September is an auspicious month in terms of Jewish History. Like most things in the world of Jews, it is a mixed bag-- a combination of the bitter and the sweet.
Today we mark the anniversary of the start of World War II. By the end of the war, the world of European Jewry would lie in ruins. After two thousand years of growth and contribution, that civilization would cease to exist as we had known it.
September also marks the anniversary of the beginning of the Jewish community in the United States. From twenty-three stormed tossed refugees has come one of the most dynamic civilizations in Jewish history.
1312 BCE (10th of Tishrei): According to the Bible, the day on which Moses came down from Mt. Sinai with the second set of Tablets on which the Ten Commandments were inscribed.
992: In Limoges, France, A Jewish apostate named Sechog ben Ester planted a wax figure in the ark of the local synagogue and then accused the local Jews of using it to curse the local Lord by devil magic. Although they succeeded in deflecting the accusation, the idea that Jews were devil worshippers was gaining more acceptance in the Christian world. A brief account...
1181: Lucius III, who issued Ad Abolendam – a Papal Bull condemning heresy which created the Inquisition – was elected Pope today/
1199(8th of Tishri): Maimonides wrote to Samuel Ibn-Tibbon, who as translating the "Guide to the Perplexed from Arabic into Hebrew. The letter included advice on how to do this as well as plea that Ibn-Tibbon not undertake his planned trip from France to Egypt to visit him. The distance was too great and he would be too busy since to see him for more than an hour since each day except Shabbat he must travel from Fostat to Cairo where he spends half a day ministering to the Sultan and his court. Then he travels back to Fostat where he is besieged by Jews, Moslems, et al all seeking his medical skill and advice.
1239: During the Baron’s Crusade, whose leaders included Simon de Montfort, the Earl of Leicester who expelled the Jews from his domain and cancelled all debts owed to the Jews of England, Theobold, the King of Navarre reach Acre
1267: Ramban (Moses Nachmanides or Moses ben Nachman) arrived in Jerusalem. Born in 1194, Nachmanides was a famed commentator on the Torah and Talmud and a major communal leader in Spain. He also was the court physician to King James of Aragon (a part of Spain). King James forced him to defend Judaism in a public debate with Pablo Christiani, a Jew who had converted to Catholicism. To make a long story short, Nachmanides vigorous defense angered the Dominican friars and Nahcmanides was forced to flee. He gave life to a Jewish community in Jerusalem that had fallen on such hard times that it had trouble gathering a minyan. Among other things he built a synagogue in Jerusalem that was the sole such building for several centuries to come. Nachmanides moved to Acre in 1268 where he led that community until 1270.
1271: Gregory X, the pontiff who will issue “Sicut Judaeis” in 1272 which absolved the Jews of “using Christian blood for ritual purposes” began his papacy.
1577: Pope Gregory XIII, reconfirming the Bull off Pope
1584: Gregory XIII issued Sancta Mater Ecclesia, a Papal Bull concerning the obligatory preaching of Christian sermons to Jews. The Bull required that 100 men and 50 women be sent every Saturday to listen to conversion sermons delivered in a church near the ghetto.
1592: Archbishop Salikowski ordered the Jews to build a church in Lvov Poland marking a period of increasing persecution.
1614: Vincent Fettmich expelled the Jews from Frankfurt-on-Main, Germany.
1749: The delegates of the Hungarian Jews, except those from Szatmar County, assembled at Pressburg and met a royal commission, which informed them that they would be expelled from the country if they did not pay this tax. The frightened Jews at once agreed to do so; and the commission then demanded a yearly tax of 50,000 gulden. This sum being excessive, the delegates protested; and although the queen had fixed 30,000 gulden as the minimum tax, they were finally able to compromise on the payment of 20,000 gulden a year for a period of eight years. The delegates were to apportion this amount among the districts; the districts, their respective sums among the communities; and the communities, theirs among the individual members. The queen confirmed this agreement of the commission, except the eight-year clause, changing the period to three years, which she subsequently made five.
1715: King Louis XIV of France dies after a reign of 72 years. The Sun King’s record in dealing with the Jewish people was never good, but it got really awful just before his death. Seized with the deathbed religious fervor the debauched, he came fully to accept the position of the Church and the Jesuits when he banned all Jews from Marseilles Toulon and the rest of Provence in 1710. “The Jews were ordered, in his words, ‘to leave the kingdom without any belongs’ and local officials were told to take any and all means to expel the Jews ‘because that is our wish.’”
1749: “The delegates of the Hungarian Jews, except those from Szatmár County, assembled at Pressburg and met a royal commission, which informed them that they would be expelled from the country if they did not pay the ‘toleration-tax’ that had been imposed on them during the reign of Queen Maria Theresa the daughter of Charles III The commission wanted 50,000 gulden; the queen wanted 30,000 gulden and the Jews ended up paying 20,000 gulden a year for an agreement that allowed them to stay in their homes for five years (Ant-Semitism is a money maker)
1752: The Liberty Bell arrived in Philadelphia. The Bell is inscribed with words from the 25th chapter of Leviticus, "Proclaim liberty throughout all the land unto all the inhabitants thereof. It is but one of many examples of how Jewish culture and values had an impact on Western civilization in general and, in this case, early American culture specifically.
1761: Birthdate of German theologian Heinrcih Paulus, author of the “The Jewish National Separation: Its Origin, Consequences and the Means of its Correction” a pamphlet in which he “argued that "Jews were a nation apart, and would remain so as long as they were committed to their religion, whose basic intent and purpose were to preserve them in that condition. In a country that was not their own, therefore, Jews could not claim more than the bare protection of their lives and possessions. They might certainly not claim political equality."
1763: Catherine II of Russia endorses Ivan Betskoy’s plans for a Foundling Home in Moscow. Betskoy was an educational reformer and accepting his plan was in keeping with Catherine’s self-image of being “a child of the Enlightenment.” This happened a year after Catherine came to the throne in a period when her hold on the office was still shaky due to the way she had gained her crown. At this time, Catherine was also gingerly working her way around the anti-Jewish laws of her late mother-in-law “quietly” allowing “useful” Jews such as doctors, contractors and businessman to work in St. Petersburg. Catherine’s accepting view of her Jewish subjects would change during the last years of her reign, when the limitations she place on them began the creation of what would become the Pale of Settlement.
1795: Birthdate of James Gordon Bennett, Sr., the found of the New York Herald. When he died in 1872, he would be memorialized as “an honest supporter and true friend” of the Jewish people whose newspaper “always gave firm and true support to” the Jewish people.
1800: Lyon Nathan married Hannah Benjamin at the Great Synagogue today.
1805: In Georgetown, SC, Sarah Judah and Lizer Joseph gave birth to Jacob Judah Joseph, the husband of Sarah Emanuel and the father of Lizar, Molcie, Josephine and Joseph ben Joseph.
1805: During the dispute sparked by the publication of ‘Emeḳ ha-Shaweh (Vale of the Plain), Rabbi Moses Münz summoned two rabbis to come to Óbuda to form with him a tribunal before which would hear the case against the author, Rabbi Aron Chorin.
1810: In Jebenhausen, Germany, “Rehle (Sarah) Jonathan and Moses Faist Rosenheim gave birth to Perez Rosenheim.
1819(11th of Elul, 5579): Seventy-six year old Abigail Seixas, the daughter of Isaac Menes Siexas and Rachel Franks Levy passed away today in Richmond, VA.
1820: Former President Thomas Jefferson wrote to Dr. Jacob De La Motta of Savannah, GA. Jefferson repeated his belief in religious freedom and his happiness at “restoration of the Jews” especially as regards “their social rights.” He looks forward to the day when they will take “their seats on the benches of science” as preparation to “their doing the same at the board of government.” (As reported by the Jewish Virtual Library)
1822: Brazil declared its independence from Portugal. Soon after this declaration of independence many Spanish Jews from Morocco migrated to the area. By 1879 Sephardim had settled all the way down to the Amazon rain forest area.
1824(8th of Elul, 5584): Thirty-nine year old Moses Mordecai, the New York City born son of Judith Myers and Jacob Mordecai, the husband of Margaret Lane and the father of Henry, Ellen and Jacob Mordecai, passed away today in Sweet Springs, VA.
1824(8th of Elul, 5584): Thirty-nine year old Moses Mordecai, the New York City born son of Judith Myers
1827: Löbl Strakosch and Julia Schwarz gave birth to their sixth child Samuel.
1829(3rd of Elul, 5589): New York City native Myer Ellis, the husband of Francis Polock whom he married in 1821 passed away today in New Orleans.
1830: Barnet Emanuel married Amelia Isaacs at the Great Synagogue today.
1835: Birthdate of Yosef Chaim, the Baghdad native who is also
known as Ben Ish Chai which is the name of his seminal work on halachah. Ben Ish Chai is Hebrew for “son of man who
lives,” a term that harkens back to Ezekiel and the Valley of the Dry Bones
(Son of Man, can these bones live?).
1836 Reconstruction begins on the “Synagogue of Rabbi Judah Hasid” in Jerusalem.
1837: In Willoughby, OH, Dr. Daniel Moses Levy Maduro Peixotto, the Amsterdam born of Chazan Moses Levi Maduro Levy Maduro Peixotto and Judith van Samuel Pexitto, and his wife Rachel Lopes Mendex Peixotto gave birth Raphael Mozes Levy Maduro Peixotto
1841: John Jacobs married Frances Samson in Liverpool, UK.
1841: Based on the advice given to him by the Duke of Sussex that travel would improve his work, Solomon Alexander Hart left England on his way to Italy “where he made many architectural and other drawings, originally intended for publication as a series of engravings but which were ultimately used as studies for his pictures of Italian history and scenery.”
1844: Birthdate of “Dutch philologist Herman Josef Polak” the native of Leyden who “in 1894 was appointed professor of Greek at Gröningen University.”
1848: In Suvalki, Poland, Abraham Feinberg and his wife gave birth to Moses Feinberg who came to the United States in 1868 where he served as a cantor for Congregations New Beth Israel, Poale Zedek and Adath Yeshurun.
1852: Birthdate of Kaunas native Max Bernhard Weinstein, “a German physicist and philosopher” “best known as an opponent of Einstein’s Theory of Relativity.”
1853: The New York Times reported that civil unrest continues to rock Venezuela. “At Barcelona, the government of General Monagas has published a ‘warning”” aimed at foreigners in general and Jews in particular accusing them of being the instigators of the unrest. After a delegation of Jews and other foreigners sought help from the Dutch Consul at Caracas, a Dutch man-of-war sailed to Barcelona where it could offer protection to those who have been threatened.
1854: Thirty year old James (Jacob) Seligman and Rosa Seligman gave birth to Samuel Jefferson Seligman.
1855: Mademoiselle Rachel, the great French Tragedienne, is scheduled to make her New York debut today. Mademoiselle Rachel is Elizabeth Rachel Felix, the daughter of a German-Swiss Jew named Felix and his wife Esther Haya.
1857: Banker Henri Louis Bischoffsheim and his wife gave birth to Ellen Odette Cuffe, Countess of Desart, née Bischoffsheim, the wife of William Cuffe, the 4th Earl of Desart “who has been called ‘the most important Jewish woman in Irish history.’”
1857: The New York Times reported that a decision has been made to carry the question of admitting Jews to Parliament has been carried over to the next session much to the relief of Lord Russell.
1857: In Philadelphia, PA the Judith Simha Solis and Myer David Cohen gave birth Dr. Solomon Solis Cohen, an 1883 Jefferson Medical School graduate who taught at Dartmouth College.
1858: The New York Times published a report today that Pierre Soule has arrived in Washington. Mr. Soule was described as “a man of power” who “possesses undoubted influence over public affairs.” The article also reported that if Soule decided to run for the Senate he could defeat John Slidell. Furthermore, the article reported that like Judah P. Benjamin, the Senator from Louisiana, “Mr. Soule is a Jew, and the Hebrew element is a rising one in the aggregate intellect of the country.” [Editor’s note – If Soule were in fact Jewish, the author is saying that Louisiana would be the first state in the Union to be represented in the U.S. by two Jews.]
1861: Thomas Jordan General Beauregard’s Assistant Adjutant-General sent a letter on behalf of the Confederate Commander to Rabbi M.I. Mechelbacker of Richmond denying his request to grant furloughs to Jewish Soldiers starting on September 2nd and lasting through September 15th so that might attend services for Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur. The Confederate generals are sure that Jews in and out of the army will understand given the military situation which finds Southern forces “bivouacked in full view of the capitol of the late United States.” Jordan assured the Rabbi that the God who “released your people from Egypt bondage” will understand. (Like many Southerners, Jordan did not see the irony of the side that was fighting to preserve slavery invoking the liberation from Egyptian bondage.)
1861: Philadelphian Emil Meyer began serving as a Second Lieutenant in Company G of the 174th Regiment.
1861: Herman Bendel, the Albany, NY, born son of Elias Bendell and Hannah Stern, “was commissioned as assistant surgeon to the 6th New York Keavy Artillery Regiment” after which “he returned to Albany Medical College to graduate with his class.”
1861 Paul Weinberger “transferred to the 29th Regiment of the New York Volunteers” today.
1862: Jacob Rosentell who would rise to the rank of Sergeant and was wounded in the Battle of Wilderness, began serving in company F of the 139th Regiment.
1863: “Abraham Dusch” who had been serving with Company C of the 27th Regiment transferred today to the “Veteran Reserve Corps.”
1863: Today, Daniel Edward Bandmann, the German born son of Solomon and Rebecca Bandmann “appeared at Niblo's in the first performance in New York of John Guido Methua's adaptation from the German of Emil Brachvogel, entitled Narcisse: or, The Last of the Pompadours” after which he “began a five-year tour of North America principally in the roles of Hamlet, Shylock, Othello, logo, Gloucester, Macbeth, Benedict and Narcisse.”
1864: Private Henry Arnold, who would rise to the rank of Corporal before his discharge, began serving in Battery of I of the 204th Regiment of the Fifth Artillery.
1867(1st of Elul, 5627): Rosh Chodesh Elul
1868: In Egeln, German, Selig Bumenthal, the son Salomon and Lea Blumenthal and his wife Juliane Blumenthal gave birth to Max Meyer Blumenthal, M.D.
1868: Twenty-seven year old Isaias Wolf Hellman co-founded Hellman, Temple and Co., the second official bank in the city of Los Angeles which would be followed by Hellman co-founding Farmers and Merchants Bank of Los Angeles in 1871 which proved to be the city “first successful bank.”
1869: In Brooklyn, Jacob Baiz, the Venezuelan born son of Abraham and Sarah Miriam Baiz, and his wife Emily Mendes Baiz gave birth to Anita Baiz
1873: A Jewish peddler named Samuel Bendtersar was arrested this morning in Flushing on charges of having assaulted Johanna Fatsner.
1874: Birthdate of Ismar Elbogen the German born rabbi and historian whose work included Jewish Liturgy: A Comprehensive History published in 1913 and translated into English by Raymond P. Scheindlin in 1993
1876: Sir Julius Vogel completed his services as Prime Minister of New Zealand. Vogel was the first Jew to hold this position.
1876: Hyman B. Isaacson and his wife, daughter of Russian cigar maker Reuben Pupkin, gave birth to their only son Nachum Isaacson who started a boy’s clothing manufacturing company in New York where he worked until he passed away at the age of 38.
1877: “Notes from the Capital” published today described the recent dedication of Washington Hebrew Congregation during which Rabbi Szold of Baltimore delivered the sermon. President Rutherford B. Hayes, who had promised to attend, “sent a message expressing his regret at being unable to fulfill his promise.”
1877: In Boston, Massachusetts, Fishel Currick and his wife gave birth to Max C. Currick the graduate of University of Cincinnati a Hebrew Union College who served as a rabbi at Fort Smith in western Arkansas before assuming the leadership of Anshe Chesed at Erie, PA in 1901.
1878: It was reported today that 200 delegates attended the opening session of the Pan-Jewish Conference in Paris. Adolph Cremieux presided over the meeting at which it was reported that the organization had 24,000 members and had collected 111,000 francs in the past year. The delegates sought ways to improve the moral, intellectual and political conditions of the Jews living in various parts of the world.
1878: It was reported today that there were those in England who claimed Disraeli would play the ultimate joke when he died by renouncing his youthful conversion to Christianity and being buried next to his Jewish father. Others claimed that Disraeli would do no such thing, choosing to be buried next to his wife.
1878: It was reported today that among the donations made to help those suffering from the Yellow Fever Epidemic in the Deep South was $100 from the Hebrews of the St. Joseph Mission earmarked for the Howard Association in Memphis, Tenn.
1879: “Henry O’Brien’s Experiment” published today described the 12 year old Irish boy’s attempt to find out how a Jew, in this case Harris Goldstein, would react when tricked into eating pork. (It must have been a slow news day in New York)
1881: “Ephraim and Clara (Lerner) Tepper gave birth to Georgetown University trained attorney and husband of Mary Collegeman Joseph L. Tepper, the Washington D.C businessman who was Presient of the Guaranty Mortgage Company, Prescient of the Jewish Federation Societies of the District of Columbia and member of the executive committee of the American Jewish Congress.
1882: In Fifth District Civil Court in New York City, Civil Justice Alfred Steckler heard Freund versus Selig in which the plaintiff sought to force the defendant Louis Selig to repay what he claimed was a ten dollar loan. Selig, a well-known Jewish police officer claimed that the ten dollars in questions was not a loan but a gift made on his behalf as a political contribution.
1882: It was reported today that large numbers of unemployed Jewish refugees “continue to besiege” the Hebrew Aid Society on State Street in search of financial assistance.
1882: Theobold Michael, President of the Synagogue and Talmud Torah at 622 Fifth Street, appeared at the Essex Market Police Court where he filed a complaint against Charles A. Leopold claiming that the defendant “annoyed the congregation” during services “by swearing at them, using insulting language” and throwing mud into the synagogue. Leopold denied the allegations and claimed that the Jewish prayers disturbed his invalid wife. The Judge let Leopold go after telling him that he not “disturb the congregation.”
1883: The military fired on a mob of two thousand peasants today who “had invaded” the town of “Krapina…for the purposed of attacking the Jews.
1883: It was reported today that Herr von Tisza, the President of the Hungarian Council has instituted news measures to protect Jews from any more attacks. From now on, any rioter who attacks a Jew and is condemned to death under a decree of martial law will be put to death within three hours after being sentencing.
1884: In Paterson, NJ, founding of B’nai Israel which holds services daily, owns a cemetery in Bergen, NJ and whose members include “Louis Urdond, Harris Jacob, Harris Rome, Nathan Elkind, David Etkin, Bernot Grazinsky and Lipman Simon.”
1884: Birthdate of May H. Friedman Fleisher the wife of Philadelphian Willis Fleisher.
1884: Birthdate of Friedrich Wilhelm von Prittwitz und Gaffron the German Ambassador to the United States under the Weimar Republic who resigned in protest the day after Hitler came to power and who warned German Jewish playwright Lion Feuchtwagner not to return to Germany.
1884: Birthdate of Charles Ezekiel Polowetski, the Russian born American painter.
1884: It was reported today that fifty-five year old Daniel Weinberger whose body was discovered yesterday in his room on South Halstead Street left a note for his landlord Winter Meyer asking that his remains “be taken in a Jewish hearse to a Jewish burying ground” where he would be buried by a Jewish burial society.
1885: Anthony M. Keiley, former mayor of Richmond who had been designated as the U.S. Minister to Austria-Hungary and who had a Jewish wife wrote to Secretary of State Thomas Francis Bayard, President Cleveland’s Secretary of State that “no American citizen…who commits the crime, “in Austria’s eyes of marrying a Hebrew wife, shall be received in diplomatic circles in Vienna, or permitted to represent the interests of the United Sates at the Austrian court” which means that “Austria claims the right to prescribe a religious test for office in the United States and to determine what creed shall constitute the disqualifications.”
1886: Coroner Levy, the President of the Jewish Immigrants’ Protective Association sought an interview with Immigration Superintendent Jackson to protest the treatment of Mr. and Mrs. Manheim and their 5 year old child who were being denied entrance to the United States.
1887: The San Diego Union noted that congregants at Beth Israel were talking of building a synagogue estimated to cost $20,000.
1888(25th of Elul, 5648): Parashat Nitzavim-Vayeilch; Leil Selichot
1888: Sixty immigrants, most of whom were Russian Jews, were detained at Castle Garden before being sent to Blackwell’s Island. They were treated in this manner because they had been identified as “paupers.”
1889: The formal dedication of the new Sephardic synagogue to be used by the Moses Montefiore Congregation was scheduled to take place today.
1889: It was reported today that the only hotel in Tétouan, Morocco is “kept by a native Jew” which is unusual in area dominated by Berbers and Arabs.
1889: “The History of the Jews” published today provided a review of History of the People of Israel from the Reign of David up to the Capture of Samaria by Ernest Renan.
1890: In the Essex Market Police Court Justice Hogan Jacob Rohnewitch accuses Israel Simovitch of stealing $90 worth of jewelry from him on August 8. Simovitch denied the charge and claimed that the charges were trumped up so that he would pay out the $40 he had saved to “bring his wife from Russia.”
1890: The Central Labor Federation had its own Labor Day Parade today in New York which included large number of “Hebrew” workers including members of “the shirt and cloak makers who have recently made themselves to the public by their strikes.
1890: During today’s Labor Day Parade, the “United Cloak and Suit Makers” stopped at cottage serving an informal reviewing stand where Coroner Ferdinand Levy presented them with a silk flag.”
1890: In Scranton, “the extensive alterations” at the synagogue are scheduled to be completed today which means the congregation will can stop holding services in the local Y.M.H.A.
1891: In Borispol Golda and Joseph Ya’acvo gave birth to Joseph Zaritsky, Israeli painter who was one of the founders of “Ofakim Hadshim” (New Horizons) art movement
1891: It was reported today that “the Argentine Republic frowns upon the wholesale immigration of the” Jews expelled from Russia.
1892: Leo M. Franklin began serving as the Rabbi for Temple Israel in Omaha, Nebraska.
1892: In Elizabeth, NJ, the city Board of Health plans on asking the City Council “for an appropriation of at least $20,000 to help deal with the sanitation problems including the installation of sewers in the First Ward which is inhabited primarily by Russian and Polish Jews
1893: “The Reverend Dr. Christian Adolf Stoecker, ex-Chaplain of the Court of Berlin…who is one of the founders of Christian Socialism and a vigorous anti-Semite” arrived in New York aboard the SS Augusta Victoria.
1893: Max Feldman of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum was among the ten boys listed today as winners of the scholarships “offered by Joseph Pulitzer to boys desirous of preparing for an taking a college course.”
1894(30th of Av, 5654): Rosh Chodesh Elul
1894: In Duluth, MN 43 Jewesses formed Council No. 10 of the National Council of Jewish Women
1894: Eight hundred “finishers of clothing” who are Jewish are going on strike today to demand a increase in wages.
1894: Harry White and Meyer Schoenfeld will address a mass meeting of cloakmakers at New Irving Hall where they will discuss the “advisability of going out on strike.”
1895: As New York Police enforce the Sunday Saloon Closing laws an unidentified Russian Jewish who operates a saloon on Clinton Street told authorities that one of his neighbors was “selling openly” and offered to take the police to correct address.
1896: In “Kuznica, Russia, Wolf and Odessa Tarlowski” gave birth Salomon Tarlowski who “emigrated to the United States in 1914 where as Solomon “Sol” Tarlow he worked as a tailor in the dry goods store of his brother-in-law Sam Stolaroff in Roswell, NM where he and his wife Audra had three children – “Mildred, Edith and Sherrill.”
1896 (August 20 OS): Birthdate of Odessa native and acclaimed pianist Simon Barere who settled in the United States in 1935.
1896: In La Crosse, WI, Congregation Ansche Chesed which originally been the Hebrew Benevolent Society was “formally incorporated today.
1896: The attorney for the jewelry firm of Julius M. Lyon went to police headquarters tonight to meet with Julius Stein to find out when Stein stole the thousands of diamonds from Lyon and the value of the stolen jewels. The self-confessed thief refused to make any comment.
1897: In Omaha, Nebraska, founding of Bait Hamidrash Hagadol (formerly B’nai Israel).
1897: It was reported today that at the concluding session of the Zionist Congress delegates heard reports “that the colonies in Palestine were flourishing,” appointed a commission to report on the feasibility of creating a university at Jerusalem and voted to hold the 1898 meeting in Jerusalem.
1898: On the Lower East Side, “an immigrant tailor” and his wife “who operated a candy store gave birth to Pulitzer Prize winning columnist Meyer “Mike” Berger.
1898: At Fremantle, Western Australia, Russian born “Esor Masel, a jeweler, and his wife Leah, née Cohen” gave birth to “solicitor and Jewish community leader” Alec Masel, the brother of Philip Masel, the husband of Marie Schwartz and :a founding member and president of the Zionist Federation of Australia.
1898: The first meeting of the International Congress of History began today in The Hague.
1898: As part of the on-going cover-up to protect the French General Staff and keep Captain Dreyfus in prison Major Ferdinand Esterhazy who had already been put on pension shaved off his mustache and fled to England where he lived for another 25 years contenting himself with writing anti-Semitic articles.
1899: All the newspaper comment published today in London, Berlin, Vienna and other cities “regards” the reversal of Dreyfus conviction as “inevitable.”
1899: Bennett Cassal, the husband of the former Dinah Nathan and the father of Solomon Cassell was buried today in the “Plashet Jewish Cemetery” in London.
1899: “Cardinal Richard, Archbishop of Paris paid a visit to Premier Waldeck-Rousseau on behalf of Jules Guerin, the anti-Semite agitator and his companions now besieged in the headquarters of the Anti-Semite League on the Rue de Chabrol.”
1899: Rabbi Emil G. Hirsch of Sinai Congregation, who returned to Chicago today from Europe, said “Capt. Dreyfus will again be convicted of treason” because “the French people are bound to have Dreyfus found guilty” and “the whole of Paris echoes and re-echoes… with the ravings of the anti-Semitic forces…”
1899: The Biblical World published “The Return of the Jews from Exile” by William Rainey Harper”
1899: “Emanuel Hospital Plans” published today described plans for the new facility “which will be used principally as a lying-in asylum” and will receive support from the United Hebrew Charities Society.
1899: Israel Zangwill addressed fears that the dramatization of his novel The Children of the Ghetto “will present the Jews from a standpoint undesirable to them” by saying that “it will found that Jew has actually received his first and truthful and considerate attention when my play is produced.”
1900: Mose Levi the Hahambashi of Turkey presented an address to Sultan Abdul Hamid on the occasion of his 25th anniversary of his accession to the throne. The term Hahambashi means Head of Rabbis and is the appellation for the Grand Rabbi of Turkey. The Hebrew term for "wise man" Chacham has been adopted in Turkish to mean "Rabbi." This is to avoid the use of the word "Rabbi" since in Arabic the word "Rab" is one of the names of God and may not be applied to a human.
1901: In Vienna, Dr. Armand Ahron Noach Kaminka, the son of Wolf and Sura Beile Kaminka and his wife Klara Kaminka gave birth to Ephraim Felix David Kaminka
1902: In Luka (Czech Republic, Hermann and Bertha Ullman gave birth to Dr. Fritz Yitzchack Ullman, the husband of “Charlotte (Lotte) Einhorn.”
1902: New Orleans native Percy Abraham Lemann began his studies at Virginia Military Institute.
1902: Birthdate of Brooklyn native and Cornell University alum Alexander Kevitz who also earned degrees in pharmacy and law while becoming a world chess champion.
1903(9th of Elul, 5663): Thirty eight year old author and Jewish activists Bernard Lazare (Lazare Marcus Manasse Bernard) who was an early vocal supporter of Dreyfus and who attended the First Zionist Congress passed away today.
1903: It was reported today, that “a movement is afoot to establish a Jewish hospital in Fall River, Massachusetts.
1904: In England, “Samuel and Bronwyn (Pachman) Gerstenfeld” gave birth Dr. Norman Gerstenfeld the long time rabbi of Washington Hebrew Congregation, the oldest Jewish congregation in the District of Columbia.
1905: Alberta became the eighth province of Canada. Two brothers, Jacob and William Diamond were among the first Jewish people to settle in Alberta, in 1888 and 1892, respectively. They made the long journey from their home in Lithuania. The Diamond brothers went on to be successful merchants in Alberta, and, perhaps, more notable, they organized for a High Holy Day service attended by other Jewish Albertans who had arrived. Unlike the Diamond brothers, early Jewish immigrants came to Alberta to establish farm colonies, settling in central and southern Alberta, near places such as Pine Lake, Trochu, Medicine Hat and Lethbridge. This first attempt at farming was not overly successful. Many of those who came were city-dwellers who had grown up in the cities of Europe. A Jewish relief agency in London England raised $400 to distribute the destitute Jewish pioneers. Because of the difficult conditions in Alberta and the Jewish people’s inexperience in farming, many of the immigrants left Alberta soon after, some going to the United States. By 1906, the community had largely reestablished itself in Calgary.
1905: In London, Shmuel and Braina Gerstenfeld gave birth to Hebrew Union College graduate Norman Gerstenfeld, the long-time rabbi at Washington Hebrew Congregation and husband of Louise Gerstenfeld.
1905: Weber and Fields opened their own musical hall on Broadway.
1905: Saskatchewan became the ninth province of Canada. Six Jewish farming communities were formed in Saskatchewan between 1886 and 1906. The first of these colonies was a novelty and evoked considerable curiosity in the district. Locals dubbed the colony "The New Jerusalem." Due to inadequate winter shelter against sub-zero temperatures, wind, driving snow, drought, etc., this settlement lasted only six years. Another colony, Hirsch, Saskatchewan was founded in 1892. Landau enlisted the assistance of the French financier-philanthropist Baron Maurice de Hirsch. Hirsch regarded the creation of a Jewish state as a fantasy; however, he took a great interest in Jewish agricultural colonization. Baron de Hirsch established the Jewish Colonization Association to facilitate mass emigration of Jews from Russia and the establishment of agricultural colonies in North and South America. Hirsch was the only Jewish farm colony in Canada that was directly organized and funded by the Jewish Colonization Association. Hirsch favored colonization of Argentina rather than Canada. Edenbridge was founded in 1906. It no longer exists, but some of the members of the founding families live in the area. The Beth Israel Synagogue, built by the settlers in 1908, still stands today. It is a wooden structure similar to many Russian churches of that period. The synagogue served as a place of worship until 1964. Today it is a Saskatchewan historic site. The Saskatchewan Wildlife Association maintains the synagogue building, the adjacent cemetery, and the 40 - 100 acres of wooded lands.
The settlers of Edenbridge were Lithuanian Jewish refugees who had temporarily settled in South Africa. They were lured to Canada by a federal government promise of 160 acres of farmland for only $10. Charles Vickar, whose father settled Edenbridge in 1906, stated that owning land was everything to the Lithuanian Jews. When the refugees were assured that they could freely practice their religion they jumped at the opportunity. They had no knowledge of farming. They did not know how to use a plough or an axe. They were Talmudic students and petty tradesman.
These Lithuanian Jews took the Canadian Railroad as far west as it went at the time. When they arrived at the end of the line, the Jewish pioneers opted to go north where they heard there was more wood and water. The farther north you go in Saskatchewan the more woods there are. Instead of joining some of the established farming communities in the level open country, they picked a spot by the Carrot River. The name, Edenbridge, means Jew's bridge. The settlers devised the town name in 1907, when a bridge was constructed over the Carrot River.
The Jewish farm population in Canada reached a peak of 2,568 by 1921. Sixty-nine percent of Jewish farmers lived in Western Canada with the majority residing in Saskatchewan. By 1939, it was estimated that one out of every 16 Jews who were working on the Canadian prairies made his livelihood on the farm. Most of the Jewish farming colonies lasted to the mid-point of this century. Jewish farm colonies disappeared as a result of the great drought and depression.
1906: In France, a new law requiring a day of rest “in every seven” for which the government has designated Sunday goes into effect today, creating problems for “Jewish merchants and workers” who want to substitute Saturday for Sunday.
1907: Birthdate of Norfolk, VA native and University of Pennsylvania alum Elise Nusbaum Hofheimeer, the wife of Henry Clay Hofheier II with whom she had three children – Elis, Linda and Clay.
1908: First Conference for the Yiddish Language which had been convened by Nathan Birnbaum continued for a third day in Czernowitz
1909: Classical school and for Iowa State University professor Berthold Louis Ullman married Mary Louis Bates who were the parents of noted geographer Edward Ullman
1909: In Vienna, “Egon and Edith Lucy Amalia Hedwig (Weissel) von Grunebaum” gave birth to European trained Orientalist and Arabist Gustave Edmund von Grunebaum and husband of Giselle Steuerman who after the Anschluss in 1938 came to the United States which he made his personal and professional home until his death in 1972.
1910: Following the expulsion of 749 Jews from Kiev in August, the expulsion of Jews to the Pale continues today “a small scale.”
1911: The headquarters of the Zionist Movement was transferred from Cologne to Berlin
1911: At Bucharest, the Premier of Romania receive “a deputation who requested relief from political disfranchisement of several hundreds of Jews in Dobrudscha.”
1911: Herr Wolfsthal was appointed Attorney-General at Frankenthal, making him the first Jew to hold such a position in Bavaria.
1911: As part of the celebration of its 500th Anniversary, the University of St. Andrews conferred an honorary degree on Dr. Georg Brandes, the Danish born Jew who served as Professor of Literature at the University of Copenhagen and Professor Raphael Meldola, the British chemist and entomologist.
1912: In Everett, MA, founding of Tifereth Israel synagogue.
1912: Two days after he had passed away, 59 year old Mendel S Salsburg, the German born son Arthur and Sarah Salsburg and the husband of Rachel Naomi Salsburg was buried today in Wilkes-Barre, PA.
1912: In New York, at Greenpoint, founding of the Hebrew Educational Alliance.
1912: In Hancock, Michigan, founding the Congregation of Israel Synagogue.
1913: Max Drob who had resigned “from the pulpit of Congregation of Adath Yeshuron in Syracuse” is scheduled to begin serving today as the Rabbi at Temple Bethel in Buffalo, NY which “is the largest orthodox congregation outside of New York City.”
1914: Birthdate of Ralph Goldman, the native of Lehovitz who was a WW II veteran, close confidant of David Ben-Gurion and a “leader of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee.”
1914: Birthdate of Ben L. Salomon, the Wisconsin born graduate of the USC Dental School who was one of only three dental officers to receive the Congressional Medal of Honor – in his case for a display of uncommon valor during the Battle of Saipan.
1915: Birthdate of Sholom (Seymour) Jacob Pomrenze, the World War II veteran who “was the first director of the Offenbach Archival Depot” making him one of those who really were Monuments Men.
1915: It was reported that arrangements have been made “to issue each synagogue in the United States subscription blanks for the relief of Jews” in war-torn Europe and Palestine which “are numbered” as part of an attempt “to obtain an approximate census of the Jews in the” United States.
1915: It was reported today that the Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society of America has made arrangements with similar national organizations in Russia, Austria, Germany, England and France so that communication may be re-established between relatives” who have been separated because of the World War.
1915: Birthdate of New York native Bernard “Bernie” Opper who took the unusual step for his time of going south and playing basked at the University of Kentucky where he as an All-American Guard and the mowed on to the pros where he played for three teams including the Philadelphia Sphas, the ABL team with Jewish roots.
1915: In New York, a new law went into effect requiring that meat sold as kosher must “bear the imprint of the supervising rabbi at the slaughterhouse.”
1916: Today “The Jewish Chronicle welcomed the entry of Rumania into the war on the ground that it ‘completes the circle of Jewish questions which have troubled the world and which must now come up for settlement” including those of Russia, Palestine and Rumania.
1917(14th of Elul, 5677):Parashat Ki Teitzei
1917: Birthdate of “Salomon Sebag.”
1917: Henry H. Rosenfelt, the assistant to the executive director of the American Jewish Relief Committee announced today a campaign to raise $1,000,000 toward the $10,000,000 Jewish War Relief Fund will be conducted during the upcoming Jewish holidays starting with Rosh Hashanah on September 17 and ending with Yom Kippur on September 26.
1917: “After making more than a thousand pictures, the Lubin Film Company, founded by optometrist Siegmund Lubin “went out of business” today because it had lost its European market due to the outbreak of WW I, forcing the founder to return to his earlier career.
1917: In Paris, “the Minister of Foreign Affairs bestowed the decoration of the Legion of Honor upon Mrs. Henry Morgenthau, the wife of the former American Ambassador to Turkey, in recognition of the work she did at the French Hospital in the early part of the War.
1918: The Supplement, a monthly publication, tied to “the interests of the Eight Avenue Temple” was established today in Brooklyn.
1918: During the Battle of Mont-Saint Quentin, Australian troops under the command of Sir John Monash “broke into Péronne and took most of the town.”
1918: “Ferdinand Lassalle” a film based on the life of the 19th century German Jew directed and produced by Rudolf Meinert was released today in Germany.
1918: In Columbus, OH, the Temple News, the Temple Israel fortnightly, was established.
1918: It was reported today that “the British Foreign Office has decided that the Ottoman subjects of Jewish Nationality residing in the British Empire shall be exempt from the restrictions applicable to enemy and that the Greek government has adopted a similar policy regarding the Jews of Salonika
1919: Rabbi Abraham I. Kook arrived in Palestine today to assume his role as Chief Rabbi.
1919: Charles J. Freund completed his service as the Rabbi for Temple Emanuel in Grand Rapids, Michigan.
1919: Max I. Merritt, who has been the rabbi “of the Washington Avenue Temple in Evansville, Indiana for the last fifteen years” is scheduled to begin serving B’nai Abraham Zion, a Chicago congregation with 1,600 members today.
1920: In Germany, premiere of “Sumurun” (One Arabian Night) a silent film directed by Ernst Lubtsch who also played “Yeggar, the Hunchback Beggar.”
1921: With delegates and visitors from every part of the world in attendance, the International Zionist Congress opened its sessions in at Carlsbad, Czechoslovakia.
1922: The body of 61 year old Jewish actor Bernard Bernstein, the native of Warsaw who passed away on August 29 is scheduled to be taken to the Hebrew Actor’s Club today where it will lie in state until funeral services on September 3.
1923(20th of Elul, 5683): Parashat Ki Tavo and Leil Selichot
1923: The Great Earthquake struck Honshu the main island of Japan. Forty Jewish families living at Yokohama cabled the Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society pleading for aid. “Help us or we perish.” Two thousand dollars was sent by the Joint Distribution Committee. (As reported by JTA)
1924: “Sinners in Silk” a silent film with a script by Benjamin Glazer was released in the United States today.
1924: Clark College grad and Columbia trained attorney, Jacob Asher ,the Worcester, MA born son of Mary Edelman and Abraham I Asher who served as Justice of the Central District Court in Worcester and a member of the board of directors of the United Jewish Charities of Worcester married Dorothy Virginia Rogin today in New Britain, CT.
1925: In New York City, “Felicia (Fox) and Emanuel B. Glauber” gave birth to Bronx High School of Science grad and Harvard trained Nobel Prize winning physicist Roy Jay Glauber, “one of the youngest scientist to work on the Manhattan Project..
1926: In Atlanta, GA, “Fannie (Segal) Goldstein, a gifted pianist” and Irving Goldstein gave birth Stanley Goldstein who, before enrolling at the University of California, Berkley, changed his name to David Cavell, the name he would use during a career that led to a professorship at Harvard.
1926: In the Bronx, “Harold Colan, an insurance salesman, and Winifred Levy Colan, an antique dealer” gave birth to Eugene Jules Colan “a towering figure among comic-book artists, whose depictions of some of the best-known characters in the genre were lauded for their realism, expressiveness and painterly qualities.” According to Margalit Fox, the family’s name had been Cohen before changing it to Colan.
1927: The Weizmann Administration, the Palestine Government and the British Government as the mandatory power were severely criticized on the second day of the Fifteenth Zionist Congress which is in session here. Criticism came from several sources including Isaac Greenbaum, a member of the Polish Parliament and Dr. Stephen S. Wise, leader of the American Zionists.
1928(16th of Elul, 5688): Parashat Ki Tavo
1928(16th of Elul, 5688): Dr. Leon Harris, the rabbi of Temple Israel in St. Louis “was killed” today “by a subway train when he fell from the platform at 116th Street and Broadway.”
1928: In Brooklyn Michael and Eiga Charmatz gave birth to Rita Charmatz, the wife of David Sternheimer Davidson, the Yale law school graduate who as Rita Charmatz Davidson “the first woman to serve on the Maryland Court of Appeals
1929: Amir el-Hussein, Grand Mufti and President of the Supreme Moslem Council warned of “a grave national revolt” by 60 million Muslims if Great Britain persists in enforcing the Balfour Declaration.
1929: A crowd numbering more than 15,000 attending a meeting at London’s Albert Hall protested against Arab violence and urged the British government to restore order, punish the guilty while making reparations for the loss of Jewish life and property.
1929: The British High Commissioner said that he would enforce the Jewish right of access to the Western Wall despite violent Arab opposition.
1930: In the Bronx, Arthur and “Rose Goldstein) Greenstein gave birth to historian Fred Irwin Greenstein whose works included The Hidden-Hand Presidency and The Presidential Difference: Leadership Style.
1930: Birthdate of Hadera native Ora Namir, an officer with the IDF in the War for Independence, an MK and Ambassador to China who was married to Tel Aviv Mayor Mordechai Namir.
1931: In Voivodeship, Poland, Dr. Israel Abraham Rabin and Dr. Else Rabin gave birth to Professor Michael Oser Rabin, “Israeli computer scientist and a recipient of the Turing Award.”
1931: Birthdate of Frank Magid. Frank Newton Magid was born in Chicago and served in the Army during the Korean War. He graduated from the University of Iowa and received a master's degree there in 1956 in the fields of social psychology and statistics. After teaching at Iowa's Coe College and the University of Iowa, Mr. Magid launched his company in 1956. His first client was a bank; his fourth was WMT-TV, now KGAN-TV, in Cedar Rapids. By creating careful surveys and polling random samples of a population, Mr. Magid and his employees were able to provide highly accurate data that gave television its first serious consumer research. The work paid off for the Iowa station, and the station's manager recommended Mr. Magid for a job at Time-Life's newly acquired KOGO-TV in San Diego. That, too, was successful, and it led to a contract for all the Time-Life stations. "And that really was our launching pad because they were very kind to us and began to do some considerable amount of advertising to the trades, talking about how they were listening to the public through this rather new, and at that time quite unique, kind of research,'' Mr. Magid told Electronic Media. His firm, from which he retired in 2002, also advised AM radio stations to get into the FM field, and urged broadcasters to invested in cable TV. He helped identify viability of direct broadcast satellite television and did the first research that determined the viability of digital video recorders. Now based in Minneapolis, the privately-held company has about 200 employees and advises all kinds of media, including The Washington Post, through its MORI Research division.
1931: As the fight for control of Cutters Union 4 of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America came to a head, Sydney Hillman addressed a meeting of 1,000 workers at Webster Hall where he denounced the ousted officers Philip Orlofsky and Isidor Machlin
1931: In Los Angeles, 125 members of Tifereth Israel attended groundbreaking ceremonies for the new Temple being built on Santa Barbara Avenue.
1931: Birthdate of Michael Oser Rabin “an Israeli computer scientist and a recipient of the Turning Award.”
1932(30th of Av, 5692): Rosh Chodesh Elul
1932: The General Committee for the Protection of Real Estate Bondholders announced today that it would seek modification of a plan of adjustment proposed for $5,238,000 of bonds outstanding on the Alden Apartments, at Central Park West and Eighty-second Street, and the Dorset, at 26 West Fifty-fourth Street, by S.W. Straus Co., who sold the bonds.
1933: Birthdate of Professor Leonard Cole, the native of Paterson, NJ, an expert on terrorism who “was national chairman of the Jewish Council for Public Affairs” and the author of Terror: How Israel Has Cope and What America Can Learn.
1933: The Reichsvertretung der deutschen Juden, the central representative body of German Jews emphasizing education, is established; it is led by Otto Hirsch and Rabbi Leo Baeck. It is the only organization officially allowed to represent German Jews.
1934: The appointment of Albert Goldman by Postmaster General James A Farley as Acting Postmaster of New York City is scheduled to take effect today, making Godman officially the first Jew to supervise the world’s largest post office.
1934: “Gift of Gab” a comedy directed by Karl Freund, produced by Carl Laemmle, Jr., and with a script co-authored by Philip G. Epstein.
1934: In Denmark, a collaborationist SS organization, National Socialistike Ungdom (National Socialist Youth), is established.
1935(3rd of Elul, 5695): Rabbi Avraham Yitzchak HaCohen Kook passed away today at the age of 69. His distinguished career was capped off by his appointment as Chief Rabbi of Palestine in 1919.
1935: The problem of who is to be president of the World Zionist Organization was dramatically settled in Lucerne, Switzerland, early today when Dr. Chaim Weizmann, noted scientist and internationally famous Zionist leader, announced his readiness to assume the full leadership of the Zionist movement.
1935: “A world conference of Jewish doctors opened in Lucerne tonight to discuss Jewish health problems and to consider the advisability of convoking a world Jewish medical conference in Tel Aviv.”
1935: Currently Jerusalem, Jaffa and Tel Aviv have ordinances in effect similar to those in several European cities that limit and/or ban the honking of horns in the late night hours. Police in Palestine have adopted the slogan of “Don’t use your horn. Use your brains.”
1936: It was reported today that in discussing the challenges facing the three major religious groups in the United States, Rabbi L.L. Mann of Sinai Temple in Chicago said that religions faced a common foe, the recrudescence of paganism, irreligion and totalitarianism” and that “religions must united against poverty, human exploitation, unemployment, crime, corruption and war.”
1936: It was reported today the actions committee of World Zionist Organization which has been meeting in Zurich “endorsed a world emergency campaign for $1,500,000 to aid the Jews in Palestine” who have been suffering during the violence of the Arab Revolt.
1936: “Tudor Rose” a dramatization of English period with music by Louis Levy and filmed by cinematographer Mutz Greenbaum was released today in the U.K.
1936: Polish born Republican political leader Nathan Pearlman completed his term in office as a New York City Magistrate today.
1936(14th of Elul, 5696): Dr. Isaac Max Rubinow passed away. Rubinow really had two careers. He was a medical doctor, who among other things played a key role in developing health services in Palestine immediately after World War I. He went back to school and earned a Ph.D. in Economics which provided him with a platform to deal with the issues of health care and its finances. He was a co-founder and the first president of the organization now known as Casualty Actuarial Society. In 1934, he published the Quest for Security which pre-dated and greatly influence the creation of the New Deal social net including Social Security.
1937: Birthdate of Allen Weinstein, the son of Jewish delicatessen owners in New York who became a leading academic, author and archivists.
1937: “A special tax on eligible males who fail to serve in the military forces” which “will fall heaviest on the Jews who are by law disqualified from service” is scheduled to go into effect today in Germany.
1937: Four Arab villagers were shot and killed by unknown persons, apparently Jews, near Hadera. The authorities suspected that Jewish extremists were involved and carried out many arrests. The National Committee for Palestine Jewry (Val'ad Leumi) issued an appeal for national discipline.
1938: In New Orleans, the Fountain Lounge opened at the Roosevelt Hotel which is now controlled by Seymour Weiss
1938: On the Island of Rhodes, newspapers carried the announcement of anti-Jewish laws. Ritual slaughter was banned and all Jews who had come to Rhodes after 1919 were told they had to leave.
1938: A concentration camp is established at Neuengamme, Germany.
1938 Premier of “You Can't Take It With You,” the screen adaptation of the Pulitzer Prize-winning play of the same name by George S. Kaufman and Moss Hart, two of the Jewish giants of Broadway with a screenplay by Robert Riskin and music by Dimitri Tiomkin.
1938: In Williamsburg, Brooklyn Claire (née Ringel) and Harry Dershowitz the co-owner of Merit Sales Company and “a founder of the Young Israel Synagogue” gave birth to Harvard Law Professor and outspoken commentator on Jewish affairs Alan Dershowitz.
1938: Mussolini canceled civil rights of Italian Jews and expelled all foreign-born Jews.
1939: Leading Jewish-German jurist Gerhard Leibholz, stripped of his position at the University of Göttingen in 1936, escapes to Switzerland with his wife and two daughters
1939: This date marked the beginning of World War II with the German attack on Poland. German forces overrun western Poland, instigating World War II. Three thousand Jewish civilians die in the bombing of Warsaw. German troops enter Danzig, trapping more than 5000 Jews. Throughout Germany and Austria, Jews may not be outside after in the winter and in the summer Out of the 3,351,000 Jews in Poland, 2,042,000 came under Nazi rule while 1,309,000 came under Soviet rule. Remember, the Soviets invaded Poland from the west after the Nazis had begun their blitz from the West. Within two days the British and French declared war on Germany. During the war a million and a half Jews fought on the side of allied forces: 555,000 for the USA; 500,000 for the Soviet Union; 116,000 for Great Britain (26,000 from Palestine and 90,000 from the British Commonwealth); and another 243,000 for other European nations.
1939: “Heinrich Himmler issues a decree forbidding Jews from going outside after 8PM.”
1939: With the outbreak of World War II and the closure of German borders the “Leica Freedom Train” came to an end.
1939: Mrs. Max Lowenstein, the widow of Nuremberg chazzan Max Lowenstein and the adopted mother of Heinz Bernard planned to leave Germany today to join her son whom she had sent on ahead to England which was to be “a way-station” on their trip to the United States. Her plans were thwarted by today’s invasion of Poland.
1939: As of this date, there were “185,000 Jews in ‘integral’ German, together with 70,000 in Austria and 190,000 in Czechoslovakia.”
1939: Arnold Bernstein who had served in the German Army in World War and who had survived German prisons arrived in New York having been stripped of his shipping company and all other possessions by the Nazis who knew that anti-Semitism was a good business.
1939: From September 1 to
1939: “Hitler Appoints Karl Brandt & Philipp Bouhler to Lead Nazi T-4 Euthanasia Program.”
1939: With the outbreak of WW II today, the headquarters of the WJC was moved from Paris to Geneva where it was thought that Switzerland’s neutrality would “facilities communications with Jewish communities throughout Europe.
1939: General George C. Marshall is named Chief of Staff of the United States Army. Marshall is the unsung hero of World War II. He was a critical force in convincing a reluctant Congress to accept peace time conscription in 1940 so that America was not completely unprepared for war when it came to America at Pearl Harbor. He was the architect who managed a war that raged across the entire globe in day before the e-mail, the internet and computers. He won the Nobel Prize for Peace for the Marshall Plan. It is most unusual for a top military leader to have this award. The only chink in Marshall’s armor was his opposition to the creation of the state of Israel. He feared that American support of the Jewish state would destroy American stature among the Arabs and open the way to Soviet domination of the Middle East. He also did not believe that the Israelis could defeat the Arabs and feared the slaughter that would follow. There is no record of how his views may have changed once the Israelis proved they could survive without the need of American military support.
1939: Today, “while at Oxford University Chaim Michael Dov Weissmandl who would be “the first to demand that the Allies bomb Auschwitz” volunteered to return to Slovakia as an agent of World Agudath Israel.
1939: Premiere of “The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes” with a script by Edwin H. Blum
1939: After spirited but hopeless fight by the Polish Army, the Werhmacht occupied the city of Chonjnice today after which “German militiamen began attacking Jewish and Polish neighborns.
1939: Because of the outbreak of WW II, the last of the eight “Winton Trains” did not leave because “all borders controlled by Germany were closed” and the 250 children on board “were never seen again” leading to the assumption that all “perished in concentration camps.”
1939: “The Women” a comedy directed by George Cukor, starring Norma Sheater and filmed by cinematographer Joseph Ruttenberg was released in the United States by MGM.
1940: The National Encampment of the Jewish War Veterans of the United States is scheduled to come to an end today in Boston.
1940(28th of Av, 5700): Seventy-three year old Lillian D. Wald the Cincinnati born graduate of New York Hospital’s School of Nursing whose contributions to society included the founding of the Henry Street Settlement House and play a role in the founding of the N.A.A.C.P. passed away today.
1940: Polish underground officer Witold Pilecki penetrates the main camp at Auschwitz with the intention of organizing secret resistance groups inside the camp.
1940: Soviet authorities order Japanese Consul Sempo Sugihara to leave Kovno, Lithuania, where he has issued 3500 exit visas to Jews
1940: “The official newspaper of the diocese of Freiburg, where Conrad Gröber is archbishop, describes the victories of German soldiers as proof that God guides history.”
1941: Birthdate of Tzvi Gal-Chen a sabra who would gain fame for his work in retrieval of wind and thermodynamic variables from a single Doppler radar.
1941: In Hungary, Einsatzkommandos, with the help of some Hungarian militia, murdered 11,000 Jews. In August, Hungary had pushed 17,000 stateless Jews across the border to Kamenets-Podolski in the Ukraine. The German army protested that the large number of refugees interfered with the war effort and Hungary took a few thousand back as slave laborers, leaving the rest in the hands of the Germans. There were no survivors.
1941: Wearing the yellow star became obligatory for all Jews in the Reich.
1941: The Ukrainian newspaper Volhyn carried the following - "The element that settled our cities (Jews). . . must disappear completely from our cities. The Jewish problem is already in the process of being solved.”
1941: “Lady Be Good” a musical produced by Arthur Freed with a score by Jerome Kern, Oscar Hammerstein and George and Ira Gershwin and co-starring Phil Silvers was released today in the United States by MGM>
1941: Birthdate of Tzvi Gal-Chen father of author Rikva Galchen. Tzvi grew up as an Israeli Sabra on a collective farm. He served in the Israeli Army. He earned a B. Sc. and M. Sc. in 1967 and 1970, both from Tel Aviv University, with specialization in applied math and physics which he used in his studies of wind and thermodynamic variables.
1942: As Daniel Schwarzwald jumped from the window in the Lvov Ghetto he was shot by the Germans.
1942: Moshe Skoczylas and Michael Majtek formed Jewish partisan units at Dzialoszyce, Poland.
1942: Fourteen thousand Jews are taken to gravel pits at Piatydni, Ukraine, and machine-gunned.
1942: German troops reach the Caucasus and begin exterminations of indigenous Jews.
1942: SS chief Heinrich Himmler suggests that camp inmates be put to work in on-site arms factories. Armaments chief Albert Speer objects, offering a compromise accepted by Hitler: Himmler's inmates will be made available to Speer for labor in conventional arms factories.
1942: New York Congressman Emanuel Celler submits legislation to allow French Jews about to be deported to their deaths in Eastern Europe to immigrate to the United States. The bill is killed by the House Committee on Immigration.
1942: As Jews are being deported from France to their deaths in the Third Reich, the Vichy Ministry of Information urges the press to remember "the true teaching of Saint Thomas and the Popes...the general and traditional teaching of the Catholic Church about the Jewish problem."
1942(19th of Elul, 5702): An SS guard on a deportation train headed for the Belzec death camp shoots and kills Jadzia Beer, a Polish girl from Jaworów, after her skirt becomes caught in a railcar window and she dangles helplessly from the window.
1942: Thousands of Jews from Stry, Ukraine, are murdered at the Belzec death camp.
1942: A German shepherd that licks the face of a Jewish baby at the Treblinka extermination camp is savagely beaten by its SS master before the guard tramples the baby to death
1942: Security forces raid five hospitals in the Lódz (Poland) Ghetto, evacuating and slaughtering patients. Babies are thrown out of an upper-story windows, some bayoneted before they hit the ground.
1942: In the town Wlodzimierz Wolynski, the Germans asked the Jewish Council to gather 7,000 Jews for transport. Jocob Kogen a member of the council committed suicide because he did not want to bear the responsibility of sending people to their death. Wlodzimierz Wolynski was in eastern Poland at the start of World War II. This was the part of Poland that Hitler had ceded to Stalin as part of the price for their infamous Non-Aggression Pact. In 1941, the Germans seized the town as they moved forward with the plan to conquer the Soviet Union. Some Poles rationalized the slaughter of the Jews by claiming that they had collaborated with the Soviets during their occupation of the town. These same sources also said the Jews had earned their death because they had lived so much better than the Poles before the war. To understand the success of the Holocaust, one must understand the pervasiveness of anti-Semitism in European society.
1943(1st of Elul, 5703): Rosh Chodesh Elul
1943(1st of Elul, 5703): Eighty-eight year old retired banker Edward S. Rothschild passed away tonight at the City Hospital “an hour after” being struck “by taxicab at Fifth Avenue and 47th Street.”
1943(1st of Elul, 5703): Sixty-nine year old Albert Klein the founder and President of the American Food Company until his retirement twelve years ago passed away today in Newark, NJ. A native of Czechoslovakia, he moved to Newark at the age of 17. He is survived by his widow Kamilla Cohn Klein.
1943: The Belgian news agency reported “that armed Belgian patriots had intercept a train on which 1,500 Jews were being taken from Malines, Belgium to Poland.” The Belgians “fought a gun battle with the German guards and released part of the captives from the cattle cars in which they were being transported.”
(For more on this see The Twentieth Train by Marion Schreiber
1943: Germans send a Polish labor battalion into the ruins of the Warsaw Ghetto to flatten any walls and other structures still standing following the German assault of the previous spring. Most survivors of the April-May "liquidation" die during this demolition.
1943: The American Council for Judaism declares that Jewishness exists in a religious sense only, and that attempts to establish a Jewish homeland would be disloyal to the homeland nations of individual Jews.
1943: “Palestine Goal Passed” published today described a fundraising luncheon where the attendees heard from Dr. Israel Goldstein, president of the JNF and Bernard A. Rosenblatt, president of the Palestine Foundation Fund.
1943: Jews at the Sobibór death camp attack SS guards with stones and bottles. All attackers are killed.
1943: Jewish women and children, as well as the elderly and the sick, left on the island of Rab after deportation from Dalmatia, Serbia, are transferred to a concentration camp at Zemun, Yugoslavia, and killed. Others remain on the island and are protected by partisans.
1943: Hundreds of Jews escape from Vilna, Lithuania, and head east toward the Soviet front line.
1943: Vilna-based partisan Vitka Kempner blows up an electrical transformer located in the city. A day later, she enters the labor camp at Keilis, near Vilna, and smuggles several dozen prisoners to safety. Still later, she travels with five other partisans to Olkiniki, Poland, where she helps torch a turpentine factory.
1943: In Paris, three Jewish partisans ambush and assassinate Karl Ritter, aide to Nazi slave-labor Chief Fritz Sauckel.
1943: After refusing for months, the Hungarian government accedes to German demands for Jews to be used as slave labor at copper mines at Bor, Yugoslavia.
1943: There was an uprising in Vilna, Lithuania. After the disaster of July and the death of Yitzhak Wittenberg, many of those in the underground decided to flee the city. The German entry into the ghetto was a surprise and there was no time to organize. Forty fighters led by Yechiel Scheinbaum fought until they were all killed. Approximately 200 more left the ghetto and joined the partisans. A second Aktion on September 23 marked the end of the ghetto
1943: The Army Show, a musical comedy review featuring Frank Shuster and Johnny Wayne was performed for a final time before a civilian audience in Halifax, Canada.
1944: In Los Angeles, Felix Slatkin, “the violinist, conductor and founder of the Hollywood String Quartet” and cellist Eleanor Aller gave birth to orchestra conductor Leonard Slatkin whose brother Frederick is a cellist.
1944(13th of Elul, 5704): Barbara (née Drapczyńska) Baczyński, the pregnant wife of poet Krzysztof Kamil Baczyński who was killed by a German sniper on August 4, 1944, the fourth day of the Warsaw Uprising, passed away today after having been “mortally wounded when a shard of glass pierced her skull.”
1944: Five thousand women and 500 men are evacuated from Auschwitz north to Stutthof, Germany. Three thousand interned women are evacuated from Auschwitz northwest to Neuengamme, Germany.
1944: Following American bomber hits on factories at Auschwitz, the SS gives wounded inmates excellent medical attention as well as flowers and chocolate--a propaganda ploy for the benefit of German media. Once recovered, the inmates are exterminated. 44: The Gestapo and SS men in Przemysl, Poland, execute eight members of a non-Jewish Polish family and a little Jewish girl after discovering the group playing together in a courtyard.
1944: Despite the objections of Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden, Prime Winston Churchill finally ordered the creation of a Jewish Brigade of Palestinian Jews in the British Army. Churchill had long supported the creation of such a unit.
1944: Birthdate of Margaret H. Marshall the 24th Chief Just of the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court and the wife Jewish columnist Anthony Lewis.
1944: Aufbau, “a journal targeted at German-speaking Jews” begun by members of the German-Jewish Club of New York began printing lists of Jewish Holocuast survivors as well as lists of the victims.
1944: “In a note written in Yiddish” today, “Hirsch Brik wrote from Kovno, Lithuania, to friends in Palestine:
I’m alive and I’m free. After three torturous years, I am back to being a man like all other men. The German bastards have murdered my entire family. … There isn’t a long enough paper to list all the names of our common friends who have been savagely murdered.”
1945: As his ship sailed west across the Pacific Lt. Col. Louis Geffen, a judge advocate in the US Army who was trying to organize Rosh Hashanah found” his Baal Koreh. This gentleman had no Torah to read from, but he would use the Humash - Hebrew five books of Moses.”
1945: Ichud (Unity), a Jewish political organization, is established by the leadership of the Landsberg displaced-persons (DP) camp. It initially acts as an intermediary between DPs and the United States Army in negotiations for DP immigration to Palestine.
1945(23rd of Elul, 5705): Yaakov Waldman, a survivor of a 1942 death march, is murdered by Poles in Turek
1946: Birthdate of Adrienne Cooper, an American-born singer, teacher and curator of Yiddish music.
1946: Birthdate of Shalom Hanoch, the native of Kibbutz Mishmarot and rock star who founded two bands – The Churchills and Tamouz
1946: Birthdate of Adrienne Cooper, the singer who played a major role in reviving Yiddish culture and music with a special emphasis on Klezmer.
1946: “A tentative agreement was reached between the Rabbinical Association of the American Zone in Germany and the JDC religious department creating a pool of religious supplies and agreeing in principle to cooperate in their distribution.”
1947: Date on which UNSCOP is scheduled to provide its findings to the U.N. General Assembly.
1947: After premiering in Chicago a month ago in August, “The Secret Life of Walter Mitty” a movie based on the short story character of the same name produced by Samuel Goldwyn, starring Danny Kaye and featuring songs by Sylvia Fine and a score by David Raskin, was released in the United States today.
1947: “The Bachelor and the Bobby-Soxer” a comedy directed by Irving Reis, produced by Dore Schary and a script by Sidney Sheldon premiered today in New York City.
1948(27th of Av, 5708): Sixty-one year old Leon Friedman who served as Louisiana State Representative from Natchitoches Parish from 1932 to 1940 following in the footsteps of an older brother J. Isaac Friedman who had served in both house of the state legislature.
1948: “Sorry, Wrong Number,” a “film noir” direct and produced by Anatole Litvak with music by Franz Waxman was released in the United States today.
1948: “Long is the Road” “the first German-made film to accurately portray the Holocaust” was released today.
1949: Birthdate of Leslie Feinberg, author of Stone Butch Blues.
1949(7th of Elul, 5709): Sixty-five year old Florina Lasker, the Galveston born daughter of Morris and Nettie Davis and graduate of the University of Texas and New York School of Social Work who was an active leader of the ACLU and “secretary of the New York Labor Standards Committee” passed away today.
1950: Today, Israel charged Jordan with “’full and absolute responsibility for continual acts of aggression’. A government spokesman said Jordon condoned murder and sabotage by allowing infiltrators and criminals to cross the border into Israel and by taking no action to discourage or punish these criminals.
1951: Birthdate of singer-songwriter Steven D. Grossman.
1951: The Yugoslav representative in the U.N. Security Council voted in favor of a resolution guaranteeing all nations the right to use the Suez Canal. The resolution was considered a victory since it was designed to overcome the Arab closure of the international waterway to ships that had docked in Israel or that sailed under an Israeli flag. The issue of canal usage would be part of the reasons for going to war in 1956.
1951: The Union of American Hebrew Congregations, parent body of Reform Judaism in the United States and Canada, moved into its new $1,000,000 headquarters at Fifth Avenue and Sixty-Fifth Street
1952: The Israeli government announced that extra rations for meat and poultry would be available for the High Holy Days. Those people who only know of then comparatively affluent society of present day Israel should remember that life during the early years of the Jewish state were quite grim. Between the austerity of the land, the in-gathering of the exiles and the attacks from surrounding Arab states, life in Israel was more akin to living on the American frontier than a modern Western state.
1952: During the fiscal year which begins today MGM is scheduled to make 38 pictures as opposed to the 40 made during the previous fiscal year according to a previous announcement by Nicholas M. Schnenck, the President of Loew’s and Dore Schary who is in charge of production
1952: Zev Zahavy was appointed to serve as rabbi of East Park Synagogue.
1953: "Human Ornithosis in Israel" by Dr. Aaron Valero appeared in today’s issue of, Harefuah, a medical journal published by the Israel Medical Association. Dr. Aaron Valero was a an Israeli physician born in 1913 “who helped establish hospitals and medical schools, authored medical publications and contributed greatly to the advancement of medical education in Israel in the latter half of the 20th century.” He passed away in 2000.
1953(21st of Elul, 5713): Sixty-five-year-old Siegfried Frisch Hartman, for many years a leading lawyer in New York and the husband of Vera Harman, fell or jumped to his death at 6:45 o'clock tonight, the police reported, from a window of his office on the thirty-sixth floor at 39 Broadway.”
1954: “Romeo and Juliet” a movie version of Shakespeare’s drama starring Laurence Harvey as “Romeo” was released in the U.K. today.
1954: In Perth Amboy, NJ, Robert N. Wilentz and Jacqueline Malino Wilentz gave birth to award winning author, journalist and professor of English Amy Wilentz who is married to Nicholas Goldberg of the Los Angeles Times.
1955: On his seventieth birthday Friedrich Wilhelm von Prittwitz und Gaffron the German Ambassador to the United States under the Weimar Republic who resigned in protest the day after Hitler came to power and who warned his dinner companion German Jewish playwright Lion Feuchtwagner not to return to Germany passed away after having served as a member of the Parliament of Bavario “from 1946 to 1954.”
1955: Birthdate of Efraim Gur, the native of Georgia SSR who made Aliyah in 1972 and eventually became an MIK and cabinet minister
1955(14th of Elul, 5715): Actor Philip Loeb passed away. Loeb played the role of Jake in the early television sitcom “The Goldbergs.” The show starred actress Molly Goldberg and revolved around the life of an obviously Jewish family living in Brooklyn. Loeb was 61 at the time of his death.
1957: “Slaughter on 10th Avenue” a crime-buster biopic featuring Walter Matthau and Sam Levene was released in the United States today by Universal-International.
1960(9th of Elul, 5720): Seventy-four-year old pianist and musicologist Laurence and the son of Felix Adler, the founder of the Ethical Culture Society passed away today.
1961: Publication of “Tonybee’s Epistle to the Jews.”
1962: Jack Benny’s latest contract with CBS takes effect. Benny is 68 and the contract is for two years which means the famed tightwad will have a source of income until he is 70.
1963: Publication of Arthur Hertzberg’s review Jews, God and History by Max Dimont.
1964: Rabbi Martin Riesenburger delivered the sermon and Canotrs Werner Sander, Estrongo Nachama and Leo Roth provided the music during today celebration of the 30h anniversary of the Rykestrasse Synagogue in Berlin.
1965: Outfielder Richie Scheinblum made his major league début with the Cleveland Indians.
1967: British poet and author Siegfried Sassoon passed away. His father was Alfred Sassoon, a member of the wealth and distinguished Indian –Jewish Sassoon family. His mother was an Anglo Catholic. The family disinherited the elder Sassoon when he married her and Sassoon was not raised as a Jew.
1967: Sixty year old Ilse Koch, the wife of the commandant of Buchenwald and Majdenek, hung herself at Aichach, Germany where she was serving a life sentence for a string of crimes that led her to be dubbed “the concentration camp murderess.
1968: In “Henry James and the Jews: A Critical Study” published today Leo B. Levy examines the great author’s depictions and views of the “chosen people.”
1969: Pitcher Lloyd Allen made his major league début with the California Angels.
1969: Twenty-seven year old Muammar Qaddafi staged a successful coup and replaced King Idris as head of Libya. By the time that Qaddafi came to power the Libyan Jewish community which was 2,500 years old had been reduced to a couple of hundred souls. He exacerbated their plight, as well as that of the Jewish exiles, by confiscating all property owned by Jews and by canceling all debts owed to those Libyan Jews whose property had already been seized or destroyed. He also attempted to make himself a leader in the fight to destroy Israel by giving untold millions to the PLO.
1970: Shimon Peres begins serving as Communications Minister of Israel.
1970: Yosef Burg replaced Golda Meir Minister of the Interior
1970: Palestinian terrorists attack King Hussein of Jordan’s motorcade in a failed attempt to assassinate him and bring an end to the Hashemite Kingdom. Hussein was a complex figure whose whole kingship was influenced by the assassination of his grandfather by fanatics who thought he was going to make peace with Israel. In the end, Hussein’s vision overcame his fears and he signed a peace treaty with Israel.
1971(11th of Elul, 5731): Mordechai Ofer passed away at the age of 47. An Israeli politician, he served as a member of the Knesset for the Alignment and Labor Party from 1965 until his death. Born in Kraków in Poland in 1924, Ofer made aliyah to Mandate Palestine the following year. He joined the Mandate-era Jewish Police force, and served in the IDF during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. After being demobilized in 1950 with the rank of Lieutenant Colonel, he began working for Egged. He became a member of the co-operative's board, and from 1961 until his death, served as director of its Finances department. In 1965 he was elected to the Knesset on the Alignment list. He was re-elected in 1969, but died in office while still in office.
1971: Moshe Shahal took his seat in the Knesset as a replacement for the deceased Mordechai Ofer.
1972: Mathematician and WW II Code Breaker Peter Hilton was “appointed Louis D. Beaumont University Professor at Case Western Reserve University.
1973: Professor Peter Hilton actually began teaching at Case Western University.
1974: Eighty “leading Soviet Jewish activists from Moscow, Kiev, Leningrad and other cities issued statement advising caution in negotiations on the Jackson-Vanik Amendment.”
1974: “Yuri Vudka, of Ryazan, wass released from labor camp after serving seven year sentence for “anti-Soviet activities”.
1976(6th of Elul, 5736): MK Zvi Guershoni who had made Aliyah in 1936 passed away today.
1976: As part of a mass demonstration, Uri Geller’s photograph appeared on the cover of the magazine ESP with the caption "On Sept. 1, 1976 at 11pm E.D.T. THIS COVER CAN BEND YOUR KEYS."
1977: The Prime Minister Menachem Begin won a flat “No” on the subject of the recognition of what he described as ‘the murder organization called the PLO.’ The Knesset vote was 92 to four.
1977: Birthdate of actress Shoshana Elise Bean.
1978: In Los Angeles, mystery novelists Faye Kellerman and Jonathan Kellerman gave birth to American author Jesse Oren Kellerman.
1979(9th of Elul, 5739): Sixty-seven year old All American football player and movie producer Aaron Rosenberg passed away today
1981: Seventy-six year old Albert Speer, Hitler’s architect, confidant and convicted war criminal who beat the hangman’s rope died a free man to today in London.
1982: Washington announces the “Reagan Plan” that included the principle of self-government for the Palestinians of Gaza and the West Banks in association with Jordan. The Americans saw it as the next step after the Camp David Accords. The Begin government would reject the plan because it was not prepared to give up control of what it called Judaea and Samaria.
1983(23rd of Elul, 5743): Eighty-two year old songwriter and composer Arthur Herzog, Jr, the “father of novelist Arthur Herzog and grandfather of Amy Herzog” passed away today in Detroit, Michigan.
1987: Today representatives of the Holy See's Commission for Religious Relations with the Jews and of the International Jewish Committee on Interreligious Consultations “were received at Castel Gandolfo by His Holiness Pope John Paul II, who affirmed the importance of the proposed document for the Church and for the world. His Holiness spoke of his personal experience in his native country and his memories of living close to a Jewish community now destroyed. He recalled a recent address to the Jewish community in Warsaw, in which he spoke of the Jewish people as a force of conscience in the world today and of the Jewish memory of the Shoah as "a warning, a witness, and a silent cry" to all humanity.”
1983: Henry "Scoop" Jackson Democratic Senator from Washington passed away at the age of 71. Jackson was an outspoken supporter of Israel and the Jews in the Soviet Union. In 1974, Jackson co-sponsored the Jackson-Vanik amendment with Charles Vanik, which denied normal trade relations to certain countries with non-market economies that restricted the freedom of emigration. The amendment was intended to allow refugees, particularly religious minorities, specifically Jews, to escape from the Soviet Bloc. Jackson and his assistant, Richard Perle also lobbied personally for some people, who were affected by this law — among them Natan Sharansky.
1983(23rd of Elul, 5743): Twenty three year old Alice Ephriamson-Abt the daughter of Hans Ephriamson-Abt was among the 269 passengers aboard KAL 007 who were killed when the plane which was bound for Seoul was shot down by Soviets who claimed “the flight was a spy plane.” Her death would lead her father to become “an internationally known advocate for families of air-crash victims.”
1989: In Warsaw, Leonard Bernstein conducted concert commemorating outbreak of World War II.
1990: In “Roots of Muslim Rage” published today Bernard Lewis explains “why so many Muslim deeply resent the West and why their bitterness will not be easily mollified.”
1990: After 622 performances at the Plymouth Theatre the curtain comes down on Wendy Wasserstein’s Pulitzer Prizing winning drama “The Heidi Chronicles
1990(11th of Elul, 5750): Parashat Ki Teitzei
1990: Eighty year old Syracuse native Alexander “Mine Boy” Levinsky, the nine year NFL veteran passed away today.
1991: Uzbekistan declares independence from the Soviet Union. Depending upon which version of history you believe Jews have been living in what is now Uzbekistan since the period following the destruction of the first Temple or the period of Persian domination of Judea. At the time of the declaration there were approximately 15,000 Jews living in the country centered in four major population centers.
1991: Rabbi Sir Jonathan Henry Sacks was appointed Chief Rabbi of the United Kingdom and Commonwealth.
1991(22nd of Elul, 5751): Eighty year old Canadian political leader Allan Grossman, the son of Russian immigrants and the father of Canadian political leader Larry Grossman passed away today.
1991: Publication of Politics, Religion and Love: The Story of H.H. Asquith, Venetia Stanley and Edwin Montagu, Based on the Life and Letters of Edwin Samuel Montagu by Naomi Levine.
1992(3rd of Elul, 5752): Nine-four year old Morris Carnovsky the native of St. Louis whose 60 year acting career was inspired childhood visits to the Yiddish theatre passed away today. (As reported by James Barron)
1994: “Il Postino: The Postman” directed by Michael Radford premiered at the Venice Film Festival.
1994: Stanley "Stan" Fischer began serving as First Deputy Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund
1995: Graham B. Spanier who would become a major player in the Jerry Sandusky- Penn St. child abuse scandal assumed his duties as President of Penn State University.
1998: The curtain came down for the last time on the Open Air Theatre, Inner Circle, Regent's Park, London, production of the Jule Styne musical “Gentlemen Prefer Blondes” which had opened in July.
1999: The Jew in the Lotus an account of the historic dialogue between rabbis and the XIV Dalai Lama by Rodger Kamenetz which inspired a PBS documentary of the same name produced and directed by Laurel Chiten, was on Independent Lens today.
2000(1st of Elul, 5760): Rosh Chodesh Elul
2000: Funeral services are scheduled to be held at “The Riverside” for Rita Muss, the wife of the late Louis Muss with who she had three children – Elizabeth, Marion and Henry.
2000: “Clinton campaign officials said today that Senate candidate Hillary Clinton’s intervention “to save Jonathan Pollard…from transfer to a more dangerous unit of the federal prison where he is serving a life sentence” “was not necessarily a precursor to” an attempt to gain the clemency for the convicted spy.
2001: “With an Israeli-Palestinian truce holding on Jerusalem's southern fringe today, diplomatic efforts were made to see if calm could be extended elsewhere to finally bring the conflict of the last year under control.” (As reported by Clyde Haberman)
2002: The New York Times included reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or about topics of Jewish interest including The Book of Illusions by Paul Auster.
2003(4th of Elul, 5763): David Adelman, who is memorialized at B’Nai Israel in Spartanburg, SC, passed away today.
2003: Publication of Who Killed Daniel Pearl? by Bernhard-Henri Levy.
2004: “Palestinians celebrate deadly Israeli bus bombings” published today described how “thousands of joyful Hamas supporters took to Gaza's street , throwing sweets in the air and singing songs to celebrate a twin suicide bombing that killed 16 people on Israeli buses.”
2004: “Promised Land” by Amos Gitai premiered at the 61st Venice International Film Festival which opened today.
2005: In Israel approximately 1,700,000 pupils begin the new school year.
2005: At the Vienna International Film Festival, premiere of “Good Night, and Good Luck,” one of the most significant films of the decade produced by Grant Heslov.
2005: As of today, the IDF “had withdrawn 95% of its equipment” from Gaza.
2005: In Hong Kong, Nancy Ann Kissel was found guilty of murdering her husband Robert Kissel, a senior banker with Merrill Lynch
2006: In a strange twist of fate, two Moslem countries are making plans to send troops to serve as part of the UN peacekeeping force designed to maintain peace along Israel’s border with Lebanon. Turkey's government submitted a resolution to parliament to send peacekeepers to Lebanon despite public opposition to the deployment. Israel has dropped its objections to Indonesia joining the UN peacekeeping force in south Lebanon, and discussions are underway as to when Jakarta would send a planned contingent of 1,000 troops
2006: An Orthodox Jewish man was removed from an Air Canada Jazz flight in Montreal for praying.
2007: In Jerusalem, Larry Fogel and Moni Arnon perform "Simon and Garfunkel" music. The duo provides an authentic rendition of the famed Americans’ acousitc harmonies in their performance at the Bible Lands Museum tent.
2007: Craig Breslow “was promoted to the Boston Red Sox” from the minors.
2007(18th of Elul, 5767): Parashat Ki Tavo
2007(18th of Elul, 5767): Eighty-three year old Sir Abraham Goldberg, the son of Jewish immigrants who rose to be “one of the most outstanding physician scientists of his generation” passed away today.
2007: In Cedar Rapids, Iowa, on Saturday of Labor Day Weekend, the traditional Shabbat morning service at Temple Judah (a reform congregation with just over 100 families as members) attracted sixteen congregants confounding critics who are always predicting the demise of the American Jewish Community while The Cedar Rapids Gazette featured an article entitled “Kosher gardening shows Jewish law in practice.”
2007: (Elul 18) Birthdates of the Baal Shem Tov and Rabbi Schneur Zalman Liadi, founder of Chabad-Lubavitch.
2007: A Des Moines rabbi who was named Friday in online media reports as planning to marry two gay men said he didn't know of the plan. Rabbi David Kaufman of Temple B'nai Jeshurun in Des Moines said today that he couldn't have married Sean Fritz and Tim McQuillan because neither man was Jewish.
2008: A busy day in Israel on a variety of fronts as 1.4 millions pupils ended their summer vacation and began the 2008/09 school year
2008: Mike Slive, the commissioner of the Southeastern Conference is scheduled to begin serving as Chair of the Division 1 Men’s Basketball Committee for the 2008-2009 academic year today.
2008: Athletic mogul Arkadi Gaybamak sacked the entire Betar management team
2008: The WUJS Arad program relocates from the southern desert town to the Central region. The program moves to Jerusalem and Tel Aviv for the fall session, which is expected to draw 50 participants from overseas. The five-month program will be extended by a month for that term.
2008(1st of Elul, 5768): Rosh Chodesh Elul Rosh; Begin blowing the Shofar at Shacharit
2008: Deadline for submitting entries to the D.C. Jewish Community Center's third annual writing contest entries for which must come from residents of the Washington Metro area and must consist short essays or stories that illuminate how humor has been helpful in difficult times -- is looking for entries.
2008 (1 Elul, 5768): Eighty-five year old comedy writer Sheldon Keller passed away today. (As reported by Margalit Fox)
2008 (1 Elul, 5768): Forty-six year old Oded Schramm, who melded ideas from two branches of mathematics into an equation that applies to a multitude of physics problems from the percolation of water through rocks to the tangling of polymers, died in a fall at Guye Peak near Snoqualmie Pass in Washington State. (As reported by Kenneth Chang)
2008: The fifth AICE Israeli Film Festival opened on today at the Palace Como, South Yarra.).
2009: During a breakfast reception at the Jewish Community Center of Northern Virginia, Governor Tim Kaine provides a briefing on his recent trip to Israel highlighting visits with top elected officials and business leaders. The Virginia Israel Advisory Board hosted Governor Kaine's Israel mission with support from the JCRC.
2009: In Israel, the start of the 2009-2010 school year
2009: At Tel Aviv’s Hayarkon Park, Madonna appears at the first of two concerts that are the last stop on her “Sticky and Sweet” tour.
2009: Jewish Agency Chairman Natan Sharansky told Jewish students at the Lipman Jewish Day School in Moscow today how much has changed in their country since he fought for the rights of Jews in the Soviet Union and spent nine years as a political prisoner
2009, A special "Winton train" set off from the Prague Main railway station. The train, consisting of an original locomotive and carriages used in the 1930s, headed to London via the original Kindertransport route. On board the train were several surviving "Winton children" and their descendants, who were to be welcomed by Nicholas Winton in London. Sir Nicholas George Winton organized the rescue of 669 mostly Jewish children from German-occupied Czechoslovakia on the eve of the Second World War in an operation later known as the Czech Kindertransport. Winton found homes for them and arranged for their safe passage to Britain
2009: An investor group including Andreessen Horowitz (Ben Horowitz) announced it had acquired a majority stake in Skype for $2.75 billion
2009: After having been “convicted of embezzling millions of shekels from the National Workers Labor Federation while he was its chairman” Avraham Hirchson “began serving his five years and give months” prison sentence.
2010: Meiron Reuven is scheduled to begin serving as Israel’s new ambassador to the UN.
2010: President Barack Obama is scheduled to host a dinner attended by Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas and former British Prime Minister Tony Balir this evening prior to the start of peace talks which are scheduled to begin tomorrow.
2010(22nd of Elul): 25th Yahrzeit of Joseph B. Levin, of blessed memory; Husband of Deborah, father of Judy Rosenstein of blessed memory, David Levin and Mitchell Levin. You wouldn’t be reading this if it hadn’t been for him and that statement is true in more ways than one!
2010: Today Defense Minister Ehud Barak spoke about yesterday’s fatal terror attack in Kiryat Arba, promising that "the IDF will do everything possible to quickly bring the perpetrators to justice, to prevent the possibility of a wave of terror attacks from developing, to prevent other terror missions from disrupting the fabric of relationships and relative quiet which has been created in the area in recent years and even the intent to harm the coming peace talks."
2010: Kol Shira performed at a Taste of the Market- Iowa City's Farmers Market
2010: President Obama today began the arduous process of coaxing and pressing the main Middle East participants to define and embrace a comprehensive peace settlement, declaring that “the status quo is unsustainable
2010: Archaeologists in Jordan have unearthed a 3,000-year-old Iron Age temple with a trove of figurines of ancient deities and circular clay vessels used for religious rituals, officials said today.
2011: Shlomo Benizri began serving his prison term after having been “convicted of accepting bribes, breach of faith, obstructing justice, and conspiracy to commit a crime for accepting favors worth millions of shekels from his friend, contractor Moshe Sela, in exchange for inside information regarding foreign workers scheduled to arrive in Israel.”
2011: The Ohr Chadash Academy, a new Modern Orthodox day school is scheduled to open at Park Heights Jewish Community Center in Baltimore, Maryland.
2011; The family of Nahum Itzkovich, Jerusalem district psychologist of the Israel Employment Service and husband of The Jerusalem Post’s veteran health and science reporter Judy Siegel-Itzkovich, sits shivah for the last time today.
2011: The school year is scheduled to begin today in Israel.
2011: Between the Lines a novel written by Marv Levy is scheduled to be published today by Ascend Books.
2011: The 7th Annual Jerusalem Beer Festival is scheduled to come to an end tonight.
2011: The Tel Aviv District Court ruled today to release singer and Kohav Nolad (A Star is Born) judge Margalit Tsanani to house arrest.
2011: Vandals destroyed a monument to victims of a World War Two pogrom against Jews in Poland, covering it with racist inscriptions and swastikas in green paint, police said today..
2011: Approximately 300 Israelis of Ethiopian descent, including students and their parents, demonstrated this morning outside the Nir Etzion School in Petah T
2011: “Radio pulled its coverage of the Israeli Philharmonic Orchestra at the Royal Albert Hall in London this evening as a small number of anti-Israel protestors disrupted the concert by shouting anti-Israel slogans at the orchestra, which was performing as part of the prestigious annual BBC Proms classic music festival.”
2011: The New York Mets baseball team announced that it broken off negotiations to sell a minority interest to hedge fund manager David Einhorn. The Mets are owned and /or run by Fred Wilpon, Sault Katz and Jeff Wilpon.
2011(2nd of Elul, 5771): Ninety-two year old jurist and legal scholar Sidney H. Asch, passed away today. (As reported by Paul Vitello)
2012: “Frances Ha,” a “comedy –drama” directed, produced and written by Noah Baumbach “premiered at the Telluride Film Festival”
2012: The 15th annual Jerusalem International Chamber Music is scheduled to open today.
2012: Temple Judah is scheduled to host the Labor Day Shabbat traditional/egalitarian minyan.
2012(14th of Elul, 5772): Ninety-one year old lyricist Hal David passed away today in Los Angeles (As reported by Rob Hoerburger)
2012: Eighty-six year old Sy J. Schulman who helped create Riverbank State Park passed away today at White Plains, NY. (As reported by Leslie Kaufman)
2012: “An Israeli military strike has been granted increased legitimacy due to the events of the past week, former minister Tzachi Hanegbi said today at a cultural event in Kiryat Motzkin. The airstrikes came after several rockets were fired at Israel over the past week, one of which struck and damaged a home in Sderot early yesterday morning.” (As reported by JPost staff)
2012: IAF aircraft struck two centers of terrorist activity in the Gaza Strip overnight in response to rockets fired from the coastal territory into southern Israel, according to the IDF Spokesman's Office.
2012: Three people were injured during a rock-throwing fracas in Jerusalem this afternoon. “The incident began when a group of haredim started throwing stones at the Arab neighborhood of Shuafat in the capital’s northeast. Police arrested three haredim, two minors and an adult, for throwing rocks.” (As reported by Melanie Lidman
2013: Jeremy Jones is scheduled to moderate “Appeasing Hitler – Nazi Supporters Down Under as part of Sydney Jewish Writer’s Festive being held at the Eric Caspary Learning Centre, Shalom College, University of New South Wales
2013: András Schiff and the Erlenbusch Quartet are scheduled to perform Brahms’ Piano Quintet in F minor, op. 34 at The Jerusalem International Chamber Music Festival
2013: Ephraim Mirvis took office as Chief Rabbi of the United Hebrew Congregations of the Commonwealth replacing the retiring Lord Sacks.
2013: The New York Times book section included two features: “Jonathan Lethem: By the Book” http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/01/books/review/jonathan-lethem-by-the-book.html?ref=review and “Articles of Faith” by Dara Horn that explores her belief that “a number of contemporary Jewish writers are engaging with religious belief in their works”
2014: According to Forbes, “Sheldon Adelson has returned to the top 10 richest in the world for the first time since 2007 after making an average of $32 million a day over the last year, third-most of anyone on the planet’ meaning the eighty-one year old Chairman and CEO of Las Vegas sands is worth approximately $33.2 billion.
2014: Four days after she had passed away, graveside services are scheduled to held at Sharon Memorial Park this afternoon for Shirley (Berlin) Kahn, the widow of Arnold L. Kahn with whom she had three children – Jeffrey, Jill and Jonathan.
2014: “After a summer dominated by Code Red sirens and few days of real vacation, 2,105,394 students are scheduled to return to school in some 2,100 new classrooms and 495 preschools that were built to meet demand in the new school year.” (As reported by Shahar Hay)
2014: Peter Schaefer, “a German academic who had previously led Princeton University‘s Judaic studies program,” is scheduled to replace W. Michael Blumenthal as Director of the Jewish Museum Berlin. (As reported by JTA)
2014: “A three-year-old toddler was lightly wounded tonight by Arab terrorists that hurled rocks through the window of the bus she was riding in, as it passed through Uzi Narkis Street in the northern Jerusalem neighborhood of Shuafat.” (As reported by Ido Ben-Porat, Ari Yashar)
2014: “Justice Minister Tzipi Livni today condemned a government decision to appropriate about 1,000 acres of land near the West Bank settlement of Gva’ot, in the Etzion Bloc, asserting that the move would prove detrimental to Israel’s security and damage the country’s reputation with the international community.” (Times of Israel)
2014: Peter Hancock took over as CEO of AIG replacing Robert “Bob” Benmosche, the Brooklyn born descendant of Lithuanian Jews who relinquished his position to due lung cancer.
2015: In Falls Church, VA, Temple Rodef Shalom’s Treasure Gift Shop is scheduled to be open for a special pre-Rosh Hashanah evening of sales complete with a 10% discount.
2015: “Proceedings to determine the punishment for “Frazier Glenn Miller Jr., 74, a former Ku Klux Klan leader with a history of racist and anti-Semitic actions” who “was convicted of capital murder yesterday in the shooting deaths of three people a year ago at a Jewish community center and an assisted living facility in suburban Kansas City.”]
2016(28th of Av, 5776): Yarhrzeit for Larry Rosenstein, of blessed memory, husband of Judy Levin Rosenstein, of blessed memory. Gone too soon but always remembered!
2016(28th of Av, 5776): Eighty-nine year old Fred Hellerman, the last surviving member of the Weavers, a driving force behind the folk music and social justice movements passed away today. (As reported by William Grimes)
2016: “Is That You? The Road Not Taken” a film that tells the story of a 60 year old Israel projectionist is scheduled to be shown for the last time at Cinema Village.
2016: The screening sponsored by UKJF of “Mr. Gaga” is scheduled to be shown for the last time.
2017: 78th Anniversary of the start of World War II
2017: “1917: How One Year Changed The World” is scheduled to open in New York at the American Jewish Historical Society.
2017: “Lady Bird” produced by Scott Rudin and featuring Beanie Feldstein “premiered at the Telluride Film Festival” today.
2017: The Jeff Portman era really comes to an end as Rabbi Esther Hugenholtz is scheduled to lead services this evening for the first time at Congregation Agudas Achim.
2017: As Jews across Texas and the United States prepare for Shabbat, they are coming to grips with Taryn Baranowski,’s estimate that at least “Seventy-one percent of the city’s Jewish population of 63,700 lives in areas that have experienced high flooding.
2017: The Diver Festival continues for a second day in Tel Aviv with performances of modern dance
2017: In the wake of Hurricane Harvey, Greene Family and Young Judea camps continue to offer shelter to families who have lost everything.
2017: The new school year began in Israel this morning “with a total of 2,272,000 students filling the classrooms throughout the country.”
2017: Today, in the aftermath of Hurricane Harvey “Michael Dell, the founder of Dell Technologies announced a thirty-six million dollar donation today to the Rebuild Texas Fund “established by the Michael and Susan Dell Foundation
2017: As the Texas Gulf Coast grapples with the aftermath of Hurricane Harvey the Jewish-Herald Voice, “Houston and the Texas Gulf Coast's Jewish Community Newspaper Since 1908” is prepared to “offer a free e-edition.” http://jhvonline.com/
2018(21st of Elul, 5778): Parashat Ki Tavo;
2018: In Cedar Rapids, the Bat Mitzvah of Hannah Homrighausen-Hoer is scheduled to take place at Temple Judah.
2018: The Jerusalem Centre for the Performing Arts is scheduled to host a screening of Jacob Gladwasser’s “Laces.”
2019: Etgar Keret’s Fly Already which is scheduled to come out in English in September.
2019: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including And How Are You Dr. Sacks? by Lawrence Weschler.
2019: In London, JW3 is scheduled to host a screening of “Blinded by the Light.”
2019: Eightieth Anniversary of the start of World War II
2019(1st of Elul, 5779): Parashat Re’eh; Rosh Chodesh Elul.
2020: 18Doors Boston is scheduled to present online a discussion of “Multi-Generational Interfaith Families and the High Holidays.
2020: The Virtual Sephardic Film Festival is scheduled to host a screening of “The Women’s Balcony.”
2020: Temple Emanu El is scheduled to host “Talk Trope Tuesdays” with Cantor Dave Malecki during which particpants can review the special High Holiday melodies.
2020: The Mandel JCC and the Boulder JCC are scheduled to host “an online Rosh Hashanah cooking demonstration with celebrated Jewish cookbook author Leah Koenig.”
2020: The Greater New Orleans Chapter of Hadassah and Sisterhood of Shir Chadash Conservative Congregation is scheduled to hold a panel discussion on “Me Too Affects You Too!”
2020: Congregation Or Atid is scheduled to host online Modeh Ani with Rabbi Louis Polisson as he sings “classic Jewish and American songs while telling “some classic Jewish Children’s stories.”
2020: Today marks the return of This Day….In Jewish History which was last updated on August 10 and was forced to halt publication for the first time in its history due to 120 mile winds that tore through Cedar Rapids, uprooting trees, destroying the electrical city and closing down the internet. (Editor’s note – this house took a direct hit leaving it with gaping hole in the roof among other damages)
2021: The National Museum of American Jewish History is scheduled to host a program with Howard Mortman, author of When Rabbis Bless Congress: The Great American Story of Jewish Prayer on Capitol Hill.
2021: The Birthright Israel - Sephardic Israel Trip for this Summer is scheduled to come to an today.
2021: The Temple Emanu-El Streicker Center is scheduled to host investigative reporter for The Washington Post, Craig Whitlock who has covered the global war on terrorism since 2001 discussing “The Afghanistan Papers, the Pentagon Papers for a new generation.”
2021: The Jewish Climate Action Network is scheduled to present the second session, online, of “How to ‘Bentshmark ‘Your Synagogue’s Carbon Footprint.”
2021: Schools in Israel are scheduled to re-open today.
2022: 83rd anniversary of the German invasion of Poland marking the start of WW II.
2022: In California, as part of the Jewish Music Series, Sonoma State University is scheduled to “Saul Goodman’s Klezmer Band” during which Clarinetist Mike Perlmutter and his bandmates will lead an educational concert during which attendees get to know klezmer music and its roots in Ukraine, Poland, and Central and Eastern Europe.
2022: In Waltham, MA, the Mandel Center for the Humanities is scheduled to host “a seminar on The Jewish Bookshelf from the Six Day War to the Yom Kippur War, with Matt Silver, professor of modern Jewish history at the Max Stern Yezreel Valley College in Israel.
2022: Online, Letty Cottin Pogrebin, a co-founder of Ms. magazine, is scheduled to discuss “Shanda” (shame/disgrace in Yiddish), her new memoir about three generations of complicated, intense 20th-century Jews whose lives were ruled by their desire to fit and/or their fear of public embarrassment.
2022: The YIVO Institute is scheduled to present a lecture by Tzipora Weinberg on “Orthodox, Female Poet: The Litvish Life of Hadasah Hirshovitz Levin.
2022: In Palm Beach Gardens, FL, Temple Judea is scheduled a morning minyan with Rabbi Fievel Strauss and Cantor Abbie Strauss
2022: The Museum of Jewish Heritage is scheduled to host Professor Sarah Stein as she delivers a talk which will survey the historical landscape of WW II era in North America as she explores histories of race laws, internment forced labor, deportation, and the everyday experiences of the region’s Jewish people.
2022: Based on the last minute agreement reached between the Finance Ministry and the Israel Teachers Union, schools in Israel are scheduled to open today.