Friday, March 31, 2023

This Day, April 1, In Jewish History by Mitchell A and Deb Levin Z"L

April 1

 515 BCE:  The Second Temple was inaugurated in Jerusalem (As reported by Jona Lendering)

527: Byzantine Emperor Justin I names his nephew Justinian I as co-ruler and successor to the throne. This was a “lose-lose” proposition for the Jewish people. When Justin I assumed the throne he adopted a policy of rigorously enforcing the anti-Jewish laws promulgated by Theodosius including excluding Jews from “all posts of honor” and banning the construction of new synagogues. “Justinian began persecuting the Jews immediately after his accession” as can be seen from the adoption of anti-Jewish legislation in the very first year of his reign.

1205: Amalrik II King of Cyprus/Jerusalem, died. This was the period of the Crusades when followers of Islam and Christians from Europe jockeyed for control of Eretz Israel and Jerusalem.

1282: In Munich, Louis II, Duke of Upper Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine, and Matilda, a daughter of King Rudolph I gave birth to  Emperor Louis IV of the Holy Roman Empire of Germany who 1934 authorized the Duke of Guelders to receive Jews in his duchy, where they provided services, paid a tax and were protected by the law.

1315: Louis X “suspended the collection of the debts owed to” the Jews “which were still outstanding from their expulsion in 1306 as part of his plan to eventually allow the Jews to return to France.

1441: Fifty-three-year-old, Queen Bianca, the Queen consort of Sicily who in 1415 expelled the Jews from Vizzini, passed away today

1548: Sigismund II Augustus, the Polish King who allowed “Jews to settle in Vilna without restriction” and who issued “the ‘Magna Cara of Jewish Self-Government’’ “which permitted Jews to elect their own chief rabbi and judges” began his reign as King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania.

1557(1st of Iyar):  Iggeret Ba’alei Hayyim, a book on zoology translated by Kalonymus was printed for the first time in Mantua, Italy.

1662(12th of Nisan, 5422): Isaac ben Abraham Uziel a Spanish physician, poet and grammarian, born at Fez” who became rabbi of Neveh Shalom in Amsterdam in 1610 when Judah Vega passed away died to in Amsterdam who left behind several literary works including “a Hebrew grammar, Ma’aneh Leshon.”

1699: In England, lawyer and MP Sir Peter Pett who along with the Bishop of Langley and Lord Anglesey drew up a plan shortly after King Charles II returned to the throne that would have placed the Jews in a ghetto like environment and subjected them to special taxes, passed away today.

232 Jews Of England

1769(23rd of Adar II, 5529): Parashat Shmini; Shabbat Parah

1740: Leah and Joseph Tobias gave birth to Masdad Tobias, the brother of Rina, Jacob, Judith and Joseph (II) Tobias.

1743: In Eppingen, Germany, Schoenle Heinsheimre and Moses Heinsheimer-Regensburger gave birth to Laemmle Heinsheimer, the husband of Kusche Karoline Maier with whom he had five children.

1756: Birthdate of German native Honas (Moses) Steinfurter the husband of Hina Einstein.

1761: Birthdate of German born Blumel Joseph, the wife of Joseph Ruben Gummersheimer with whom she had seven children.

1766(22nd of Nisan, 5526): Eighth Day of Pesach

1768(14th of Nisan, 5528): Ta’anit Bechorot; erev Pesach

1771(17th of Nisan, 5531): Third Day of Pesach

1774(20th of Nisan, 5534): Sixth Day of Pesach,

1774: As Jews on both sides of the Atlantic celebrated Shabbat Shel Pesach, it was reported today that the British government had responded to the Boston Tea Party by sending four regiments and a new Governor, General Thomas Gage, to close the port of Boston in accordance with the recently passed act of Parliament.

1779(15th of Nisan, 5539): First Day of Pesach

1782: The certificate authorizing Solomon Etting of Lancaster, PA to serve as a shochet was issued today making him the first native born American to receive this distinction

1789(5th of Nisan, 5549): Rachel Ritzel Heilbron, the New York born daughter of Sarah and Moses Benjamin Franks and  and her second husband David Heilbron gave birth to Jonathan Heilbron the nephew of Colonel Isaac Franks.

1790(17th of Nisan, 5550): Third Day of Pesach

1793: Birthdate of German native Isaak Loeb Ettlnger, the husband of Sara Heinsheimer with whom he had twelve children before marrying Karolina Heinsheimer, the mother of Isaak and Hinna Ettlinger.

1795: In Lissa, Posen, Salomon (Shlomo) (Schlaume) Kalischer and Rahel Gutel Kalischer gave birth Rabbi Zvi Hirsch Kalishcer, the husband of Henrietta Kalishcer

1797(5th of Nisan, 5557): Parashat Vayikra read for the first time during the Presidency of John Adams.

1798(15th of Nisan, 5558): Pesach.

1804: In Charleston, SC, Rachel Moses and Moses Cohen gave birth to Zipporah Cohen who marred Joseph Soria in 1833 in Charleston, SC.

1812(19th of Nisan, 5572): Fifth Day of Pesach observed as President Madison wrote to Congress in the days leading up to war with Great Britain “Considering it as expedient, under existing circumstances and prospects, that a General Embargo be laid on all vessels now in port or hereafter arriving, for the period of sixty days, I recommend the immediate passage of a law to that effect.”

1815: Birthdate of Otto Von Bismarck. A Prussian, he served as Chancellor from 1866 to 1890 making Germany into a united modern nation. His record concerning the Jews was mixed, He was Chancellor in 1869 when emancipation legislation was enacted removing limitations on civil rights based on religion. His personal physician was Jewish and there were Jewish department heads in the government. In his earlier years, Bismarck had been opposed to Jews as government ministers. Once again, as his career drew to a close and it fit his political needs Bismarck distanced himself from the Jews but did not adopt the rabid anti-Semitism that appeared in Germany during the 1880's.

1817(15th of Nisan, 5577): First Day of Pesach

1823: In Alsace, Charlotte Aron (Loew) and Alexandre Aron gave birth to Achille Aron

1828: In Cassel, Germany, Moses Mordecai Büdinger gave birth to Austrian historian Max Büdinger who served as chair of the history department at the University of Vienna from 1872 until 1902.

1829: Jacob ben Naphtali HaCohen married Beila bat Solomon HaCohen at the Western Synagogue.

1835: Samuel Samuels married Esther Benjamin today at the Great Synagogue.

1840: Lazarus Walter married Hannah Aaron at the Great Synagogue today.

1840: Thirty-nine year old Benjamin Dores Lazarus, the son of Marks Lazarus married Cornelia Cohen today.

1842(21st of Nisan, 5602): Seventh Day of Pesach

1843(1st of Nisan, 5603): Parashat Tazria; Rosh Chodesh Nisan; Shabbat HaChodesh is celebrated on the first Saturday on which Jews and Gentiles could walk under the Thames River thanks to the completion earlier in the week of Mar Brunel’s Thames Tunnel.

1844: Birthdate of Nikolai Skyrdoff, the Russian Admiral who was, strangely enough married to “a Jewess.”

1845: In Trieste, Elisa Morpurgo and Giuseppe / Joseph Baron von Morpurgo gave birth to Louise Cahen d'Anvers (de Morpurgo)

1848(27th of Adar II, 5608): Parashat Shmini; Shabbat HaChodesh is observed during the period between the cessation of hostilities between the United States and Mexico and the ratification of the final peace treaty.

1852: Birthdate of Russian native Louis (Lieb) Sugarman, the husband of Jennie Sugarman and the father of Fannie and Abraham (Abe) Sugarman.

1852: Fire broke out in San Francisco destroying a boarding house owned by Abraham Abrahamsohn that boasted a “French cook, three waiters and a dishwasher.” Abrahamsohn would have tried his hand unsuccessfully in the gold fields and as tailor in Sacramento had made the money for the boarding house by working as a mohel. One can only assume that there was a good sized and prolific Jewish population in San Francisco for him to have earned enough capital from performing ritual circumcisions. This latest setback forced Abrahamsohn to head to Australia where he again failed as gold miner but met with modest economic success when he returned to his original profession – baker – and began providing food for the hungry miners.

1853: When an apprentice named Herman who was working for a boot and shoe shop was arrested on charges of theft that covered the last 9 months, he claimed that he was regular selling eighty dollars’ worth of merchandize of an un-named Jew for twenty-five dollars.

1857: Joseph Abrahams married Betsie Mesner today at the Great Synagogue.

1858(17th of Nisan, 5618): Third Day of Pesach.

1858: The New York Times reported that one of the reasons for a drop in business at the local cattle markets this week was the absence of Jewish butchers who were observing Passover.

1860: Fifteen-year-old Leo Loeb, the Bechtheim, Germany born son of Jeanette Joseph and Abraham Loeb came to the United States today after which he lived in Staunton, VA for eleven years before settling in Philadelphia where he married Rosetta Wolf, served as the director of Commercial National Bank of Pennsylvania and was a director of both the Jewish Exponent and Congregation Rodef Shalom.

1861(21st of Nisan, 5621): Seventh Day of Pesach

1861: An English play entitled “Babes in the Wood” opened at the Winter Garden Theatre.  According to the reviewer, the play is based on the all too common practice of the impecunious English gentleman who borrows money from “a friendly Hebrew” for which he pays “a liberal interest” so that he may pursue a life style that includes “a generous supply of wine,” cigars and a marriage which all too often does not turn out to be solution to his problems. [It would appear that 3 centuries after the creation of Shylock, the English still are writing about the poor gentile victimized by the Jewish moneylender.]

1861: In Cincinnati, OH, “Lewis and Emma (Goodhart) Heinshiemer gave birth to businessman Edward Lewis Heinsheimer, one of the first students to enroll at Hebrew Union College which he supported for the rest of his life as can be seen by his service as a member of the board of governors and President and who was the husband of the former Sally Workum Freiberg and the father of Emma, Duffie and Stella Heinsheimer.

1862(1st of Nisan, 5622): Rosh Chodesh Nisan

1862: In Dublin, Rae (Hyman) Cohen and Elias Cohen, the founder of the importing business Cohen in Trbeca and “active member of the Reformed Temple” in New York gave birth Jacksonville merchant and philanthropist Jacob Elias Cohn who followed his brothers to post-Civil War Jacksonville, FL where they created Cohen Brothers department store and who was the husband of Hattie Cohen with whom he had two children – Halle and Minna.

1863: Two days after he had passed away Alexander Isaacs, the husband of the former Sophie Levy with whom he had had twelve children was buried today at the “Lauriston Road Jewish Cemetery.”

1864: In Cincinnati, the Ladies’ Hebrew Benevolent Society which was the ladies’ auxiliary of the Congregation Adath Israel was founded today.

1865(5th of Nisan, 5625): In the waning days of the American Civil War, Sergeant Morris Schlesinger of Philadelphia who had been wounded yesterday at Gravelly Run, VA, died today.

1865: Union forces defeat the Confederates at the Battle of Five Forks which effectively sealed the fate of Robert E. Lee’s Army and therefore the Confederacy.  The rebels were forced to abandon Richmond which would lead to the involvement of Raphael Moses, the native of Columbus, GA who had been with Lee at Gettysburg in the bizarre episode concerning the disposal of the Southern government’s bullion supply.

1865: Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper, later known as Leslie’s Weekly published a picture of the annual Purim Ball held in New York in March.

1866(16th of Nisan, 5626): Second Day of Pesach; first day of the Omer

1866: In "Southern Jottings" published today described conditions in Charleston, South Carolina, including the observation that "the Hebrew element is largely represented here and speculators are as abundant as tea stores on Vesey Street."

1866: Under the simple heading of “Nathan Meyer Rothschild of London” the New York Times published a lengthy article tracing the history of the family from its earliest beginning to its present prominent role in the world of finance as well as the role of other Jews in the financial growth that has occurred in Great Britain since “the days of the South Sea bubble.”

1869(20th of Nisan, 5629): Sixth Day of Pesach observed during the Impeachment Trial of Andrew Johnson.

1870: “April Fool” published today traces the origins of April Fool’s Day in which the author claims that the prophet Haggai “makes allusion to it in the third chapter of his book.” He also contends that Solomon recognized “the fool” in his writings and even references a specific day for fools in the 29th verse of the 17th chapter of Proverbs, “The fool has his day and the simple man his season…”

1870(10th of Nisan, 5631): Shabbat HaGadol

1870: Sixty-two year old physician and author Moses Philippson passed away today in Breitenfeld.

1871: "Green Street Synagogue” was founded today by a small group of Jews in Baltimore, Maryland.

1872: Sixty-two year old Rose Jacobs, the wife of John Jacobs and the mother of Julia Jacobs was buried today at the “West Ham Jewish Cemetery.”

1872: Birthdate of Conrad Gröber, the Catholic cleric whose eventual opposition to the Nazi regime did not include opposition to the Holocaust.

1872: Today, the United States Postal Department authorized the establishment of a post office in the community which would eventually be known as Seligman, MO.

1873:In Islington, London, Abraham Aloof, the son of Judah and Grace Aloof, and Mesoda Aloof  gave birth to Judah Aloof who passed away at the age of three months.

1874: Birthdate of Kuppenheim, Germany native Max Dreyfus who at the age of 14 came to the United States where he became a successful musical publisher.

1874(14th of Nisan, 5634): The New York Times reported that “this evening the Jewish festival of ‘Pesach’ or the Passover will be inaugurated with the observances and ceremonies incident to its celebration. This festival is one of the most important in the Hewish calendar and was instituted to commemorate the miraculous deliverance of the children of Israel from the vile system of slaver imposed upon them during their sojourn in the land of Egypt. The festival begins at sundown this evening and continues for eight days…and is distinguished from all festivals by the banishment of all leavened bread from the houses of the pious Israelites…”  

1875:  Actress “Polly” Richards gave birth to, Richard Horatio Edgar Wallace whose works were banned  in Germany “because of rumors that the writer was of Jewish extraction” – a charge vehemently denied by his daughter Mrs. Frere Reeves.

1875: In Hackney, London, Buena David Belasco and Eliezer Isaac Ventura gave birth to Samuel Eliezer Ventura.

1876: It was reported today that I.S. Nathans, a Jew who has become an Episcopalian has been authorized by his church to lead a mission to convert the Jews of New York which the church number at 110,000.

1876: Sigmund Dringer, an Austrian born Jew, had acquired 4,000 tons of scrap iron and 1,700 tons of car wheels said to be worth one hundred thousand dollars.  This made Dringer the largest scrap medal dealer in the United States supplying foundries and rolling mills from Boston to Cincinnati.

1880(20th of Nisan, 5640): Sixth Day of Pesach

1880: This morning, Shearith Israel, located at West 19th Street near 5th Avenue in New York City, celebrated the 150th anniversary of its consecration with special services led by Rabbis Nieto, Lyon and Pereia-Mendes.

1881: Anti-Jewish riots broke out in Jerusalem.

1881: Today marked the beginning of a three month exodus of Jews from Russia that would include “not less than 225,000 Jewish families” or “over a million souls.”

1881: “Le tribut de Zamora, an opera in four acts” with a libretto by Adolphe d’Ennery premiered today “at the Opéra's Palais Garnier.”

1882: A blood libel in Tisza Eszlar, Hungary began. On April 1,“A week and a half before Easter, a fourteen year old Catholic housemaid, Esther Solymossy, left her employer’s home to buy paint. She did not return.” When a weeklong search failed to turn up any evidence of the missing girl, two prominent Hungarian anti-Semites named Onody and Istoczy began making claims about “ritual murder” forcing the local sheriff to pursue this blatantly false line of accusation. Fifteen Jews were ultimately charged and tried for "murder" for which there was no real evidence. After a year of futile effort, the fifteen were acquitted.

1883: In New York, David Holtz and Pauline Moses, whom he had known for a brief time, were engaged to be married.

1883: Birthdate of Rumanian native Emil Armin, the grandson of a sofer who in 1905 came to the United States where he joined his brother, enrolled in night art classes after which he became a leading American painter.

1884: In Galveston Morris and Nettie Lasker gave birth to their second child and first daughter Florina Lasker “the chairman of the National Council of Jewish Women’s immigrant aid section,” the co-author of Care and Treatment of the Jewish Blind in the City of New York” and a board member of the ACLU.

1884: In Cincinnati, OH, Isabella and Edward Johaan Schaar gave birth to University of Cincinnati trained chemical engineer and President of Chicago’s Maxwell House was an active member of the ZOA.

1884: In Peoria, Illinois, Elizabeth and Isaac Slawitsky gave birth to Lt. Gen. Samuel T. Lawton, the John Marshall Law School trained attorney who “served om France with the 122nd Field Artillery which saw combat duty in the St. Mihiel and Meuse-Argonne campaigns.”

1886: In Philadelphia, PA, the former Sophie Muhr and David Stern, gave birth to University of Pennsylvania trained lawyer turned journalist and newspaper publisher David Stern, the husband of Juliet Stern and supporter of FDR who is best known as the owner and publisher of the Philadelphia Bulletin and the New York Post and the owner of Philadelphia radio station WHAT.

1886: Birthdate of Vitebsk native and University of Maryland trained physician Benjamin Pushkin, who practiced in Baltimore while serving on the faculty of his alma mater.

1887: Birthdate of Leonard Bloomfield an American linguist whose influence dominated the development of structural linguistics in America between the 1930s and the 1950s. He is especially known for his book Language published in 1933 that described the state of the art of linguistics at its time. Bloomfield was the main founder of the Linguistic Society of America.

1888(20th of Nisan, 5648): Sixth Day of Pesach

1888: Three days after his death composer and pianist Charles-Valntin Alkan was buried today in the “Jewish section of Montmartre Cemetery, Paris,” in a tomb which would later be the burial site for his sister Celeste and which was “not far from the tomb of his contemporary Fromental Halévy.”

1888: At Temple Beth-El in New York, Rabbi Kaufman Kohler delivered a lecture entitled “The Wandering Jews.”

1889: Caroline and Edwin Robert Anderson Seligman gave birth to Eustace Seligman.

1889: Birthdate of Bryn Mawr grad and pioneering psychiatrist Sadi Muriel Baron, the wife of Dr. David Raskind and the mother of Dr. Richard Raskind who gained fame as Dr. Renee Richards.

1890: Three Russian Jewish immigrants – Ed Myers, Isadore Lowenstein and Ike Edeliman – have been charged with arson and are locked up the Central Police Station in Louisville, KY.

1890: Nathan Birnbaum, a leader of Kadima and the publisher of the journal Selbst-Emanzipation created the term Zionism. Birnbaum was actually a Zionist before Herzl popularized the concept. Unfortunately, Birnbaum was not able to find a "home" in the movement as it grew. In a total role reversal he advocated the development of the Jewish community in the Diaspora, Yiddish instead of Hebrew and orthodoxy over secularism.

1890: Fifty women formed The Beth El Society of Personal Services was formed with the intent of lessening the burden being placed on the United Hebrew Charities.

1892: Grover Cleveland addressed a large crowd of Russian Jews in New York City.

1892: In Great Britain, Mr. Balfour told the House of Commons that the British Ambassador in St. Petersburg had based his expectation that a large number of Jews would be coming to the UK because he believed that the United States was about to put an end to the immigration of Jews from Russa.

1892: In Brooklyn, the Republican faction opposed to Ernst Nathan sent out a call for meeting.

1893(15th of Nisan, 5653): First Day of Pesach

1893: According to “the books of the Jewish shelter on Leman, Street, White Chapel,” London, today marked the start of the expulsion of Polish Jews that would totally 38 by the end of the month.

1893: Meyer Lyask received an order warning “him to quit his lodgings in the village of Gmina (Poland) within seven days.

1893: Nathan Straus, Isidor Straus and Simon F. Rothschild bought out Joseph Wechsler’s interest in Wechsler and Abraham and renamed the store Abraham and Straus which at that time had 2,000 employees.

1893: German’s celebrate the 78th anniversary of the birth of Otto Von Bismarck, the Iron Chancellor who changed the face of Europe in ways too numerous to mention here.

1894: Professor Felix Adler delivered a lecture on “The Influence of Woman” at the Music Hall in New York City.

1894: “Over In Camden” published today described the purchase by the Sons of Israel of “a portion of the New Camden Cemetery for use as a cemetery for Jews in the New Jersey city.

1894: It was reported today that there may have been a period of time when the Queen Insurance Company of New York did not insure Jews

1894: “All Fool’s Day” published today attributed to the origins of April Fool’s Day as being tied to the fact that Noah made the mistake of “sending the dove out of the ark before the water had abated on the first day of the month” on the Jewish calendar which correlates “our 1st of April.”  Since then people would be sent on “fool’s errands” on this date in the foolish manner of Noah sending out the dove.”

1894: “Godfathers and Godmothers” published today described the origins of this popular custom among Christians but for which “doubtless” began with the Jews.

1895: Interview with Alphonse Daudet, French anti-Semitic writer, for whom Herzl translated an article. Herzl unfolds his views on the Jewish question, which produce a deep impression on Daudet. Daudet feels that Herzl should write a novel about his ideas.

1895: First appearance of The "American Jewess," the first English-language publication published by and for American Jewish women.

1895: In Columbia, “George Henry Issacs, an English Jew originally from Jamaica” and his wife gave birth to Jorge Isaacs Ferrer whom Isaac Goldberg described as “a half-Jew” who is “Spanish America’s most famous novelist.”

1896(18th of Nisan,5656): Fourth Day of Pesach

1896(18th of Nisan, 5656): Hirsch Relkin, the Belarus born son of David Relkin and the husband of Sarah Rubenstein with whom he had 18 children passed away today in Kaunas.

1896: It was reported today that the recent benefit production of “The Heart of Maryland” raised about two thousand dollars for the Hebrew Orphan Asylum who had just celebrated 21 years of service to the Congregation.

1896: The funeral for Rabbi Aaron Wise is scheduled to be held this morning at Rodeph Sholom, at Lexington and 63rd Street in Manhattan

1896: “Promises For Peddlers” published today described a meeting between 1,000 pushcart vendors led by Abraham Benowitz, President of the Fish Peddlers’ Association and New York leaders including Mayor Strong and President Teddy Roosevelt of the Police Board to discuss plans for how their business would be conducted on Hester Street on the Lower East Side.

1897: Birthdate of Harry Joseph Passon, the brother of Herman and Nathan Pass and who “along with friends Eddie Gottlieb and Hughie Black organized a basketball team sponsored by the South Philadelphia Young Men’s Hebrew Association which became known by the acronym SPHAS.”

1897: “Rights of Hebrew Americans” published today described the efforts of Congressman Fitzgerald of Massachusetts to have the Secretary State ensure that American Jews are not discriminated by the Czar’s government when they are doing business in Russia. (Congressman Fitzgerald is the grandfather of JFK)

1897(28th of Adar II, 5657): Sixty-four year old Bavarian born Isaiah Frankel who settled in Oskaloosa, IA where he opened a “a little store” which grew into a larger establishment and a bank and was known as “devoted orthodox Jew” passed away today.

1898: In New York, Boris Sidis, Ph.D., M.D. and Sarah Mandelbaum Sidis, M.D. gave birth to child-prodigy and math wizard, William James Sidis

1898: Birthdate of Joseph A. “Joe” Alexander the Syracuse native and three-time All-American guard on the Syracuse University football team who “was the first player signed by the original New York Giants” and who went on to a successful medical career when his playing days were over.

1898: Louis and Clara Asia Parnes gave birth to Paul Parnes the husband of Fay Parnes and the father of William and Arlene Parnes.

1898: Moses Samuel Zuckermandl who was the rabbi at Pleschen, Prussia “was appointed lecturer at the Mora-Leipziger Foundation at Breslau” today.

1898(9th of Nisan, 5658): Sixty-eight year old German lawyer Hermann Makower who also served as President of the Board of the Jewish Community of Berlin passed away today.

1899(21st of Nisan, 5659): 4th day of Pesach and Shabbat

1899(21st of Nisan, 5659): Three weeks short of the third anniversary of the death of her husband, Baron Maurice de Hirsch; sixty-five year old Clara Hirsch, the Baroness de Hirsch passed away today in Paris. The daughter of Belgian banking family, she knew the personal tragedy of loss when her daughter died in infancy and her son died at the age of 31.  She threw herself into a variety of charitable efforts and after her husband’s used the family fortune to provide for a myriad of causes including settle Russian Jews in agricultural communities and establishing training schools for young girls so that they could learn a trade and be self-supporting.

1899: Philip Michael Ritter von Newlinski, a Polish nobleman whom Herzl wanted to use his contacts with the Ottomans to promote the Zionist cause, dies in Constantinople.

1899: In “Closing of the Schools” published today, “Vox Populi” defends the decision of the school board closing the schools at this time of the year since it coincides with Easter and Passover which means that Christian and Jewish students would not be in school.  Such a decision is not an unwarranted intrusion of religion in public education but an acknowledgement that in the United States we enjoy religious freedom that enables to honor the customs of Christians and Jews.

1899: Despite a total lack of evidence, Leopold Hilsner was sentenced death today in Polna, Bohemia in another case of a Blood Libel. His sentence was later commuted and in 1916, Hilsner received a full pardon. It should be noted that his life was saved thanks to the activities of T.J. Masark, Czech patriot and the first president of an independent Czechoslovakia.

1899: Austrian author Karl Kraus an advocate of Jewish assimilation and a critic of Theodor Herzl renounced the “faith of his fathers” today.

1900: Birthdate of Baltimore, MD native Esther Lazarus, the holder of an MSW from the University of Pennsylvania and Ph.D from the University from the University of Chicago whose career in social and welfare services included serving as the first training director of the Baltimore Department of Public Welfare and serving as the Director of the Baltimore Department of Social Services while also being the wife of Albert D. Goldman whom she married in 1938.

1900: As of today, the library of the Educational Alliance, formerly known as the Hebrew Institute, had “28,152 books in circulation.”

1900: A memorial service was held this morning at Temple Beth-El to mark the passing Rabbi Isaac M. Wise where Rabbi Samuel Shulman led the congregation in the recitation of Kaddish and delivered a special in which he noted “that memorial service was being held on the anniversary of the death of the Baroness Clara de Hirsch saying: ‘Let us combine in though the memory of the mental and spiritual emancipator and the benefactress whose work was worldwise.’”

1900: The executors of the estate of Abraham Wolf, a partner in the banking firm of Kun, Loeb & Co turned the estate over to the trustees Mrs. Addie Kahn and her son Gilbert W. Kahn

1901: It was reported today that Louis Kahn “driving the famous black pacer George Wallace”  and Nathan Straus driving the bay gelding Alvis were among those competing at the Speedway over the weekend.

1902(23rd of Adar II, 5662): Sixty-five year old David Oppenheimer, the German born son of Lob and Bina Oppenheimer and the husband of Johanna Oppenheimer passed away today in New York City.

1902: “Leo Fresh, the well-known auctioneer, called at the police barracks tonight and stated that a fine hen, which he had been fattening for the Jewish Passover, had been stolen by a woman who lives at 83 Jenkins Street.”

1902: Birthdate of Russian native and Cincinnati, OH raised Philip “Cincy” Sachs, the basketball coach for Lawrence Institute of Technology, the Detroit Gems and the Detroit Falcons.

1903: Birthdate of Chess Champion Salo (Salomon) Landau, the Galician native who died in Auschwitz.

1903: All entries must submitted to the office of the Educational Alliance by  today for those who want to enter an  essay contest conducted by The  Woman’s National Alliance where contestants are to write on ways to heighten observance of the Sabbath that has a $25 dollar prize.

1903: Herzl meets McIlwraithe, the legal adviser of the Khedive. Herzl presents the Zionist proposal. McIlwraithe promises that the government will make a counter-proposal.

1904(16th of Nisan, 5664): Second Day of Pesach; first day of the Omer

1904(16th of Nisan, 5664): Eighty year old Gustav Freund, the husband of Rosa Fruend passed away today in Vienna.

1904: Benjamin Franklin Lindas, he St. Louis born son of Severt and Catherine (Leonard) Lindas, and Washington University trained attorney went into the real estate business “a partner of in the firm of F.H. Wood and Co.”

1905: Tonight, over a thousand Jews watched as two Torah scrolls were carried to the First Zolyner Congregation Anshe Sefard from the home of Sigmund Yokel, the President of the Congregation. After a brief ceremony during which the scrolls were placed in the Holy Ark, “the marchers celebrated at a big banquet.”

1905: The New York Times reported that the third edition of “The Seder Service,” a Haggadah prepared by Mrs. Phillip Cowen and published by her husband is now in available.

1906: Birthdate of Nusyn Glass the Polish born actor who gained fame as Ned Glass known for his portrayal of Uncle Moe in “Bridgette Loves Bernie.”

1906: Professor Ivan Michaelovitch Zanchevsky , the Rector of the university in Odessa, who has been “charged with organizing the student militia which defended the Jews during the massacres last November” is scheduled to “be place on trial before the Senate.

1907(17th of Nisan, 5667): Third Day of Pesach

1908: Birthdate of Abraham H Maslow, renowned psychologist and Brooklyn native who was the oldest of seven children of Russian Jewish immigrants. In a manner typical of this immigrant generation, Maslow's parents pushed him to succeed academically. Maslow studied law at CCNY and Cornell. He then married his cousin Bertha and enrolled at the University of Wisconsin where he began his study of psychology earning his doctorate in 1931. Maslow is most famous for developing his Hierarchy of Needs. Maslow was a professor at Brandeis from 1951 until 1969. He died in 1970. In examining Maslow's life and work, one commentator found a connection between Maslow's Jewish background and his scientific work. Just as Judaism tries to bring order of a chaotic world, so Maslow sought to develop a unifying structure that would enable people to bring order to their chaotic lives.

"Human nature is not nearly as bad as it has been thought to be." Abraham Maslow.

1909: Birthdate of Abner Biberman. Born in Milwaukee, Biberman gained fame as an actor and movie director. His films included “Gunga Din,” “Bridge At Saint Luis Rey,” “Winchester 73” and “Viva Zapata.” His oriental appearance made him a natural for the role of the Japanese officer in several war movies made during WW II, the most famous of which was “Back to Bataan.” He passed away in June, 1977.

1910: “Miss Sadie American of New York reached London” today “accompanied by her mother for the purposed of attending, on behalf of the Council of Jewish Women of New York, the International Conference on the White Slave Trade.”

1910: It was reported today that “the will of Amelia Alexander Kaufman, who died on February 19 at the Hotel Premier” showed she had “left $1,000 each to Mt. Sinai Hospiital, the Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum the Montefiore Home, the Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews, the Unite Hebrew Charities and the Beth Israel Hospital and $500 each to the Machzikel Talmud toran and the North American Relief Society for the Indigent Jews of Palestine.”

1911: At least a thousand Jews were threatened with expulsion from Moscow.

1912(14th of Nisan, 5672): Ta’anit Bechorot observed for the last time during the Presidency of William Howard Taft.

1912(14th of Nisan, 5672): For the first time, the Patriotic League of America sponsored a Seder tonight at Tuxedo Hall for Jewish soldiers and sailors stationed in the New York metropolitan area.

1912(14th of Nisan, 5672): Sixty-one year old Felix Pinner, the Berlin born son of “Sara and Isidor Lewin Pinner passed away today in his hometown.

1912(14th of Nisan, 5672): In what appeared to be a classic SNAFU, 17 Jewish soldiers on Governor’s Island were assigned to guard duty tonight meaning that they could not attend the Seder at the Tuxedo. This was in direct violation of The Secretary of War’s had order that all soldiers in the New York area would receive a furlough to celebrate the holiday. When authorities found out about the mistake, they corrected it so the soldiers could attend the Seder.

1913: Mrs. Moses L. Purvin was elected President and Mrs. Benjamin Auerbach was elected Vice Presidents at the annual business meeting of The Chicago Woman’s Aid which will “continue its policy of having paintings of Chicago artists on view in the Library of the Sinai Centers

1913: “The regular meeting Ladies Society of B’nai Sholom Temple Israel” took place this evening where the attendees he a program on “Our Holidays” that included a presentation on Passover by Mrs. Carrie H. Geil.

1913: “New York fruit merchant” Joseph Kozinsky and his wife gave birth to Frank Kozinksky who would change his name to Frank King and along with his brothers Maury and Herman King Productions, the film company that had the courage to hire blacklisted writers during the McCarthy Era.

1914: Birthdate of Philip Yordan, the native of Chicago and law school graduate who an Academy Award for Best Writing, Motion Picture Story for Broken Lance and who worked to thwart the effects of the infamous Hollywood Blacklist system.

1915: Sam Lazarus and Annie Stein Lazarus gave birth to Jacob Mendel Lazarus who would be buried, for a Jew, in the unlikely location of Valdosta when passed away more than nine decades later.

1915: Based on a resolution adopted today in Chicago, Orthodox Jews will be able to exercise their franchise in the upcoming elections scheduled for April 6, the last day of Passover. Since the Orthodox cannot write on the holiday, the resolution empowered judges and clerks of the election to mark the ballots for the observant Jews.

1915(17th of Nisan, 5675): Third Day of Pesach

1915(17th of Nisan, 5675): Sixty-seven year old printer and journalist Adolph Ungar, the Cologne born son of Loeb and Adelheid Ungar and the husband of Henrietta Ungar passed away today in Chicago.

1915: In Berlin an anti-war protest was held led by Rosa Luxemburg, an act for which she was imprisoned.

1915: As “The Mule Corps swears allegiance to the British army” Jabotinsky refuses to serve “because its duties only involve transportation” and does not fulfill his demand for the establishment of a fighting legion.

1916: The Federation of Rumanian Jews dedicates the new Jewish Home for Convalescents, which formally opens today at Grandview, Rockland County as a permanent memorial to the work of Dr. Solomon Schechter. Schechter was the noted Hebrew scholar and head of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, who died on November 20, 1915.

1917: Professor Richard Gottheil of Columbia University introduced Major General Leonard Wood to the members of Zeta Beta Tau fraternity tonight “on preparedness and the obligations of alien-born citizens to their adopted country with regard to service in the army in war or peace.”

1917: In Bavaria, Elsa Haas, the daughter of Joseph and Ida Schulein and her husband Dr. Alfred Haas gave birth to

1917: “A declaration signed by sixty-eight Jewish citizens issued in support of the letter which Oscar S. Straus recently wrote to the British and French Ambassadors at Washington in which Mr. Straus contended that a majority of the Jews of the United States sympathize with the cause of Allies was issued” today “under the caption,” ‘A Declaration by American Jews.’”

1917: Birthdate of Melville “Mel” Shavelson who gained fame a writer, director and producer of dozens of films featuring such stars as Lucille Ball, Jimmy Cagney and Frank Sinatra. He was nominated for two Oscars and created two Emmy Award-winning television series, "Make Room for Daddy" and "My World and Welcome to It."

1917: Baron Alexander Gunzberg sent a cable from Petrograd to Louis Marshall in New York in which he wrote that the new Government be publishing  “a decree canceling all laws and paragraphs adversely affecting Jews” and that the “Russian Jewry, liberated from the yoke, in grateful appreciation of never-failing helpfulness stretch out their hand to their free-born American bretheren.”

1917: As leaders work on the plans for the calling of “The American Jewish Congress” a special meeting of the Executive Committee was held today in New York where the a resolution was adopted setting the rules for calling a meeting the Congress on September 2, 1917.

1918(19th of Nisan, 5678): Fifth Day of Pesach

1918: In New York, one hundred thousand people are expected to participate in the celebration of the establishment of the Provisional Jewish government in Palestine which will include parades and a mass meeting in Carnegie Hall that will include a speech by Dr. Stephen S. Wise.

1918: Chaim Weizmann, the head of the Zionist Commission, arrived in Palestine. The Commission had been established by the British to help carry out the promises of the Balfour Declaration. The Commission actually arrived before the war had ended and the Mandate had been established. The British had intended that the Commission be its official contact with the Jewish community (Yishuv) and help in setting policies concerning post-war settlement and development including immigration. Unfortunately, this positive start did not pre-sage a continuation of British support during the inter-war period.

1918: Following the capture of Jerusalem in December of 1917, the 7th Indian Division relieved the 52nd Division which had been transferred to the Western Front.

1918: Three days after he had passed away, 18 year old Sidney Benjamin Flaum, a “rifleman with the 17th Battalion” and the son of Maurice and Phoebe Flaum was buried today at the “Plashet Jewish Cemetery” in London.

1918: One day after she had passed away, the former Esther Van Praag, the wife of David Abrahams and the mother of Sarah Abrahams was buried today at the “West Ham Jewish Cemetery.”

1918(19th of Nisan, 5678): Isaac Rosenberg, a leading Anglo-Jewish poet, is killed on April Fool’s Day while fighting on the Western Front.

1919: In Grodno, Yitahak and Dvora Livni gave birth to ham "Eitan" Livni who made Aliyah in 1925, served with the Irgun and became a Likud MK.

1919: Birthdate of Jabr Muadi, the Israeli Druze politician who served in the Knesset for three decades from 1951 to 1981

1920: The emergence of the Nazi Party. (This happened on the anniversary of the day that Haman published his decree of extermination of the Jews.)

1920: Jewish merchant Henry Dix wrote to Mrs. Israel Unterberf, the President of the Young Women’s Hebrew Association about a gift he proposed giving to the association of a property he owned at Mt. Kisco as well as the establishment of trust fund for maintain the property.

1921: In the United Kingdom, Alfred Moritz Mond, 1st Baron Melchett, completed his service as First Commissioner of Works and began serving as Minister of Health in a cabinet headed by David Lloyd George.

1921: Beth El Hebrew School, “the second of a series of Hebrew schools to be established in the Bronx under the auspices of the New York committee of School Extension of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations” which has a capacity for five hundred students and is led by principal Louis E. Goldstein opened today.

1921:  Marius Ranson who has been serving as assistant to Dr. Schulman at Temple Beth-El is scheduled to become the Rabbi at Temple Beth Emes in Albany, NY today  filling a pulpit at the congregation that has been vacant since the death of Rabbi Eli Mayer.

1921: The United Relief Organization of Brownsville and East New York’s campaign to raise fifty thousand dollars “for war relief work” is scheduled to come to an end today.

1921: In “Upholds Palestine Plan; Churchill Tells Arabs that Balfour Declaration Must Stand,” published today described“further details of Winston Churchill’s visit to Jerusalem.” Churchill met with a delegation of Arab Congress which had been held much earlier in Haifa and which “asked for the withdrawal of the Balfour declaration. Churchill declared…that the government was determined to keep to the Balfour declaration in both of its parts, namely, the establishment of the Jewish national home and the protection of the non-Jewish population.” Later, when he met with a Jewish delegation, Churchill concluded his remarks “by saying that the British taxpayers could not bear the expense of the establishment of the Jewish national home and that Jews must therefore make greater efforts to obtain the necessary funds.”

1921: Lightweight Leach Cross (Louis Charles Wallach) fought his 140th bout in Los Angeles.

1922: Sir Edgar Speyer “and his remaining partner in the London bank dissolved Speyer Brothers.

1923: In Danzig, Dr. Alexander Dushman, “a hero of the Revolution whom Stalin senet to the gulag in Sibera and his wife who was a pediatrician gave birth to Soviet tank commander David Dushman who liberated Auschwitz and went on to be a trainer for the Soviet fencing team.

1923(15th of Nisan, 5683): Pesach I

1923(15th of Nisan, 5683): Eighty-one-year-old Miriam Maduro Davis, the New York born daughter of Dr. Daniel Moses Levy Maduro Peixotto and Rachel Lopes Mendes Peixotto and wife of Michael Marks Davis with whom she had seven children passed away today.

1924: Otto Preminger’s theatrical career began today when he “appeared as a furniture mover in Reinhardt's comedia staging of Carlo Goldoni's ‘The Servant of Two Masters.’

1925: Amid much pomp and circumstance, Hebrew University was opened in Jerusalem on Mount Scopus. Chaim Weizman beamed with pride as he saw his 25 year old dream come to life. Lord Arthur Balfour, of Balfour Declaration Fame, represented the British government. Much of the funding came from the American philanthropist Felix Warburg. The first chancellor of what this first class educational institution was Dr. Judah Magnes, a native of San Francisco. The cornerstones had originally been laid in 1918 when fighting was still going on between the British and Turkish forces in Palestine. Talk about Jewish optimism and dedication to learning.

1925: Chanina Karchevsky, “The Tel Aviv Nightingale,” conducted the Gymnasisa Herzliya Choir in what has been termed an “unforgettable performance” on Mt. Scopus at the ceremony marking the dedication of Hebrew University.

1925: Birthdate of Bialystok born and University of San Francisco grad Sala Galanta who gained fame as Sala Burton, the wife of Congressman Phillip Burton whom she followed in office when he passed away.

1926(17th of Nisan, 5686): Acting giant Jacob Pavlovich Adler passed away in New York City.  Born in Russia in 1855, he was a dominate figure in the Yiddish Theatre in Odessa, London and New York City. A name unknown to most, he is remembered as the father of the actor Luther Adler and Stella Adler who coached Marlon Brando.

1926: JTS graduate Samuel Benjamin, the Jerusalem born son of Sarah Stampfer and Mordecai Brown and the husband of Hanna Mirsky began serving as the rabbi of B’nai Israel Congregation in Jacksonville, FL>

1926: Hebrew Book Day is mounted in Tel Aviv.

1926: Brown University graduate, NYU trained attorney and JTS ordained Rabbi Samuel Benjamin, the Jerusalem born son of Mordecai and Sarah Benjamain  and the husband of Hannah Mirsky who began his Rabbinic career took at Anshe Emes in Cleveland  began serving as the leader of B’nai Israel in Jacksonville today

1927: The HaShomer HaZair kibbutzim and training groups establish a national organization in Haifa called "HaKibbutz Artzi" - "National Kibbutz". The Kibbutz Artzi is a federation comprising 85 kibbutzim founded by the Hashomer Hatzair youth movement. In 1998 it numbered around 20,000 members and its entire population (including children, candidates, parents of members etc.) totaled approximately 35,000.

1928: Birthdate of Herbert G. Klein newscaster and President Richard Nixon’s press secretary.

1928: Konrad von Preysing, a Catholic prelate who would play a key role as an anti-Nazi activist during World War II was made a canon today.

1929: In Chicago, Morton David Chan and Julia Elizabeth Cahn gave birth to Mary Elizabeth Cahn who became Mary Elizabeth Wolf when she married Stephen Louis Wolf.

1929: In New York City, Abraham Gribetz,, an executive vice president of the Hebrew Loan Society and Ida (Heller) Gribetz gave birth to Columbia and NYU trained attorney and U.S. Navy veteran Judah Gribetz, the one-time Deputy Mayor of New York for Governmental Relations, the author of The Timetable of Jewish History and husband of Jessica Shapiro with whom he had three children – Sidney, Marion and Sarah.

1930: Today, the first of three civilian mathematicians whom William Friedman, a senior civilian in the Army’s Intelligence Service who would play a vital role in cracking the Japanese codes in WW II, reported for duty.

1930: “Blue Angel” a movie that was
filmed simultaneously in English and German versions” directed by Josef von Sternberg, with a script co-authored by Robert Liebman

1930: In Melbourne, Australia, a group of Jews interested in forming a “Liberal Community” met for the first time.

1931(14th of Nisan, 5691): Fast of the First Born; erev Pesach

1931: Today Nazi SA paramilitaries stood outside of the Nathan Israel Department Store in Berlin holding signs that read “Germans! Defend yourselves! Don’t buy from Jews.”,_Berlin,_Boykott-Posten_vor_j%C3%BCdischem_Warenhaus.jpg

1931: Birthdate of Rolf Hochhuth. This non-Jewish German playwright wrote The Deputy which portrayed the role of the Pope during the Holocaust.

1932: “The Miracle Man” with a script co-authored by Samuel Hoffenstein was released in the United States today.

1932: Adolph Eichmann joined the Nazi Party

1932: The New York Times described the closing day activities at the Maccabiad. “An emotional crowd of 25,000 watched the conclusion of the first Jewish Olympics…The Palestine High Commissioner participated in the ceremonies as did other officials and representatives of foreign governments. There were tears in the eyes of many as the exhibits reached their close. Among the Maccabee displays were those of scouting, gymnastics, motorcycling, bicycle riding and horseback riding led by Abraham Shapiro, the hero of Petch Tikva…A procession of 5,000 Maccabeans led the way to the graves of Achad Ha’Am , Maz Nodeau and the victims of Arab riots, where wreaths were placed. …The procession marched through the main streets of Tel-Aviv” before dispersing at the “Herzlia Gymnasium where the march of the Maccabeans had begun.”

1933: In Brooklyn, Philip Weinstein, a garment industry work, and “the former Shirley Bisnoff, a homemaker and jazz pianist” gave birth to Stanley Alan Weinstein who gained fame as Sam Weston, “the father of G.I. Joe” action figure.

1933: German violinist (and non-Jew) Adolf Busch repudiated Germany altogether and in 1938 he boycotted Italy. 

1933: Nazi Germany began its persecution of Jews by boycotting Jewish businesses. Less than a month after coming to power, the War Against the Jews began in earnest. This puts the lie to those who portray Hitler's policies against the Jews as only being an incidental part of his plans and programs.

1933: At Lauphehim, members of the SA enforced the Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses “positioned themselves in front of Jewish shops in order to intimidate potential customers and prevent them from entering” while the windows were broken in at least one shop.

1933: As part of the Nazi boycott against Jewish businesses, uniformed men “placed themselves in front of Jewish shops in Cologne” to prevent customers from entering.

1933: In response to the Nazi boycott, in Cologne Jewish merchant Richard Stern, who had fought in the First World War, distributed a leaflet against the boycott and placed himself wearing his Iron Cross near the SA-poster in front of his shop.

1933: In Berlin “SA paramilitaries” carrying signs that read “Germans! Defends yourselves! Don’t buy from Jews!” “blocked the entrance to a Jewish owned shop.”

1933: In Constantine, Algeria, Abraham Cohen-Tannoudji and Sarah Sebbah gave birth to French physicist, Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, winner of the 1997 Nobel Prize.

1934(16th of Nisan, 5694): Second Day of Pesach; 1st day of the Omer.

1934: In the last twelve months, ending today, the Joint Distribution Committee spent $1,011,330 “in connection with program of aid to the German Jews.”

1934: Chevrolet ended its sponsorship of the Jack Benny Program. Benny continued the show with General Tire as the sponsor.

1934: In Mishnietz, Poland Nechama Laska and Hiam Yehuda Giladi gave birth to Israel Giladi

1935: The New York Times reported that “the American team is favored to retain the track and field title in the Jewish world games which open tomorrow…The strongest challenge for the Americans is expected to come from the German, French, Czech and Austrian teams.

1935: “Storm Over the Andes” an adventure film co-authored by Dore Schary was released in the United States today.

1935: Democratic leader General Hugh S. Johnson denounced “Father Charles Coughlin, comparing the Catholic priest to Adolf Hitler” because of the anti-Semitic pronouncements on his radio show

1935: Anti-Jewish legislation in the Saar region was passed.

1935: Israelitisches Familienblatt (Israelite Family Paper) began appearing in Berlin and became the organ of the Reichsvertretung

1936: French conservatives condemned French Socialist leader Léon Blum because of his Jewish ancestry and his strongly anti-Nazi orientation. A popular slogan at the time condemned the future French premier: "Better Hitler than Blum."

1936: “An injunction suit against Cantor David Katzman was filed in the Supreme Court” today “ by the First American Rumanian Congregation” that seeks to restrain the can from breaking a contract to officiate during the Passover holidays in the plaintiff’s synagogue…and going the Laurel-in-the-Pines Hotel at Lakewood, NJ.”

1936: One hundred ninety Jewish exiles from German who had boarded the Cunard White Star line Berengaria at Cherbourg and Southampton arrived in New York today.

1937: Birthdate of Sylvia Rafael, the Pretoria native who made Aliyah in 1963 and became an agent for Mossad.

1937: The Palestine Post reported on the festive opening of a new road connecting Hadar Hacarmel and Mount Carmel in Haifa. The new road was 3,100 meters long and 10 to 15 meters wide - the asphalt width was six meters. It was expected that this new road would help to develop Mount Carmel.

1937: The Palestine Post reported that according to the Palestine Review Jews contributed financially at least four times as much to the Arab economy as Arabs returned to the Jews.

1937: The Palestine Post reported that a provision was made in the Pension Ordinance for officials in the Civil Service to retire, under special circumstances, on attaining the age of 50.

1938: Fritz Löhner-Beda, the Bohemian born librettist, lyricist and writer was arrested and deported to Dachau Concentration Camp.

1938: “Number 111” a thriller directed by Steve Sekely was released in Hungary today.

1939: The Spanish Civil War came to an end marking another victory for fascism. Oddly enough, despite the support Franco got from Hitler and Mussolini he remained neutral during WW II, which proved quite advantageous to the Allies. As far as Franco’s treatment of the Jews, the record appears too mixed but consider the following as one piece of the puzzle.

1939: At the age of 13, Raul Hilberg who would gain fame as Dr. Raul Hilber a world renowned Holocaust scholar fled Austria with his family a year after the Anschluss, for France, where they embarked on a ship to Cuba. From Cuba the family would make their way to the United States, where Hilberg, after serving with the U.S. Army in Europe would come home and build his academic career.

1939: U.S. premiere of “Dodge City,” a western directed by Michael Curtiz, produced by Hal Wallis with music by Max Steiner.

1940: Birthdate of Bucharest native and mechanical engineer Paul Schwartz, the president of the Jewish Community of Bucharest and vice president of the Federation of Jewish Communities of Romania was named a Knight of the Order of Industrial and Commercial Merit by the President of Romania in 2009.

1940: The Institut für deutsche Ostarbeit (Institute for German Work in the East) was founded to study Polish Jewry.

1940: Shanghai, China, accepted thousands of Jewish refugees.

1941: A ghetto was established at Kielce, Poland. German overseers of the ghetto renamed some of the streets. New names were Zion Street, Palestine Street, Jerusalem Street, Moses Street, Non-Kosher Street, and Grynszpan Street.

1941: In Iraq, Rashid Al led a successful anti-British, pro-Nazi coup that would lead to the pogrom known as the Farhud in June that was the beginning of the end for the ancient Jewish community in that Arab country.

1941(4th of Nisan, 5701): German troops executed 250 members of a Jewish youth group in Subotica, Yugoslavia, who have been carrying out acts of sabotage.

1941: A men's annex was established at the Ravensbrück concentration camp located in Germany,

1941: Seven Warsaw Jews smuggled themselves into Bratislava, Slovakia, and from there to safety in Palestine.

1941: A pro-Axis officer clique headed by Rashid Ali al-Gaylani seized power in Iraq, and prepared airfields for German use.

1941: The Farhud, a pogrom aim at the Jews of Baghdad “inspired by both the Nazis and the Grand Mufti of Jersualem, Haj-Amin Al Husseini, began today.

1941: The first Croatian concentration camp began operation, at Danica. Four more Croat camps were opened, at Loborgrad, Jadovno, Gradiska, and Djakovo.

1941: Lillian Hellman's "Watch on the Rhine", premiered in New York City. A native of New Orleans, Hellman's father was "of German Jewish ancestry." Hellman was a staunch supporter of the Communists. Many right-wingers mistakenly took her ancestry and her political beliefs, tied them together and used Hellman as an example of the Jewish/Communist Conspiracy to overthrow America.

1941 Bess and Rubin “Honest Joe” Goldestein gave birth to Eddie Goldstein whom Dallas knew as swap shop owner “little Honest Joe King Edward.”

1941: Birthdate of Bonnie Sherr Klein, the Philadelphia native and Stanford graduate who went to Canada with her husband Michael Klein as part of an anti-war protest where she developed into a filmmaker and social activists.

1942: Sobibór death camp was nearly operational; gassings would begin in May.

1942: At the beginning of the first week in April, more than 4400 Jews died of starvation in the Warsaw Ghetto

1942: At the beginning of April, the first transports of Jews arrive at the camp at Majdanek, Poland, which will begin gassing Jews later in the year.

1942: During the first week of April, Sunday Times of London published, but did not highlight news items about the Nazi executions of 120,000 Romanian Jews..

1942: During the first week of April, Jews were mocked and hanged at Mlawa, Poland.

1942: The Nazis deported 965 Slovakian Jews to Auschwitz.

1942: In occupied Poland the Nazis created the Łachwa Ghetto when the town's Jews were forcibly moved into a new ghetto consisting of two streets and 45 houses, and surrounded by a barbed wire fence. The ghetto housed roughly 2,350 people, which amounted to approximately 1 square meter for every resident.

1943: By the beginning of April, Nazi killing squads had murdered almost two million Jews in Eastern Europe.

1943: Starting in the first week of April, the Germans forced Jewish prisoners to burn the bodies of 600,000 Jews exterminated at Belzec.

1943: During the first week of April, the Germans launched an offensive against Jewish partisans active in the Parczew Forest, Poland.

1943: During the first week of April, Resistance members derailed a death train in Belgium.

1943: Pope Pius XII complained that Jews are demanding and ungrateful.

1943: Dr. Julian Chorazycki, a former captain in the Polish Army and a leader of inmate resistance at the Treblinka death camp, took poison when the camp's deputy commandant discovered the stash of currency Chorazycki had planned to use to buy small arms.

1944: Having lost 95 bombers, in last night’s attack on Nuremberg, which was the worst single night of loss since the bombing campaign, leaders of the RAF consider how to continue their attacks.  (This should serve as a reminder that it is only in hindsight, that victory over the Nazis seemed inevitable.)

1945: On Easter, Jan M. Komski, who was not Jewish, was among the 20,000 prisoners marched from Hersbruck to Dachau

1945(18th of Nisan, 5705): Fourth Day of Pesach

1945(18th of Nisan, 5705): Twenty-seven year old Karel Švenk, the Czech entertainer who :was one of the first artists to be deported to Terezin in 1941 died today en route to Mauthausan.

1945(18th of Nisan, 5706: Ninety-six year German immigrant Isaac Wolfe Bernheim, the founder of I.W. Harper, the premium bourbon whiskey passed away today.

1945: Father Giuseppe Girotti, a Catholic theology professor at the Saint Maria della Rose Dominican Seminary of Turin, who acted to save many Jews by arranging safe hideouts and escape routes from the country died at Dachau. He had been arrested and sent to the camp after having been betrayed by an informer and caught in the midst of helping a wounded Jewish person. It is reported that while in Dachau, he continued to write his unfinished commentary on the biblical book of Jeremiah.

1946: It was reported today that Ian Morris Heilbron was to be “the first non-American to honored with the Priestly Medal.

1946: Sholom J. Kahn reviewed Star of the Unborn by Franz Werfel.

1947: The first Jewish immigrants disembark at the port of Eilat. Eilat is a port the southern end of Israel on the Gulf of Aqaba. Ben-Gurion was determined to make this part of the new state of Israel. The tale of the race for Eliat in 1948 is a tale of daring-do that would worthy of Rambo or James Bond. Ben Gurion realized how important this southern port would be to the development of trade, among other things. The reality has exceeded his vision.

1948: As the military situation for the Yishuv reaches a crisis status, Ben Gurion holds an urgent meeting with his senior Jewish Agency colleagues and forces them to adopt “a single blow offensive.”

1948: Arabs attacked Beit Alpha, a kibbutz near the Gilboa Ridge, with mortars.

1948: The first major report of Ralph Asher Alpher’s work describing the Big Bang Theory appeared in the periodical Nature.

1948: During Operation Nachshon, three large convoys broke through the blockade of Jerusalem bringing food and arms to the beleaguered Jewish population.

1949: Mordechai Maklef wаѕ appointed Head οf one of tһе General Command Departments in the IDF.

1950(14th of Nisan, 5710): Shabbat Hagadol

1950: At sundown, Israelis sit down to celebrate the second Pesach since the creation of the state of Israel. A Seder is being held on Mt. Scopus for the 118 Israelis taking care of the Hadassah Hospital and Hebrew University campus that have been cut off from the rest of Jewish Jerusalem. The climaxing word of the Seder “Next Year in Jerusalem” take on special meaning for the 80,000 newly arrived immigrants who will be eating their Matzah and Maror in transit camps.

1951: Following the issuance of an order by David Ben Gurion, the “Central Institute for Coordination” or Mossad became operation under directorship of Reuven Shiloah.

1952: The Jerusalem Post   reported that an acceptable formula had been reached at the London External Debts Conference on the eventual Israel-German reparations agreements. At The Hague, however, the German reparations delegation announced that it had no authority to assume any commitments towards Israel or World Jewry's representation. A woman who refused to accept a $10,000 inheritance from her sister, who died abroad, was charged with infringing Israel's financial regulations.

1952: “Aaron Slick from Punkin Crick” produced by William Perlberg and co-starring Dinah Shore was released in the United States today.

1952:  The Jerusalem Post reported that the deepest well in Israel, 565 m., was dug at Karkur and had produced 360 cu.m. of excellent water per hour.

1952(6th of Nisan, 5712): Hungarian born dramatist and novelist Ferenc Molnár passed away today in New York.

1953(16th of Nisan, 5713): Second Day of Pesach; First Day of the Omer

1953: One day after premiering in New York City, “Fear and Desire” “directed, produced and edited by Stanley Kubrick” with a script by Howard Sackler was released in the rest of the United States today.

1953: In New York City Irene “Kelly” Kellerman, “an art teacher” and “Sonny Sonnenfeld, a lighting salesman, educator, and architectural lighting designer” gave birth to Barry Sonnenfeld director of the comedies “Men In Black” and “When Harry Met Sally.”

1955(9th of Nisan, 5715): Sixty-six year old David Kass, the New York born son of Ida and Abraham Kass who was the founder and “President of the Overland Trading Company, Director of the Trade Bank of New York, President of Congregation Kehilath Jeshurun and husband of Sadie Kass with whom he had two daughters – “Helen Joy and Babette” passed away today.

1957: Birthdate of Representative Peter Deutsch, from Florida’s 20th Congressional District.

1957: First Jewish immigrants to arrive by ship disembarked at Eilat.

1958: U.S. premiere of “Teacher’s Pet” a romantic comedy produced by William Perlberg with a script by Fay and Michael Kanin.

1959: An IDF drill for calling up the reserves turned into a fiasco that became known as The Night of the Ducks.

1961(15th of Nisan, 5721): First Day of Pesach and Shabbat observed for the first time during the Presidency of JFK.

1962: At the Plaza, Dr. Julius Mark, the senior rabbi of Temple Emanu-El officiated at the wedding of Marjorie Hyman and Jay Michael Pidto.

1962: At the Plaza, Cantor Aaron Caplow officiated at the wedding of Diane Cecile Weiss and Dr. Maurice Mufson.

1962: At Abalon Kosher Caterers in the Bronx Rabbi Selig Auberach, the father of the bride assisted by Rabbi Morton Berman and Cantor Ephraim Rosenberg officiated at the wedding of Ruth Auberbach and Edward Lebowitz.

1962: At Temple Beth El, in Stamford, CT, rabbis David W. Pearlman and Ehren Kranz official at the wedding of Sandra Motyl and Stephen Barry Levine.

1962: Two days after he had passed away funeral services are scheduled to be held today at Temple Rodeph Sholom in Manhattan for seventy-two year old Boston native and New York University educated teacher Harold Fields the WW I Army veteran whose activities in the field of immigration including helping “to frame the National Origins Act of 1924,” participating in two conferences of Governor Roosevelt on immigration and working as a “consultant” on the topic for the famous trial lawyer Clarence Darrow.

1964(19th of Nisan, 5724): Fifth Day of Pesach observed during the Filibuster designed to kill the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

1964: Fifty Protestant, Roman Catholic and Jewish clergymen in Westchester County sent a message today to Premier Khrushchev urging that synagogues and Jewish seminaries be reopened and that imprisoned synagogue leaders be freed. They also asked that a ban on the baking of matzoh in state bakeries be lifted.

1965: The London Borough of Tower Hamlets which is the home of Field Street Great Synagogue founded in 1899, was created today.

1965(28th of Adar II, 5725): Helena Rubinstein US cosmetic manufacturer passed away. Her age was not accurately determined, but she was reported to be 89 at the time of her death.

1967(20th of Adar II, 5727): Parashat Shimin; Shabbat Parah

1968(3rd of Nisan, 5728): Russian physicist Lev D Landau passed away at the age of 59. He won the Nobel Prize in Physics for the year 1962 for his pioneering theories of condensed matter, especially liquid helium He is also admired for a prolific series of textbooks on theoretical physics, co-authored with E. M. Lifshitz.

1969: Holocaust survivor Fred Kort opened Imperial Toy Corp. on Seventh Street in downtown Los Angeles. His inaugural product: the hi-bounce ball. Kort's sons from his first marriage, Jordan, Steve and David, all joined their father's business.

1972(17th of Nisan, 5732): Third Day of Pesach and Shabbat

1973: In Castro Valley, CA, Elaine Maddow (née Gosse) and Robert B. “Bob” Maddow gave birth to MSNBC anchor and news personality Rachel Maddow whose paternal grandfather was from an Eastern European Jewish family named Medwedof but who is herself not Jewish.

1973: In Rabbi Soloveitchik’s Talmud shiur at Yeshiva University we completed learning the first chapter of Talmud Bavli Tractate Hullin. The Rav gave a dvar Torah at the Siyyum. He explained the meaning of the recitation of the hadran alakh, the prayer that promised upon the completion of learning a Talmud chapter or Tractate that we would return to study you – speaking to the text – again.

1974: The Interim Report of the Agranat Commission published today “called for the dismissal of a number of senior officers in the IDF and caused such controversy that Prime Minister Golda Meir was forced to resign.”

1975(20th of Nisan, 5735): Sixth Day of Pesach

1976(1st of Nisan, 5766): Rosh Chodesh Nisan

1976(1st of Nisan, 5766): Eighty-two year old NYU trained lawyer Charles Marks, the supporter of the YMHWHA and the controversial State Supreme Court Justice who presided over the Malcom X murder trial and who was the husband of “the former Beatrice Engelhart Rubin” and the father of three children – Howard, Lester and Lucille – from his first marriage to the former Paula Unger passed away today

1976(1st of Nisan, 5736): Eighty-four year old Max Ernst “the self-taught German-painter who formed a Dada group in Cologne, Germany, with other avant-garde artists and pioneered a method called frottage, in which a sheet of paper is placed on the surface of an object and then penciled over until the texture of the surface is transferred” passed away today.

1976: “Looking at the Law” featuring attorney Neil Lewis Chayet debuted today on WBZ.

1977:  The Jerusalem Post reported that the visit to Israel of the French foreign minister, Louis de Guiringaud, ended with "normalization," if not an improvement of strained relations.

1977: The Jerusalem Post reported that while visiting Washington King Hussein of Jordan declared that he was ready for a "full peace" with Israel, but would never give up East Jerusalem.

1977: The Jerusalem Post reported that the ambitious Netivei Ayalon highway system in Tel Aviv had been revised owing to enormous expenses.

1977:Raggedy Ann & Andy: A Musical Adventure” an animated feature film with the voices of Didi Conn as “Raggedy Ann,” Arnold Stang as “Queasy and Sheldon Harnick as “Barney Beanbag” was released today in the United States.

1977: U.S. premiere of “Hot Tomorrows” directed and produced by Martin Brest and starring Ken Lerner

1977(13th of Nisan, 5737): Ninety-year old Newark, NJ native and JTS ordained Rabbi, Eugene Kohn a disciple of Mordecai Kalan and leader of the Reconstructionist movement passed away today.

1978: Rafael Eitan was promoted to the rank of General and was appointed by Ezer Weizman to be the Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces.

1978: CBS broadcast the final episode of “The Bob Newhart Show,” a sitcom co-starring Suzanne Pleshette, the daughter of Jewish immigrants.

1980(15th of Nisan, 5740): Jews observe Pesach for the last time during the Presidency of Jimmy Carter.

1981: In London, the annual meeting of the International Catholic-Jewish Liaison Committee continued to meet for a second day.

1981: An Israeli communique said today that one Israeli soldier had been wounded in the fighting in southern Lebanon.

1982: “Efim Goldberg, of Riga, was warned to stop teaching Hebrew.”

1982(8th of Nisan, 5742): Eighty-two year old Jack I. Poses the “president and founder of Parfums D'Orsay Company, a founder of Brandeis University and a sponsor of the Poses School of Fine Arts at Brandeis” passed away today.

1982: It was reported today that “289 Jews had left the Soviet Union in March.”

1982: In trucks and vans loaded with furniture and farm equipment, most Jewish settlers completed their departure from northern Sinai yesterday, leaving behind a hard core of several hundred militants who vowed to defy the deadline imposed by the army for leaving the area.

1984: The long-term efforts of Arnold Resincoff, a Conservative Rabbi and former military chaplain, to convince the United States Department of Defense to participate in the national annual program for the Days of Remembrance of the Victims of the Holocaust took a significant step forward today when “Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger signed a memorandum to the military services, urging the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and other military commanders to participate in the annual program for the first time”

1987: Opening of the New York Antiquarian Book Fair whose offereings have included The ''Twenty Four Books of the Holy Scriptures,'' the first edition in English of what was for generations the standard Jewish-American Bible, translated and annotated by Rabbi Isaac Leeser and published in Philadelphia in 1853 ($1,750) and the first complete, corrected, printed film script of ''The Wizard of Oz,'' dated May 4, 1938, in its original blue wrappers from the files of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer ($7,500).

1988: “Beetlejuice” with music by Denny Elfaman and co-starring Winona Ryder, which opened theatrically in the United States today earned $8,030,897 in its opening weekend.

1989(25th of Adar II, 5749): Parashat Shmini; Shabbat HaChodesh

1991(17th of Nisan, 5751): Third Day of Pesach

1991: Ehud Barak began serving as Chief of the General Staff of the IDF during a time when the first Oslo Accords were being implemented and the negotiations were going forward that would lead to a peace treaty with Jordan.

1991:  Birthdate of California native, University of Chicago graduate and Steve Bannon acolyte Julia Aviva Hahn “an editor for Breitbart News and Special Assistant to President Donald Trump who is the granddaughter of Harold Honickman whose net worth in 2002 was estimated to be “$850 million” and who had multi-million dollar stock portfolio of her own when she joined the White House State.

1992: Daniel Goldin begins serving as the Administrator of NASA making him the first Jew to serve as head of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

1993: Five months after premiering in the United States, “Toys” a “fantasy comedy directed by Barry Levinson” who co-produced and co-wrote the script, filmed by cinematographer Adam Greenberg and with music by Hans Zimmer was released today in Australia.

1994: “Clifford,” a comedy co-starring Charles Grodin and co-produced by Larry Brezner was released today in the United States.

1994: WW II veteran and Harvard graduate Donald Mayer Blinken, the New York born son of Ethel Horowitz and Maurice Blinken and the father of Secretary of State Antony Blinken began serving as U.S. Ambassador to Hungary.

1996: In “Challenging a View of the Holocaust,” published today Danita Smith discusses the new information provided by Daniel Jonah Goldhagen in "Hitler's Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust."

1997: “--Lancit Media Entertainment, Ltd. (Nasdaq: LNCT), a leading creator and producer of high quality children's and family programming, today announced that Susan L. Solomon has been named Chairman of the Board of Directors and Chief Executive Officer of the Company, effective immediately.”

1998: “Israel today formally accepted a 20-year-old United Nations Security Council resolution calling on it to withdraw from Lebanese territory. But the Israelis said any pullback would be made only on the condition that Lebanon assume control over the region and prevent its use for attacks on Israel.”

1999(15th of Nisan, 5759): Final Pesach of the 20th century.

1999: Publication of “A Spiritual Life: A Jewish Feminist Journey” by Merle Feld.

1999: In Denmark, premiere of “The One and Only,” a Danish romantic comedy directed by Susanne Bier.

2000: Marvin Miller is inducted into The National Jewish Sports Hall of Fame and Museum.

2001: The New York Times featured books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including “Stet: A Memoir” by Diana Athill.

2001: Six days after she was killed by Palestinian gunfire, 10 month old Shalhevet Pass was buried today.

2001(8th of Nisan, 5761): Forty-two year old Dina Guetta was stabbed to death by a terrorist today on Ha’atzmaut Street.

2002: In response to the increasing violence or Arab terrorists that climaxed with the suicide bomber murdering 30 people at a Seder in the Park Hotel, the IDF made preparation for Operation Defensive Shield.

2002 (19th of Nisan, 5762) Fifth day of Pesach

2002(19th of Nisan, 5762) Tomer Mordechai, 19, of Tel-Aviv, a policeman, was killed in Jerusalem, when a Palestinian suicide bomber driving toward the city center blew himself after being stopped at a roadblock. The Fatah al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades claimed responsibility for the attack.

2002: “Using doctored pictures purportedly from the Hubble telescope, NASA ‘proved’ that the Moon was made of green cheese an expression that came from a fable that Reb Meir,Rashi, the Iraqi Rabbi Hai Gaoan and the Petrose Alponsi an apostate Spanish Jew helped to popularize.

2003: “A rumor that” Chilean television personality Mario Luis Kreutzberger Blumenfeld known to his public as “Don Francisco had died surfaced around the New York and New Jersey area. The rumor proved false, but sent many of his fans into a panic until it was revealed as an April Fool's joke.”

2003(28th of Adar II, 5763): Late in the evening, sixty-two year old  Robert M. Levine, Gabelli Senior Scholar in the Arts and Sciences, Director of Latin American Studies, and professor of history at the University of Miami, died after a determined and ever-optimistic fight against cancer.

2003(28th of Adar II, 5673): Eighty-eight year old Edward L. “Ed” Kweller who played college basketball for Duquesne before playing two years as professional in the pre-war National Basketball League passed away today.

2004(10th of Nisan, 5764): One-hundred-one year old Colonel Aaron Bank, a veteran of the OSS and founder of the “Green Berets” passed away today(As reported by Richard Goldstein)

2004: A revival of “Sly Fox” a comedy by Larry Gelbart featuring Richard Dreyfus opened at the Ethel Barrymore Theatre today.

2005(21st of Adar, 5765): Sixty-eight year old composer and song writer Jack Keller, the Brooklyn born son of Mal and Reva Keller who worked with fellow Jewish artists Carole King, Neil Sedaka and Howard Greenfield and whose musical skills ranged from writing the theme music for television hits like “Bewitched” to writing country and western music for Ernest Tubb and Loretta Lynn passed away today in Nashville, TN.

2005: Lewis Wolff was among those purchasing the Oakland Athletics baseball team today

2005: A sign was dedicated today in Deadwood, South Dakota by the Deadwood Historic Preservation Commission in conjunction with the Jewish American Society for Historic Preservation which records information about the purchase of Hebrew Hill and some of those buried there.

2006(3rd of Nisan, 5766): In an interesting calendar coincidence, April Fool’s Day coincides with the reading of the first portion from the Book Vayikra (There’s a sermon topic in there some place)

2007: The Sunday Washington Post reviewed two books designed to “untangle Biblical tales” that have just appeared in paperback: “David and Solomon In Search of the Bible's Sacred Kings And the Roots of the Western Tradition” by Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman and “Jesus and “Yahweh: The Names Divine” by Harold Bloom.

2007: The New York Times reviewed books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including the recently released paperback edition of “Jesus and Yahweh: The Divine Name” by Harold Bloom.

2007: Nancy Pelosi, Speaker of the House of the US Representatives addresses the Knesset in what is her first address to a foreign government legislature. She is the highest ranking American woman to speak before the Knesset.

2007: Based on stories in the secular press, the world of Kashrut is alive and well. The Washington Post featured an article entitled “A Doughnut Shop's Change Leaves a Hole” that tells about the consequences of four Dunkin Donut stores in the Washington area to give up their kosher certification. The Chicago Tribune featured an article entitled “China Firms Clamor To Go Kosher: Businesses covet certification that lets them tap $150 billion market.”

2007: “Gefilte Fish Chronicles” airs at 7 p.m. on New York’s Channel 13. The DVD has its own website

2007(13th of Nisan, 5767): Eighty-two year old Abraham Louis Limmer who gained fame as Lou “Boomie” Limmer the major league first baseman who overcame the effects of having broken his neck and suffered temporary blindness “while sliding into third base in the Western League” to play for the Philadelphia Athletics in 1951 and 1954 passed away today.

2007(13th of Nisan, 5767): Ninety-four year old Rabbi Josef Hirsch Dunner passed away today.

2007: German Chancellor Angela Merkel received an honorary doctor of philosophy degree from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem "in recognition of her lifelong dedication to the principles of democracy and in appreciation of her warm and constant friendship for the people and State of Israel."

2008: The 92nd Street Y presents “The Year of Living Biblically,” featuring author A.J. Jacobs who discusses his most recent book, The Year of Living Biblically, in which he recounts his fascinating, enlightening and delightfully strange year trying to follow all 613 commandments in the Bible.

2008: In Washington, D.C., Sidney Blumenthal, a former advisor in the Clinton White House, discusses and signs “The Strange Death of Republican America: Chronicles of a Collapsing Party” at a Barnes & Noble book store.

2008: Idina Menzel “kicked off her 2008-2009 "I Stand Tour" in support of her new album performing 4 sold out legs.”

2008: Shlomo “Benizri was convicted of accepting bribes, breach of faith, obstructing justice, and conspiracy to commit a crime for accepting favors worth millions of shekels from his friend, contractor Moshe Sela, in exchange for inside information regarding foreign workers scheduled to arrive in Israel.”

2008(25th of Adar II, 5768): Radio broadcaster and actress and Shosh Atari passed away at the age of 58 after suffering a serious illness. Atari was born in Rehovot, and grew up in the central town. She spent her military service in Army Radio, and after her discharge from the Israel Defense Forces worked at Channel 1 television. In the 1970s Atari joined Israel Radio as a presenter. In the 1980s, she became one of the stars of Reshet Gimmel radio, where she hosted popular music chart shows, and other programs with Tony Fine as her editor. Atari was also famous as the moderator on the "Pitzuhim" game show on the Israel's educational TV channel. At the end of the 1990s the broadcaster joined Lev Hamedina Radio. A few years ago Atari underwent a kidney transplant operation after suffering from a kidney illness. Following the operation she moved again to Reshet Gimmel, but then returned to broadcast a daily program on Lev Hamedina radio. The broadcaster also performed on the stage at the Be'er Sheva theatre. In 2004, Atari's book "Secrets and Lies" was published. In 2007 she returned to television, starring in the "It's all honey" drama series on Channel 2.

2008(25th of Adar II, 5768): Actor Mosko Alkalai, 77, died of respiratory failure. Alkalai was hospitalized and underwent surgery in Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center several weeks ago but was unable to recover. Winner of the Israeli Film Academy's 2003 Lifetime Achievement Awards, Alkalai graced the stage and silver screen in a career spanning 21 years, appearing in dozens of theater plays and motion pictures. He also took part in various public activities and was the chairman of the Israeli Union of Performing Arts a member of the Israeli Arts Council and a member of the Israeli Film Academy.

2009: Avigdor Lieberman replaced Tzipi Livni as Minister of Foreign Affairs.

2009: Yitzhak Aharonovich replaced Avi Dichter as Minister of Internal Affiars.

2009: The Center for Jewish History, PEN, Office of Cultural Affairs, Consulate General of Israel in New York and Blue Metropolis International Literary Festival co-sponsor a PEN World Voices entitled “Evolution/Revolution: Meir Shalev in Conversation with Daniel Menaker” featuring Israeli writer Meir Shalev the author of more than 16 highly praised works, spanning fiction, non-fiction and children's books and Daniel Menaker, the former Random House Editor-in-Chief.

2009: In Cedar Rapids, Iowa, Temple Judah hosts a congregational meeting as it begins a search for its next Rabbi.

2009: The Centennial Conference for Urban Sustainability opens at the Tel Aviv Performing Arts Center.

2009: A new exhibition by the Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw that has brought together photos and documents depicting the rich history of 1,000 years of Jewish life in Poland goes on display today at the European Parliament in Brussels and will run nearly a week.

2009(7th of Nisan, 5769): Marcos Moshinsky “a Mexican physicist of Ukrainian and Jewish origin whose work in the field of elementary particles won him the Prince of Asturias Prize for Scientific and Technical Investigation in 1988 and the UNESCO Science Prize in 1997” passed away today.

2009: “Picturing the Shoah,” a film festival sponsored by YIVO that explores how movies have represented the Holocaust from radical, provocative, and unexpected angles opens with a showing of “Schindler’s List.”

2010: An exhibition entitled “From Dream to Reality: Zionism and the Birth of Israel” presented by the YIVO Institute for Jewish Research is scheduled to come to an end today.

2010: An exhibition entitled “Folk Art Judaica by Herman Braginsky” presented by Yeshiva University Museum featuring carved ritual objects made of fine and aged woods, including tzedakah boxes, Torah pointers, mezuzot, dreidels, Torah arks, spice containers, and other works created by self-taught craftsman Herman Braginsky who was born in 1912 and passed away in 1999 is scheduled to come to an end today2010: A ceremony officially classifying the Machpelah Cave in Hevron as a National Heritage Site is scheduled to be held today, as tens of thousands visit the city for a Hol Hamo'ed celebration 2010: The New York Times features a review of “Jenniemae & James: A Memoir in Black & White” in which Brooke Newman writes about her father, the famous mathematician James Newman,” the son of Jewish immigrants “who “had an I.Q. of 175.”


2010: During a visit to Damascus, Democratic Sen. John Kerry, chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, reiterated US misgivings about the flow of weapons through Syria to Hizbullah and told reporters the US view is that this is "something that must stop" for there to be peace.

2011: Eatliz, one of Israel’s leading alternative rock bands, is scheduled to perform at the City Winery in New York City.

2011: The Arizona Diamondback hired former basketball front office maven Jerry Krause as a scout today.

2011: “Nora’s Will” and “Anita” are two of the films scheduled to be shown at the Westchester Jewish Film Festival.

2011: A loud explosion was heard outside the house of opposition leader Tzipi Livni today. The blast was apparently a result of a firecracker thrown at the security stand outside Livni's Tel Aviv home. Livni was not at her house when the explosion occurred.

2011: Residents from all over Israel reported that they felt an earthquake this afternoon. Israel's Geophysical Institute said the earthquake, which occurred over 800km from Israel, was mostly felt in the north of Israel, including the towns of Safed and Nahariya. At the same time as residents in Israel reported buildings shaking, a deep 5.9 magnitude earthquake struck in the sea 76 miles (120 km) east-northeast of Iraklio, a town on the Greek island of Crete, on Friday, the US Geological Survey said.

2011: Britain's first Jewish ambassador to Israel, Matthew Gould and his wife Celia had their first sabra baby girl today. Baby Rachel Elizabeth was born early this morning at the Lis Maternity Hospital in the Tel Aviv Medical Center. We are both incredibly happy and proud new parents," Gould said. "We are very grateful for the fabulous care we've received and all the mazel tovs we've been sent."

2011: “Lillian Bassman: Lingerie,” is scheduled to be published by Abrams today.

2012: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including ‘Enemies: A History of the FBI’  by Tim Weiner and ‘Mudwoman’ by Joyce Carol Oates.

2012: Aluf Ram Rothberg, commander of the Israeli Navy reportedly “ordered senior commanders to prepare for a complex, 10-day exercise in Italy with the US and Italian navies” as part of an April Fool’s Day prank that got out of hand.

2012: Anthony Russell, “an exciting new talent in the world of Yiddish music” is scheduled to perform at Temple Beth Emeth in Brooklyn.

2012: “Footnote” and “Salmon Fishing in the Yemen” are two of the films scheduled to be shown at Hartford Jewish Film Festival.

2012(9th of Nisan, 5772): Eighty-year old “Edmund L. Epstein the literary scholar who saved Lord of the Flies” passed away today. (As reported by Bruch Weber)

2012: “Spinozium” is scheduled to take place today at Theatre J in Washington, DC.

2013(21st of Nisan, 5773): Seventh Day of Pesach; Reform Jews recite Yizkor

2013(21st of Nisan, 5773): Seventy-year old William H. Ginsburg, the California civil lawyer who was thrust into the national spotlight when he represented Monica Lewinsky, passed away today.

2013: Those visiting the symphony bar are scheduled to have a chance to “experience Leopold Bloom's passage through Dublin in a dramatic episode from James Joyce’s masterwork Ulysses.”

2013: In New York, Larry Schwartz and Beth Sandweiss are scheduled to offer a course in Jewish mindfulness which is designed to integrate the knowledge and practice of Judaism with mindfulness practice and key ideas that support that practice.

2013: Beginning this morning, Israel “was hit by strong winds and dust” which led to “high levels of air pollution causing breathing complications.” (As reported by Yoel Goldman

2013: In Ancient Fear Rises Anew Lisa Abend describes the resurgence of anti-Semitism in Hungary.

2014: The Hebrew Language Table at the Library of Congress is scheduled to co-sponsor a presentation by Professor Gabriel Weimann entitled “Terrorism in Cyberspace: The Next Generation.”

2014: Episodes 3, 4 and 5 of “The Story of the Jews with Simon Schama,” are scheduled to be shown this evening.

2015: The Jewish Community Center of Northern Virginia is scheduled to host “Its Yiddish Time” with Alex Lieberman.

2015: “Woman in Gold” is scheduled to open today in U.S. theatres.

2015: “Joy of Life: Paintings by Dolorosa Rubens Margulis” is scheduled to open at the Oregon Jewish Museum and Center for Holocaust Education.

2015: “Jewish Oklahomans” by Phil Goldfarb, Ed Harris and Katherine Frame was filed today.

2015:Anna Sapir Abulafia, the wife of historian David Afulafia, was appointed the Professor of the Study of the Abrahamic Religions in the faculty of theology and religion at Lady Margaret Hall, University of Oxford tday

2015: In recognition of the 50th anniversary of the establishment of New York City’s Landmarks Law, architectural historian and preservationist Samuel D. Gruber is scheduled to lecture on “Synagogues of New York: History, Architecture, and Community” at the Center for Jewish History.

2015: Ninety-three year old “James Venture, one of the last survivors of the infamous Train de Loos, which carried French resistance fighters, Communists and Jews from a prison in the northern French village of Loos to concentration camps in Germany in September 1944passed away today.

2015: The second and final episode of “The Dovekeepers” a fictional account of the final days at Masada is scheduled to be shown on CBS.

2016: Kate Hinz, daughter of Stephanie and Daniel Hinz and Ben Binder, son of Janice Binder, begin their B’Nei Mitzvah weekend by helping to lead Friday night services at Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, IA.

2016: “Beyond the Balcony: the Works of Michal Nachmany is scheduled to open today in New York City.

2016: In Fairfax, VA, the “First Friday Boaok Group” is scheduled to discuss Honeydew by Edith Pearlman.

2017(5th of Nisan, 5777): Parashat Vayikra

2017(5th of Nisan, 5777): Fifty-four year old Amy Barnum, the wife of Joel Barnum with whom she raised three daughters – Emma, Sasah and Gail – and daughter Jack and Bette Kozlen of Omaha who was a pillar, in the truest sense of that term, of the Jewish community in Cedar Rapids and a driving force behind the Traditional Services at Temple Judah passed away today in what can only be described as a tragic loss for all of us.

2017: For the second time this week Arab terrorists struck in Jerusalem today when two teenaged boys were stabbed in the Old City.

2017: In Buenos Aires, 91 year old Holocaust survivor Eugenia Unger, who usually displays the number tattooed on her arm by the Nazis, covered it with her Shabbat clothes and her talit when she celebrated her bat mitzvah today. (JTA/TOI)

2017: Bob Dylan finally received “his Nobel Literature diploma medal…during a small gathering this afternoon in a hotel” in Stockholm, Sweden. (As reported by David Keyton)

2017: In New Orleans the Jewish Children Regional Services is scheduled to host its annual gala “Jews Roots of Past, Present and Future, honoring the former and current leadership of JCRS.

2017: The Seattle Jewish Film Festival is scheduled to host a showing of “Past Life,” “a suspenseful, twisty, true tale from Israeli master Avi Nesher.”

2017: Sixty-eight year old Rabbi David Saperstein, who “for the law two years served as the US ambassador-at-large for international religious freedom” is scheduled to “return to the Union of Reform Judaism’s senior staff” today.

2018: The New York Times published books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Return of Marco Polo’s World: War, Strategy and American Interests in the Twenty-First Century by Robert D. Kaplan and (((SEMITISM))):Being Jewish in America in the Age of Trump

by Jonathan Weisman

2018(16th of Nisan, 5778): Second day of Pesach; First Day of the Omer

2018: In Jerusalem, the Tower of David is scheduled to host a performance of “Jerusalem in My Heart” which tells “the story of Nissim, a Jew who is coming to Israel from Spain on his way to the Western Wall

2018: “The Kushners Saw Redemption in the White House. It Was a Mirage” published today described the relationship of the family of Donald Trump’s Jewish in-laws.

2019: In Tel Aviv, 18 Bar Kochva is scheduled to be the site for the monthly “Women Wine and Wisdom”

where the women of Israel’s largest city “join together to explore inner freedom based on lessons from Passover and to celebrate Rosh Chodesh Nisan.”

2019: The Tel Aviv LGBTQ Center is scheduled to host “Everything you wanted to know about Israeli elections but were afraid to ask” a non-partisan event with appearances by Anat Nir, Idan Roll and Merav Ben Ari.

2019: The Center for Jewish History and the American Jewish Historical Society are scheduled to present a conversation with journalist Peter Beinart and Yale Professor Jason Stanley, the author of How Fascism Works, The Politics of Us and Them

2019: At Tifereth Israel in Des Moines, IA, the Iowa Jewish Historical Soceity is scheduled to host “Memories and Melodies of Auschwitz,” “featuring Schindler’s list survivor Celina Karp and pianists Alex Biniaz-Harris and Ambrose Soehn, “composers of ‘Melodies of Auschwitz.’”

2019: The Yeshiva University Museum is scheduled to host curator Ilona Moradof’s tour of “Kindertransport – Rescuing Children on the Brink of War” which illuminates “the organized rescue efforts that brought thousands of children from Nazi Europe to Great Britain in the late 1930s.”

2020: Hillel@Home is scheduled to host Amar’e Stoudermire, “he former NBA star and owner of a kosher organic farm as he talks about diversity in Jewish life.”

2020: In a “Zoom class HaMaqom,” Rabbi Stuart Kelman is scheduled to conduct “an inclusive discussion about death and dying, focusing on Jewish laws and traditions.”

2020: The London School of Jewish Studies is scheduled to host an on-line class with Rabbi Barry Kleinberg lecturing on “From the Sages, Thought and Law: Rav Kook.”

2020: On-line, the Streicker Center is scheduled to host Hadar Orshalimy speaking on “Jazz by Jewish Composers.

2020: “Tightrope: American Reaching for Hope” scheduled for today at the Illinois Holocaust Museum has been cancelled due to the Pandemic.

2020: “Sephardic Communities: Preserving Holocaust History through Artifacts, Archives, and Research” sponsored by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum scheduled to take place tonight at Florida Atlantic University has been canceled due to the Pandemic.

2020(7th of Nisan, 5780): On the Hebrew calendar Yahrzeits for the Jews of York who rejected “an invitation to baptism” and committed mass suicide and Rabbi PInchas Zelig of Lusk.

2021(19th of Nisan, 5781): Fourth Day of Pesach

2021: NFTY Northeast whose “area encompasses five NFTY regions, including Northeast, New York, Garden Empire, Pennsylvania and Mid-Atlantic” is scheduled to present online, an “Open Space for Youth Professionals.”

2021: Temple Israel of Boston is scheduled to present online “Passover Cooking Across the Diaspora” with culinary historian Sara Gardner.

2021: The Contemporary Jewish Museum and Yiddish Book Center are scheduled to present SFSU professor Rachel Gross and U. of Chicago professor Jessica Kirzane talking about the evolution and importance of matzah balls and their connection to Jewish identity.

2021: Under an agreement between Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and Cypriot President Nicos Anastasiades which is set to go into effect today, travelers who have received a full dose of one of the European-approved COVID-19 vaccines will not have to take two PCR (polymerase chain reaction) tests before traveling from one of the countries to the other and will not need to enter quarantine upon arrival.

2022: In Ross, CA, Ross Alternative Works and Ross Valley Players are scheduled to present “The Packrat Gene,” a play about three generations of Jewish women working through their personal and cultural history and possessions.

2022: In Columbus, OH, Congregation Tifereth Israel is scheduled to begin its Scholar-In-Residence Weekend with a lecture by Dora Horn on “Technology, Memory, and the Past that Lives Within the Present.”

2022: In Brookline, MA, Andrew Tanner is scheduled to lead “Om Shalom Yoga Shabbat.”

2022: Lockdown University is scheduled to host a webinar on the parsha of the week with Rabbi Yonason Shippel

2022: In Beachwood, OH, Temple-Tifereth Israel is scheduled to host a Jazz Shabbat.

2022: April Fool’s Day

2023: Salomon and Daughters is scheduled to take part in the MoCCA Arts Festival, New York City's largest independent comics and cartoon art festival

2023: Israelis brace for the possibility of more post-Shabbat demonstrations by those opposed to the proposed Judicial reform laws.

2023: Lockdown University is scheduled to host a webinar with Professor David Peimer lecturing on Satire vs. Evil, Part 1: Kurt Weil/Brecht, Hitler's Mein Kampf.

2023: Alisa Weilerstein is scheduled to the first installment of “Fragments” today at Zankel Hall.

2023(10th of Nisan, 5783): Shabbat HaGadol; for more see





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