Monday, July 6, 2015

This Day, July 7, In Jewish History by Mitchell A. Levin

July 7

1274: Pope Gregory X confirmed a bull issued in 1272 banning charges of blood ritual.

1307: King Edward I, the monarch who expelled the Jews from England, died.

1320: In Pastoureaux (Southern France), an unnamed shepherd started a crusade against the Jews. It spread throughout most of southern France and northern Spain destroying one hundred and twenty communities. At Verdun, 500 Jews defended themselves from within a stone tower. When they were about to be overrun they killed themselves.

1358: Hundreds of Jews were murdered in Catalonia

1520: Cortes defeats a force of Aztecs who had chased him out of Mexico City.  It would be more than a year before Cortes would be able to conquer the capital city.  Among those with Cortes was a converso or crypto-Jew named Hernando Alonso who worked as a blacksmith.

1572: King Sigismund II Augustus, one of the monarchs who invited Jews to settle in Poland, passed away.

1690(1st of Av): Rabbi Hillel ben Naphta Zevi of Altona, author Bet Hillel, novella on the code passed away

1733: Forty-one Jews settled in the colony of Georgia. Among them were Spanish, Portuguese, German and English Jews.

1743(23rd of Tammuz): Chaim ben Moses ibn Attar also known as the Ohr ha-Chaim after his popular commentary on the Pentateuch. Born at Meknes, Morocco in 1696, he became a leading rabbi in his native land before leaving for Eretz Israel in 1733. He finally arrived in Jerusalem in 1742 “where he presided at the Beit Midrash Knesset Yisrael.”  He is buried on the Mount of Olives where his gravestone may still be seen.

1753:  The Jewish Naturalization Act of 1753 received royal assent today. It would be repealed a year later.  Jews would not become full citizens with the right to sit in Parliament until the middle of the 19th century.

1754: At Geislautern, Germany, Abraham Aberle and his wife gave birth to Aaron Worms, chief rabbi of Metz

1773: Birthdate of Isaac Ben Hrisch Katzenelnbogen, the native of Deutschland who was the husband of Fanny Neuburg.

1816: Emanuel Nunes Carvalho, the rabbi at Philadelphia’s Congregation Mikveh Israel delivered a sermon on the “Occasion of the Death of Rabbi Gershom Mendes Seixas.” This “was the first Jewish sermon printed in the United States.” A native of London Carvalho had served as rabbi in Bridgetown, Barbados and Charleston, SC, before coming to Philadelphia where he would die in 1817.

1836: Joseph II of Galicia, in an alleged effort to improve the educational status of Rabbis, decreed that no Rabbis be appointed if they did not attend a University. Little came of his decree.

1853: In a letter dated today addressed to the Emperor of Japan Commodore Mathew Perry uses the phrase “pacific overtures” which will provide the title for the Stephen Sondheim musical about the “opening of Japan.”

1855: In Syracuse, NY, Abraham Stern and his wife gave birth to Samuel Stern an attorney who married Libbia Wile who served as the first assistant district attorney of Onondaga County, NY before moving to Spokane, Washington.

1857: Pinckney A. Hyams and Pauline Baum were married today in Charleston, SC.

1858: In Great Britain, Nahum Salamon and his wife gave birth to Alfred Gordon Salamon, a specialist “in the Chemistry of Fermentation” who was a “member of the Commission to Enquire in the Cause of Beer Poisoning in Manchester” and who “was instrumental along with his father in introducing ‘Saccharin” into the United Kingdom.

1860: In the Kaliště, Pelhřimov District, Vysočina Region, Bernhard Baruch Mahler and Marie Mahler gave birth to composer Gustav Mahler who converted to Catholicism to further his career, a move that earned him derision from his critics and no relief from the anti-Semites. Mahler passed away in 1911.

1860:  Birthdate of Abraham Cahan. From 1903 until his death in 1951, Cahan was the editor of the "Jewish Daily Forward", the most popular and most enduring of all Yiddish newspapers.

1862: John Wood, Drummer, of Company A, Thirty-sixth Regiment N.Y.V., died in the Jews' Hospital.  The Jew’s Hospital (later known as Mt. Sinai) had been built in the 1850’s to meet the health needs of New York’s burgeoning Jewish population.  Its role changed during the Civil War as it became a major health care facility for treating the sick and wounded of the Union Army.

1862: Birthdate of German playwright Ludwig Fulda whose works included Der Talisman (1892), Jugendfreunde (1897) and Maskerade (1904) who committed suicide in 1939 when he was denied entrance to the United States.

1871: Daniel Joseph, the father of Sir Otto Jaffe established the Belfast Hebrew Congregation “which worshipped at the Great Victoria Street synagogue.

1873: Baruch Fränkel and Rosa Eibenschütz gave birth to Sándor Fränkel who gained fame as the Hungarian psychoanalyst and associate of Sigmund Freud, Sándor Ferenczi

1879: The Executive Board of the Council of the Union of American and Hebrew Congregations met this morning with Moritz Loth presiding and Lipman Levy acting as secretary.  The board met to prepare for the upcoming meeting of the Council which was scheduled to begin on the following day.

1881: In Kentucky, Governor Blackburn has declared today to be a day of public fasting and prayer where all business is suspended so that citizens can go to churches “or other places of worship”  to pray for the recovery of President Garfield who has been shot by an assassin. [For Jews, the importance of this is that the governor has acknowledged that there are other houses of worship than those used by Christians.]

1882: As the Freight Handler’s strike in New York continues cargo fails to leave the port despite the availability of large numbers of foreign born workers including Russian Jews to work the docks.  According to critics, they lack the skill and knowledge to work effectively.  As the strikers become more desperate, incidence of violence increase as can be seen by the stone-throwing attack on Jews at the 30th Street Yards.

1882: The current labor strife between the freight handlers and the railroad companies is described as battle between Teutonic and Celtic Races on the one hand and Russian-Semitic and Latin volunteers on the other hand.  In a tactic that would become quite common during labor disputes, the owners and their supporters would try and pit worker against worker; in this case Germans and Irish against Russian Jews and Italians.

1882: It was reported today that in Russia, Count Tolstoi, the Minister of the Interior has ordered the authorities at the frontier “to do all this is possible to facilitate the return of the Jews.” 

1882: The newly formed Propaganda Verein, most of whose members were Jewish, met tonight at the Golden Rule Hall on Rivington Street.  The evening’s theme was “The Jewish Question” – the future of the Jewish race and the anomaly of the persecution of Jews.

1883(2nd of Tammuz, 5643): Forty-six year old Joseph Reckendorfer who was a supporter of the United Hebrew Charities and the Hebrew Orphan Asylum as well as a member of Temple Emanu-El passed away today.

1883: “The Alleged Passover Murder” published today described recent event in the trial of Jews accused of ritual murder of a Christian girl, Esther Salomossy, at Nyreghaza, Hungary.  Two of the accused claimed that their confessions had been obtained by force and coercion.  The defense counsel told the court that the people of Tisza-Eglar, where the alleged murder had taken place have “been taught that it was not wrong to testify falsely against the Jews” if the interests of the country required a conviction.

1884: In Boston, Isaac Jacobs, a Polish Jew who is the prime suspect in the murder of Etta G. Carleston, is expected to make his next court appearance on charges of having stolen a watch a chain.

1884: “Case of Pauper Immigrants” published today, described evidence gathered by the Emigration Commissioner that the clerks at Castle Garden were not be vigilant in seeing to it that immigrants who lacked funds or financial sponsors were kept from entering the country.  Among those metntioned were Henry Brolsky, his wife and six children had arrived aboard the SS Assyrian Monarch.  According to Brolsky, the Hebrew Society of London had paid for their passage.  He said he had family in St. Louis, but had no funds to make the trip. Another example was an un-named family from Poland who had arrived on the SS Australia.  Their passage had been paid for by the Hebrew Society of London. The immigrants claimed they had been told that the Commissioners of Emigration would provide them with funds once they had arrived. [The report cited examples of non-Jews as well.  The issue of “pauper immigrants” would bedevil the immigration debate among Jews as well as the general society until World War I staunched the human flood tide.]

1884: Birthdate of Lion Feuchtwanger, German -born dramatist and narrator who escaped to the United States at the outbreak of World War II.  He passed away in his California home in 1958.

1884: A review of the Universal History: The Oldest Historical Group of Nations and the Greeks by Leopold von Ranke includes the famous German historian that the laws of Moses stand in stark contrast to the Egyptians because they involve “an opposition to kingship and claim to be an emanation from the deity.”  Furthermore they represent the first attack on “a national nature worship” and provide the grounds for the creation of monotheism, a principle on which “is built a civil society which is alien to every abuse of power.”

1887: Mrs. Betty Michaelis refused to attend today’s meeting of a committee that had been appointed by Mrs. Henrietta Loeser, the President of the Henrietta Verien to determine if she should be expelled from the society.

1887: The trustees of Gates of Hope suspended Rabbi E.B.M. Browne from his position as leader of the congregation after a special committee of investigation found that guilty of charges of “conduct unbecoming a minister.”

1887: J.E. Phillips presided over tonight’s meeting at the Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue where the Jewish citizens discussed plans for a possible celebration of the 400th anniversary of the expulsion from Spain and Columbus’ first voyage to the New World.

1887: In Lizona, which was then part of the Russian Empire, Chezkel Zachar Mordechai Chagall (Shagal) and Feige-Ite Chagall gave birth to Moishe Zakharovich Shagalov (Moishe Segal) who gained fame as March Chagall whose life lasted almost one hundred years. He developed his art against a backdrop of World War I, the Russian Revolution and its Stalinist aftermath, Paris during the thirties, the Holocaust and the birth of the state of Israel. One can only appreciate Chagall by seeing Chagall. There are numerous websites where his art may be viewed. The “Praying Jew” is my personal favorite.

1888: Rabbi Jacob Charif (Jacob Sharp) arrived early this morning at Hoboken aboard the North German Lloyd steamer. Chariff, from Wilna Russia, has been brought to the United states by the United Society to serve the needs of New York’s “orthodox down-town Jews.” Charif refused to leave the boat or meet with the welcoming committee until Saturday evening, after the end of Shabbat.

1888: “On Shabbos Maatos-Maasei, the trans-Atlantic ship Allaire docked at Hoboken, on the New Jersey side of the Hudson River. After Havdalah, at approximately 10 p.m., the chief rabbi was taken to a nearby hotel. The leaders of the appointing congregations and more than 100,000 people crowded the streets for an opportunity to catch a glimpse of him. Hoboken had never before seen such a large crowd.” (Jewish Press)

1888:”The Summer Corps At Work” published today described the work of fifty physicians appointed by the city to provide medical care for those living in the most crowded quarters in the city. Dr. C.W. Wolfretz, who has been assigned to cover “a district from Division to Broom Street and Bowery to Eldridge where the overcrowded tenements are primarily occupied by Polish and Hungarian Jews, has discovered that the people sleep on the roof to get relief from the heat and that the children are susceptible to measles.

1889: It was reported today that some social scientists, many of whom live in Germany, are impatiently awaiting the establishment of Jewish state in Palestine as a way of proving their theories about governance and nationalism. Since there are those who contend that the recent success of Jews has taken place in a Christian society and that Jews would not be nearly as successful living in a society where they were both the governed and the governor.

1889(8th of Tammuz, 5649): Sixty seven year old Rabbi Elias Karpeles passed away in  Vienna.

1889: “Darmesteter, The Linguist” published today notes that “scant notice has been given in the United States to” the passing of Arsene Darmesteter  the Jewish Sorbonne lecturer on Mediaeval French and literature” whose death means that “the world has lost one who was a Columbus in the vast eternal seas of philological discovery.

1890: In Roundout, a case of assault and battery involving Polish Jews was withdrawn from the Recorders Court after the parties agreed to pay court costs

1891: The weekly cruise for underprivileged children sponsored by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children is scheduled to take place today

1892: The business session of the third annual Central Conference of American Rabbis is scheduled to open at ten o’clock this morning. Reports will be present on conversion and cremation of the dead.

1892: Rabbi Kaufmann Kohler will read a paper entitled “Is Reformed Judaism Destructive or Constructive?” at the evening session of the Conference of American Rabbis.

1893: “Coaxing Immigration published today described the efforts of the Canadian government to recruit people from the western United States to settle in the Northwest Territories and Prairie Provinces. Including Russian Jews from Chicago some of whom the government of Calgary feels are unfit because they “know nothing about agriculture.”

1894: Barbara Elisabeth Gluck who wrote her poetry under the name of Betty Paoli was buried today at Vienna’s Central Cemetery.

1894: Seventy one year old Christian Friedrich August Dillmann a German born orientalist and Biblical scholar who wrote commentaries on Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy and Joshua as well as “a dissertation on the origin of the Hexateuch” passed away today.

1895: It was reported today that Lord Rosebury has raised Sydney Stern to the Peerage after the “well known Jewish financier contributed £50,000 to the Liberal Party.” According to the Jewish Chronicle Stern has spent a great deal of money on his political ambitions and little on the poor. “This is in striking to contrast of many other millionaires of his faith” like the Rothschilds, Montefiores and Goldsmids “whom the Queen has honored for their many acts of charity.

1895: It was reported today that theatre goers in London have no interest in seeing Samuel B. Curtis’s “Sam’l of Posen.”  They do not have “the faintest interest in the Polish Jews or would dream of trying to understand his Yiddish Jargon.”

1895(15th of Tammuz, 5655): Twenty year old Alma Meyer passed away today in Newark, NJ.

1895: “Heine and the Germans” published today described the controversy between the Heine Memorial Committee and the Park Commissioners in New York City over the erection of a monument to the German author as well as the opposition of some German-Americans  who view him as “a Napoleon worshipper, a purchased scribe of Louis Philippe  and a bitter-hearted and revengeful Jew.”

1898: In Chicago, Rose (Rabinoff) and Isidore Horwitz or Horowitz gave birth to their second son Ralph who as Ralph Horween played and coached football at Harvard  and played and coach for the Chicago Cardinals in the NFL.

1899: “The Straus Milk Depots Open” published today listed the three locations where “modified milk for sick children and pure pasteurized milk in bottles can be had at all times.”  Thanks to the generosity of Nathan Straus a half-pint of milk can be purchased for one cent.  A new formula perfected by Doctor R.G. Freeman at the Nathan Straus Pasteurized Milk Laboratory is especially useful for “very young babies who are ill.”

1899: Birthdate of movie director George Cukor. Cukor had a long and distinguished career that included two Catherine Hepburn – Spencer Tracy classics. But he may be most famous for the movie that he did not direct. Cukor was the first director for "Gone With the Wind" but he was fired before he could complete the project. He passed away in 1983

1901: The Summer Assembly of the Jewish Chautauqua Society began today.

1901:  Birthdate of producer Sam Katzman.  Katzman’s work includes a series of Superman serials and early Elvis Presley films.

1901: The New York Times reports on the popularity of Montefiore Isaacs, the Union Club Member who is a nephew .of Sir Moses Montefiore.  The popular bachelor is known for his skill as magician which he freely shares for charitable events as well as his knowledge of Shakespeare.

1902: Herzl appears before the Royal Commission.

1903: The funeral of Albert F Hochstadter, prominent businessman and a Trustee of Temple Emanu-El is scheduled to take place today at this famous New York Jewish house of worship.

1904: Theodor Herzl is laid to rest at the Döblinger Friedhof. Thousands of Jews took part in the funeral procession. In his will Herzl asked that his body be buried next to his father, "to remain there until the Jewish people will carry my remains to Palestine."

1904: As a sign of the political right’s loss of power in the wake of the Dreyfus Affair, the government banned the religious orders from teaching in France.  When Pope Pius X strenuously objected, the French broke diplomatic relations with the Vatican.

1905: Birthdate of Max Rostal, the Austrian born British violinists and voila player.

1907: Birthdate of Abraham "Abe" Ellstein an American composer who along with Shalom Secunda, Joseph Rumshinsky, and Alexander Olshanetsky, Ellstein was one of the "big four" composers of his era in New York City's Second Avenue Yiddish theatre scene

1907: Papers on “The Religious Influences of Childhood Upon Adolescence” and Judaism in the Nineteenth Century Illustrated by Stereopticon Views – A Lesson in Popularizing the Study of Jewish  History” were presented at today’s session of the 18th Annual Convention of the Central Conference of American Rabbis.

1915: “Rabbi Hertz At The Front” published today described the recent visit of the Chief Rabbi of the British Empire to the troops including a speech at Rouen where he reminded the soldiers “of the old Jewish legend of a second deluge, a deluge of fire that would sweep over the earth” ending with the line ‘Even our enemies will yet bless those who will have insured victory to Great Britain.’”

1915: According to a statement issued today by the Turkish Consulate in New York, the Jews in Palestine are enjoying “the best treatment” at this time since the outbreak of the World War.

1918: In the Bronx, Louis and Stella Epstein gave birth to Rose Epstein who gained fame as “Rose E. Frisch, a scientist whose influential work showed that women without enough body fat would have trouble becoming pregnant, but that they also had a lower risk of breast cancer.”

1919: In Chicago, Samuel and Sarah Braverman Polisky gave birth to Sylvia Polisky who became Sylvia Padzensky when she married Edward Padzensky and began her life as a member of the Cedar Rapids, Iowa community.

1920: In London, Rebecca Sieff, Dr. Vera Weizmann (wife of Israel's first president, Dr. Chaim Weizmann), Edith Eder, Romana Goodman and Henrietta Irwell founded Women's International Zionist Organization (WIZO)

1920: Arthur Meighen, who was pro-Zionist, begins his first term as Prime Minister of Canada.

1921: Dr. Joseph H. Hertz, the Chief Rabbi of the British Empire finished his visit to Vancouver, Canada.

1922: Hadoar, the first daily Hebrew newspaper published in the United States was converted to a weekly

1928: Birthdate of Avraham Shalom Bendor, the native of Vienna who joined the Palmach in 1946 and served as head of Shin Bet from 1981 to 1986.

1933: Mr. and Mrs. Sydney Ginsburg of 21 Bialik Street in Tel Aviv are the proud parents of a newly born son.  Mrs. Ginsberg is the former Ella Bach.

1935: Birthdate of Ronald Chester Picoff, the Brooklyn born graduate of Columbia Medical School who served on the faculty of the University of Vermont.

1936(17th of Tammuz, 5696): Tzom Tammuz

1937: The Peel Commission Report describing the investigation of the 1936 Arab Riots was published. The Commission recommended the partition of Mandatory Palestine into two states. The Zionist Congress would, while rejecting the actual borders, agree to consider the proposal. The Arabs rejected it out of hand.

1938: British troops clash with an armed band of Arabs trying to cross in Palestine from Trans-Jordan. This did not stop other Arab infiltrators from joining their brethren in the fight against the British and the Jewish citizens of Palestine.

1940: In an article entitled “Palestine Season Closes,” Dr. Peter Gradenwitz describes the recently ended musical season of the Palestine Symphony Orchestra.  The season included thirteen concert series in Tel Aviv, Haifa and Jerusalem as well as additional performances at various agricultural colonies that brought the total of performances to 80.

1940(1st of Tammuz, 5700): Five thousand Jews of Kovno executed by Nazis.

1940: Admiral Sir Barry Edward Domvile a leading British Pro-German anti-Semite in the years before the Second World War was interned starting day during World War II under Defence Regulation 18B

1941 (12th of Tammuz, 5701): Thirty-two Jews are killed in Mariampole, Lithuania.

1941: In France, a collaborationist military force, Légion des Volontaires Français (French Volunteer Legion), is established.

1941 (12th of Tammuz, 5701): Two thousand Jews are murdered at Khotin, Ukraine

1941: Birthdate of Yisrael “Poli” Poliakov the native of Jerusalem who switched from being an agricultural student to a career in a comedy which as marked by his role in the creation of HaGashash HaHiver.

1942(22nd of Tammuz, 5702): One thousand Jews from Rzeszów, Poland, are killed at the Rudna Forest. Fourteen thousand are deported to the Belzec death camp.

1942: Himmler held a meeting in Berlin with three high ranking men. It was decided that medical experiments would commence on the Jews. Emphasis would be placed on Jewish women in Auschwitz. Himmler pledged his coconspirators to secrecy.

1943: Birthdate of Joel Siegel who would become a household icon while serving as Entertainment Editor on GMA from 1981 through 2007.

1943(4th of Tammuz, 5703): Saul Kozlowski, an 18 year old Communist was arrested by the Gestapo in Vilna, Lithuania.  The Gestapo wanted to the known the identity of leader of the underground known as “The Lion.”  After hours of torture, Kozlowski identifies Isaac Wittenberg, a Jew living in the ghetto, as being “the Lion.”  As the Germans turned away to discuss their next step, Kozlowski grabbed a knife and slit his own throat.

1944(16th of Tammuz, 5704): Fifty-eight year old photographer Erich Solomon died at Auschwitz today.

1944:Anti-Nazi resister Judith Auer (née Vallentin) who had been part of the the Saefkow-Jacob-Bästlein Organization was arrested today; an action that would be followed by her being tortured and hung by her captors.

1944: Approximately 437,000 have been deported from Hungary to Auschwitz since May 18.

1944(16th of Tammuz, 5704): Fifty-nine year old Georges Mandel (born Louis George Rothschild ) theFrench journalist and member of the resistance was murdered by the French fascists controlled by Vichy.

1944: British Prime Minister Winston Churchill informs Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden that he is in favor of the Royal Air Force bombing Auschwitz. From July 7, 1944, to January 19, 1945, the Allies will bomb industrial targets near Auschwitz at least four times, including one resulting in the accidental bombing of Auschwitz.  But they will never bomb the death camps or the railroad leading to them.  To some people, Eden takes on the role of the scapegoat regarding the Jews.  Churchill always wants to help but somehow his number two always thwarts him. 

1944: During WW II, during the battle for Saipan, Bernard Gavrin, an American G.I. was declared missing in action. (JTA)

1944: In Lithuania, partisan forces, including the Jewish Brigade led by Abba Kovner, join the Soviets in the attack on Vilna.

1944: In a case of too little too late, Hungary’s Regent Horthy ordered an end to the transport of Jews to Auschwitz after at least a half of a million of his countrymen had been ship to the death camp.

1945: Chief Judge Irving Lehman of the New York State Court of Appeals “tripped over his pet boxer, Carlo and broke his ankle in two places” while walking around his country estate. (This seemingly minor mishap would be a direct cause of his death in September of 1945.

1947: Harriet Shapiro married Fred Rochlin in a “small living room…packed to capacity with relatives and friends” at the house on Sentinel Avenue in Los Angeles, California.

1947(19th of Tammuz, 5707): Seventy-year old Frank Taffel the native of Krystynopol who settled in Atlanta where he founded Fulton Auto Exchange and Congregation Beth Jacob passed away today.

1948:  The settlers who were defending Kfar Darom against Egyptian attacks agreed to be evacuated.  Kfar Darom had been cut off from direct military help since the end of June.  Air drops of supplies failed to reach the embattled settlement because of Egyptian anti-aircraft.  Their stubborn resistance helped to slow the Egyptian advance on Tel Aviv and bought time for the Israelis defending the approaches to the major Jewish population centers. The successful evacuation took place during the night of July 7-8.

1948: Abdullah el-Tell, the Military Governor of Jerusalem “signed the "Mount Scopus Agreement" by which the Israelis agreed that Mount Scopus would be demilitarized and come under United Nations supervision.”

1948: “Givati commander Shimon Avidan issued orders to the 51st Battalion to the Tall al-Safi area.”

1948: It was reported today that Bernard D. Rubin, the President of Sweets of America, the company that manufactures Tootise Roll candies is survived by “his widow, Mrs. Ray Rubin a daughter, Mrs. Natalie Jaffe; a son, Edgar Rubin; his father, Joseph; a brother, William Rubin and three sisters, Mrs. Hannah Stone, Mrs. Eleanor Messer and Mrs. Sadie Marantz, all of New York.”

1948: During the War for Independence, with the truce period about to expire the Security Council asked each side if they would extend it for ten days.   The Jews accepted the proposal.  The Arabs rejected it. 

1949: New York City premiere of “Follow Me Quietly” the film noire directed by Richard Fleischer and Anthony Mann whose mother was Jewish and who also co-authored the story on which the film was based.

1950: MGM released “Crisis” produced by Arthur Freed and Directed by Richard Brooks in his directorial debut.

1950: U.S. premiere of “Once A Thief” a film noir directed and produced by W. Lee Wilder based on a story by Max Colpet and Hans Wilhelm.

1951: U.S. premiere of “Queen For A Day,” a comedy in which Leonard Nimoy makes his cinema debut in the role of “Chief.”

1955: U.S. premiere of “We’re No Angels” the movie version of “My Three Angels” a play written by Samuel and Bella Spewack directed Michael Curtiz.

1956(28th of Tammuz, 5716): Yiddish songstress Isa Kremer passed away

1960: United Artists releases “Elmer Gantry” directed by Richard Brooks, with a screenplay by Richard Brooks and music by Andre Previn.

1960: Physicist Theodore Maiman demonstrated the first laser today.

1960: In London, world premiere of “Inherit the Wind” the film treatment of the play co-authored by Jerome Lawrence directed and produced by Stanley Kramer with music Ernest Gold who was forced to flee pre-war Austria because “his paternal grandfather was Jewish.”

1964: Tens of thousands of Israelis paid honor tonight to Zeev Jabotinsky, whose remains were flown to Tel Aviv from the United States for reburial.

1965(7th of Tammuz, 5725): Moshe Sharett, second Prime Minister of Israel, passed away.  Born Moshe Shertok in Russia in 1894, Sharett grew up in an Arab village near Jerusalem. He graduated from high school in Tel Aviv and then went to Constantinople to study law. At this time Palestine was part of the Turkish Empire and Sharett enlisted in the Turkish Army during World War I. Sharett rose to prominence in the Zionist movement during the 1930’s although he found himself at odds with David Ben Gurion. Sharett was Israel’s first Foreign Minister. When Ben Gurion retired for the first time, Sharett became Prime Minister. Ben Gurion and Sharett continued to clash. When Ben Gurion returned to power in 1955, Sharett returned to the Foreign Ministry. Sharett resigned because he was opposed to the coming Sinai War in 1956. Sharret suffered from "John Adams Disease." Just as John Adams was doomed because he was following George Washington, so Sharrett was doomed because he labored in the shadow of Ben Gurion.

1973: Kitty Carlisle (born Catherine Conn – pronounced Cohen) performed for the last time with the Metropolitan Opera.

1973: In Israel, premiere of “Kazablan” an “Israeli musical film directed by Menahem Golan and written by Menahem Golan and Haim Hefer.”

1973(7th of Tammuz, 5733):  Seventy-eight year old Max Horkheimer, the German born philosopher and sociologist who sought refuge in the U.S. during the Nazi after his academic credentials were revoked and his institute was closed.  [When you read the NY Times obit, see below, you will be hard pressed to find the simple statement that he was Jewish.]

1976: U.S. premiere of “Gus” a Disney comedy featuring Harold Gould as Charles Gwynn and Tom Bosley as Spinner

1977: United Artist released “The Spy Who Loved Me,” the James Bond with a score by Marvin Hamlisch and featuring Walter Gotell the German born British actor whose family escaped from Nazi Germany, Barbara Bach whose father was Jewish and Milo Sperber the Polish born Anglo-Jewish actor who fled Nazi Germany in 1939.

1980(23rd of Tammuz, 5740): Famed writer Dore Schary passed away. Born Isadore Schary in 1905, Schary dropped the "Isa" from Isadore to create his first name. Like so many other Jews of his era, Shary helped create the cinematic version of the American Myth. He won an Oscar for the screenplay "Boys Town." He produced the canine classic "Lassie Come Home." But his greatest work came when he returned to Broadway and wrote the script for "Sunrise At Campobello." Shcary did not hide his Judaism. He was active in numerous Jewish organizations and served as the head of the Anti-Defamation League.

1983: The Oklahoma Outlaws football team announced that seventy-one year old Hall of Fame Coach Sid Gillman had come out of retirement to serve as the team’s Director of OPeratios.

1986(30th of Sivan, 5746): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

1986: The United States Supreme Court struck down Gramm-Rudman deficit-reduction law.  Senator Warren Rudman was an apparent anomaly on two counts.  First he was elected from New Hampshire, not exactly a state with a large Jewish population and second he was a conservative Republican.

1988: Seventy-seven German Latin American scholar, historian, and writer Erwin Walter Palm who escaped European anti-Semitism to which he was particularly sensitive because he was married to the Jewish poet Hilde Löwenstein passed away today.

1992:  The comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 rashes into the planet Jupiter.  According to David Levy, one of the trio who discovered the comet, it was the most widely watched such phenomena in history.  Canadian born David Levy was an English major in college.  His career in astronomy began as an amateur.  He sees a definite connection between his Jewish heritage and astronomy. For example, Pesach always comes at the full moon, the night sky on Yom Kippur is always the same and Shabbat does not end until three stars can be seen in the sky.  His Judaism and his astronomy are so intertwined that he and his bride decided they wanted to be married under the night sky.

1994: “The body of Arye Frankenthal, 20, from Moshav Gimzo near Lod, who had left his base in the south the previous day, was found stabbed and shot near the Arab village of Kafr Akab, near Ramallah.” (Jewish Virtual Library)

1994(28th of Tammuz, 5754: Seventeen year old Sarit Prigal, was shot to death when terrorists opened fire from a passing car near the entrance to Kiryat Arba.

1996: “Star of Joyce’s Firmament” published today described the little known story of Stella Steyn, the Irish woman who was part of the life of James Joyce.

1998: In Claims for Art Collection Pose a Challenge to Hungary,” published today Judith Dobrzynski describes the efforts by the Nierenberg family to retrieve a portion of the art collection that was successively seized by the fascists and the communists.

1999: Eighty-six year old Aaron M. Wise who had served as the rabbi at Adat Ari El Synagogue from 1947 to 1978 was buried today after services his synagogue.

2000(4th of Tammuz, 5760): Ninety-three year old Ruth Werner, a member of the Red Orchestra, pass away today.

2001: At the Israel Festival in Jerusalem Conductor Daniel Barnboim startled the audience by announcing that he was going to play a piece by Wagner as second encore which sparked a half hour debate following which a few members of the audience left but most stayed to hear the performance of the Tristan and Isolde prelude.

2002: “Behind a Century of Photos, Was There a Jewish Eye?” published today explores the connection between Jews and cameras.

2005: Outfielder Adam Greenberg made his major league debut with the Chicago Cubs.

2005: Outfielder Adam Stern made his major league debut with the Boston Red Sox.

2006(11th of Tammuz, 5766): Ninety-seven year old Dr. Israel Horowitz, who will be buried at Adath Israel Cemetery in Cincinnati, Ohio,  passed away today in Chicago.

2007: At the Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion Museum in New York, an exhibition called “Cinema Judaica: The War Years” comes to an end. This unprecedented exhibition of iconic Hollywood film posters from 1939 to 1949 illustrates how the motion picture industry countered America's isolationism, advocated going to war against the Nazis, influenced post-war perceptions of the Jewish people and the founding of the State of Israel, and shaped the face of contemporary Jewish life. The exhibition begins with the Hollywood studios' compliance with the Nazis' control of the motion picture industry in Germany, the ban on Jews from employment within it, and their restrictions on the American distribution of films shown in Germany and throughout Europe. All but two of America's eight largest American studios, facing the loss of 30%-40% of their revenues from Europe, complied with the Nazis' restrictions. United Artists closed down its German exchanges rather than fire its Jewish employees, but accepted German content restrictions and arranged for its films to be shown in Germany through another distributor. Only one studio, Warner Brothers, refused to comply with any of Goebbel's demands and withdrew from the German market. As Jewish characters disappeared from American films, Harry Warner and his brothers committed themselves to making anti-Nazi movies to alert the nation to the Nazi threat. Lacking First Amendment protection, according to a 1915 U.S. Supreme Court decision, which allowed any state, city, or town board who objected to its content to censor a film, the Hollywood studios set up the Motion Pictures Producers and Distributors Association (MPPDA) and established a Production Code of Administration (PCA) that prohibited causing affront to foreign states, including Germany. Thereafter, films required a seal of approval from the MPPDA. At the same time, the PCA worked with the U.S. State Department to ensure that American movies did not violate a series of Neutrality Laws enacted by the Roosevelt administration to keep American citizens safe in European and other war zones. Thus, anti-Nazi screenplays and clearly defined Jewish roles, which would not pass the certification process, were transformed through allegory, character name changes, and other disguises and glosses by Warner Brothers and other like-minded independent producers. By July 1938, the discovery of a Nazi spy ring that had been operating in the Northeast under the order of the German government in addition to the Nazis' annexation of Austria, the appeasement agreement in Munich signed by England's Prime Minister Chamberlain, the take-over of Czechoslovakia, and the anti-Semitic Kristalnacht pogrom throughout German-occupied Europe led to the PCA approval of the first openly anti-Nazi shooting script, "Confessions of a Nazi Spy." This exhibition chronicles the period of the "Great Debate" films of 1939-1941 during three years of vigorous public argument in the media, in open forums sponsored by political organizations, and in Congress about American intervention against the Nazis in Europe. When it began, 60% of Americans believed it had been a mistake for the U.S. to enter World War I. The exhibition reveals the role of the first anti-Nazi films within the context of the battle between Charles Lindbergh and America First Committee isolationists and the Fight for Freedom interventionists, the attempt by Ambassador Joseph Kennedy to block anti-Nazi films, and threats from isolationist Senators to regulate the motion picture industry. In addition to "Confessions of a Nazi Spy," featured films include "Sons of Liberty," "Pastor Hall," and "The Great Dictator," among others.
By August 1941, a Senate sub-committee investigated Hollywood's violation of Neutrality Laws by warmongering in such films as "Sergeant York," about a noted World War I pacifist who later became a leading advocate for intervention against the Nazis. Included in the exhibition are the documents relating to a "Freedom Rally" at Madison Square Garden, protesting the hearing, whose program cover art was contributed by Walt Disney and included anti-Nazi declarations by Roosevelt. With the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 and America's declaration of war, Hollywood produced patriotic movies, in the guise of "platoon" films, which reflected on the melting pot tradition of American ethnic diversity and helped instill a unified fighting spirit. Included are posters for World War II espionage and concentration camp escape melodramas set in Germany or another Nazi-occupied country such as "To Be or Not To Be," plus films about Nazi Germany's accountability such as "Address Unknown," "Tomorrow the World," and "Hotel Berlin." Following the war, were the "Exodus" films addressing the attempt by European war refugees to rebuild their lives and cultures after the Holocaust include "My Father's House," "The Illegals," "The Search," and "Sword in the Desert." Post-war Hollywood films also addressed anti-Semitism on the home front on the part of the Christian Front and its notorious founder, Father Coughlin, and the Christian Mobilizers, who blamed the Jews for the war, called for the defeat of England, and attacked Jewish citizens, stores, and synagogues in major northeast cities. These films, in which an Italian American or Irish American authority figure condemns anti-Semitism, stops an assault, or solves a racist murder, include "The House I Live In," "Crossfire," "Open Secret," while "Gentleman's Agreement," addresses the related subject of White Anglo Saxon Protestant anti-Semitism. , NY

2007: In Jerusalem, a classical music concert entitled "Music in All the Shades" presents "Bel Canto in Ein Kerem," featureing soprano, Maria Yofa, flautist, Antoli Kogan, and pianist, Alexander Sneiderman.

2007: In an article entitled “Beyond The Myth, Art Endures,” The New York Times reports on Mexico’s celebration of the centenary of the birth of painter Frida Kahlo, the daughter of a Jewish businessman whose work has been overshadowed by her husband, Diego Rivera.

2008:   U.S. District Court Magistrate Judge Jon Scoles ruled during a detention hearing for Juan Carlos Guerrero-Espinoza, 35, and Martin De La Rosa-Loera, 43 that the two Agriprocessors Inc. supervisors arrested last week for aiding and abetting illegal workers at the Postville meat processing plant to possess and use fraudulent identity documents will remain in federal custody until their trials.

2008: The Washington Post reports on the arrival of Jewish pilgrims in Safi, Morroco.

It's an uncommon sight for an Arab country: hundreds of joyous Jewish pilgrims gathering without fear around a rabbi's tomb, greeted by local Muslim officials who share a prayer with them at a synagogue.  Yet most of the 400 Jews who converged on the Moroccan coastal town of Safi _ some from nearby cities, others from as far as France or Israel _ at a weekend pilgrimage said they felt welcome here. While religious tensions flare in Jerusalem and beyond, in Morocco, Jews and Muslims say they nurture a legacy of tolerance and maintain common sanctuaries where adherents of both religions pray. Decades of emigration to Israel by Morocco's Jews and terrorist bombings in Casablanca that targeted Jewish sites haven't diminished the draw of these annual pilgrimages. During the festival that began Friday, visitors prayed and feasted around the shrine of Abraham Ben Zmirro, a rabbi reputed to have fled persecution in Spain in the 15th century and then lived in Safi, where he is buried with six siblings. A half-Jewish, half-Muslim band played local tunes during a banquet, including a song in French, Arabic and Hebrew with the line: "There is only one God, you worship Him sitting down and I while standing up." The pilgrims were joined Sunday by Aaron Monsenego, the great rabbi of Morocco, who prayed alongside the regional governor and several other Muslim officials at the shrine's synagogue for the good health of Morocco's King Mohammed VI and his family. "It's very important for us to pray altogether," Monsenego told The Associated Press. Regional governor Larbi Hassan Sebbari said, "We're also very proud of it: it gives a lesson to other countries of what we do together without any taboo." While several Arab states refuse to recognize the Jewish state's right to exist, reject Israeli visitors and ignore the remnants of their local Jewish heritage, Moroccans insist it is not the case in this moderate Muslim nation and U.S. ally. Once home to some 300,000 Jews, Morocco hosts the Arab world's only Jewish museum, funds Jewish institutions and frequently holds events to celebrate Judeo-Moroccan heritage. Still, the Jewish population here has dwindled to about 4,000 _ most in Casablanca. Economics, fears of living in an Arab state and sporadic discrimination drove hundreds of thousands of Moroccan Jews to Israel, Europe or America over the past few decades. Many left in 1948 when the state of Israel was created, or in 1956 when Morocco won independence from France. Other waves followed after the Israeli-Arab conflicts of 1967 and 1973 caused riots in some Moroccan towns. Jewish leaders who stayed say they practice their religion freely and that synagogues are well protected by police, especially since the 2003 bombings in Casablanca. And despite the bombings, Casablanca _ Morocco's commercial capital _ still boasts 32 active synagogues. "There was never any racism in Safi," said Haim Ohana, one of only 10 Jewish people remaining in a town where 6,000 Jews once lived. "People left from here because they were poor," said Ohana, who helped organize the pilgrimage and runs several businesses. The pilgrimage rituals are called Moussem in Arabic and Hilloula in Hebrew. Many of the pilgrims, including ultra-Orthodox Jews from Israel and French and Canadian businessmen, are émigrés who say they come to pray in Safi because of their emotional ties to Morocco. Therese Elisha, an Israeli, said she makes the pilgrimage every other year. "This is the town where I grew up, the synagogue where I prayed," she said. "I feel at home." "We're maintaining a bridge over the divide of the exodus," said Simone Merra, a human resources manager in Paris. Some of Morocco's Jews wonder how long their community will remain. Nadia Bensimon, who runs a fashion boutique in a coastal town, said she had no plans to leave. "But that could change if the Islamists become too powerful," she said. Morocco's main Islamist opposition party _ Adl wal Ihsan _ enjoys broad support, but it is banned from politics; secular parties dominate parliament. Though most of his relatives now live abroad, Ohana said his family traces its arrival in Morocco to 2,076 years ago. "As for Safi, we've been here for nine centuries," he said. "It's my town; I'd see no reason to leave."

2009: Barry “Goldberg's self-titled 1974 album was reissued with never before released tracks and a restored sound.”

2009: Starting tonight and continuing on each successive Tuesday night during July the amphitheatre in Liberty Bell Park offers a different Jerusalem performing artist each week. This Jerusalem Municipality project is made possible through cooperation with The Jerusalem Foundation and the International Cultural Center for youth.

2009: The funeral for Anita Rabinowtiz, the wife of Rabbi Stanely Rabinwoitz is scheduled to take place at Adas Israel in Washington, DC followed by interment at the congregation’s cemetery in southeast Washington.

2009: “In Bruges” is the first film shown at the film festival, Summer Movies at the Merkaz. The Merkaz describes itself as “a unique combination of an absorption center, community center and activism center located in the heart of the German Colony, one of the most beautiful, peaceful and dynamic neighborhoods in Jerusalem.”

2010: The 7th AICE Australian Film Festival is scheduled to show tense political thriller, Balibo, in Tel Aviv.

2010: This evening at Manhattan’s Plaza Hotel, the Israeli prime minister addressed a roomful of more than 300 Jews on the subjects of Iran, his government’s eagerness for direct peace talks with the Palestinians and the swell meeting he had just had with President Obama at the White House. But then, in an off-the-cuff remark to a question on Jerusalem from the audience, Benjamin Netanyahu dropped a hint that his government’s insistence on Israeli sovereignty over all of Jerusalem might not be ironclad.

2011: “Rothschild Fine Art,” an exhibition featuring objects’ des art from Rothschild Fine Art, a premier gallery in the cultural center of Tel Aviv, is scheduled to open today at ARTHamptons Art Fair in Bridgehampton.

2011: D.C. Councilman Tommy Wells is scheduled to take part in the Jewish Community Relations Council’s noontime series at the Lillian and Albert Small Museum.

2011: Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu was scheduled to fly to Sofia today for meetings with Bulgarian Prime Minister Boyko Borisov and President Georgi Parvanov.

2011: An Israel Defense Forces soldier was wounded lightly by an explosive device planted near his tank in the southern Gaza Strip this morning.

2011: The Environmental Protection Ministry ordered the Eilat Ashkelon Pipeline Co. (EAPC) to cease their work in the Nahal Zin and surrounding nature reserve following last week's devastating jet-fuel oil spill after the ministry found that the company was not effectively carrying out the cleanup but rather exacerbating the environmental damage.

2011: In “Setting the record straight: Entebbe was not Auschwitz” published today Yossi Melman marked the 35th anniversary of the mission that rescued Jewish hostages held by Arab terrorists in Uganda.

2012: The egalitarian-traditional minyan at Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids is scheduled to celebrate “Red White and Blue Shabbat” while beating Iowa’s unprecedented heat wave with “Sundaes on Saturday” where congregants will build their own Cool Kosher Concoctions.

2012: One of Israel's top contemporary troupes, Vertigo Dance Company, is scheduled to perform Mana at Jacob’s Pillow in Beckett, Maine.

2012: “The Alexander Soros Foundation presented its inaugural ASF Award for Extraordinary Achievement in Environmental and Human Rights Activism to a Liberian activist.”

2012: Israeli cellist Yoed Nir is scheduled to perform at the Super Bock Rock Festival in Lisbon, Portugal

2012: Tens of thousands of Israelis gathered in central Tel Aviv tonight to voice their demand for mandatory conscription in the army or national service, in the largest protest yet of the summer, and the biggest show of force since the “Camp Suckers” movement began six months ago.

2012: As the country is embroiled in a debate about turning haredi scholars into soldiers, the Jerusalem Municipality and the Bezalel Academy of Arts and Design have launched a different venture: a haredi track at Bezalel’s prestigious art institute.

2013: “The Dead Man and Being Happy” is among the films scheduled to be shown at the 30th Jerusalem Film Festival.

2013: The British Association for Jewish Studies Annual Conference 2013: “Memory, Identity, and Boundaries of Jewishness” is scheduled to begin in Canterbury, UK.

2013: The Pears Institute for the study of Antisemitism is scheduled to host a colloquium featuring Sham Ambiavaga, Frank Chalk, Lorenzo DiTommaso, David Feldman, John Gray, William Lamont, Paul Lay, Dame Jinty Nelson, Sir Michael Pepper, Daniel Pick and Marina Voikhanskaya

2013: Israel Air Force rescue crews have brought to safety the pilot and navigator of an “F-16i” training fighter jet that broke up off the coast of Gaza this afternoon after its engines mysteriously died. (As reported by Tzvi Ben-Gedalyahu

2013: Alfred Le Guelllec, who together with his wife Augustine, was posthumously recognized today as a “righteous gentile” in an emotional ceremony held at his hometown of Douarnenez in the westernmost tip of France. (As reported by Elhanan Miller)

2014: In the UK, the Wiener Library for the Study of the Holocaust & Genocide is scheduled to host Dr Gábor Kádár lecturing on “Hero or War Criminal? Regent Horthy and the Destruction of Hungarian Jews.”

2014: “Igor and the Crane’s Journey” and “The Sturgeon Queens” are scheduled to be shown at the Berkshire Jewish Film Festival.

2014: As “warning sirens were heard in the cities of Sderot, Netivot, Ofakim, and Rahat, as well as further afield in Rehovot, Gan Yavne, Gadera and Beit Shemesh, in the hills outside Jerusalem” and terrorists produced a video telling citizens of Beersheba to “flee before it is too late” forty more rockets were fired from Gaza after 8 p.m. this evening.

2014: “IDF spokesman Lt. Col. Peter Lerner said the military had called up 1,500 reserves troops, mostly from the Home Front Command and Iron Dome air defense crews, and deployed two additional conscripted infantry brigades, Paratroops and Givati, to the border with the Palestinian enclave today” (As reported by Joshua Davidovich and Mitch Ginsburg)

2014: “Former Maccabi Tel Aviv basketball team coach David Blatt was named today as Euroleague’s coach of the year, shortly after securing a contract with the NBA’s Cleveland Cavaliers.

2015: In Jerusalem, Ari Sacher, “a scientist who develops missile systems in Israel” is scheduled to deliver a lecture on “The Miracle of the Iron Dome.”

2015: “Some Like It Hot” directed by Billy Wilder, costarring Tony Curtis and Marilyn Monroe is scheduled to be shown as part of “Lights! Camera! Great German and Austrian Filmmakers of Hollywood’s Golden Age” at the 92nd Street Y.



Sunday, July 5, 2015

This Day, July 6, In Jewish History by Mitchell A. Levin

July 6

1189: Henry II, King of England, passed away.  Compared to those who followed him to the throne, Henry’s treatment of his Jewish subjects was comparatively benign. (The emphasis is on “comparatively.”)  Henry levied two special taxes on the Jewish community designed to finance the next Crusade to the Holy Land.  The tax of 1188 included 60,000 pounds on the Jews of London, one fourth the community’s wealth.  All the Christians of England were required to cough up a mere 10,000 pounds. Much to the consternation of some Church leaders, Henry discouraged Jews from converting to Christianity.  The wealth of dead Jews became the property of the crown.  These Jewish estates could be of such value that when Aaron of Lincoln passed away, “Henry found it necessary to set up a special branch of his Exchequer, named the Scaccarium Aaronis, with no function other than processing his immense estate.”

1189:  Richard the Lionheart becomes King of England following the death of his father.  His coronation would not take place until September at which time a delegation of Jews bringing gifts for the monarch would be denied access and be beaten by English officials.  Richard did take action to protect his Jewish subjects when they were threatened.  Unfortunately, Richard spent only the equivalent of one year of his ten year reign in England.  During his absence, the Jews would suffer at the hands of English leaders including Richard’s brother and successor Prince, and later King, John

1253:  Mindaugas is crowned king of Lithuania, reportedly the first ruler to hold this title. There was a Jewish presence in Lithuania at this time, since small numbers of Jewish merchants probably began arriving in Lithuania during the 12th century. They were followed by others of their co-religionists who were fleeing persecution brought on by the Crusades and the Black Death. Large number of Jews would not begin arriving in Lithuania until the frist decades of the 13th centuries when they were invited to settle there by Gediminas.

1348:  Pope Clement VI issued a Papal Bull protecting Jews during the Black Plague. “Clement VI reigned during the Black Death. This pandemic swept through Europe (as well as Asia and the Middle East) between 1347 and 1350. It is believed to have killed between a third and two thirds of Europe's population…Popular opinion blamed the Jews for the plague, and pogroms erupted throughout Europe. Clement issued two papal bulls in 1348 which condemned the violence and said those who blamed the plague on the Jews had been ‘seduced by that liar, the Devil.’ He urged clergy to take action to protect Jews, but the orders appeared to have little effect, and the destruction of whole Jewish communities continued until 1349.”  These events are described in  A Distant Mirror: The Calamitous 14th Century by the Jewish historian Barbara Tuchman.

1476: Abraham ben Solomon Conat a Jewish printer, Talmudist, and physician, printed Tur Orah Hayyim by Jacob b. Asher at Mantua, Italy. Jacob ben Asher, also known as Ba'al ha-Turim, was born in Cologne, Germany around 1269 and probably died in Toledo, Spain in 1343. He was an influential Medieval rabbinic authority who is often referred to as the Baal ha-Turim' ("Master of the Rows"), after his main work in halachah the Arba'ah Turim ("Four Rows"). The work was divided into 4 sections, each called a "tur," alluding to the rows of jewels on the High Priest's breastplate. He was the third son of Asher ben Jehiel (known as the "Rosh"), a German-born Rabbi who moved to Spain.”

1609: Bohemia is granted freedom of religion in the same year as that in which Rabbi Judah Loew ben Bezalel also known as the Maharal, one of the most famous Jewish scholars and educators from Prague passed away. “Rabbi Loew published more than 50 religious and philosophical books and became the center of legends, as the mystical miracle worker who created the Golem. The Golem is an artificial man made of clay that was brought to life through magic and acted as a guardian over the Jews. The Maharal had positive relations with Rudolph II and was even invited to his castle.

1625: Rabbi Yom-Tov Lipman Heller is placed in prison along with common criminals in a Vienna jail after having been wrongfully convicted of abusing his authority as Chief Rabbi of Prague.

1707(6th of Tammuz, 5467): Rabbi Samuel ben Alexander “a resident of Frankfort-on-the-Oder who wrote Peri Megadim passed away today.

1758: Clement XIII was elected Pope.  During his reign, Clement “proclaimed that the Holy See had examined the grounds on which rested the belief in the use of human blood for the feast of Passover and murder of Christians by Jews, and the Jews must be condemned as criminals in respect of the charge, but that in the case of such occurrences legal forms of proof must be used.” (As reported by Graetz)

1796: Birthdate of Nicholas I, Czar of Russia from 1825 until his death in 1855.  In the case of the Nicholas there was consistency in his behavior as Czar and his treatment of the Jews.  In both instances he was a narrow-minded, reactionary, despot who was so incompetent that he led Russia to disaster in the Crimean War. As a totalitarian dictator, Nicholas was fully responsible for all of his action aimed at his Jewish subjects.  These included but were not limited to  expulsion from a variety of cities including Kiev; the drafting of under-age Jewish boys for twenty-five years of military service; the banning of beards and a sidelocks for men and banning of women shaving their heads at the time of marriage; the banning of Yiddish; censorship and destruction of Jewish books.  And this list does not include the mistreatment of the general populace with such measures as the establishment of a secret police system designed to stamp out any manifestation of democracy or Western values.

1806: The Assembly of Jewish Leaders was scheduled to meet in Paris.

1821: Birthdate of Leone Levi, the Italian born British barrister and author whose works included Work and Pay; Wages and Earnings of the Working Classes; and International Law, with Materials for a Code

1840: Jesse Seligman was one of the steerage passages who arrived at Castle Garden

1847(22nd of Tammuz, 5607: Baltimore community leader David Israel Cohen passed away at the age of 48.

1849: Birthdate of Julius Sachs, the native of Baltimore who founded Sachs Collegiate Institute in 1872 (now the Dwight School) which he served until 1902 when he became a Professor of Education at Columbia University’s Teachers College.

1853: Bertha Phillips, a 20 year old German Jewess was tried on charges of having stolen two $20 gold pieces from Mrs. Schufeldt, a co-religionist with whom she had been living before the the theft. An additional testimony as to the defendant’s guilt was provided by another Jew. Before the case went to the jury, one of the jurors who was Jewish asked if both of the witnesses were Jewish.  At first the judge refused to provide the information since he said that the court had no right to pry into their creed or beliefs.  At which point another juror, who was also Jewish, said that he would not believe a word the Jewish witnesses had to say unless they were sworn in again using a copy the Hebrew Bible. The judge accepted the request; rewswore the witnesses who testified again.  The jury found the defendant of guilty of grand larceny without even having to leave the jury box.  Miss Phillips was senteneced to two years in the state penitentiary and was led away in tears.

1853: In Franfurt am Main, Jakob Gustav Adam Flesch and Florentine Flesch gave birth to Karl Flesch.

1854: The Republican Party is officially created in Jackson, Michigan.  Several Jews would play an active an active part in the early days of the Republican Party, including the uncle of Supreme Court Justice Louis Dembitz Brandeis, who placed Lincoln’s name in nomination for President in 1860.  By July of 2009, thanks to the defeat of Senator Norm Coleman and the party switch of Senator Arlen Spector, there are no Jewish Republican U.S. Senators.

1857: It was reported today that The House of Commons voted to amend the Oaths Bill so as to prevent from holding any office belonging to the Ecclesiastical Courts or any other office that “wield influence in the affairs of the church.”

1861: English archivist and historian Sir Francis Palgrave passed away.  In July, 1788 Jewish stockbroker Meyer Cohen and his wife Rachel Levien Cohen gave birth to Francis Ephraim Cohen who would convert and change his name as a condition of the marriage.

1861: In response to an order issued today by the U.S. Secretary of War, Colonel Max Friedman organized the 65th Regiment of the Fifth Cavalry, known as “Cameron Dragoons made up of ten companies from Philadelphia and two companies from Pittsburgh which included a large number of Jewish volunteers.

1863: In issuing orders about the status of the recently conquered city of Vicksburg, General Logan states that the city will be a military outpost and not a trading center.  He complained that when Memphis had been captured and turned into a trading center “the Jews and the rebel citizens of that pestilent city” had turned into “a grand depot of smugglers.” [Editor’s note – This is not the first or the last derogatory comment that Union generals serving in the West made about Jews.  This is strange when one consider the number of Jews who were there comrades in arm including Major General Frederick Knefler and General Edward S. Salomon whom Sherman called “one of the most deserving officers.”

1864(2nd of Tammuz, 5624): Forty-three year old Viennese chemist Theodor Wertheim who “was the father of gynecologist Ernst Wertheim passed away today.

1866: Benjamin Disraeli begins his third term as Chancellor of the Exchequer replacing his nemesis, William Gladstone.

1872(30th of Sivan, 5632): Sixty-six year old Ludwig F. Frankel the native of Berlin who became a physician in 1830 and who  served as chief physician of the water-cure hospital in Berlin from 1848 until he resigned in 1867 to devote himself to his private practice passed away today.

1875: Sir Julius Vogel, the first Jewish Prime Minister of New Zealand completed his first term in office.

1975: Birthdate of Julius I. Peyeser, a graduate of Georgetown University a WW I veteran who was a successful lawyer, banker and active member of the Jewish Community.

1877: James Grady and William Henry were tried today at the Tombs Police Court today on charges that they had assaulted “Jacob Herman, a German Jew who a runs a peanut and fruit stand.”  The two were members of the Battle Alley Gang and Herman had testified against them in a case heard three days ago.  When the two attacked Herman, they referred to him as that swearing Jew.  At the end of the trial, Henry was sentenced to a month in the County Prison while Henry was “acquitted for lack of evidence.”

1879: It was reported today that the Jews of Romania had petitioned the Romanian government for a revisions to the Constitution that would guarantee them their rights as citizens on the same footing as all other Romanians.

1882: The first 14 members of BILU arrived from Russia at the port of Yaffa in what is now the land of Israel. The letters BILU are the initials for the Hebrew expression, "House of Jacob Let Us Rise and Go." BILU was formed by Russian students at the University of Khrakov who called for the active colonization of the land. The students hired themselves out as agricultural laborers at Mikve Yisrael. They believed it was possible to start a worldwide movement to encourage settlement in Eretz Israel.

1882: Several Russian Jews who arrived at Castle Garden aboard the SS Newnham today will apparently not be staying in New York since they have tickets for destinations in the American West.

1882: “Outrages On Jews In Manitoba” published today reported that a group of Jews who had gone to work at Whitemouth were ferociously beaten by a band of men who previously been doing the work.

1883(1st of Tammuz, 5643): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

1883: “Murder of a Hebrew Merchant” published today reported that a reward of $1,500 has been offered for the man who killed H. Mias, a Jewish merchant living in Benivides.

1884: It was reported today that the police in Vienna had difficulty restoring after a fight broke out between the Social Democrats and a party of anti-Semites.

1884: It was reported today that the anti-Semitic rioters who were arrested at Nijni Novgorod will have to be tried by court-martial because the civil courts refused to convict due to the anti-Semitic feelings prevalent among the Russian peasants.

1886: In Lyons, France, Gustave Bloch and his wife gave fame to Marc Bloch who gained fame as an historian and educator.  He held chairs at both Strasbourg University and the Sorbonne.  His works on French rural and feudal society became classics.  In 1939, despite the fact that he was “overage” he enlisted in the French Army and fought the invading Germans. After the French surrendered to the Germans, he joined the Resistance where his specialty was in working with secret codes.  He was captured by the Nazis and tortured before being shot on June 16, 1944.

1887: The funeral of Jonas Heller, a Trustee of the Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews is scheduled to be held today.

1887: Albert Weinschenk a young German who his Christian wife had defied her family by marrying him appears to have shot himself this evening after his mother-in-law had accused him of being a bigamist.

1888: A reception committee met at Meyer’s Hotel in Hoboken, NJ, in anticipation of the arrival of Rabbi Jacob Charif whose ship was due to dock on Saturday morning. Charif has been brought from Wilna by members of the United Society to provide leadership based on halachah for the ever growing population of immigrant Jews populating the Lower East Side.

1889: Birthdate of George Berthold Samuelson, the native of Southport, England who was on the early creators of the British movie industry who created G.B. Samuelson Productions.

1890: “An Empire’s Young Chief” published today provided a snapshot of conditions in Germany under the new Kaiser, Wilhelm II with a special emphasis on the role of the Jews who “in the New Berlin…occupy a more commanding and dominant position than they ever have had in any other important city the fall of a Jerusalem” – a situation that has given an excuse for the anti-Semites to preach their increasingly popular doctrine.

1891: The fifty doctors assigned by the Board Health “to visit the tenement houses and look after the sick children during the hot weather” met today Sanitary Headquarters where they were given pamphlets written in several languages including Hebrew as tickets “for the free excursions” sponsored by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children.

1891: It was reported today that “a sizable tract of land” In Marlborough, Connecticut has been purchased by the Baron de Hirsch Fund. Baron de Hirsch “has established…a very large fund that is to be used…for poor Jews who are being driven out of …Europe.”

1891: “The Jewish Immigrants” published today described the organization of efforts to provide a civic education for the Russians arriving in St. Louis.  The effort drew support from non-Jews as well as Jews as can be seen by the fact that Dr. Ingraham of the spiritual leader of Grace Episcopal Church was among those who attended the meeting and contributed the three dollars which the annual dues of the nascent organization.

1892: “The opening session of the third annual Central Conference of American Rabbis was held” tonight at Temple Beth-El in New York City.

1893: Birthdate of John Charles Walker the agricultural scientist who won the Wolf Foundation Prize in Agriculture in 1978.

1893: Clothing contractors Solomon Wallach and Jacob Seidman were accused of today of trying to break the United Garment Workers of American by firing union members and replaced them with apprentices from the United Hebrew Charities.

1895: In New York, on Shabbat, The Empire Life Insurance company obtained an order from Justice Stover directing the officials of Washington Cemetery to permit the exhumation” of the body Annie Silverman, the widow of Wolf Silverman, as part of their legal campaign to avoid paying the death benefit to the beneficiary.

1895: Theodor Herzl wrote in his diary the following entry describing his conversation with Max Nordeau who would become one of the leaders of the Zionist movement.  “Yesterday with Nordau, over a glass of beer. Also discussed the Jewish question, of course. Never before I had been in such perfect tune with Nordau. Each took the words right out of the other's mouth. I never had such a strong feeling that we belonged together. This has nothing to do with religion. He even said that there was no such thing as a Jewish dogma. But we are of one race. ...
Nordau said: "What is the tragedy of Jewry?" That this most conservative of peoples, which yearns to be rooted in some soil, has had no home for the last two thousand years.
We agreed on every point, so that I already thought that the same ideas had led him to the same plan. But he comes to a different conclusion: "The Jews", he says, "will be compelled by antisemitism to destroy among all peoples the idea of a fatherland." Or, I secretly thought to myself, to create a fatherland of their own.”

1896: In a speech at "The Maccabaeans," Herzl formulates the program of the "Society of Jews": According to Herzl, “The task of the Society of Jews is the acquisition according to international law of a territory for those Jews who cannot assimilate."

1896: The funeral of Jules s. Abecasis will begin at 11 o’clock at Shearith Israel in New York.

1898: It was reported today that Dr. Richard J.H. Gottheil, Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, Dr. William Cowen, K.H. Sarsohn, Leon Zolollkoff and Dr. I.J. Bluestone have been named to serve as delegates at the upcoming Zionist Congress in Basel.

1898: In Leipzig, Professor of Philosophy Rudolf Eister who was Jewish and his wife Marie Ida Eisler (née Fischer) who was gave birth to composer Hanns Eisler. Eisler moved to Berlin after World War I where his art flourished as did his involvement in left-wing politics.  He left Germany for the United States in 1933 where he became a leader of anti-Nazi artists and where he pursued his composing career which included two Oscar nominations.  After World War II he was placed on the Black List and ended up returning to East Germany.  Eisler fell afoul of the commissars in Germany.  Five year after being deported from the United States because of his leftist political views, he was hauled before a German Communist tribunal where he was accused of not being loyal to Socialism, a charge from which his career and health did not recover.

1898(16th of Tammuz, 5658): Fifty-two year old Cornelius Herz who was involved in the infamous Panama Scandal passed away today.

1899(28th of Tammuz, 5659): Forty-seven year old Moravian born Rabbi David Kaufman passed away today while serving as the chair “of history, philosophy of religion, and homiletics at the newly founded rabbinical school at Budapest.”

1899: As the dispute grew over how to honor the French officer who had been a cruel victim of anti-Semitism, a group of Jews sent a cable to Emile Zola looking for advice: “American Jewish wish to present Captain Drefyus with a golden sword. [Send] answer [to[ Jewish  Forward whether it will not help anti-Semitism.”

1899: Benjamin Blumental, the President of Rodoph Sholem  and the father of Assistant District Attodrney Maruice B. Blumental was sworn in today as a school inspector in the 24th District after having served as School Inspector in the Fourth District for fifteen years.

1899(28th of Tammuz, 5659): David Kaufmann a Jewish-Austrian scholar born at Kojetín, Moravia (now in the Czech Republic) in 1852 passed away. A university professor and librarian, he was a prolific author whose works included studies in Jewish history, studies of synagogue art and polemics in defense of Judaism.

1900(9th of Tammuz, 5660): Gustav Born, the father of Max Born passed away today.

1901: The annual Conference of American Rabbis was scheduled to end today in Philadelphia. Rabbi Harry H. Mayer had presented a paper to the meeting on “Sabbath School Problem.”  The conference will reconvene at New Orleans in April of 1902

1904: Samuel Untermeyer was among the delegates attending the Democratic Party National Convention which opened today in St. Louis, MO.

1905: Alfred Deakin becomes Prime Minister of Australia for the second time. As can be seen from his relationship with the Sir Isaac Alfred Isaacs Deakin had no problem with working with Jews

1905: In Australia, Sir Isaac Alfred Isaacs was appointed attorney-general. The son of Russian-Polish immigrants, Isaacs’ successful political and legal career would eventually lead to him being named Governor-General

1906: It was reported today that Rabbi Morris Goldberg has been chosen to head the Brothers of Israel Congregation replaced Rabbi Elitzer who is moving to Troy, NY.

1907: Birthdate of Mexican painter, feminist and social rebel, Frida Kahlo.

1907: At the 18th annual convention of the Central Conference of American Rabbis services are led by Rabbis Leo Mannheimer and Mayer Messing, with a sermon delivered by Rabbi Marcus Salzman followed by the Rabbi Martin Zielonka’s closing prayer and benediction.

1909(17th of Tammuz, 5669): Tzom Tammuz

1909: The Trenton Evening Times reported that Rabbi Morris Goldberg of Camden New Jersey was chosen to succeed Rabbi Elitzer as head of the Brothers of Israel Congregation.

1912: Birthdate of “American movie producer and screenwriter Milton Speriling.”

1913(1st of Tammuz, 5673): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

1913: After attending services at Beth Israel Temple which were led by Rabbi William Lowenburg as part of yesterday’s observance of Shabbat, the Conference of American Rabbis was scheduled to resume its regular meetings this morning at Atlantic City, NJ.

1915: “Alfred A Wilson, an American engineer who arrived in” New York City today “from Egypt and Palestine sad that…the Turkish Governor of Jerusalem had treated the Jews very harshly” and that “they had either to become Turkish subjects or leave the country” while “Americans and other foreigners in Jerusalem…were not bothered in any way by the German or Turkish officials.”

1917: Birthdate of Albert Abramson, the Bronx born Washingtonian who became a successful real estate promoter and “a principal force in the creation of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington.”  (As reported by Douglas Martin)

1917: At Onezki, near Kiev, “a conspiracy by the Black Hundreds to fabricate accusations of ritual murder” were exposed.

1917: In Russia, at Homel, the militia discovered lists of those “marked for immediate attack” in the houses of members of the Black Hundreds.

1918: Thirty-eight year old John P. Mitchell passed away today.  At age 34, the Roman Catholic Mitchell was elected Mayor.  He was part of a Fusion Ticket made up of reformers fighting the Tammany Machine. The reformers were an amalgam of Protestants, Republicans and uptown Republicans.

1921(30th of Sivan, 5681): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

1921: Dr. Joseph H. Hertz, the Chief Rabbi of the British Empire arrived in Vancouver where he would have visited Schara Tzedeck and the Hadassah chapter founded in 1920.

1923: Grigori Yakovlovich Sokolnikov ended his terms as People’s Commissar for Finance of the RSFSR and began serving as People’s Commissar for Finance of the USSR.

1925: Werner “Heisenberg gave Max Born a paper entitled Über quantentheoretische Umdeutung kinematischer und mechanischer Beziehungen ("Quantum-Theoretical Re-interpretation of Kinematic and Mechanical Relations") to review, and submit for publication. In the paper, Heisenberg formulated quantum theory, avoiding the concrete, but unobservable, representations of electron orbits by using parameters such as transition probabilities for quantum jumps, which necessitated using two indexes corresponding to the initial and final states´ (I have no idea what this means)

1934: The Turkish government stated the expulsion of the Jews from the Dardanelles had been due to a misinterpretation of a law. The government declared it would punish the officials found to be responsible, and that the Jews would be given redress.

1935:U.S. premiere of “Escapade” a romantic comedy co-starring Luise Rainer with a script by Herman J. Mankiewicz.

1936: The Palestine Post reported that there were 314 cases of ptomaine poisoning in numerous bomb-throwing and shooting incidents throughout the country. Three Jewish laborers were wounded near Nablus, and a watchman was hurt near Kiryat Anavim. An Arab was killed and three wounded in an encounter with British troops in Hebron.

1937: In Gorky, Jewish pianist and composer David Ashkenazi and his non-Jewish wife gave birth to pianist and conductor Vladimir Ashkenazy.

1938: President Roosevelt called for an international conference to consider the "displaced persons" problem. The negligible results highlight the passive role the Western world in the face of the Nazis. . Roosevelt's aims, some say, are to deflect American Jewish appeals to help the German Jews. Aside from Costa Rica and the Dominican Republic, which want enormous sums of money to allow a small number of Jews to immigrate, the 32 nations attending the conference decide that they will not permit large numbers of Jews to enter their countries.

1938(7th of Tammuz, 5698): Tuvia Dounia, the brother-in-law of Chaim Weizmann is one of the victims of today’s outbreak of Arab violence in Haifa. Police found him slumped over the wheel of the car he was driving with a bullet through his heart. Of the four passengers in the vehicle three escaped harm but one was seriously wounded.

1939: The last remaining Jewish enterprises in Germany were closed.

1941(11th of Tammuz, 5701): Seventy-one year old German born oncologist Ferdinand Blumenthal died in an air raid.  After fleeing Nazi Germany in 1933 Blumenthal went from Austria to Yugoslavia to a variety of other locations before ending up in the Soviet Union where he taught before be interred by the Communists.

1941(11th of Tammuz, 5701): Lithuanian militiamen murdered 2,514 Jews in Kovno.

1941(11th of Tammuz, 5701): Elchonon Wasserman “a prominent rabbi and rosh yeshiva in pre-World War II Europe was murdered today by Lithuanians who were collaborators of the Nazis. Born in 1874, he was one of the Chofetz Chaim's closest disciples and a noted Torah scholar.Before he was taken” by his Lithuanian killers, “he gave this statement: ‘In Heaven it appears that they deem us to be righteous because our bodies have been chosen to atone for the Jewish people. Therefore, we must repent now, immediately. There is not much time. We must keep in mind that we will be better offerings if we repent. In this way we will save the lives of our brethren overseas. Let no thought enter our minds, God forbid, which is abominable and which renders an offering unfit. We are now fulfilling the greatest mitzvah. With fire she (Jerusalem) was destroyed and with fire she will be rebuilt. The very fire which consumes our bodies will one day rebuild the Jewish people.’”

1942: The first issue of Eynikeyt (Unity), a Yiddish-language journal of the Soviet Jewish Antifascist Committee, is published.

1942: One day after her sister Margot received her orders to report to a labor camp, Anne Frank and her families go into hiding in Amsterdam

1942: Bendin (Poland) ghetto uprising, 1942. "The warning cry issued from Jews in Vilna spurred initial thoughts of ghetto revolts for thousands of young Jews, particularly members of the clandestine Zionist-pioneer youth movements. In ghettos such as Bialystok, Krakow, Bendin, Czestochowa, and Tarnow, rebellions and confrontations broke out during the final deportations. These desperate acts of resistance testified to the triumph of the Jewish and human spirit and constituted both a cry for life and a banner of hope for future generations."

1944: In the Ural Mountains, Czarna (née Zielinski) and Reuven “Ruwek” (Lewin) Levy gave birth to their son Moshe with whom “they returned to Poznan, in Poland” before moving to Lodz in 1948. 1945: Adolf Cardinal Bertram, the archbishop of Breslau whose refusal to speak out against the Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses, whose issuance of statement calling the war with Poland “a holy war and whose sending of birthday greetings to Adolf Hitler while the Germans were winning hardly squares with Time magazine’s description of him as an anti-Nazi, passed away today.

1944: Twenty-four year old Andrée Borrel a member of the French Resistance who later fought the Nazis as a member of the British SOE and her three compatriots were given lethal injections at the Natzweiler-Struthof concentration camp in the Vosges Mountains of Alsace and then were burned alive in the camp’s incinerator.

1946: U.S. premiere of “A Stolen Life” an American remake of an English film directed by Curtis Bernhardt with music by Max Steiner.

1948: A convoy arrives at Zion Square in Jerusalem carrying food for the starving city.  The arrival seems to validate reports that a new road has been completed by the Jews fighting there from the coastal plain to the Judean hills.

1946: Jews fled Kiecle, Poland after being the victim of a pogrom

1948(29th of Sivan, 5708): Fifty-five year old Bernard D. Rubin, the man behind the Tootsie Roll who was also active in raising money for Jewish causes passed away today.

1948: Lucy Mandelstam, who had been born in Vienna in 1926 and survived Theresienstadt and Auschwitz, makes Aliyah arriving in Haifa.

1950: Just after the North attacked the South, Yaacov Shimoni, deputy director of Far Eastern affairs in the Foreign Ministry, wrote a letter to Foreign Minister Moshe Sharett asserting that the South Korean government was corrupt and oppressive whereas the North Korean one seemed cleaner and was more efficient and popular.7 In August 1960, however, the Foreign Ministry decided to make every effort to establish full diplomatic ties with South Korea. This was after the fall of the dictatorial regime of Syngman Rhee, who resigned his post and went into exile in April 1961.

1950: In Israel, hospital nurses went on strike demanding a 42-hour work week during the summer months at government run hospitals.  Private hospitals and those administered by trade unions have already agreed to the demand and are not affected by the strike.  Skeleton staffs had been left on duty to ensure the health of patients

1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that after all final registration demands were met, 16 political parties became entitled to compete in the Second Knesset elections. Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion was cheered wildly on his pre-election tour by more than 5,000 Migdal Ashkelon residents. He advised all persons between 20 and 40 years of age to learn to bear arms and assured the gathered crowds that their town would become the second port city in the south of the country, after Eilat. Following the discovery of major irregularities in the shoe industry, the authorities froze all stocks held by shoe manufacturers and ordered a strict shoe sales control throughout the country. Three persons were wounded in the Musrara Quarter of Jerusalem by Arab snipers, aiming at Israeli passersby from the walls of the Old City.

1957: Birthdate of Detroit native Dr. Charlie Pruchno, a pillar of the Cedar Rapids Jewish community

1958: Birthdate of Lena Gilbert, the go-to gal when you want something done professionally or in the Jewish Community at Cedar Rapids, Iowa.

1962: Eugene Ferkauf, the founder of the E. J. Korvette chain of discount department stores appeared on the cover of Time magazine.,16641,19620706,00.html

1962: Orville Prescott’s review of The Slave by Isaac Bashevis Singer was published today.

1969: Pitcher Dave Roberts, whose father is Jewish, made his major league debut with the San Diego Padres.

1973(6th of Tammuz, 5733): Conductor and composer Otto Klemperer passed away

1976: The Jerusalem Post reported that under a new bill presented to the Knesset by Transport Minister Gad Ya'acobi Israel could take "unspecified sanctions" against any airline found negligent in security precautions which could endanger its citizens. The Ministry of Labor announced that universal sick-pay benefits for every worker in Israel would become the law of the land on October 1, 1976.

1976: In Israel, the President, Prime Minister, and most of the cabinet ministers were among the thousands of mourners who attending the funeral of Lt. Col. Yoni Natanyahu, the 30 year old military officer who gave his life to insure the successful rescue at Entebbe.

1976: By order of President Idi Amin, Uganda today marks the first of two days of mourning for the seven Palestinian terrorists killed during the Israeli raid on Entebbe as well the Ugandan soldiers reported to have lost their lives.

1976: U.S. premiere of “Shivers,” the Canadian horror film produced by Ivan Reitman and directed by David Cronenberg who also wrote the script.

1976: Final broadcast of a syndicated version of “I’ve Got a Secret” – a game show produced by Mark Goodson and Bill Todman, created by Allan Sherman

1976: While French President Valery Giscard d’Estaing and Prime Minister Jacques Chirac have not made any comment on the raid on Entebbe, Mordechai Ghazith, Israel’s ambassador to France congratulated the French for their “role in the ordeal.”

1977(20th of Tammuz, 5737): One person was killed and twenty-two were wounded when terrorists bombed a market in Petah Tikvah.

1986: Eighty-seven year old Lotah Kreyssig, whose efforts to stop the Nazi euthanasia program almost earned him a trip to the concentration camps but did cost him his job, passed away today.

1987: 'World of Yesterday: Jews in England 1870-1920'' which opens today at St. Paul's Cathedral Crypt, is among the many exhibitions included in this summer's Jewish East End Celebration.

1988(21st of Tammuz, 5748): In Israel 14 bus passengers were killed as an Arab terrorist assaulted the bus driver as the bus was driving by the edge of a cliff.

1988(21st of Tammuz, 5748): Ninety-three year old David Theodore Wilentz, the Attorney General of the state of New Jersey from 1934 to 1944 who prosecuted Bruno Hauptmann for kidnapping the Lindbergh Baby passed away today.

1989(3rd of Tammuz, 5749:  A terrorist seized a bus traveling between Tel Aviv and Jerusalem.  He forced the bus to crash into a ravine where it burst into flames killing sixteen passengers many of whom burned in their seats.  The attack took place at Telshe Stone, the place where Mickey Marcus was shot during the War for Independence.

1989:  At a concert in Jerusalem, the conductor Zubin Metah asked the audience to stand for two minutes of silence in memory of those killed that day in Telshe Stone.  Metah also asked the audience to refrain from any applause.

1995: Pitcher Brian Bark made his major league debut with the Boston Red Sox.

1997(1st of Tammuz, 5757): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

1997: The New York Times book section features a review of Passion and Reason Edited by E. Joshua Rosenkranz, a former honoree of the Cornell University Jewish Life Fund and Bernard Schwartz and Ben-Gurion and the Holocaust by Shabtai Teveth in which the historian contradicts contentions that Ben-Gurion was insensitive to the plight of the Jews of Europe and/or that he uncaringly exploited their situation for the benefit of the Yishuv

1999(22nd of Tammuz, 5959): Ninety-three year old singer and composer Benny Bell passed away today.

1999: Natan Sharansky succeeds Eli Suissa as Minister of Internal Affairs.

1999: Ehud Barak succeeds Silvan Shaom as Minister of Science, Culture and Sport

1999: Shlomo Ben-Ami succeeds Avigdor Kahalani was Minister of Public Security.

1999: Eli Suissa succeeds Ariel Sharon as Minister of National Infrastructure.

1999: David Levy succeeds Ariel Sharon as Israel’s Foreign Minister

1999: Binyamin Ben-Eliezer succeeds Limor Livant as Minister of Communications.

2000(3rd of Tammuz, 5760):Eighty-eight year old Władysław "Wladek" Szpilman a pianist and classical composer, who is widely known as the protagonist of the 2002 Roman Polanski film The Pianist, which is based on the book "The Pianist" recounting his survival of the German occupation of Warsaw and the Holocaust passed away today.

2001: U.S. premiere of “Black River” a FOX made for television movie starring Lisa Edelstein as “Laura Crosby.”

2002(26th of Tammuz, 5762): Kenneth Koch, Ameircan poet and winner of the 1994 Bollingen Prize, passed away at the age of 77.

2003(6th of Tammuz, 5763): Spc. Jeffrey M. Wershow was killed today when he was shot in Baghdad during military operations. He was 22 years old. “Attending law school and running for president of the United States were Jeffrey Wershow’s plans after finishing his time in the National Guard. He consumed history books, particularly those about the Vietnam War, and developed an interest in politics, even working in the election offices of local politicians in Gainesville, Fla. After spending three years in the Army Reserve, Wershow attended Santa Fe Community College, in New Mexico, prior to enlisting in the National Guard. His father, Jonathan Wershow, said that before being deployed to Iraq, his son attended Sabbath services near Fort Stewart in Georgia and would later celebrate Passover in the desert in Iraq. His father maintains that “the military was very good for Jeffrey. He really grew up; [the military] really helped him a lot. If my son had to die, he felt that he was giving his life for a cause worth dying for.” (As reported by The Forwards)

2003: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Benjamin Franklin: An American Life by Walter Isaacson, After Jihad by Noah Feldman and the recently released paperback edition of Beyond the Last Village: A Journey of Discovery in Asia's Forbidden Wilderness by Alan Rabinowitz

2004(17th of Tammuz, 5764): Tzom Tammuz

2004(17th of Tammuz, 5764): Captain Moran Vardi, 25, was killed by terrorists in Israel.

2006(10th of Tammuz, 5766): First Lieutenant Yehuda Bassel, 21, was killed this afternoon during an IDF operation in the northern Gaza Strip designed to destroy the launching sites for Kassam missiles. The 21 year old from Moshav Yinon was scheduled to be laid to rest tomorrow afternoon in the Kfar Warburg military cemetery in southern Israel.

2006: Judith Kaye, the Chief Judge of the New York Court of appeals “authored a dissent in an omnibus appeal of four same-sex marriage disputes (including Hernandez v. Robles) in which the majority ruled that the state constitution "does not compel recognition of marriages between members of the same sex". Kaye's dissent admonished that while New York State has a tradition of upholding equal rights, "the court today retreats from that proud tradition".

2007: In Jerusalem, "Performances in Nature" presents famous Israeli singer, David Broza, in an acoustic performance at Ein Chemed.

2007(20th of Tammuz, 5767): Advertising executive, author and columnist Lois Wayse, who coined the memorable catchphrase “With a name like Smucker’s it has to be good” passed away at the age of 80.

2007: The Israeli premiere of "We Are Together" (Thina Simunye) will take place at the Jerusalem Film Festival at 10:15 P.M.

2008:  An international conference on Dead Sea Scrolls research opens in Israel.

2008 (3 Tammuz, 5768): On the Hebrew calendar, the fourteenth anniversary of the passing of the Rebbe, Rabbi Menachem M. Schneerson, of righteous memory.

2008: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including America America by Ethan Canin and City of Thieves by David Benioff, a novel “which follows a character named Lev Beniov, the son of a revered Soviet Jewish poet who was “disappeared” in the Stalinist purges, as Lev and an accomplice carry out an impossible assignment during the Nazi blockade of Leningrad.”

2008: The Washington Post features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including A Choice of Enemies: America Confronts the Middle East by Lawrence Freedman

2008: The San Francisco Giants shipped Brian Horowitz down to Fresno for more playing time.

2008: The chief Nazi hunter of the Los Angeles-based Simon Wiesenthal Center, Dr. Efraim Zuroff, headed to South America in a final public campaign to locate the most wanted Nazi in, the world and bring him to justice. The search for Dr. Aribert Heim, 94, the former Austrian doctor also known as "Dr. Death" who tops the Wiesenthal Center's list of "most wanted Nazis," has spanned nearly half a century since his 1962 disappearance in Germany ahead of a planned prosecution for his war crimes.

2009: A newly formed Iranian Jewish Federation made up of emigrants from the Iranian

2009: Rabbi Levi Yitzchok Horowitz was hospitalized in the Sharei Tzedek hospital in Jerusalem after suffering a cardiac arrest.

2009: Capt. Ben Sklaver shipped out for Afghanistan after setting a wedding date with his fiancée Beth Segaloff

2009: Ben Horowitz and his partner launched Andreessen Horowitz, “to invest in and advise both early-stage startups and more established growth companies in high technology.”

2010: The U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum is scheduled to present “First Person With Al Moritz” which is part of the First Person program which is designed provide the general public to hold conversations with Holocaust survivors.

2010: Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu and US President Barack Obama met in the White House today and discussed direct talks, Gaza, Iran and other issues

2010: Simon Wolfson, who was created Baron Wolfson of Aspley Guise, of Aspley Guise in the County of Bedfordshire was introduced in the House of Lords today. Wolfson is the founder of the £250,000 Wolfson Economic Prize.

2010: Sir Malcolm Rifkind became Chairman of the Intelligence and Security Committee.

2011(4th of Tammuz): Yahrzeit of Rabbi Yaakov ben Meir of Romereau known as "Rabbeinu Tam

2011: “Israeli Culture through Hebrew Conversation” an eight week course offered at the Historic 6th & I Synagogue is scheduled to have its opening session this evening.

2011: Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu met with his Romanian counterpart Emil Boc in Bucharest, who said that he opposes a Palestinian unilateral declaration of statehood.

2011: President Shimon Peres and Sephardi Chief Rabbi Shlomo Amar issued a call to the public to desist from all forms of extremism and incitement. 

2011: The Schalit family traversed the Knesset's hallways today to request that MKs sign a letter calling on the government to release Hamas terrorists in exchange for captive soldier Gilad Schalit.

2011: Oscar Goodman completed his services as the 21st Mayor of Las Vegas.

2011: Carolyn Goldmark Goodman, the wife of former Mayor Oscar Goodman became the 22nd Mayor of Las Vegas after having received 60 per cent of the vote.

2011: As a sign of social and cultural change in Israel Ethan Bronner describes the debate in Israel over a two day weekend.

2012: “Israel: A Home Movie” is scheduled to be shown today the Jerusalem Film Festival

2012: Indonesia is to open a consulate in Ramallah, headed by a diplomat with the rank of ambassador, who will also unofficially serve as his country’s point man for contacts with Israel, The Times of Israel learned on today.

2012: U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton told Palestinian President Mahmoud toiday that the Israel-Palestinian conflict should not be forgotten amid wider upheaval in the Middle East.

2012: Israel reiterated today that it would refuse cooperation with a UN Human Rights Council fact finding mission to probe Israeli West Bank settlement activity and Jewish building in east Jerusalem

2013: Due to lack of a repayment, there will be no “free” bus from the Kotel on Motzei Shabbat; a service that Egged has been operating on the honor system to accommodate the needs of “observant” riders.

2013: In Cedar Rapids, Iowa, the traditional minyan celebrates Independence Shabbat, honoring Jewish American heroes of the revolution, followed by a beat the summer heat Kiddush featuring Sundaes on Saturday.

2013: “Caught In The Web” is among the films scheduled to be screened at the 30th International Jerusalem Film Festival. 

2013(28th of Tammuz, 5773): Ninety-three year old publisher Arthur Rosenthal passed away toay.  (As reported by Paul Vitello)

2013(28th of Tammuz, 5773): Eighty-nine year old Nixon adviser Leonard Garment passed away today.(As reported by Eric Lichtblau)

2013: US Secretary of State John Kerry’s plan to resume peace talks between Israel and the Palestinian Authority calls for a cessation of settlement construction outside settlement blocs in the West Bank and the release of 103 Palestinian prisoners, the London-based Al-Hayat newspaper reported today (As reported by Khaled Abu Tomeh and Tovah Lazaroff)

2013: Omri Casspi, the only Israeli hoopster to ever play in the NBA, will sign a two-year, $2 million (NIS 7.3 million) deal with the Houston Rockets, Yahoo! Sports reported today (As reported by Raphael Gellar)

2014: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors -- A Most Imperfect Union: A Contrarian History of the United States by Ilan Stavans -- and of special interest to Jewish readers – The Arsenal of Democracy: FDR, Detroit and an Epic Quest to Arm an America at War by A.J. Baime which tells of the role played by infamous ant-Semite Henry Ford in the creation of the Arsenal of Democracy that defeated the Nazis.

2014: A tour of Jewish Poland led by Gratz College scholar Dr. Michael Steinlauf is scheduled to come to an end.

2014: Jerusalem-born conductor Asher Fisch is scheduled to lead “a Romantic program fitting for a mid-summer Berkshires' evening.”

2014: The Shin Bet Security announced that “several Jewish suspects have been arrested in connection with murder of a Palestinian teen” on July 2. (JTA)

2014: Lynn Chaney, the wife of the former Vice President tells the New York Times that “the last book to make her cry was Shel Silverstein’s The Giving Tree (“I have to steel myself before I read it to my grandchildren.”)

2014: After 25 rockets were fired into Israel from Gaza today, the IAD killed two members of the Islamic Jihad this evening.

2014: “Israel Police said today that 19-year-old Shelley Dadon, whose body was found in a car park in Migdal Ha'emek in early May, was murdered by her taxi driver, 34-year-old Hussein Yousef Khalifa, who confessed and reenacted her killing.” (As reported by Ahiya Raved and Yoav Zitun)

2014: Palestinian security forces used tear gas to prevent rioters from burning Joseph’s Tomb in Nablus tonight.

2015: In Tel Aviv, the first annual Blues Festival is scheduled to come to an end.

2015: In Leeds, UK, Frank Virgon is scheduled to lecture on “Isaac Bashevis Singer: How his Works have been Lost in Translation in the US.”