Monday, July 28, 2014

This Day, July 29, In Jewish History by Mitchell A. Levin

July 29

1099:  Pope Urban II, the man behind the First Crusade, passed away.  Considering the impact of the Crusades on the Jews of Europe, his impact on Jewish history is self-obvious.

1336: Led by John Zimberlin, a self-proclaimed prophet, a group of peasants in Germany known as the Armleder (for their leather straps warn on their arms) attacked Jewish communities in Franconia and the Alsace region. They also destroyed Jewish communities in Bohemia, Moravia and elsewhere along the Rhine. Roughly 1500 Jews were murdered. Eventually when the Armleder began to attack non-Jews, they were opposed by local Lords.

1567: James VI is crowned King of Scotland. Scotland’s King James VI will enter history as King James I of Great Britain, the monarch who gave his name to the King James Bible, the English translation of the holy book whose text most Americans (including many Jews) will think of as the real words of God.

1588: English naval forces under command of Lord Charles Howard and Sir Francis Drake defeats the Spanish Armada off the coast of Gravelines, France. The defeat of the Spanish Armada meant that the Catholics and their Inquisition would not take control of the British Islesor re-take the Netherlands, the Protestant nation that was haven for European Jews.  Morrano spies reportedly provided information to the English which helped them to know when and where to expect the arrival of the Armada.

1612(29th of Tammuz, 5372): Abraham Portaleone, the Italian physician who studied under Jacob Fano and who was granted special dispensation so he could treat such prominent Christians as the Dukes Guglielmo and Vincenzo of Mantua and Pope Gregory IV passed away today.

1644: Urban VIII, the Pope who issued an edict in 1625 forbidding Jews in Rome from erecting gravestones, passed away.

1808: As he prepared for surgery, Rothschild drew up his last will and testament.

1819: David Moses Dyte and Hannah Lazarus gave birth to Charles Dyte, who married Evelina Nathan and with whom he had five children.

1830: Abdication of Charles X of France. Charles abdicated in favor of his grandson.  But the Chamber of Deputies rejected this move and chose Louis-Philippe, duc d'Orleans, to fill the vacant throne.  This proved to be a good thing for the French Jews since Louis would ratify a motion putting Judaism on a par with Christianity, granting State support to Synagogues and their Minister of Religion. This meant that France extended financial support to Jewish religious institutions on par with Christian institutions.

1840: Birthdate of Simon Baruch, a physician, who was born in Schwersen, Germany (now part of Poland). He attended German schools and received a degree from the Medical College of Virginia (1862); was surgeon for the Confederate Army (1862-1865); and practiced in Camden, South Carolina, until 1881, then in New York. He was the Chairman of the South Carolina Board of Health (1880) and was the author of books on the use of hydrotherapy. He married Isabel Wolfe in 1867. His greatest claim to fame was that he was the father of Bernard Baruch, the famed financier and advisor to Presidents.

1847: Grace Aguilar made her last entry in her Frankfort Journal, a 34,000 word long effort that recorded her family’s journey through Belgian and Germany.  It was also her last literary effort since she would pass away in September.

1849: In Pest, Gabriel Südfeld, a Hebrew poet and his wife gave birth to Simon Maximilian Südfeld who gained fame as Max Nordau, the Zionist leader, physician, author, and social critic. He was a co-founder of the World Zionist Organization together with Theodor Herzl, and president or vice president of several Zionist congresses. Nordau died in Paris, France in 1923. In 1926 his remains were moved to Tel Aviv.

1850(20th of Av, 5610): Sarah Moses, the daughter of Abraham Moses and the wife of Lazarus Moses, passed away and was buried in Chatham, Kent, England.

1864: In article describing President Jefferson Davis' cabinet, the Richmond Sentinel reported that "The whole burden of the objections to the Secretary of State seems to have dwindled down to the fact that he is a Jew, for all admit his distinguished abilities. The time is at hand when his abilities will be needed, and we feel confident that when the occasion occurs he will not be found wanting, but will ably sustain the dignity of his office and his already acquired high reputation. "

1870: Benjamin Nathan’s body was discovered at 5:50 a.m. in his New York mansion. “Mr. Nathan was found lying dead with his skull smashed in…A heavy iron instrument used by ship carpenters called a ‘dog’ was found near the body.”  This was the murder instrument. Apparently, Mr. Nathan was killed when he interrupted a robbery that was taking place at his home. (Despite the offering of a large reward and numerous arrests, the murder remains unsolved.)

1870: An “excitable weekly” called the Sunday Mercury published an unsigned article accusing Washington Nathan of murdering his father, Benjamin Nathan

1870: The New York Stock Exchange offered a $10,000 reward for the arrest and conviction of the murder or murderers of Benjamin Nathan.  Nathan had been a member of the Exchange for thirty years.

1873: At Castle Garden (NY), the President of the Romania Society presented a letter at today’s meeting of the Commissioners of Emigration requesting “that the board take charge of five Rumanian emigrants and send them back home.”  The five are Orthodox Jews who could not exist on the food prepared at the commission’s Ward’s Island facility. The letter also stated that if the Commissioners would send the Jews home, the Society’s President would see to it “that the emigration” would be stopped in Roumania. The commission agreed to send them back and expressed “regret that the American Consul in Roumania had not stopped the emigration” in the first place.

1875: Suffering from the effects of his trip to Palestine, a fatigued Sir Moses Montefiore spends the day rest in bed.

1875: While visiting Palestine, Sir Moses Montefiore wrote a letter to Hayyim Guedalla in which he described the marked increase in the number of dwellings in Jerusalem, and, given the increasing density of the population, the need to start building “suitable dwellings” beyond the current city limits.

1876(8th of Av, 5636): Shabbat Chazon, Erev Tish'a B'Av

1877: It was reported today that the Jews have established Young Men’s Hebrew Associations in New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Chicago and Cincinnati.  They are modeled after the YMCA’s. The Jewish Messenger “thinks the system should be extended to other cities” because they have the “power to mold American Judaism.”

1877: “Any Change in Turkey For the Better” published today relying on information from the Duke of Argyll that first appeared in the Contemporary Review, described conditions in the Ottoman Empire in which “Moslem tyranny” exercises control “over the whole non-Moslem population while the government “has been friendly to the Jews”  “this toleration is nothing” in reality “but equal and indiscriminate contempt.”
1878: “Palestine” published today described “the model of the entire country” now on exhibit at on the grounds near the Round Lake Hotel built on a scale of “two and a half feet to the mile” that allow “visitors” to walk from Jaffa to Jerusalem to the Dead Sea and after having taken a dip in the Jordan River to visit Bethlehem and Mt. Hermon
1879(9th of Av, 5639):Tish'a B'Av                                                                                    

1879: The Standard’s Constantinople dispatch reported today that the Jewish quarter at Orta Keui, a village on the Bosporus, has been destroyed by “a terrific fire.”

1881: The first ships containing large numbers of Russian Jews arrived in New York following pogroms in Russia. This was the beginning of mass immigration to the U.S. during that would change the face of the American Jewish Community.  The great waves of immigration would slow with World War I and come to a halt during the 1920's when an isolationism, nativism and racism closed the doors of America to most immigrants. 

1882: In Hungary, Solomon Schwarz, Abraham Buxbaum, Leopold Braun, and Hermann Wollner, were charged with murdering a Christian girl named Esther Solymosi . Josef Scharf, Adolf Jünger, Abraham Braun, Samuel Lustig, Lazar Weissstein, and Emanuel Taub, were charged with voluntarily assisting in the crime. Anselm Vogel, Jankel Smilovics, David Hersko, Martin Gross, and Ignaz Klein, were charged with abetting the crime and smuggling the body. This case which turned into a blood libel began in April and would rile the kingdom for at least another two years.

1883: “Scenes on the East Side” published a visitors account of what he saw when he visited this section of Manhattan including “a colony of foreign-born Jews of the lower classing inhabiting the southern end of Allen-Street” and polyglot neighborhoods on Essex, Ludlow and Hester Streets that included a poor immigrants of many nationalities including Jews from Russia.
1884: It was reported today two of the rioters who participated in the anti-Jewish riots at Zaleszozuky, Hungary were sentenced to five years in prison and another was sentenced to four years in prison. This was the Hungarian town that was the home of Esther Solomossy, a Christian girl who was allegedly killed by Jews as part of their religious ritiuals.

1885: In Cincinnati, Ohio, Bernard Goodman and Pauline Louise de Coppetti gave birth toTheodosia Burr Goodman who gained fame as Theda Bara, the silent screen star known as “The Vamp.

1885: The Chaplain of the British Embassy in Vienna has completed a census of the religious affiliations of Englishmen and Americans living in the Austrian capital.  The Anglo-American population of 1,316 included 111 Jews.

1885: The “majority of the shops” in Ramsgate are closed today because the town is in mourning over the death of Sir Moses Montefiore.  The Town Hall is draped as sign of mourning and the municipal authorities including the Mayor plan to at tend the funeral for the Jewish philanthropist

1886: At their meeting this afternoon, The Commissioners of Emigration listened to an appeal by several Jewish leaders including a representative of the Hebrew Immigration Society on behalf of eastern European immigrants being detained on Ward’s Island. The commissioners accepted the argument by the Jewish leaders that the immigrants had friends who would take care of them and were not therefore not indigent.  With the exception of a couple of the families in question, the rest were allowed to pass through Castle Garden on their way to a new life in the New World.

1887: in Gross-Kanizsa, which at that time as part of the Austro Hungarian Empire, Adam and Clara Rosenberg gave birth to Siegmund Rosenberg who gained fame as composer and conductor Sigmund Romberg.

1887: Isaac Ullmann, Jr. the secretary of the Utopia club obtained an injunction today restraining  the club from keep him from exercising his rights a member.  The members of the Utopia Club are wealthy New Haven (Ct) Jews.  Ullmann had been banned for a year when it was discovered that he had not paid a fine levied against him.

1887: Adolph Reich, who had been convicted of murdering his wife is scheduled to be hung today.  When the Judge had pronounced the death penalty he expressed his surprise at a Jew being brought before him on such a charge, “since they were, as a rule orderly, law-abiding citizens.” He could not remember ever sentencing a Jew to be hanged.

1889: A three story house owned on Main Street, Sing Sing, owned by David Ross which was home to numerous Jewish peddlers burned in a fire that started at three in the morning.  A machine shop owned by Abram Kipp then caught fire and, by the time it was over, only the walls remained.

1889(1st of Av, 5649): Rosh Chodesh Av

1890: “City and Suburban News” published today described plans for the upcoming benefit sponsored by B’nai B’rith as a fundraiser for the Home for old and Infirm Hebrews.

1890: “The Shatchen” by Charles S. Dickson, featuring M.B. Curtis who starred in “Sam’l of Posen” is scheduled to open today at the Grand Opera House in Los Angeles.

1890: Four Russian Jewish immigrants were stopped from going to work for Marcus Ullman, a peddler on New York’s east side when it was discovered that he was going to pay them $12 a month while the Labor Bureau had found work for them at salaries of $14 to $17 per month.

1891(23rd of Tammuz, 5651): Sixteen year old Louis Rabinowitz, a Russian Jew, passed away today at New Haven, CT.

1891(23rd of Tammuz, 5651): Jacob Levy, one of the suspects in the “Ripper Murders” passed away this evening at in the asylum for the mentally ill where had been confined.

1891: Birthdate of Bernhard Zondek, the German born Israeli gynecologist who developed the first reliable pregnancy test.

1891: Thirty Russian immigrants who sailed from Liverpool on the SS Norseman arrived in Boston today where they have been refused permission to land..

1891: “The Russian Jew Persecutions” published today described the burning of “a little farming settlement four Russian miles from Veile” where fourteen Jews were burned today and twenty more were seriously injured. “All the time the Russians were rushing wildly about shouting, ‘Kill the Jews!  Kill the Jews!’”

1892: Henry Heller, who had served as a Sergeant in Company A of the 66th Ohio Infantry during the Civil War was issued his Medal of Honor today for voluntary crossing into enemy lines under heavy fire to bring a Confederate officer who provided his superiors with “invaluable information” concerning the position of the enemy during the Battle of Chancellorsville, which was one of the worst defeats suffered by the Army of the Potomac.

1893(16th of Av, 5653): Shabbat Nacahamu

1893(16th of Av, 5653): Sixty-two year old historian Julius Aronius who was working on Regesten zur Geschichte der Juden in Deutschland at the time of his death passed away today.

1894: As of today, the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children has provided excursions for 2,647 children and 1,213 mothers free of charge.  In addition 233 sick infants and children have been cared for at the Rockaway facility.

1894: Contributions needed for the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children to continue its work may be sent to its managers – Nathan Lewis, Hezekiah Kohn and Joseph Davis.

1894: “Germany In Earliest Times” published today provides a review of A History of Germany In The Middle Ages in which the author begins with a critical overview of the efforts of past historians including Josephus who he said “wrote of the same events in his Antiquities as in the War of the Jews and reported them differently.
1895(8th of Av, 5655) Erev Tish'a B'Av

1895(8th of Av, 5655): Less than a month before his 84th birthday Joseph Derenbourg, or Joseph Naftali Derenburg, a Franco-German orientalist, who wrote an Essai sur l'histoire ella geographie de la Palestine passed away today.

1897: The Protective Musical Union Band will provide the entertainment at the second annual outing of the Brooklyn Hospital Society which is being held at Wissel’s Ridgewood Park.

1898: “The Russian Jew in America” by Abraham Cahan, the man who ran the Forverts  for 40 years appeared in the Atlantic Monthly bringing together one of those unlikely combinations – the immigrant Jew and the classical WASP intellectual journal.

1898: Birthdate of physicist Isidor Isaac Rabi Poland. His exploration of the atom earned him a Nobel Prize in 1944.

1898: Isaac F. Goldenhorn, the attorney for Michael Aaronberg, Abraham Hoffman, Mendal Bloomkey, Jacob Joseph and Adolph Horowitz, the Trustees of the Moses Montefiore Congregation in Hoboken, NJ, went into court today to seek an injunction to keep David Engler from removing the building from its location at 76 Grand Street.

1899: In describing his trip to Europe, John Ireland, the Archbishop of St. Paul, MN is reported to have told friends “that there is not so much turmoil over the Dreyfus Affiar as would appear from the press reports and that the decision of the court-martial whatever it may be will be accepted as final.” (Editor’s note – boy was he wrong)  He also said that the issue was no longer the guilt or innocence of Dreyfus but the honor of the army. (He was right about that)

1899: “The treaties, declarations and final acts of the Hague Peace Conference which Jan Bloch attended were signed today.”

1899: “Book News In London” published today described a English language translation of a monograph by Jules Huret on Sarah Bernhardt which has a preface by Edmond Rostand, the author of Cyrano de Bergerac.

1905: Birthdate of American poet Stanley Kunitz.  Kunitz was poet laureate in 2000.

1904: Mathew Nathan succeeded Sir Henry Arthur Blake as the Governor of Hong Kong.

1907: Lt. Col. Mathew Nathan completes his service as the 13th Governor of Hong Kong.

1914: Birthdate of comedian and actor, "Professor" Irwin Corey

1919(2nd of Av, 5679): Twenty-eight year Jewish American racketeer Johnny Spanish was murdered by three unknown gunmen while entering a restaurant at 19 Second Avenue in Manhattan.

1921: In Germany Hedwig Ehrenberg and Max Born gave birth to Gustav Victor Rudolf Born who served as the Sheild Professor of Professor of Pharmacology at Cambridge. He is the father of Professor Georgina Born and the uncle of singer Olivia Newton-John

1921: Adolf Hitler becomes leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party.

1923: The New York Times features a review of The Soul of Woman: A Reflection on a Life by Gina Lombroso, the Italian-Jewish sociologist.

1923: In Bennington, VT, Congregation Beth El, dedicated its new synagogue “at the corner of North and Adams Streets.”  The congregation had been founded in 1909.

1928: The Day, a Jewish newspaper printed in New York City, published a report from its correspondent in Palestine that Frieda and Goldina Rubinson, two sisters born in Hamburg now living in Tel Aviv claimed that the late composer Giacomo Pucini had plagiarized the score of his opera “Turnadot” from them. They claim to have proof that they composed the work in 1896 at which time they obtained a copyright in Germany and the United States.  The two sisters plan on making a trip to the United States to pursue their claim against, among others, the Metropolitan Opera Company which produced the work in 1927.

1929: Dr. Arthur Ruppin addressed the second session of the 16th Biennial Zionist Congress in Zurich, Switzerland today.  He said that “conversion to other faiths, intermarriage, a decreasing birth rate and unchanged mortality rate” were “disintegrating forces menacing the continued existence of the Jews as a people.”  

1930: Birthdate of Sol Steinmetz, the Hungarian born American “lexicographer, author and tenured member of Olbom (As reported by Margalit Fox)

1931: Birthdate of Art Ginsburg the native of Troy, NY, who gained fame as the television chef and author known as “Mr. Food.

1933: In Vienna, Sara and Herman Kirchenbaum gave birth to Peretz Kidron who became a noted Israeli writer, journalist, and translator

1934: The New York Times publishes an article by Sir Herbert Samuel in which the first British High Commissioner for Palestine describes the progress and problems facing the country.  His lengthy commentary is based on his first visit to Palestine in nine years.

1935: Publication of Seven Pillars of Wisdom, T.E. Lawrence’s somewhat overwrought account of the “Arab Revolt” during World War I.  Lawrence supported the interests of Feisal against the Europeans including his own British Foreign Office.  Lawrence believed that there was room in the Middle East for both a Jewish homeland and an Arab Caliphate.

1936: The Palestine Post reported that a British constable and 10 Arabs fell in a day-long battle near Nablus. Among the many arrested, one Arab claimed that he was forced to join the marauders. The Royal Air Force joined the land forces in their organized pursuit of the rebels, many of whom escaped into the more inaccessible areas, carrying their wounded. Arab terrorists warned local Arab villagers living near Motza and other neighborhoods close to Jerusalem that they would be killed and their property destroyed unless they submitted to all their demands. Six Jewish communists were deported to Russia and one to Poland.

1936: The plan of the Austrian Government to broadcast to Germany the Salzburg festival performances has run afoul of Arturo Toscanini. It has just leaked out from circles in close contact with the Italian conductor that Mr. Toscanini has threatened to leave Salzburg immediately, never to return, if any performance conducted by him is broadcast to Germany.

1938(1st of Av, 5698): Rosh Chodesh Av

1938(1st of Av, 5698): Confronted with the realities of life in Nazi Germany, Dr. Friedreich Gernsheim and his wife Rosa committed suicide

1939: Ben Zion Meir Hai Uziel is installed as Chief Sephardic Rabbi of Haifa.

1940: In a case of misplaced hosannas, Life magazine “praised António de Oliveira Salazar as ‘the greatest Portuguese since Henry the Navigator’” because Portugal was “seen…as a haven of hospitality for” Jewish refugees.  In point of fact,  Salazar destroyed the career of Aristides de Sousa Mendes the diplomat who rescued thousands of Jews in defiance of the dictator’s wishes.

1940: Orson Welles films the first scene of his classic “Citizen Kane.”  Herman J. Mankiewicz shared the Oscar for best screenplay for his work on this epic.  Who actually wrote the screenplay would become a source of controversy with many critics siding with Mankiewicz.

1941(5th of Av, 5701): Twenty-nine Jewish mental patients from Lotz were taken away by truck and shot in the woods

1941: The Second Lvov Pogrom came to an end. “According to Yad Vashem 6 thousands Jews were killed by Einsatzgruppen, some Ukrainian nationalists and some Ukrainian militia.

1942: A religious youth center, Tiferet Bachurim, was secretly opened in the Kovno ghetto

1942: Signs were put up in the Warsaw Ghetto offering free bread for any family volunteering to be deported. This was a scheme designed to make the German job of rounding up 6,000 Jews a day a little easier.

1943: Admiral Sir Barry Edward Domvile  a distinguished Royal Navy officer who turned into a leading British Pro-German anti-Semite in the years before the Second World War was released today after having been interred for three years under Defense Regulation 18 B which allowed the government to inter people for their pro-Nazi sympathies. (The British had no trouble with his anti-Semitism, just his views on Hitler, et al.

1944: 3520 Jews are forced on a death march westward from Warsaw. More than 200 die.

1945: Rabbi Martin Riesenburge celebrated the first wedding at Berlin’s Rykestrasse Synagogue since the Nazis closed it in 1940/

1946: The New York State Supreme Court revoked the charter of the Ku Klux Klan thanks in no small part to the efforts of Nathaniel Goldstein, the New York State Attorney General.

1947(12th of Av, 5707): Leo Stein passed away in Florence, Italy. Born in 1872 in Allegheny, Pennsylvania, he was an American art collector and critic. In addition to being elder brother to Gertrude Stein, he is also remembered as an influential promoter of 20th-century paintings.

1948: For the first time since the infamous 1936 Berlin Olympics, London hosts the Fourteenth Olympiad where two American Jews each won Gold Medals. Frank Spellman won his for weightlifting and Henry Wittenberg won his in freestyle wrestling.

1948: As the United Nations investigates claims by Azzam Pasha, the Secretary General of the Arab League, that Israeli forces had committed atrocities during Operation Shorter, a team of UN observers came to survey the damage” at al-Tira “and did not find any bodies…”

1951(25th of Tammuz, 5711): On the day before his 71st birthday, Bernhard Weiss, the most prominent Jewish member of the Berlin police department who challenged the Nazi Party and successfully sued Joseph Goebbels, passed away.

1951: United States Premiere of Billy Wilder’s “Ace In The Hole” a film that provides a dark look at the values of a newspaper man starring Kirk Douglas and

1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that the stage was set for the elections to the Second Knesset. The number of eligible voters reached 900,000. The Ministry for Foreign Affairs signed an agreement with the UN providing for the training of nine experts in various economic, social and administrative fields.

1954: The 1953 Stephen S. Wise award for an outstanding contribution to Jewish welfare was presented today to Youth Aliyah. The citation described the organization's work as "rescuing more than 65,000 children from over seventy-two lands during the past twenty years and educating them for creative citizenship in the land of Israel."

1957(1st of Av, 5717): Rosh Chodesh Av

1965: Premiere of “Ship of Fools” the cinematic treatment of the novel by the same name set at the start of the Nazi era directed and produced by Stanley Kramer with a script by Abby Mann and music by Ernest Gold.

1966(12th of Av, 5726): One day after his 98th birthday French poet and Zionist Andre Spire passed away today.

1969: Under the leadership of General Sharon, the Head of the IDF’s Southern Command, Israeli frogmen attacked Green Island during the War of Attirition.

1970(25th of Tammuz, 5730):  Hungarian born conductor George Szell passed away.  From 1946 until his death, Szell led the Cleveland Symphony Orchestra.

1974(10th of Av, 5734:  Cass Elliott passed away.  Born Ellen Naomi Cohen in Baltimore in 1941, Elliott dropped out of school, changed her name and headed for New York. She found fame in fortune performing with the singing group, Mamas and Poppas.

1975: President Gerald R. Ford became the first U.S. president to visit the site of the Nazi concentration camp Auschwitz in Poland as he paid tribute to the camp's victims.

1976(2nd of Av, 5736): Sixty-two year old mobster Mickey Cohen passed away today.

1976: “Rescuing the Entebbe Hostages” published today provides a detailed review of 90 Minutes At Entebbe, William Stevenson’s “hurriedly published paperback account of the” hostage rescuing raid. Stevenson, who is best known for A Man Called Intrepid, appears to won the race to publish the first account, if not the most thorough one.

1976: The Jerusalem Post reported from Washington that contrary to earlier reports, the US had had direct contacts with the PLO "for some time" and that they would continue. Three hundred Americans were evacuated from Lebanon as Syrians and the PLO reached an agreement on this issue. The price of meat rose by two to three shekels per kilo as agreed between the Ministry of Commerce and Agriculture and the Histadrut's Consumer Authority.

1979(5th of Av, 5739): Herbert Marcuse leftist German born, American philosopher passed away.  Marcuse influenced a whole generation of leftists, radicals and anarchists including Angela Davis and Abbe Hoffman.

1979: A fifteen-day conference organized by Gerda Lerner and co-sponsored by Sarah Lawrence, the Women's Action Alliance and the Smithsonian Institution, which was intended for female leaders came to an end today.

1981(27th of Tammuz, 5741):  Robert Moses passed away.  Born into a well-to-do German Jewish family, Moses gained fame as New York’s master builder.  Both his critics and his supporters agreed that he was one of the 20th century’s influential urban planners.

1981: A bus was attacked in the entrance to Kibbutz Ma'ale Hahamisha near Jerusalem. A boy of 12 and a girl of 17 were wounded.

1982(9th of Av, 5742): Tish'a B'Av

1982: Sir Zelman Cowen, who was the 19th Governor-General of Australia, completed his term of office.

1986(22nd of Tammuz, 5746): Seventy-seven year old Richard David Barnett passed. A product of Cambridge and a veteran of WW II, he was a distinguished academic who was elected a Fellow of the British Academy. He also served a President of the Jewish Historical Society of England and Chairman of the Anglo-Israel Archaeological Society.

1986(22nd of Tammuz, 5746): Fifty-five year old Israeli poet and Holocaust survivor Dan Pagis passed away today.  A native of Romania, one of his most famous poems is “written in pencil in the sealed railway car.”

1986: Chaim “Drukman left Morasha and returned to the NRP

1987: Ben & Jerry's agree on a new flavor -  Cherry Garcia

1990(7th of Av, 5750): Bruno Kreisky passed away.  When Kreisky became Prime Minister of Austria during the 1970’s, he was the first Jew to hold that position.

1992: Aryeh Gamliel begins serving as Deputy Minister of Housing and Construction.

1993: The Israeli Supreme Court acquits accused Nazi death camp guard John Demjanjuk of all charges and he is set free

1997: The documentary film Blacks and Jews, written and directed by Deborah Kaufman and Alan Snitow, was aired on PBS.

1998(6th of Av, 5758): Jerome Robbins, American choreographer passed away.  The Tony Award winner’s list of famous musical is almost endless including West Side Story, The King and I, Gypsy and The Pajama Game.

2000: In “The Bible, as History, Flunks New Archaeological Tests; Hotly Debated Studies Cast Doubt on Many Familiar Stories,” Gustav Neibur described the supposed conflict between the tales of the Bible and findings of modern archaeology:

2001: The New York Times book section includes a review of Blue Diary by Jewish author Alice Hoffman

2001: Two people were injured today in a Jerusalem car bombing.

2003: President Bush and Prime Minister Ariel Sharon met at the White House.

2004: A photo exhibit designed to memorialize Anne Frank in what would have been her 75th year closes at the Kraushaar Galleries in New York City.

2006: On Shabbat Chazon, Jews respond to a request from the Governing Council of the Chief Rabbinate by continuing to recite Psalms 83, 130 and 142 on a daily basis.

2006(4th of Av, 5766): Seventy six year old French historian Pierre Vidal-Naquet passed away today. (As reported by Margalit Fox)

2007: The National Gallery of Art presents a screening of “The Dybbuk,” the Yiddish film based on Ansky’s celebrated drama.

2007: In Jerusalem, Off the Wall Comedy Empire presents "Find Me a Wife: Find You a Husband," an annual Tu B`Av special event show starring David Kilimnick. Kilimnick approaches the issues of the single man/woman in Jerusalem.

2007:  The Washington Post book section features reviews of a biography of America’s first Jewish Secretary of State entitled Henry Kissinger and the American Century by Jeremi Suri and a novel entitled Kalooki Nights by Howard Jacobsen. The novel which purports to be an “examination of a Jewish sub-culture is a convoluted combination of family saga and semi-tepid murder mystery, focusing on its narrator, Max Glickman, a Jewish cartoonist with a hefty persecution complex and a series of anti-Semitic non-Jewish ex-wives.”

2007:Ariel Sharon Hovers Between Life and Death and Dreams of Theodor Herzl” has its final performance at Theatre J.

2007: The first edition of Yisrael Hayom (Israel Today) appeared.

2007(14th of Av, 5767): Raya Czerner Schapiro, psychiatrist, Holocaust educator and author passed away at the age of 73 in Chicago.  After a harrowing experience, Mrs. Schapiro arrived in the United States at the age of 5 after fleeing from Nazi occupied Czechoslovakia.  She was inspired to pursue a medical career in memory of her uncle, a doctor, who had sheltered her before her escape and who died during the Holocaust.

2007: Rep. Anthony Weiner and Rep. Jerrold Nadler (D-N.Y.) objected to a $20 billion arms deal that the Bush Administration had negotiated with Saudi Arabia because they do not want to provide "sophisticated weapons to a country that they believe has not done enough to stop terrorism," also noting that 15 of the 19 hijackers of September 11, 2001 were from Saudi Arabia. Weiner made the announcement outside of the Saudi Arabian consulate in Washington, stating that "We need to send a crystal clear message to the Saudi Arabian government that their tacit approval of terrorism can't go unpunished."

2008: Robert Wexler, a six-term Jewish U.S. congressman from Florida, discusses and signs Fire-Breathing Liberal: How I Learned to Survive (and Thrive) in the Contact Sport of Congress (written with David Fisher) at the Sixth & I Historic Synagogue in Washington, D.C.

2009(8th of Av, 5759): Fast begins at sundown

2009(8th of Av, 5769): Eighty-six year old Dina Babiit who used her artistic skills to survive Auschwitz and to save her mother’s life, passed away.(As reported by Bruce Weber)

2009: The Randi & Bruce Pergament Jewish Film Festival came to a close with aClosing Night Bash!” - A gala dessert reception and a chance to win membership and fitness benefits at the JCC.

2009: An archeologist announced today that a unique Aramaic inscription on a stone cup commonly used for ritual purity during the first century has been uncovered in a dig on Mount Zion in Jerusalem. The six-week excavation is being carried out within the Gan Sobev Homot Yerushalayim national park, close to the Zion Gate of the Old City.

2009: In the aftermath of the fatal shooting of a security guard at the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.C., a seven count indictment was handed up in U.S. District Court charging white supremacist James von Brunn in his murderous attacked on museum guard Stephen T. Johns.

2009: The New York Times reviews books by Jewish authors including Cooperstown Confidential: Heroes Rouges, and the Inside story of the Baseball Hall of Fame by Zev Chafets.

2010: “A Film Unfinished,” a rigorous and profound documentary that simultaneously exposes the perversity of Nazi propaganda, honors its victims and pays tribute to the resiliency of the filmmaker’s own grandmother and the other survivors of the Ghetto is scheduled to be shown at the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival.

2010: The Washington Post reported today that Jewish nonprofit group whose leader was accused of fabricating dramatic stories about rescued sefer Torahs has reached a deal with Maryland investigators forbidding it from publicizing such stories about sacred scrolls unless it can prove them. The agreement ends an investigation into the Rockville-based Save a Torah and its driving force, Rabbi Menachem Youlus.

2010: Israel is tied with Canada, Switzerland, and Australia as the world's eighth happiest country out of 155 surveyed, according to a Gallup World Poll posted by Forbes today.  Israel far outstripped its neighbors in happiness, with Jordan ranking 52, Lebanon 73, Egypt and Syria 115. The Palestinian Territories were 88 on the list.

2010: The 9th Congress of The European Association for Jewish Studies (EAJS) came to a close in Ravenna today.

2010: Congressman Anthony “Weiner criticized Republicans for opposing the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act. This act would provide for funds for sick first responders to the 9/11 attacks on the World Trade Center, many of whom reside in Weiner's district.

2011(27th of Tammuz, 5771): Eight-year old Shulamit Shamir, wife of Yithak Shamir, passed away today in Tel Aviv. (As reported by Gabe Kahn)

2011: “Sarah’s Key,” a French film that centers on events that began with the roundup of French Jews in 1942, is scheduled to open in major US cities today.

2011: Starting at 1 pm, a Beach Party, complete with eighty-tons of sand brought in just for the event, is scheduled to take place at the Malcha Mall in Jerusalem.

2011: Following a day of advocacy and meetings at the White House, grassroots leaders from about twenty Jewish social justice organizations are scheduled to gather for Shabbat services and dinner at the Historic Sixth & I Synagogue in Washington, DC.

2011: As the doctor’s labor dispute entered its 132nd day Israel Medical Association chairman Dr. Leonid Edelman continued his one-man hunger strike

2011(27th of Tammuz, 5771): Tens of thousands mourned the death of Rabbi Elazar Abuchatzeira at his Jerusalem funeral this afternoon, after he was stabbed to death in the early hours of the morning.  Police arrested a suspect, Asher Dahan, 42 from Elad

2011: After finishing his career at Wisconsin, Gabe Carimi signed a four year contract with the Chicago Bears.

2011: Minor league pitcher Josh Zeid who had played his college ball at Tulane  was traded to the Houston Astros today.

2012(9th of Av, 5772): Tish’a B’Av

2012: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or special interest to Jewish readers including the recently released paperback editions of The Emperor of Lies by Steve Sem-Sandberg and An Anatomy of Addiction: Sigmund Freud, William Halsted and the Miracle Drug Cocaine by Howard Markel 

2012: The fundraiser being held for US Republican presidential candidate Mitt Romney while he’s in Israel is scheduled to start at 9:30 p.m. this evening well after Tisha B’Av ends at sundown. The fundraiser will reportedly cost $60,000 a plate.

2012: “Glickman,” a documentary about Marty Glickman, is scheduled to have its Bay Area Premiere at the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival.

2012: Police closed the Temple Mount to Jewish visitors this morning, the fast of Tisha Be’av, due to fears of “provocation” – despite a promise last night that the holiest site in Judaism would be open to Jewish worshipers

2012: Shahar Peer was the last Israeli to play today, and she too lost in the first round. The tennis player was eliminated from competition at the London Games by Russian medal favorite Maria Sharapova, ending a disappointing day for the blue-and-white team. (As reported by Aaron Kalman)

2012: US Defense Secretary Leon Panetta today touted the close security relationship between Israel and the US, suggesting that Israel remained on board with international efforts to pressure Iran on its nuclear program and had not decided to unilaterally strike the Islamic Republic.

2012: Ninety year old August Kowalczyk the last survivor of the June 10, 1942 breakout from Auschwitz passed away today.

2013: “The Last Sentence” a movie about Swedish anti-Nazi journalist Torgny Segerstedt is scheduled to be shown at the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival.

2013: Leading Jerusalem chefs are scheduled to lead a “Mahane Yehuda Shuk Outing!”

2013: An Israeli negotiating team led by Justice Minister Tzipi Livni is scheduled to meet with Palestinian negotiators at the Washington, DC home of U. S. Secretary of State John Kerry prior to the start of peace negotiations which are scheduled to begin in earnest on July 30. (As reported by Herb Keinon)

2013: A full-capacity crowd gathered this evening at the capital’s newly-launched Jerusalem Press Club to hear a panel discussion among luminaries Dr. Mehmet Oz, Rabbi Shmuley Boteach and Jewish Agency chairman Natan Sharansky about Jewish values and its impact on society. (As reported by Daniel K. Eisenbud)

2013: Former Bank of Israel Governor withdrew his nomination to return to the position, Channel 2 reported today, following an ongoing scandal over an alleged shoplifting incident at a Hong Kong duty free store. (As reported by Nev Elis)

2014: The JDC Archives is scheduled to host a presentation by Dr.Gerald Steinacher the Hymen Rosenberg Professor of Judaic Studies at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln entitled “The Red Cross, Jewish Relief Agencies, and the Holocaust” at the Center for Jewish History.

2014: The Washington Jewish Film Festival is scheduled to host a Coen Brothers double header with showings of “Blood Simple” and “No Country For Old Men.”

2014: The Historic 6th & I Synagogue is scheduled to host an hour of “Jewish Sangha.”

Sunday, July 27, 2014

This Day, July 28, In Jewish History by Mitchell A. Levin

July 28 

450: Theodosius II the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Emperor from 408 to 450 passed away. His reign was not a good period for the Jews people. In 425 “on the death of the Jewish Patriarch Gamaliel II, the patriarchate, and the Jewish council associated with it, is ended.” In 429 the “Roman empire formally abolished the Jewish Patriarchate and diverted the Jewish temple tax to the imperial treasury. In 439 The Theodosian Code was “published which, among others, imposed the death penalty on any Jew who tried to convert a Christian to Judaism” and excluded Jews from holding public office.

532: “Emperor Justinian issues a new law condemning Manichaeans, Samaritans, and heretics. In the process, he categorizes Jews as being heretics” "Since many judges, in deciding cases, have addressed us in need of our decision, asking that they be informed what ought to be done with witnesses who are heretics, whether their testimony ought to be received or rejected. We therefore ordain that no heretic, nor even they who cherish the Jewish superstition, may offer testimony against orthodox Christians who are engaged in litigation, whether one or the other of the parties is an orthodox Christian." (

1232: In a grant issued today, King Henry III gave Peter de Rivel “the office of Treasurer and Chancellor of the Irish Exchequer, the king's ports and coast, and ‘the custody of the King's Judaism in Ireland’” which meant that all Jews in Ireland shall be intentive and respondent to Peter as their keeper in all things touching the king".

1294: Adolf of Nassau “issued an order” forbidding Jews in Worms to acquire real estate and banning them from occupying “the commons” i.e. territory belonging to the commonwealth.

1315: Nine years after he had expelled the Jews (1306), King Louis X of France issued an edict that permitted “the Jews to return for a period of twelve years, authorizing them to establish themselves in the cities in which they had lived before their banishment. He issued this edict in answer to the demands of the people. Geoffroy of Paris, the popular poet of the time, says in fact that the Jews were gentle in comparison with the Christians who had taken their place, and who had flayed their debtors alive; if the Jews had remained, the country would have been happier; for there were no longer any moneylenders at all (Bouquet, xxii. 118). The king probably had the interests of his treasury also in view. The profits of the former confiscations had gone into the treasury, and by recalling the Jews for only twelve years he would have an opportunity for ransoming them at the end of this period. It appears that they gave the sum of 122,500 livres for the privilege of returning. It is also probable, as Vuitry states, that a large number of the debts owing to the Jews had not been recovered, and that the holders of the notes had preserved them; the decree of return specified that two-thirds of the old debts recovered by the Jews should go into the treasury. The conditions under which they were allowed to settle in the land are set forth in a number of articles; some of the guaranties which were accorded the Jews had probably been demanded by them and been paid for. They were to live by the work of their hands or to sell merchandise of a good quality; they were to wear the circular badge, and not discuss religion with laymen. They were not to be molested, either with regard to the chattels they had carried away at the time of their banishment, or with regard to the loans which they had made since then, or in general with regard to anything which had happened in the past. Their synagogues and their cemeteries were to be restored to them on condition that they would refund their value; or, if these could not be restored, the king would give them the necessary sites at a reasonable price. The books of the Law that had not yet been returned to them were also to be restored, with the exception of the Talmud. After the period of twelve years granted to them the king might not expel the Jews again without giving them a year's time in which to dispose of their property and carry away their goods. They were not to lend on usury, and no one was to be forced by the king or his officers to repay to them usurious loans. If they engaged in pawn broking, they were not to take more than two deniers in the pound a week; they were to lend only on pledges. Two men with the title "auditors of the Jews" were entrusted with the execution of this ordinance, and were to take cognizance of all claims that might arise in connection with goods belonging to the Jews which had been sold before the expulsion for less than half of what was regarded as a fair price. The king finally declared that he took the Jews under his special protection, and that he desired to have their persons and property protected from all violence, injury, and oppression.”

1586:  The first potato arrived in Britain.  Since the potato is indigenous to Peru and Bolivia this date means that European Jews could not have enjoyed such delicacies as Latkes and Potato Knishes until at least the 17th century.

1609: Bermuda is first settled, by survivors of the English Sea Venture, en route to Virginia. “Historically, few Jews moved to Bermuda because of the harsh policies of the English toward Jews on the island in the 18th century. There is one place on the island, Jews Bay, which proves Jewish origins in Bermuda. The name of the bay dates back to the early 1600s, and is considered to be named after a group of Jews who did business on the island." (Jewish Virtual Library)

1627: Emperor Ferdinand II, “the terror of the Protestants” sent a “threatening letter” to the senate in Hamburg expressing his indignation that “the Lutheran city on the Elbe would not allow Catholics to build a church” but would allow the Jews open a synagogue because of their importance in the trading life of the city.  The city relied on the support of Portuguese Jews living in Amsterdam for financial support and had allowed a group of them to settle in the city.

1648: Three thousand Jewish children were killed by Chmeilnicki's hordes in Konstantnow.

1764:  Birthdate of Solomon Etting, the Baltimore businessman and politician who led the successful fight to end Maryland’s laws that banned non-Christians from holding public office and practicing law.

1776: Jonas Phillips “sent a letter to a relative and business correspondent of his in Holland, Gumpel Samson by way of the Dutch Island of St. Eustatius. The letter begins by discussing his last letter and other business matters. He moves on to discuss the conflict with England and laconically mentions that the Americans have 100,000 soldiers to the British 25,000. He finishes the letter with an appendix of items he want sent to America so he may sell them.  There are two important things about this letter. First, Jonas enclosed within the letter a newly-minted copy of the Declaration of Independence. And secondly, Jonas wrote the letter in Yiddish. Since at war with Britain Jonas would have expected the letter to be intercepted, but by writing in Yiddish they would not be able to read it. The British did intercept the letter and not knowing in language it was written concluded it was in code.” Phillips was born in Germany in 1736 and came to America in 1756.  After working as an indentured servant in Charleston SC, he moved North, eventually settling in New York City where he became a successful merchant who was active in the Jewish community of both NYC and Philadelphia and supporter of the American Revolution.  He was the grandfather of Uriah Phillips Levy, the first Jewish Commodore in the United States Navy.

1789(5th of Av, 5549): Meir ben Saul Barby the scholar who escaped poverty and served as rabbi at congregations at Halberstadt and Halle-on-the-Salle.

1794:  French political leader and revolutionary, Maximilien Robespierre meets his fate with the guillotine.  Whatever his other shortcomings, Robespierre took the unpopular stance of advocating full rights for the Jews of France when the subject first was debated in 1789. In part he stated, “How can you blame the Jews for the persecution they have suffered in certain countries?  These are, on the contrary, national crimes that we must expiate by restoring to them the imprescribable rights of man of which no human authority can deprive them…Let us give them back their happiness, their country and their virtue by restoring them their dignity as men and citizens…The vices of the Jews are born of the abasement in which you [Christians] have plunged them.  Raise their condition and they will speedily rise to it!”

1789 (5th of Av): Rabbi Meir ben Saul Barby of Pressburg, author of Sefer Hiddushei Halakhot, passed away

1808: Birthdate of Salomon (Solomon) Formstecher, “a German rabbi and student of Jewish theology.”

1814: Birthdate of Betty Berta Warburg.

1821: Jose de San Martin declares Peru’s independence from Spain. San Martin was one of the great leaders in the fight to free South America from Spanish rule.  At the time of Peru’s liberation from Spanish rule, whatever Jewish population existed in “the land of the Incas” was made of conversos or secret Jews.  The Jewish Peruvians slowly made their presence known but it was not until the middle of the 19th century that they would become an open, functioning community.

1834(21st of Tammuz, 5594): Abraham Hirsh Lwow passed away today.

1836(14th of Av, 5596): Nathan Mayer Rothschild, the founder of the London branch of the House of Rothschild passed away. The Jewish Virtual Library provides an interesting synopsis of his life.

1836: Herman and Johanna Diamant gave birth to Jeanette Johanna Herzl, who married Jacob Herzl and became the mother of Theodor Herzl.

1849: The First National Assembly of Hungary led by the revolutionary leader Kossuth, granted complete political and civil rights to the Jews in recognition of their loyalty.

1851: Birthdate of Samuel Sachs, the Maryland native who gained fame as part of Goldman-Sachs.

1852: Rabbi Lyon officiated at the wedding of P.S. Jacobs from Columbia, SC and Mary Ann Adler of Charleston, SC.

1855(13th of Av, 5615): Eighty-year old Salomon Mayer von Rothschild the second son of Mayer Amschel Rothschild  and the founder of the Viennese branch of the House of Rothschild whose children were Anselm Salomon von Rothschild  and Betty Salomon passed away today. A measure of his accomplishments can be seen by the fact that in 1822 Emperor Francis I awarded him the hereditary title of “Baron” making the Jewish financier a part of the Austrian nobility.

1855: Today’s “Foreign Extracts” column reported that John Abrams, a Polish Jew, has been charged with trying to induce members of the Foreign Legion stationed at Shorncliffe to desert. Based on the questioning of officers and enlisted men, it is believed that Abrams is an agent of the Russian government.  [This episode took place during the Crimean War when Britain and France were fighting Russia.]

1861: A review of History of Civilization by Thomas Buckle reports that "Jews and heretics were persecuted with unrelenting vigor" in pre-711 Spain when Arian Visigoths and the orthodox Franks were contesting for power.

1863: As the United States implemented a draft during the Civil War that resulted in a major riot in July of 1863, The New York Times reported that “a Jew broker, from New-York, reached West Chester with a dozen men to hire out as substitutes. The men boasted that they were from New-York, and were engaged in the late riots.”

1868: The 14th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States is certified, establishing African-American citizenship and guaranteeing due process of law. The “Due Process Clause” prohibits state and local governments from depriving persons of life, liberty, or property without certain steps being taken to ensure fairness. This clause has been used to make most of the Bill of Rights applicable to the individual states, which was a boon for Jewish interests because of the language in the First Amendment that guarantees freedom of religion.

1868: Birthdate of French poet and Zionist André Spire

1870: On what would turn out to be the last night of his life, prominent New Yorker Benjamin Nathan went to sleep on mattresses on the second floor reception room of his mansion.  Nathans’ house was being renovated so he could not spend the night in his bedroom. His son Frederick returned to the house to before midnight.  His other son, Washington, returned after midnight when his father was already asleep.

1875: Sir Moses Montefiore visited the large Ashkenazi synagogue in Jerusalem where he was greeted by Haham Bashi who later entertained the British nobleman at his home.  A crowd of 20,000 that included Jews, Muslims and Christians, greeted the Baronet as he walked the streets of the City of David.

1876: The German parliament passed the Austrittsgesetz, which allowed Jews to secede from their religious community which led “Samson Raphael Hirsch of Frankfurt, who had campaigned for the law to be passed, to declare that Orthodox Jews in Frankfurt had the duty to officially secede from the non-Orthodox Grossgemeinde.”

1879(8th of Av, 5639): Erev Tish'a B'Av

1881: “The Troubles In Russia” published today described “the disinclination” of the United States to join European governments in a proposed communique being sent to the Czar to protest Russia’s treatment of her Jews since it has “already instructed its Minister to Russia on the subject.”

1882: The Polish Jews traveling in steerage got the fright of their life today when the SS. Gellert caught fire as it sailed from New York to Hamburg.  The fire which was caused by smoldering tobacco  melted part of the iron deck before it was extinguished

1883: At Nyireghyhaza, Hungary, where a group of Jews has been charged with murdering a Christian girl the prosecution and defense gave their summations today.  The prosecution contended that for the Jews, “ritual murder was common and frequent.”  The defense “derided the charge” that Jews shed Christian blood as part of their rituals and said the charge was a lie used to “excite Christians against Jews.”

1884: James R. Osgood & Company has published Stray Leaves from Strange Literature, a collection of myths and legends including some from the Jewish people, by Lafacdio Hearn.

1884: A court circular from Marlborough House dated today noted that Walter Goodman had submitted the portrait of The Duke of Albany to the Prince and Princess of Wales, from where it was currently displayed at The Guildhall. Goodman was the second generation of Jewish painters in his family since his mother was Julia Salaman.

1885(16th of Av, 5645): Sir Moses Montefiore, one of the most famous and influential Jew of the 19th century passed away in the 101st year of his long and fruitful life. Ironically, while many Jews living in the 21st century have heard the name Montefiore in connection with a particular institution or building, including the famous Windmill in Jerusalem, few know much about his lifetime of accomplishments.  There is no way that this Blog can do him justice.  These websites should help fill in some of the gaps.

1886: “Europeans in Persia” published today described the impact that westerners were having on Tehran including the local Jewish population which has benefited from the arrival of a Jewish dentist, doctor and “chemist” (pharmacist).

1886: The Castle Garden Committee of the Commissioners of Emigration is scheduled to meet today to consider the offer of several New York rabbis to provide financial guarantees for recently arrived Jewish immigrants from Russia so that they would not be deported as paupers.

1887: Lipman Emanuel "Lip" Pike, reportedly one of the first professional Jewish players played his last game today as a member of the New York Metropolitans. (This 19th century team should not be confused the modern day NY Mets)

1890: “Manning and the Jews” published today described the plans of several prominent English Jews including “Dr. Adler, the acting chief rabbi, Sir Julian Goldsmid, Mr. Frederick D. Mocatta, Sir John Simon Mr. Claude G. Montefiore and others” to present Cardinanl Manning “with an illuminated address of congrational on the occasion of his silver jubilee” on “behalf of the Jews of Great Britain.”  The gift shows the high esteem in which the Cardinal is held by the Jewish community who greatly appreciated his efforts on behalf of the Jews of Russia.
1891: The Russian Jews who came to Boston on board the SS Kansas have been detained because of the requirements of the new immigration laws.

1889: Dr. Cyrus Adler of John Hopkins University will deliver a lecture on “The Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser” at Cooper Union in New York.  The lecture is part of the Summer Course sponsored by JTS.

1891: The Sanitarium for Hebrew Children is scheduled to sponsor an excursion that will sail up the Hudson River.

1893:The Philadelphia Jewish Exponent announced that Henrietta Szold would be moving to Philadelphia from her home in Baltimore to serve as the secretary and first paid employee of the Jewish Publication Society (JPS). Szold had been elected as the only female member of the JPS publication committee when the organization was founded in 1888 in order to provide a steady series of substantive works of Jewish culture to an American audience. Despite the initial apathy and opposition that the JPS encountered, Szold committed herself to the society, at one point "personally addressing eleven hundred circulars and membership blanks" although in the end they only yielded 75 responses. She had already served the organization as an author, translator, and editor, but now she would be a paid employee. While Henrietta Szold's most significant impact on Jewish life would come after she founded Hadassah, the Zionist women's organization in 1912, her work at JPS constituted a major contribution to the creation of an American Jewish culture. The Jewish Exponent article about her move to JPS suggests that, even before the formal commencement of this work, Szold was recognized as a woman who had and would continue to play an important role in the American Jewish community. Szold had already established herself as an educator and, through newspaper columns, as an astute observer of Jewish life. According to the Exponent article, "no one better equipped could be found than Miss Szold." Upon being offered the job of secretary in 1893, Szold withdrew from her positions in Baltimore, including her role as superintendent of the Russian night-school of the Hebrew Literary Society. As the school's founder, superintendent, fundraiser and one of its teachers, she had, according to the article, surrounded herself with teachers "whom she has made thoroughly conversant with her masterful manner of teaching English to Russo-Jewish immigrants and in the sympathetic manner of engaging their undivided attention so as to develop in them an appreciation of American ideals." Szold's work for JPS was monumental. Although she worked under the title and salary of secretary, she served as translator, indexer, fact checker, proofreader, statistician, administrator, and editor, overseeing the publication of 87 books during her tenure. Szold's clear mind, exhaustive dedication, and meticulous attention to detail enabled the Society to offer a remarkable literary and scholarly array. Many of the translations and original works published by JPS during this time still inform contemporary American Jewish culture and scholarship. A new Bible translation and the series of American Jewish Year Books that commenced publication in 1900 began to define the contours of a distinctive American Jewish intellectual world. After twenty-two years, Szold withdrew from JPS work in 1916 when a group of Zionists offered to provide her with an annuity in order to support her growing work for Hadassah.”

1893: “Driven From Home By Fire” published today described the aftermath of the tenement on Clinton Street which included Morris Lewenthal’s loss of his butter and provision store which cost the Russian Jewish immigrant $500 in losses that were not insured.

1895: “Jordan Ceased To Flow” published today includes a summary of an article by Lt. Col C.M. Watson of the Royal Engineers that had appeared in the last quarterly of the Palestine Exploration of London which described “a stoppage in the flow of the River Jordan” that had occurred in the 14th century which bore “a likeness to the miraculous” stoppage “of the river at the time of the…Israelites.”

1895: Founding of the Young Men’s Hebrew Association in Springfield, MA.

1896: Twenty year old George H. Webb will appear in court today to face charges of abduction after having failed to agree to divorce Dora Webb, a sixteen year old Jewess whom he secretly married but never lived with.

1896: The City of Miami is incorporated. According to one source Samuel Singer was reportedly the first Jew to move to Miami, arriving there in 1895. Others report that Isidor Cohen who signed the city’s charter in 1896 deserves the honor. There were enough Jews in the city when it was founded to hold regular religious services.  But the population dwindled in the first decade of the 20th century.  The anti-Semitic practices of early developers hampered the growth of what today is one of the largest Jewish communities in the United States.

1899: John Ireland, the Roman Catholic archbishop of St. Paul, MN told friends in New York that while in France he did not see as much “turmoil over the Dreyfus” as reported in the press and “that the decision of the court-martial, whatever it may be, will be accepted as final since the matter is no longer seen as involving the honor of the army.”

1899: Messrs. Heinemann announces the publication of two books of interest because of the Dreyfus case. One is by Lionel Decle, an Anglicized Frenchman. The other is The Modern Jew, by Arnold White.

1901: The fifth annual session of the summer assembly of the Jewish Chautauqua Society came to an end.

1901: After more than a month of effort, Arnold Schönberg completes his work “on the opera-fragment "Die Schildbürger" (dramatic setting of Gustav Schwab's short story of the same name).”

1902(23rd of Tammuz, 5662): Rabbi Jacob Joseph passed away. Born in Krozhe, a province of Kovno, in 1840, he studied in the Volozhin yeshiva under the Netziv, where he was known as "Rav Yaakov Charif" because of his sharp mind. He was one of the foremost students of Rabbi Yisrael Salanter. He became successively rabbi of Vilon in 1868, Yurburg in 1870, Zhagory and then Kovno. His fame as a preacher spread, so that in 1883 the community of Vilna selected him as its maggid. He came to the United States in 1888 where he served as chief rabbi of New York City's Association of American Orthodox Hebrew Congregations, a federation of Eastern European Jewish synagogues. The Rabbi Jacob Joseph School is named after him, and a playground is named after and honors the memory of a great-grandson of Rabbi Jacob Joseph who carried his name.

1903: The High Commissioner delivered an address at the opening meeting of the Jewish Board of Deputies for the Transvaal and Natal

1904: Birthdate of Austrian born, British philosopher, Sir Karl Raimund Popper.  In an all too common pattern, Popper left Austria in 1937 to avoid the pending Nazi takeover.  He made his was to New Zealand where he continued his academic work.  In 1946 he moved to England where he gained further fame as a member of the faculty of the London School of Economics.

1904: Vyacheslav von Plehve, the director the Czar’s Secret Police and Interior Minister was killed by a bomb thrown by a revolutionary.  Plehve was the Interior Minister during the Kishinev Pogrom of 1903.  He reportedly gave orders for government forces not to interfere with the rioters during the three days of carnage.

1905: The New York Times reported that Max Nordau gave an “eloquent eulogy” in memory of Dr. Theodor Herzl, founder of the Zionist movement at the opening session of the Seventh Annual Zionist Congress. Herzl passed away in 1904.

1909: The cornerstone for Gymnasia Herzliya’s new build on Herzl Street in the Ahuzat Bayit neighborhood of Tel Ave took place. Founded at Jaffa in 1905, it was the first Hebrew high school in what would become the state of Israel.

1909: British Ambassador Sir Gerald Lowther visited the Hahambashi (Chief Rabbi) in Constantinople.

1909: Birthdate of Harry "Pittsburgh Phil" Strauss, a contract killer for Murder, Inc.

1910: In Zurich, Albert Einstein and his first wife Mileva Maric gave birth to their second Eduard Einstein.

1911: The King of Spain, who exercises sovereignty in Mellila, Morocco, replies favorably to the petition of these Moroccan Jews for equal rights since they pay taxes and serve in the army.. The liberal press commends the Spanish Monarch's attitude, and hopes for annulment of discriminatory laws still in force against the Jews.

1913: In what turn out to be the worst single act of anti-Semitism in the United States, Leo Frank went on trial charged with the murder of Mary Phagan. 

1914: According to an appraisal filed today by the State Tax Assessor, the estate of the late Dr. Morris Loeb has a gross value of $2, 474, 585.  The largest beneficiary of the estate was his widow, Mrs. Eda K. Loeb and Harvard College.  He left several bequests to numerous Jewish and non-Jewish charities the Hebrew Technical Institute and the Solomon and Betty Loeb Memorial Home for Convalescents.  "Mrs. Loeb, Felix M. Warburg, Paul Warburg and Julius Goldman are the executors of the estate."

1914:  The Austro-Hungarian Empire declares war on Serbia thus starting World War I.  The war will prove devastating for the Jews of Eastern Europe.  Even worse, it will sow the seeds for the Second World War.  There is a straight line between the decisions reached in the heat of the summer of 1914 and the ashes of Auschwitz.

1915: The infamous Leo Frank trial began today in Georgia. 

1916: Birthdate of Gerhart Friedlander, “a veteran of the Manhattan Project…and a pioneer of nuclear chemistry who later exploited the first particle accelerators to do major research as head of the chemistry department at Brookhaven National Laboratory.”

1918: Gavrilo Princip, “the assassin who started WW I” by killing the Archduke Ferdinand died of tuberculosis in Theresienstadt, the same Theresienstadt that would the show ghetto during World War II.

1922: Birthdate of William Coblentz, one of California’s most influential lawyers who battled Govenor Ronald Reagan, represented hostage/fugitive Patti Hearst and was “a donor both to the S.F.-based Jewish Community Federation and the Jewish Community Endowment Fund.”

 1922: On being released from prison after serving a four week long sentence, Hitler declares, “The Jewish people stands against us as our deadly foe and will so stand against us always, and for all time.”

1922: The Archbishop of Canterbury, Randall Davidson, writes Churchill expresses his (and other un-named supporters) opposition to Zionist activity in Palestine.

1923: In Moscow, Victoria and Isaac Raeff gave birth to Marc Raeff who became one of America’s “scholars of Russian history.”  (As reported by Bruce Weber)

1923: Opera life began in pre-statehood Israel today with the performance of Verdi’s “La Traviata. The performance brought to life the vision of Mordechai Golinkin described in his thesis “The Vision of the Hebrew Art Temple of Opera Work in Palestine.”  Since there were opera houses in the new Jewish city, the performance took place in a movie theatre.

1925: Birthdate of Baruch “Barry” Samuel Blumberg, “the Nobel Prize-winning biochemist and medical anthropologist who discovered the hepatitis B virus, showed that it could cause liver cancer and then helped develop a powerful vaccine to fight it, saving millions of lives.”

1929: Charles M. Bender is the delegate from Texas attending the 16th World Zionist Congress in Zurich.

1930: Birthdate of singer Firoza Begum

 1931(14th of Av, 5691): German Jewish physicist Emil Gabriel Warburg, a member of the famous Warburg family, passed away today.

1936(9th of Av, 5696): Tisha B’Av

1936: The New Masses publishes “The Travels of Lester Cohen,” Robert Gessner’s review of Two Worlds by Lester Cohen.

1936: It was reported today that this September, Henry Holt will publish Spring Up Oh Well by Dorothy Ruth Kahn. The book describes the growth of the Jewish community in Palestine, including the development of Tel Aviv and surrounding “hamlets.”

1937: Kfar Menahem, a moshav that had been abandoned in 1936 during the Arab Revolt “was re-established as part of the tower and stockade program.

1937: In Neuilly-sur- Seine Pierre-Gilles Veber, who was Jewish and his wife who was Armenian gave birth to Paul Veber.  He escaped the fate of his grand-uncle Tristan Barnard who was sent to Drancy since he was baptized.

1939: On the Mediterranean Sea north of Tel Aviv, “authorities detained 373 Jews today as unauthorized immigrants after the British destroyer Imperial halted the Colorado, a vessel flying” the Panamanian flag.

1940: Hitler called for an intensification of anti-Jewish actions in Slovakia.

1940: Hugo Gutman and his family arrived in Vichy after escaping from Brussels and received the emigration permit today that would let them enter Portugal.

1941: David Rose marries Judy Garland.  It is the second of Rose’s three trips to the altar.  The third visit will be the one that lasts.

1941: In Scranton, PA, Rabbi Melech Schachter and his wife gave birth to Rabbi Herschel Schachter who followed in his father’s footsteps to serve as a rosh yeshiva at Yeshiva University.

1941: In Lithuania, the Nazis killed the Jews living in Aniksht and Vilkovishk.

1941: As German troops over run Russian territory, the killings of Jews increased in frequency and numbers.

1941: Local police and militiamen, acting with the acquiescence of SS troops at the prison at Drogobych, Ukraine, use guns, clubs, and fists to slaughter hundreds of Jews. The streets are choked with badly injured fleeing Jews and mangled corpses.

1941(4th of Av, 5701): German occupation troops in and around Belgrade, Yugoslavia, execute 122 Communists and Jews for resistance.

1941(4th of Av, 5701): Sixty-seven year old Ben Zion Halberstram the Second Bobover Rebbe was murdered today.

1941(4th of Av, 5701): Forty mental patients from Lódz, Poland, are taken from a hospital and executed in a nearby forest.

1942(14th of Av, 5702): The Nazis killed 10,000 Jews in Minsk.

1942: SS chief Heinrich Himmler writes to a senior SS official that the Occupied Eastern Territories "are to become free of Jews."

1942(14th of Av, 5702): Jewish parents in Tarnów, Poland, are forced to watch as their children are shot by Gestapo agents. The parents and other adults are subsequently deported to the camp at Belzec for extermination.

1942: In the Lódz (Poland) Ghetto, two male Jews, one just 16 years old, are hanged after escaping a work gang.

1942: Young members of the Warsaw Ghetto establish Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa (ZOB; Jewish Fighting Organization). At this time, the only weapon in the ghetto is a single pistol.

1942: Over the next three days 30,000 Jews are killed in Minsk, Belorussia.

1942: As Operation Reinhard entered its sixth day, a Jewish resistance group was set up. Their arsenal consisted of two pistols. Operation Reinhard was the name given to the German plan to wipe out the Jewish population of occupied Poland.

1942(14th of Av, 5702): In Tarnow, Poland, the Jewish children were taken to the edge of town and shot. The rest of the town's Jews were taken to Belzec

1942: Eighty-nine year old Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie passed away. The famed archaeologist made his first of many trips to Palestine in 1890 when led a dig at Tell el-Hesi.  His most famous discovery came in 1896 when he identified the ‘Israel’ or Merneptah stele.

1943:  Using the information they found on the dead bodies of the members of the Leon Group, the Nazis entered the ghetto at Vilna and arrested 32 friends and family members of the murdered partisans.  The 32 were taken to the killing grounds of Ponar where they were executed.  The Germans published an announcement warning the family and friends of anybody else who planned to escape the ghetto that a one-way ticket to Ponar would be their reward as well.

1943: Jan Karski, the Polish officer who risked his life to bring first reports of the conditions facing the Jews of Europe, including the mass murders and concentration camps met with President Roosevelt for an hour in the Oval Office.  British Foreign Minister had not shown any interest in his report and Prime Minister Churchill was “too busy” to see him.  Before meeting with Roosevelt, Karski had met with Supreme Court Justice Felix Frankfurter who said, “I am unable to believe you.´ Karski began by describing the activities of the Polish underground. The president listened with fascination, asked questions and offered unsolicited advice, some of it a bit eccentric -- such as his idea of putting skis on small airplanes to fly underground messengers between England and Poland during the winter. But when Karski related details of the mass killings of the Jews, Roosevelt had nothing to say. The president was, as Karski politely put it, "rather noncommittal." (Editor’s note – The British were too busy, FDR was not.  As to being “noncommittal” the reality was that the war was not going well and that is a gross understatement.  At this point the Allies had just landed in Sicily, were still trying to win the Battle of the Atlantic and had only scratched the surface of the Island Hopping Campaign against Japan

1943: During World War II the British bomb Hamburg causing a firestorm that kills 42,000 German civilians. In a twist of irony, the mission is named Operation Gomorrah.  (There is no record of an air mission called Operation Sodom.)

1943: Birthdate of guitar playing composer Mike Bloomfield.

1948” Leon Blum began serving as Vice Premier of France in the government of Prime Minister Andre Marie.

1948: “United Nations peace envoy, Folke Bernadotte, issued a statement which said that there was ‘no evidence to support claims of massacre’” at al-Tira, a village near Haifa, that had been made by Azzam Pasha, the Secretary General of the Arab League. 

1949: Today’s proposal by the Ben-Gurion to the UN that would allow 100,000 Arabs to return to Israel touched off a wave of opposition that would later lead to its withdrawal.

1956(20th of Av, 5716): Abraham Telvi “a Jewish-American mobster and hitman for New York labor racketeer Johnny Dio, known most notably for blinding crusading New York journalist Victor Riesel with acid” was gunned down today.

1959: Premiere of “North by Northwest” the suspense thriller with a script by Ernest Lehman, music by Bernard Hermann and featuring Martin Landau in one of his early roles.

1964: Birthdate of Ian Paul Livingston, Baron Livingston of Parkhead the Scottish businessman who is “The fourth generation son of Polish-Lithuanian Jews who arrived in Scotland 120 years ago.”

1969: Operation Boxer came to an end with a dogfight between IAF Mirages and Egyptian MIG-21s during which neither side was able to score a victory.

1969: Opening of the Eighth Maccabiah

1971: Marvin Israel discovered the body of photographer Diane Arbus two days after she had taken her own life.

1982(8th of Av, 5742): Erev Tish'a B'Av

1984: The 1984 Summer Olympics opened in Los Angeles where Bernard Rajzman earned a Silver Medal as a player with the Brazilian Volleyball Team

1988: Jordan canceled a $1.3 billion development plan in the West Bank.

1988: Israeli diplomats arrived in Moscow for their first visit in 21 years.

1988: Jack Lang completed his first term in office as Member of the French National Assembly for Loir-et-Cher

1989: Units of the IDF crossed into Lebanon and seized Sheik Abd al-Karim Obeid a Hizballah cleric and military commander of Islamic Jihad. This took place during what is now called the First Infitada. 

1993: Catcher Brad Ausmus made his major league debut with the San Diego Padres.

1995(1st of Av, 5755): Rosh Chodesh Av

1995(1st of Av, 5755): Ninety-three year old Harry Zimmerman, the physician who helped found Albert Einstein College of Medicine and made major contributions in dealing with diseases of the nervous system, passed away today. (As reported by Robert Thomas, Jr.

1996: The newly opened William Breman Jewish Heritage Museum is the site of a reception for the Israeli Olympic team and a commemoration of the 1972 massacre at the Games in Munich when terrorists killed 11 of the country's athletes and officials.

1998: Monica Lewinsky receives transactional immunity so that she can testify against President Clinton.

2000(25th of Tammuz, 5760): Abraham Pais, Dutch-born American physicist and science historian passed away.  Pais was the son of a father from the old Dutch Sephardic community while his mother was Ashkenazik.  His trials and tribulation during World War II are the kind of harrowing tale that would make a great adventure novel.  Yet they were true.  His academic achievements were equally amazing.

2002: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including American Sonnets by Jewish poet Gerald Stern and Man Walks Into A Room, the first novel by Jewish poet Nicole Krauss

2002: David Levy and his breakaway Gesher faction left the government due to their opposition to the budget.

2003: “Monitoring Calls in New World of Quality Assurance” described the role that software is playing in fulfilling Shlomo Shamir’s vision of changing call centers from being “cost centers” to being “strategic centers.” Shamir is the President of the American arm of Nice, an Israeli company that is the leader in this software field. (As reported by Claudia H. Deutsch) 

2005: As reported in the Oakland (CA) Tribune, Pacifica resident Lillian Greenwald is praised for having volunteered at the Jewish Home for nearly 25 years. Although this is a significant achievement by itself, it is the quality of her service that is exceptional. Lillian Greenwald is an exemplary role model for any volunteer program, and the Jewish Home is fortunate to have her.”

2006:  Five Katyushas struck Peki'in and one directly hit a home next the yard where a family was preparing for an afternoon wedding. Ten people were lightly wounded and treated for shock. Peki'in is an agricultural settlement in the Upper Galilee.

2007 In Jerusalem, a classical music concert entitled "Music in All the Shades" took place at the Sisters of Zion convent presented "Songs, Trombone, and Piano," featuring Galina Chipper Blat, mezzo-soprano, Natalia Jadanov on piano, and Olga Melchovski and Yuri Prokofchok on the oboe.

2007(13th of Av, 5767: Shabbat Nachamu  

2007: In Calgary Sharon Fichman was the runner-up in today’s professional tennis match.

2008: In Washington, D.C., veteran Jewish photography editor Leora Kahn discusses and signs Darfur: Twenty Years of War and Genocide in Sudan

2008: In Washington, D.C., Michaele Weissman discusses and signs her new book, God in a Cup: The Obsessive Quest for the Perfect Coffee

2009: Father Patrick Desbois, secretary to the French Conference of Bishops for relations with Judaism as well as an adviser to the Vatican on the Jewish religion, discusses The Holocaust by Bullets: A Priest's Journey to Uncover the Truth Behind the Murder of 1.5 Million Jews, an investigation of German atrocities in the Ukraine in World War II, at the Sixth & I Historic Synagogue in Washington, D.C.

2009: Police dismantled the West Bank outpost of Mitzpe Avihai near the town of Hebron 

2010: Hadassah 95th annual convention is scheduled to come to a close today.

2010: "Surviving Hitler: A Love Story,” is scheduled to be shown today at The San Francisco Jewish Film Festival.

2010: Ninety-year old Samuel Kunz, a former Nazi death camp guard has been charged with participating in the murder of 430,000 Jews and other crimes during the Third Reich, German prosecutors said today.

2010: The New York Times featured a review of 97 Orchard: An Edible History of Five Immigrant Families in One New York Tenement by Jane Ziegelman

2010: Terra Olivio, the first Mediterranean international olive oil competition and conference, which attracted over 120 people from Israel and abroad was held today at Jerusalem’s Inbal Hotel.

2011:LIVE FROM JERUSALEM: An Evening with the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra,” conducted by Zubin Mehta With Renee Fleming and Joseph Calleja is scheduled to be shown at more than 480 select movie theaters nationwide this evening.

2011: The 92nd St Y is scheduled to present “Always: Irving Berlin,” an evening filled with the music of one of America’s great composers and lyricists.

2011: The Foreign Ministry announced today that Israel has established full diplomatic relations with the government of the newly UN-recognized South Sudan.

2011: Histadrut Labor Federation Chairman Ofer Eini told Army Radio today that he does not intend on "bringing down the government" by joining the housing protests, but stressed that it must take action to lower housing prices and cost of living.

2012(8th of Av, 5772): Ninety-three year old pioneer in children’s theatre Judith Martin passed away. (As reported by Douglas Martin)

2012: The California premiere of “Six Million and One” is scheduled to take place at the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival.

2012: Thousands of people attended a Tisha B’Av prayer service at the Western Wall in Jerusalem tonight

2012: Four rockets fired from the Gaza Strip hit southern Israel today landing in unpopulated areas and causing no direct damage. Two of the rockets landed in an open field near Sderot and two more in an open field in the Eshkol region.

2012: Rabbi Yossi Nemes service of The Gerson Katz Chabad Center in Metairie, LA is scheduled to officiate at tonight’s memorial service in honor of the athletes murdered in Munich including wrestler David Berger a graduate of Tulane University who made Aliyah shortly before the Olympics

2013: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including This Town: Two Parties and a Funeral — Plus Plenty of Valet Parking! — in America’s Gilded Capital by Mark Leibovich,  The Love-Charm of Bombs Restless Lives in the Second World War by Lara Feigel, Fools by Joan Silber and Rendezvous With Destiny: How Franklin D. Roosevelt and Five Extraordinary Men Took America Into the War and Into the World by Michael Fullilove

2013: The Washington, DC is scheduled to sponsor an outing to the ballpark featuring the Nats against the Mets in “Hadassah Plays Ball!”

2013: “Hannah Arendt” is scheduled to shown this evening at the Castro Theatre as part of the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival.

2013: “A brand new festival called Machaol Olam – World Dance” that began in Israel on July 11 is scheduled to come to a close.

2013: 99th anniversary of the start of World War I, a conflict about which so many know so little while its effects continue to reverberate into our lives in the 21st century.

2013: The cabinet voted 13 to 7 today to approve talks with the Palestinians and to allow a ministerial committee to release 104 imprisoned Palestinian terrorists over the next 9 months. (As reported by Herb Keinon)

2013: Justice Minister Tzipi Livni and Yitzhak Molcho left for Washington to take part in peace talks under the aegis of U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry.

2013: A robber carrying an automatic pistol stole jewellery and watches belonging to Israeli diamond mogul Lev Leviev worth millions of euros from the luxury Carlton Hotel in Cannes today, police and judicial sources said. 

2014: "Brave Miss World & Hunting Elephants" are scheduled to be shown at the Berkshire Jewish Film Festival.

2014: The Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies, US Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM) and The Wiener Library host a workshop "The Holocaust in Eastern Europe in the Records of the International Tracing Service Digital Archive," which is scheduled to open today at the USHMM in Washington, DC.
2014: One hundredth anniversary of the start of World War I – “the war to end all wars.”

2014(1st of Av, 5774): Rosh Chodesh Av