred with the presentation of the Tzedakah award.  (As reported by the Crescent City Jewish News – the source for everything in the land of the Kosher Cajuns)

2014: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including  Pay Any Price: Greed, Power and Endless War by James Risen, who has been friends with Yossi Klein Halevi “since they both crashed the Nazi Party headquarters in Chicago as student reporters 30 years ago” and recently released paperback editions of You Should of Known by Jean Hanff Korelitz and Drama High: The Incredible True Story of a Brilliant Teacher, a Struggling Town and the Magic of Theatre by Michael Sokolove.

2014: “Dylan Thomas in America: A Centennial Exhibition” is scheduled to open at the 92nd Street Y.

 
2014: In Indianapolis, Lauren and Adam Cantor are scheduled to sing camp songs and share their memories of being song leaders at Goldman Union Camp Institute  at the annual meeting of the Indiana Jewish Historical Society

2014: Amid on-going terrorist inspired violence that has shut down parts of the Jerusalem Light Rail, the funeral of the Hamas terrorist who murdered a three month old baby and injured numerous others who were waiting to board the light rail is scheduled to be buried today.  (Editor’s note – So far there has been no condemnation of the murder of an infant by the UN)

2014: “Life in Stills” and “The Hangman” are scheduled to be shown on the first day of the Israeli Film Festival sponsored by the Tulane University Jewish Studies Department under the leadership of Dr. Brian Horowitz.

2014: "The Wartime Escape: Margret and H.A. Rey's Journey from France" an exhibition that unveils the history behind the children's character, Curious George whose creators The Jewish couple, Margret and H.A. Rey fled Paris on bicycles in 1940 to escape the Nazi invasion and eventually made their way to the United States with their manuscripts and illustrations for the book, "The Adventures of Fifi," which was retitled "The Adventures of Curious George" is scheduled to come to an at the Argenta Branch of the North Little Rock Public Library.

2014: At two o’clock this morning, Israelis change their clocks back to standard time.