Monday, May 3, 2021

This Day, May 4, In Jewish History by Mitchell A and Deb Levin Z"L

May 4

1008: Birthdate of King Henry I of France who reigned from 1031 until his death in 1060 which means that he was on the throne when a future wine maker, Shlomo Yitzhaki, was born at Troyes in 1040.  [But today, who remembers the French monarch and who remembers Rashi?]

1287: Jews were arrested and accused of "clipping" the coinage in England. Although there was no evidence, the community as a whole was convicted and ordered to be expelled. A ransom of 4,000 (some say 12,000) pounds of silver were paid in ransom.  This was the penultimate act in the story of the medieval English Community.  For a century or more they had been drained of their wealth by Richard the Lionhearted, his brother King John and his son Henry III.  In 1290, having reduced the Jews to a state of semi-poverty, and replaced them with Italian Bankers, King Edward I expelled the Jews from England.  Part of his rational was that if some Jews were guilty of counterfeiting, then the whole community must be guilty.

1415: Jan Hus, who saw himself as a religious reformer was declared a heretic by the Roman Catholics at the Council of Constance.  The followers of Hus were called Hussites. The fight between the Hussites and the Catholic Church turned violent and the Jews of Central Europe would get caught in the crossfire.  After all, if you were busy killing Hussites, why not kill another group of “non-believers” living in your midst?

1493: Pope Alexander VI divided the New World including parts of east Asia between Portugal and Spain along the so-called Demarcation Line.  In other words the Western Hemisphere was divided between two Catholic Kingdoms both of which had or would soon expel their Jewish subjects. Alexander VI was one of the so-called Renaissance Popes, a group of papal leaders who left much to be desired in matters related to religion.  Alexander VI was the Borgia pope. And he was the father of the notorious Cesare and Lucretzia Borgia.  Alexander VI presented a mix bag when it came to his dealings with the Jews.  Alexander allowed so many Marranos fleeing Spain’s Inquisition in to Rome that the city’s refugee population doubled his ten year reign.  While he decreased the size of the badge worn by professing Jews, he added an additional five per cent tax to their already heavy tax burden.  In an act of additional depravity, Alexander “extended the distance of the annual race in which humiliated Jews ran naked through the city so that he could view it from his Castel Sant’Angelo residence” 

1515: An edict was issued ordering the expulsion of the Jews from Ragussa.  The expulsion was another instance of economics hiding behind religious doctrine.  There were exceptions to the order including physicians and merchants operating in the country on a temporary basis.

1680: Birthdate of Johann Gerhard Meuschen, the anti- Jesuit Lutheran theologian. In 1736 he “Novum Testamentum ex Talmude et antiquitatibus Hebraeorum illustratum,” which was a collection of studies that examined the relationship between the New Testament and the Talmud and other Jewish writings.

1689: Christian Knorr von Rosenroth passed away.  Born in Silesia in 1636, this Christian scholar became an accomplished Hebraist who became an avid student of the Kabbalah and the Zohar who authored several books on the topic.

1758: Solomon Lipschitz who was born at Furth in 1675 and served as a cantor in Prague and

Frankfurt passed away today leaving behind Te'udat Shelomo as a guide for future generations of Jewish musicians.

1789: Birthdate of author Angelo Paggi, the native of Sienna who served as the principal of the Jewish school at Florence from 1836 to 1846 before being forced to retire due to poor health.

1789: As France hurtles towards Revolution, Come de Mirabeau whose advocacy for the rights of the Jews included the call to “”confer upon them the enjoyment of civil rights and they will enter the ranks of useful citizens’ began serving as a deputy for the National Constituent Assembly.

1809: Abraham Lazarus married Mary Wilks today at the Great Synagogue.

1798: In Switzerland, the town council of Schwyz which in 2011 hosted “a special exhibition ‘Did you see my Alps? A Jewish Love story’” surrendered to French Troops.

1810: Birthdate of Alexandre Colonna-WalewskiAlexandre Colonna-Walewski the European noble and diplomat who was reported to be the illegitimate son of Napoleon and who was the paramour of the French-Jewish actress Rachel Felix with whom he had a son -  Alexandre-Antoine Colonna-Walewski – whom he adopted in 1860.


1814: Ferdinand VII of Spain ordered all previous proceedings of the Cortes of Cadiz null and void. This voided the 1813 statement saying the Inquisition was not in line with Spain's new liberal views. Only 2 months later Ferdinand announced Inquisitional tribunals were to once again resume, and they did.

1816: Birthdate of violinist Joseph Franco

1818: In Charleston, SC, Rebecca Lopez and Mordecai Hendricks De Leon, a doctor from Philadelphia and mayor of the southern city gave birth to Edwin de Leon, the brother of Thomas Cooper, David Camden, Agnes, Maria Louisa and Adeline Mary de Leon.

1827: Birthdate of Jacob Judah, the son of Hillel Judah and the brother of Richmond, VA Isaac Judah

who “was probably the first reader at Congregation Beth Shalom in Richmond.

1838: In Budapest Jozsef Lob Lipot Oppenheim and Katalin Oppenheimer gave birth to Abraham Oppenheim.

1840: In “Ketchevo, Prussian, Poland, Israel Baruch Moses and his wife gave birth to rabbi, author and physician Adolph Moses, a veteran of Garibaldi’s revolutionary served as leader of the Jewish communities in Montgomery, AL and Mobile, AL before settling in Louisville, KY in 1881 where he served as rabbi for the rest of his life while also earning a medical degree from the University of Louisville.

1843: Louis Loewe delivered “a discourse” today on the day of the funeral of H.R.H. Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex.

1844: Birthdate of Russia native Elchanan Harkavy, who in 1891 came to the United States where he was a businessman in Brooklyn.

1847(18th of Iyar 5607): Lag B’Omer

1847: David Solomon married Sarah Hart at 63, Quadrant Regent St, St James Westminster, London today.

1848: A bill which would have altered the oath office making it possible for Lionel de Rothschild to take the seat in Parliament to which he had been elected was “passed on its third reading in the Commons” today “by a majority of 62 votes” but was later rejected by the Lords thus thwarting the will of the electorate.

1849: Birthdate of Gustave Pollak the native of Vienna who came to the United States in 1866 where he pursed a career as a journalist with the Saturday Evening Post and author of several works including Fifty Years of American Idealism

1850: Birthdate of St. Petersburg native Emanuel Schiffers, the son of German parents who became a leading mathematician and chess master.

1851: A major fire broke out in San Francisco, destroying among other things, the “canvassed roof store” that had been opened up by newly arrived Pomeranian immigrant Abraham Abrahamsohn.  The loss of his “store” after only a month of being in the United States, forced him to head for the gold fields and try his luck as a miner.  Unfortunately, this effort did not pan out. (Sorry for the horrible pun.)

1852: In Cincinnati, Yetta Hackes and Louis Stix gave birth to Joseph Louis Stikx

1852(16th of Iyar 5612): Seventy-three year old “Austrian printer, publisher, and lexicographer” Moses Landau who created “a new edition of the "'Aruk" of R. Nathan of Rome, to which he added Benjamin Mussafia's "Mussaf he-'Aruk" passed away today.

1853: In England, Nathaniel Montefiore and his wife gave birth to British author and philanthropist Leonard Montefiore, the brother of Claude Montefiore, the grand-nephew of Sir Moses Montefiore, and the nephew of Sir Anthony Rothschild even before leaving college had contributed articles to periodicals at The Nineteenth Century and The Fortnightly Review.

1854: Fromental Halevy’s five-act grand opera “Charles VI” was performed in Buenos Aires for the first time.

1856: Two days after she had passed away, 22 year old Elizabeth (Joel) Jacobs, “the wife of Edward Jacobs” was buried today at “Bury Street, Bevis Marks” in London.

1859: Judah Norden married Sarah Lazarus today.

1861: In Liverpool, England, Harried and Walter Samuel gave birth to Samuel Edgar the husband of Ehtel Julia Edgar

1862: The New York Times reviewed books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Spirit of the Hebrew Poetry by Isaac Taylor in which the author described the “historic personality of God, the reality of Revelation and the…certainty of Man’s Salvation as deduced from the Hebrew Psalmists and Prophets…”


1862: Birthdate of Schepsel Schaffer, the native of Courland who became rabbi of Shearith Israel in Baltimore Maryland, where he also served as president the city’s Zionist association starting in 1895.

1864(28th of Nisan, 5624): Thirty-four year old Major Marcus M. Speigel, the German born son of Rabbi Moses Spiegel and the former Regina Greenebaum and older brother of Joseph Spiegel, “the founder of Spiegel Catalog” who had commanded the 120th Ohio Volunteer Infantry during the Vicksburg campaing was fatally wounded today “near Snaggy Point” during the Red River Campaign which was part of Grant’s multi-pronged offensive that successfully defeated the Confederates and saved the Union.

1864: Grant crosses into Virginia as the commander of a coordinated effort including Union armies all the way to Texas that will lead to the destruction of the Confederacy, a fact that will please the majority of American Jews since most of them favor the cause of the United States over the Confederate States.

1866: In Dixon, Illinois, Samson Rosenthal and Mina Cahn gave birth to Mortiz Rosenthal the University of Michigan graduate and husband of Virginia Moses who served as the Assistant State’s Attorney in Cook County, Illinois and United States Attorney for Northern Illinois.

1866: Birthdate of Galicia native Judah Leo Landau, the grandson of the Rabbi of Grabowitz who as a rabbi in Vienna and North Manchester before becoming a professor of Hebrew at Witwatersrand University and Chief Rabbi in Johannesburg where he passed away in 1942.

1871: In London, Hyam Solomon Levy-Yuly, the London born son of Mr. and Mrs. Judah Levy-Yuly and his wife Hannah Levy-Yuly, gave birth to Clara Levy-Yuly

1872: A Times correspondent writing from Smyrna today described a blood libel that had taken place in that Greek city.  Despite the efforts of local medical authorities and clergy to convince the populace that a Christrian child had died in accidental drowning and not as part of Jewish plot tied to the Passover ritual, mobs attacked the Jewish quarter converting into a place of “pandemonium, pillage, rape and murder.”

1875(29th of Nisan, 5635): Publisher Michael Levi passed away in Paris.

1875(29th of Nisan, 5635): Seventy-one year old Heinrich Ewald the author The Poetical Books of the Old Testament, History of the People of Israel, Antiquities of the People of Israel and Complete Course on the Hebrew Language – the book which led him to be described as “the second founder of the science of the Hebrew Language – passed away today

1875: In Latvia, Behr Moses and Rasya Bernstein gave birth to Columbia Ph.D Ludwig Behr Bernstein and the husband of Sophia Kivman who was the Superintendent of the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Orphan Asylum of New York before organizing the Cottage Home plan of the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Asylum of Pleasantville, NY and starting in 1921 serving as the Executive Director of the Federation of Jewish Philanthropies in Pittsburgh.

1876: Emile Berliner starts the work that lead to the invention of the gramophone.

1878(1st of Iyar, 5638): Rosh Chodesh Iyar

1878: According to today's Literary Notes column, "Prof. Goldwin Smith who is said to be a cordial Jew-hater is preparing a reply to an article in the April Nineteenth Century in which it is maintained that Jews are good patriots."

1878: “Philip Leon, a well-dressed Hebrew was arraigned in the Court of Special Session on a charge of having stolen a pawn ticket and a dollar from Julia McCloughlin.”  Although he denied the larceny, which was took the form of a swindle, he was found guilty and sentenced to a month in New York’s city jail and ordered to pay a fine of $50.

1878: “Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum Society”, a column published today provides information about the Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum Society based on its recently released 55th annual report. Currently the asylum provides service to 301 boys and girls.  The children attend local primary and grammar schools where, according to letters from school officials, they are doing quite well.  The asylum teaches Hebrew and other Jewish studies. The asylum houses an industrial school where boys “are taught to be printers and shoemakers.” 

1879: The New York Times featured a review of "Moses the Lawgiver" by Rev. William M. Taylor in which the author writes favorably about the Jewish leader and the customs and ceremonies of his time.  This is the first in a series of that is to include "Daniel, the Beloved", "David, King of Israel" and “Elijah the Prophet.”

1879: “Matacong” an article published today reported on the activities of Nathaniel Isaac, a Jew, who was the only English resident of this island off the coast of Sierra Leone. In 1856, Isaac accompanied a French merchant named Milon on a visit to the King of Forécariah where he served as an intermediary to assure that the Frenchman could contact his commercial operations on the island. 


1879: Dr. Szold, the Rabbi of the Hanover Street Synagogue in Baltimore delivered a lecture on Abraham Lincoln. The talk was sponsored by the Hebrew Young Men’s Association and included “a number of short anecdotes concerning the great man.  Dr. Szold said that Mr. Lincoln had the most remarkable faculty for solving difficult problems by tell little stories or parables.”  Alexander the Great used a sword to cut the Gordian knot.  Lincoln used his “sharp, keen incisive wit “to unravel the most” difficult and intricate questions.

1880: Birthdate of Cincinnati, OH native Dr. Elmore Tauber, the “internationally known dermatologist”.

1881: Birthdate of Olga Aldorova who was deported from Prague, the first step on the way to the death camps.

1882: During the blood libel known as the Tiszaeszlár Affair, the mother of 14 year old Eszter Solymosi appeared before a judge where she accused the Jews of having murdered her daughter.

1884: Samuel and Blume (Teitzlin) Skoss birth to American “Arabist” and author, Professor Soleomon Leon Skoss, the husband of Irene C. Panek.

1884(9th of Iyar, 5644): Baer Ben Alexander Goldberg passed away in Paris. Born at Soludna near Warsaw in 1799 he eventually moved to Berlin where he began a career as an author and translator; a career he continued after moving to London in 1847 and Paris in 1852. One of his first works was "Ḳonṭres mi-Sod Ḥakamim," a commentary on the Jewish calendar, with chronological tables published 1845 was one the first works by this prolific author.  "Ma'aseh Nissim," a translation from the Arabic into Hebrew of Daniel the Babylonian's critical work on Maimonides is an example of the many translations he produced while living in Paris.

1885: Birthdate of Russian born pianist Leo Sirota who taught in Japan for 15 years where his daughter Beate Sirota Gordon was born before settling in the United States.

1886: Birthdate of Vilna native and Brooklyn resident Leon Goldapple a member of the Executive Committee of the Zionist Organization of America whose publications including The New Palestine an English language weekly and the Young Judean, an English language monthly for “Jewish Youth.”

1886: At Haymarket Square a peaceful rally by workers seeking the 8 hour day turned violent that led to Illinois vs. August Spies et al in which Sigmund Zeisler represented the defendants.

1887: The funeral of Isaac Henricks, the prominent businessman and member of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum Society, is scheduled to take place at his brother-in-law’s home this morning.

1889: In Prestwich Lancashire, Ephraim Sieff, a Lithuanian born Jewish businessman and his wife gave birth to Israel Moses Sieff, Baron Sieff the chairman of Marks & Spencer from 1964 to 1967 who was the father of Marcus Joseph Sieff, Lord Sieff of Brimpton.

1890(14th of Iyar, 5650): Pesach Sheini

1890: Four new trustees are scheduled to be appointed a meeting of the Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum.

1890: It was reported today that Russia is preparing to adopt more stringent passport regulations, requiring that the documents of all those entering the country must show their religion.  Anyone who does not show a religion will be registered as a Jew and will only be able to visit “localities where Jews are permitted to reside.”

1891: In San Francisco, “wholesale wine merchant, Frederick Jacobi Sr. and Flora Brandenstein (daughter of tobacco wholesaler Joseph Brandenstein), whom Frederick Sr. had married in 1876” gave birth to  WW I Army veteran and noted composer Frederick Jacobi the husband of Irene Schwarcz who was “also known and best remembered as a composer of works with Judaic themes” whose “interest in this genre began with a 1930 commission from Congregation Emanu-El of the City of New York for a Sabbath evening service.”

1892: The funeral of Abraham L. Grabfeelder, the General Southern Agent of Manhattan Life Insurance Company a director of the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children will be held this morning at 9:30

1892: Six Jews and Jewesses were convicted at Vilna of murdering babies that had been left in their care.

1892: It was reported today that David Boody, the Mayor of Brooklyn, Joseph C. Hendrix, President of the Board of Education and Oscar S. Straus, the former minister to Turkey, addressed those attending the cornerstone laying ceremonies of the new building belong to the Brooklyn Hebrew Orphan Asylum.


1893: Simon Goodheart, one of the leaders of the aggressive movement to convert Jews living on the lower east side denied accusations contained in affidavits signed by those whom his group had converted and who have now renounced their conversion that financial inducements are used to gain converts and that most of those who are supposed to be converts have taken the step for financial gain.

1894: Birthdate of Archibald Maul Ramsay, a British army officer, out spoken anti-Semite and the only MP to ever be interred on suspicions that he was a spy for the Axis

1895: A nameless seven year old deaf mute Jewish boy whose mother had passed away and whose father “was unable to provide for him” has been taken to Randall’s

1895: Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Zuckerman of 71 East 109th Street appeared before the justice at the Harlem Police Court and charged their 20 year old son of burglary – specifically of stealing tree silver candlesticks worth $100 and a gold watch worth $75.

1896: Today, The New York Times published “Peculiarities of Baron Hirsch” which had first appeared in the London Chronicle which described a man of great personal wealth who was, at heart, a populist who sided with the working classes in their conflicts with “cosmopolitan financiers” and other power brokers including those inhabiting the British House of Lords.

1898: One day after she had passed away, Leah Davis, the wife of Morris Davis, with whom she had had six children was buried today in the “Plashet Jewish Cemetery” in London.

1900: “B’nai B’rith Convention” an article published today reported on the recently adjourned convention of the Jewish fraternal organization which has been held in Chicago, Illinois.

1901(15th of Iyar, 5661): Parashat Emor

1901: The Books and Authors column included Israel Zangwill’s comments about “Robert Annys, Poor Priest” by Annie Nathan Myer. “Zangwill writes, ‘You are to be heartily congratulated. The book is full of color, spirituality and drama. There is a fine sense of the early commerce of early English history…You score in so many ways. Your pure use of words shows you have the true artist’s joy in them for their own sake.”

1902: Herzl began a three day trip in Berlin. Herzl talked to the director of the Deutsche Bank through which the Zionist movement would like to buy the Deutsche Palästinabank. For the first time Herzl met Franz Oppenheimer.

1902(27th of Nisan, 5662): Fifty-six year old French physician Theodore Klein who served for 18 years as president of the Société de l'Etude Talmudique passed away today.

1903: Birthdate of actor Luther Adler.  Born in New York, Adler was the brother of two other famous thespians, Jay and Stella Adler.  Adler began his career at the age of 13 appearing in his father's Yiddish theater.  Luther Adler was born in 1903. His theatre debut began as a 13-year in his father's Yiddish Theatre. In the 1930's he was part of the Group Theatre where he worked with such well-known names as John Garfield, Elia Kazan, Less Strasberg and Howard Da Saliva.  He appeared in over thirty movies and as many television programs.  Some of his film credits include The Last Angry Man; Cast a Giant Shadow and Voyage of the Damned.  He passed away in 1984

1904:  The United States began the construction of the Panama Canal.  The first Panamanian Jewish community, Kol Shearith Israel, was founded in 1876 when Panama was still part of Columbia.  By 1911, when the Canal was all but completed the Jewish community numbered approximately 500.

1904: Dispatches sent to the Times of London today from Vienna contained additional descriptions of the anti-Jewish rioting in the town of Bender, near Kishinev where the “outcries of a drunken fanatic started the mob on its rush to the Jewish quarter” where “all the scenes of the Kishinev massacre were repeated on a small scale” with among other things the wife of a pregnant furniture dealer being “thrown from an upper window of her house into the street.”

1905: Birthdate of Mátyás György Seiber, the Hungarian composer who worked in Germany until the rise of the Nazis forced him to leave for Great Britain where he spent the rest of his career.

1906: It as reported today that Jacob H. Schiff, acting as the treasurer for the Red Cross and the committee raising funds for the victims of the San Francisco earthquake has received an additional $35,000 in contributions.

1907: Birthdate of Milton Galatzer the native of Chicago and all-Star outfielder at Crane Tech who played the outfield and first base for the Cleveland Indians and Cincinnati Reds during the 1930’s

1907: In Rochester, Rose Stein and Louis E. Kirstein gave birth to Monument Man and co-founder of the New York City Ballet Lincoln Edward Kirstein.

1908: “The Fifth Biennial Session of the National Conference of Jewish Charities began” today in Richmond at Beth Ahabah Temple.

1909: One day after he had passed away, Louis Bernstein, the 34 year old son of Elias and Sarah Bernstein was buried today at the “Belfast Jewish Cemetery” in Northern Ireland.

1909: In Cleveland, “Yiddish speaking Russian immigrants” “Bertha (née Sen) and Benjamin Silverblatt,” gave birth to Howard Silverblatt who gained fame as actor Howard Da Silva,  a large man with a distinctive voice who worked in steel mill to pays his way through Carnegie Institute. His early stage work includes stints with Orson Wells as well as playing the original Judd in Oklahoma.  In the late 1930's and 1940's he had a successful career in movies playing in such varied films as Sergeant York and The Lost Weekend.  Da Salvia's left wing politics got him in trouble with the House Un-American Activities Committee.  Da Silva was blacklisted for many years.  His fortunes began to rise in the late 1960's and 1970's when he played Ben Franklin 1776 as well as a film about (of all people), J. Edgar Hoover.  He passed away in 1986.

1910(25th of Nisan 5670): Miriam Patchunski, the wife of Abraham Patuchunski passed away today after which she was buried at the “Belfast Jewish Cemetery” in Northern Ireland

1910: According to some sources this was the date on which Tel Aviv was founded. The confusion stems from the fact that the land company to purchase the acreage for Tel Aviv was formed in 1909.  In 1909 a number of Jewish residents decided to move to a healthier environment, outside the crowded and noisy city of Jaffa. They established a company called Ahuzat-Bayit and with the financial assistance of the Jewish National Fund purchased some twelve acres of sand dunes, north of Jaffa. In 1910, the suburb was named Tel Aviv after Nahum Sokolow's translation of Altneuland, Herzl's fictional depiction of the Jewish State.

1911: It was reported today that while Dr. Solomon Schechter, the President of the Jewish Theological Seminary was on “an eleven months’ vacation” that included time in Africa and Baghdad, Cambridge University “issued his translation of the remarkable manuscript containing a contemporary record of persons and events described in the New Testament entitled ‘Fragments of a Zadokite Work’”

1912(17th of Iyar, 5672): Parashat Emor; as the Jews observe Shabbat, an Italian Army lands on the Isle of Rhodes during a war between the Ottomans and the Italians – one of the many small wars that set the stage for WW I.1912: Birthdate of Aron B. Landauer, the husband of Elizabeth Laura Landauer

1913: The Temple Sholom Alliance is scheduled to host a performance of “A Woman’s Intrusion,” a one act play by Tillie Becker this evening at Assembly Hall in Chicago.

1913: In Sacramento, CA, rededication of B’Nai Israel Synagogue.

1913: Birthdate of Irving Broome who gained fame as John Broome the writer for DC Comics whose creations included “The Flash.”

1913: “A Woman’s Intrusion” a one act playlet was scheduled to be a featured attraction at this evenings “entertainment” sponsored by The Temple Sholom Alliance at the Assembly Hall in Chicago.

1914: “Credits America’s Freedom to Jews” published today described a speech delivered by Oscar S. Straus, the former cabinet member and U.S. Ambassador to Turkey in which he described the relationship of Christopher Columbus with “Gabriel Sanctus” who had raised money for one of the explorer’s ships and Luis Santangel to whom Columbus “wrote his first letter describing the wonders of the New World.”

1915: “Chicago Plea for Frank” published today included the announcement of the those who were willing to speak out on behalf of Leo Frank who has been wrongly convicted of married Mary Phagan included the famous defense attorney Clarence Darrow, Bishop Samuel Fallows and Frank and Mrs. Grace Wilbur Trout, President of the Illinois Equal Suffrage Society.

1915: “The Illinois Legislature was asked today to pass resolutions asking for the suspension of the death sentence on Leo M. Frank” who has been “sentenced to death at Atlanta for the murder of Mary Phagan.”

1915: It was reported today that “the resentencing of Leo Frank at this time would mean the hastening of the hearing before the Prison Commission of his petition for a commutation of the death sentence to life imprisonment” which “would mean that the case would reach Governor Slaton before the expiration of his term in the latter part of June.”

1915: As of today, Judge Samuel Greenbaum is the President of the Educational Alliance which as of June 30, 1914 had 2,692 members.

1916: Birthdate of sociologist Rose Laub Coser who “made contributions to medical sociology, refined major concepts of role theory, and analyzed contemporary gender issues in the family and in the occupational world.”

1916: Bronx County Registrar Edward I. Pollak presided over a meeting tonight at the Spooner Theatre organized by the Jewish Relief Committee, the Central Relief Committee and the People’s Relief Committee for Jewish War Sufferers which marked the start of “a campaign to raise $100,000 in the Bronx for the aid of Jewish war suffers.”

1916: “The American Jewish Chronicle, a weekly publication devoted, according to its management” which included Isidor Straus as President and S.M. Melamed as Secretary, “to the advocacy of the rights of Jews after the close of the European war” is scheduled to make its first appearance today.

1916: As Jewish leaders becoming increasingly concerned about the fate of Jews in Russia, U.S. Secretary of State Robert Lansing wrote to Simon Wolf that the State “Department has cabled the Embassy in Petrograd making inquiry” “as to the authenticity of a report that there is to be an outbreak against the Jews of Russia at the coming Russian Easter.”

1917: At the request of the government of Salonika, the rabbis approve burial of bodies in shrouds made of paper, because linen was scarce and expensive.

1917: It was reported today that “Rabbi Herbert S. Goldstein has resigned as director of the Central Jewish Institute to lead a Jewish revival movement” in New York – an effort to which he will devote the next year of his life.

1917: Tel Aviv was sacked by Arabs. Djemal Pasha announced that it was the intention of the Turkish government to purge Eretz Yisrael of its Jewish population. Tel Aviv was sacked by the Arabs on the anniversary of the official adoption of the name "Tel Aviv". That same year the British attacked the Turks in Palestine and the Jews reclaimed Tel Aviv which is often called the "New York of Israel."

1917: Djemal Pasha of the Ottoman Army declared that the intention of authorities was to "wipe out Jewish population of Palestine."

1918(22nd of Iyar, 5678): Parashat Behar-Bechukotai

1918(22nd of Iyar, 5678: Dr. Isaac Adler, the German born Professor Clinical Pathology at the New York Polyclinic Medal School who had “who had studied medicine at the universities of Heidelberg, Vienna, Prague and Berlin” after graduating from Columbia and who was the “brother of Dr. Felix Adler, head of the Ethical Culture Society of New York” passed away today.

1918: “Plan New Hebrew Club” published in today’s Philadelphia Inquirer described plans to build a $20,000 facility that will included an 500 seat auditorium which will a home for the Young Men’s Hebrew Association and the Young Women’s Hebrew Association in Camden, NJ.

1918: “John L. Bernstein, President of the Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society of America” received a cable from Samuel Mason who had gone to Japan “straighten out affairs among the thousands of Jews who been stranded there after fleeing Russia” “announcing that the 200 Jewish refugees who had been stranded in Harbin” are now on their way to the United States.

1918: Today, the Jewish Welfare Board sent an order to Chief Rabbi Hertz, “who is working among the Jewish soldiers in England” “an order of 10,000 psalms book” which will then “be forwarded to Rabbi Levi in Paris and to Chaplain Elkin C. Voorsanger” who will distribute them to American soldiers in France.

1919: In Chicago, Illinois, the dedication of the Mt. Sinai Hospital on South California Avenue is scheduled to begin at 3 p.m.

1919: In Pittsburgh, five days a group of Jews met at the home of Ben Cohen where they “organized what was charted as the Beechview Hebrew Congregation Beth El” which is now Beth El Congregation of the South Hills “the men of the congregation” met today “and elected their first officers : President, Jacob Rosenson; Vice President, Harry Ruderman; Secretary, Isidore Marmorstein; Treasurer, Abraham Zober.”

1919(4th of Iyar, 5679): Seventy-three year old Julius Reach, “the husband of the late Rosa Reach” with whom he had four children passed away today.

1920: Birthdate of Brooklyn native Harold “Hal” Judenfriend the star CCNY basketball player.

1921(26th of Nisan, 5681): Jonas Kuppenheimer, president of the clothing manufacturing company that bears his family name passed away today in Lake Forest, Illinois.  Born at Terre Haute, Indiana in 1854, Kuppenheimer came to Chicago fifty years ago with his father Bernard, and his brothers Louis and Albert where they opened a clothing store that grew into a major producer of menswear.

1923(18th of Iyar, 5683): Lag B’Omer

1923: The 146th session of the New York State Legislature in which Philip M. Kleinfeld had served his first time as the State Senator from 4th District came to a close.

1925: Birthdate of Maurice “Hank” Greenberg, former CEO of AIG, one of the world’s largest insurance and financial services companies.

1925: In Constantine, Algeria, Albert and Diamantine Abarzel gave birth to Avraham Abarzel, the oldest of the their ten children who died while serving in the IDF in 1948 during “battle for the capture of Beersheba.”

1925: In Johannesburg, South Africa Julius First and Matilda Levetan gave birth to anti-Apartheid activist Ruth First.

1925: U.S. premiere of “Any Woman,” a silent film produced by Jesse Lasky and Adolph Zukor.

1926: In Palestine, “all work in Jewish office, factories and institutions…stopped at 1:30 today as thousands of mourners paid tribute to the late Dr. Max Nordau…whose body was brought to Palestine from France.   As the body was being carried to Tel Aviv’s town hall, the procession stopped at the Great Synagogue where special religious services were held.

1927: In New York, Harry and Ida Sotsky gave birth to Abraham S. Adler the husband of Mimi Adler

1928: In Brno, Czechoslovakia, Aron and Ruth Dershowitz gave birth Rabbi Zvi Dershowtiz who came to the United States at the age of ten and served several Reform Congregations including Sinai Temple in Los Angeles, CA.

1930: In the Bronx, “the former Ruth Hirsch, a milliner” and Solomon Peterman, “a shoe salesman” gave birth to their only child Roberta Peterman who as Robert Peters “achieved the longest tenure of any soprano in the history of the Metropolitan Opera.”

1934: “Manhattan Melodrama” produced by David O. Selznick with a script co-authored by Joseph L. Mankiewicz and, in what some might say was type-casting, featuring George Sidney in the role of Poppa Rosen, a Russian Jew was released today in the United States.

1935: In San Francisco, the former Alma Loew a Jewish immigrant from Germany and Edward Friedman, a Jewish refugee from Lithuania gave birth to jazz pianist Donald Ernest Friedman.”

1935: A court in Berne, Switzerland is scheduled to deliver a verdict in the civil suit brought by The Union of Jewish Communities of Switzerland and the Jewish community of Bene “against Swiss Nazis and others demanding the confiscation of a pamphlet in the Protocols of Zion were published because “the publication violated the Swiss law prohibiting the printing of literature ‘calculate to excite vile instincts or to cause brutal offense.’”

1936 “Nine charitable organizations received bequests totaling $56,000 in the will of the late stock broker Albert Stieglitz which was filed in Surrogate’s Court today” and which “named his widow, Hannah Stieglitz as the principal beneficiary.

1936: Voters are expected to accept or reject the recommendation of the nominating committee chaired by Mrs. Edward Josephy naming the new slate of officers for the National Council of Jewish Women.

1936: It was reported today that “one of the steamship companies subsidized by the Federal Government through mail contracts employs seamen who place allegiance to the Nazi flag above that of the United States.”

1937: The convention of the Union of Orthodox Rabbis in the United States and Canada, an “organization that includes in its membership about 98 per cent of all the orthodox rabbis in the United States” is scheduled to continue for a second day in Atlantic City, NJ.

1937: It was announced today that Arturo Toscanini will again conduct the Palestine Symphony Orchestra in a series of concerts that will include a November 10 in Tel Aviv as well as performances in Jerusalem and Haifa.

1938: In an address to 500 newly married couples at Castel Gandolfo, Pope Pius XI criticizes Adolf Hitler, currently visiting Mussolini in Rome, and the Nazi Party. Pope Pius XI says that these couples deserve a papal benediction because "such sad things are happening, sad things, very sad, both near to us and far away. Certainly, among these sad things is that on the feast day of the Holy Cross of Christ, the banners of another cross which certainly is not that of Christ should have been hoisted in Rome. This was out of place and time. We tell you this so that you may understand how necessary it is to pray, pray, and pray for the mercy of the Almighty in all its largeness." (Editor’s Note – this was not the only time that Pius XI would publicly criticize Hitler or speak up in defense of the Jews.  Any discussion of the role of the Catholic Church in events leading up to the Shoah must include an examination of this brave cleric)

1938: A picture was taken of the teachers and students at a Jewish school in Sirvintos, Lithuania.

1938: In Los Angeles, Oscar winning screen writer Phillip G. Epstein  and his wife gave birth to American author Leslie Donald Epstein whose novels includes King of the Jews.  Epstein was the nephew of screenwriter Julius Epstein and the father of baseball mogul Theo Epstein.

1938: Carl von Ossietzky, an anti-Nazi German journalist and winner of the 1935 Nobel Peace Prize, dies at age 50 after five years' captivity in concentration camps.

1938: The Palestine Post reported that Arab gangs murdered Hassan Darfil, a prominent Arab notable representing the Wadi Salib quarter of Haifa. Arab gangs continued to abduct and rob villagers and spread terror across the country.

1939: According to the diary of Jay Pierrepont Moffat, a State Department official, President Roosevelt met at the White House with Jewish leaders where the President seemed to be convinced that the warnings given by the U.S. Embassy in Berlin “were sound and not exaggerated.” 

1939: Birthdate of Israeli author Amos Oz.  To understand the works of Oz, you must realize that he is Jewish, but a sabra, a person who never has known the Diaspora.  Born in Jerusalem, Oz was a city boy until he went to live on a kibbutz at the age of 15. "He studied philosophy and literature at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, and was visiting fellow at Oxford University, author-in- residence at the Hebrew University and writer-in-residence at Colorado College. He has been named Officer of Arts and Letters of France. An author of prose for children and adults, as well as an essayist, he has been widely translated and is internationally acclaimed. He has been honored with the French Prix Femina and the 1992 Frankfurt Peace Prize. He lives in the southern town Arad and teaches literature at Ben Gurion University of the Negev." In describing his literary efforts, a reviewer in Newsweek wrote, “Eloquent, humane, even religious in the deepest sense, [Oz] emerges as a kind of Zionist Orwell: a complex man obsessed with simple decency and determined above all to tell the truth, regardless of whom it offends.” Oz is extremely prolific and only some of his works have been translated into English.  These include such recent efforts as My Michael, A Perfect Peace and Don't Call It Night.

1939: In Hungary, Miklos Horthy signs “The Second Jewish Bill” which had been introduced into the Hungarian Parliament in December of 1938 and was laughingly called “the Christmas present for the Jews.”  The bill was the Hungarian version of Hitler’s Nuremberg Laws and proved to almost immediately ruinous for much of Hungary’s Jewish population.

1940(26th of Nisan, 5700): Seventy-eight year old “German numismatist” and former Professor of the University of Jena Behrendt Pick took his life today in Berlin after having been forced into retirement because he was Jewish.

1940: Today, future Reform Rabbi Robert Lehman, whose family had arrived in the United States from Nazi Germany in 1938 “celebrated his Bar Mitzvah at the Hebrew Tabernacle of Washington Heights, a Reform congregation made up largely of fellow German-Jewish immigrants that leaned toward traditional or conservative practices.”

1941: “The Zagreb radio announced today that severe laws against Jews would be carried out throughout Croatia,” including one that would allow Jewish property to “be confiscated by the State without compensation and Jewish employees of the government to be expelled by June 1.”

1941: “Five hundred Jewish leaders, attending a conference of the United Palestine Appeal, sent a telegram to President Roosevelt today urging him to intercede with Great Britain to permit the formation at once of a Jewish Army in Palestine and to equip it with adequate material.”

1942: Japanese ships supporting the invasion of Tulagi were attacked by planes from the American aircraft carrier Yorktown marking the start of what would become the Battle of the Coral Sea, which marked the first time that the Japanese were stopped during the war in the Pacific and the first time that American planes sank a Japanese aircraft carrier

1942: Birthdate of Michael Dray.  His family had moved from Casablanca to Paris.  He was the youngest of the Moroccan-born Jews who would be deported from Paris to Auschwitz - an event that took place when he was twenty months old.

1942: The first day of an eleven day deportation of 10,000 Jews from Lodz ghetto to the Chelmno Death Camp.  They were part of 145,000 people who were gassed between December, 1941 and September 1942.

1942: Starting on this date and lasting until May 8, six Jews in Lódz, Poland, fearing deportation, commit suicide.

1942: Starting on this date and lasting until May 15, more than 10,000 Jews are deported from the Lódz (Poland) Ghetto to Chelmno.

1943(29th of Nisan, 5703): Eighty-five year old Russian born, Canadian trained American gynecologist Hiram Nahum Vineberg, the husband of Lena Bernheim and the namesake for the Hiram N. Vineberg Research Fund passed away today in New York.

1943: Against all odds, the Warsaw Ghetto uprising, which began on April 19 continues.

1943: An advertisement condemning the recently completed Bermuda Conference appeared on page 17 of the New York Times under the headline of To 5,000,000 Jews in the Nazi Death-Trap Bermuda was a Cruel Mockery,”

1943: The Committee for an Army of Stateless and Palestinian Jews published an advertisement today in the New York Times which included the “unauthorized use of the names of several members of Congress – including Harry S. Truman, Robert A. Taft and Edwin C. Johnson.”

1943: U.S. premiere of “Five Graves to Cairo” a war movie set in North Africa directed by Billy Wilder who co-authored the script

1944(11th of Iyar): Author Yehoshua Hana Rawnitzki passed away today.

1944: “Gaslight” the film adaptation of the mystery Broadway play directed by George Cukor and filmed by cinematographer Joseph Ruttenberg was released today in the United States.1945(21st of Iyar, 5705): Eighty-seven year old, Hiram Nahum Vineberg, the Russian born son of Alexander and Anna Vineberg, the husband of Lena Bernheimer and graduate of McGill University who went on to become the attending gynecologist at St. Vincent’s Hospital, Mount Sinai Hospital and the Montefiore Home for Chronic Invalids passed away today.

1945: Red Army troops liberate the camp at Oranienburg, Germany, where 5000 inmates remain alive.

1945: The U.S. 82nd Airborne Division liberates the concentration camp at Wöbbelin, Germany.

1945: At Mauthausan the prisoners were not taken out to work and SS men were observed leaving the camp.

1945: The International Red Cross took over the administration of the camp/ghetto at Theresienstadt, Czechoslovakia. The last of the camp's SS men flee.

1946(3rd of Iyar, 5706): Parashat Kedoshim

1946(3rd of Iyar, 5706): Seventy-eight-year-old Samuel Bettelheim, the Hungarian born son of Philipp Bettelheim and Johanna Buchsbaum and the husband of Julia Deutsch, who should not be confused with the Zionist leader with the same name, passed away today.

1946: “Lindsley B. Kimball, president of United Service Organizations, paid tribute today to "the role of American Jewry" in the country's war effort through the National Jewish Welfare Board, a member of the USO…”

1947: Today marked the start of the fifth annual nation-wide observance of Religious Book Week, sponsored by The National Conference of Christians and Jews and designed to stimulate the reading of books of spiritual value, is being held this week. The Conference was established in 1928 "to demonstrate that those who differ deeply in religious beliefs may work together in the American way toward mutual goals."

1947: The Irgun Zeva'l Le'umi, known in Hebrew by the abbreviation as Etzel or the Irgun, staged the famous prison break at Acre Prison.  In April 1947, the British had hung members of the Irgun so Menachem Begin felt it was imperative to try and rescue at least some of those held in the aging fortress.  In a act of daring-do worthy of any adventure novel, the Irgun entered the prison and freed 41 Etzel and Lehi (Stern Gang) prisoners.  They could not free more because of the lack of hiding places.  These escape is one of the climactic scenes in Leon Uris's novel (and movie by the same name) Exodus.

1947: More than 2,000 people filled Temple Emanu-El this afternoon at a special memorial service for Henry Monsky, international president of B'nai B'rith and chairman of the interim committee of the American Jewish Congress. Mr. Monsky died on Friday in the Hotel Biltmore at the age of 57, while attending a meeting of the future organization committee of the conference.

1948: In direct violation of international law the Arab Legion which was the Jordanian army that included a compliment of British officers attacked Kfar Etzion and was driven back by the poorly armed Jewish fighters.

1948: With only five days left until the end of the British Mandate, the Jewish forces were working feverishly to develop a military posture that would enable them to avoid annihilation by Arab military forces operating illegally in Palestine.  At the same time they were trying to prepare a defensive posture that would enable them to face the invading armies they would face within the next week.  To that end, the Palmach launched Operation Broom.  Operation Broom was intended to “sweep away” Arab bases so that Jewish settlements in the lower and upper Galilee could be joined together with a wide, safe strip of Jewish territory. Large numbers of Arabs departed the Galilee for safe haven across the Jordan River.  Their departure was a result of rumors of that a large Jewish force was on its way and the belief that once the Arab armies had had their way with the Jews, they could return and reap the spoils of victory.  

1948: Norman Mailer's first novel, The Naked and the Dead, was published.

1949: Led by Mayor O’Dwyer and Dr. Chaim Weizmann, the President of Israel, the Jews of New York city are scheduled to gather at public rallies and concerts to observe the “first anniversary of Israel’s independence.

1949:  U.S. premiere of “The Barkley’s of Broadway” produced by Arthur Freed, written by Betty Comden, Adolph Green and Sidney Sheldon with music and lyrics by George and Ira Gershwin and featuring Oscar Levant as “Ezra Miller” and Hans Conried as “Ladislaus Ladi”

1950(17th of Iyar, 5710): Seventy-eight year old Viennese born American psychoanalysis Paul Fedem who was one of the early supporters of Sigmund Freud passed away today

1952: In an interview given on the eve of his departure for the United States, Abba Khoushy, Mayor of Haifa declared “that this is going to be THE city of the country.”  In outlining the many virtues of this major seaport, the mayor noted that the population has grown from 63,000 in 1949 to 200,000 in 1952.  He has four major projects on the drawing board, which, if funded, will “bring greatness to Haifa.”

1952: Birthdate of Harry Ehrenberg, Jr., a pillar of the Little Rock, Arkansas Jewish Community and a mensch in the truest sense of that term.

1953: The Jerusalem Post reported that the Treasury doubled the exchange rate for leather and textiles to IL2 per dollar. The Histadrut banned all overtime and double jobs in order to ease the current heavy unemployment.

1953(19th of Iyar, 5713): Seventy-one-year-old solo clarinetist Simeon Bellison, the Russian born son of Andrus Bellison, “a bandmaster in the Russian Army” who had 1920 came to the United States where he pursued a varied musical career while raising “a daughter, Lillian, a member of the staff of the New York Times with his wife Etta passed away today.

1955(12th of Iyar, 5715): Sixty-four year old Odessa born and NYU-Bellevue College of Medicine trained “roentgenologist and diagnostician Dr. Isaac Glassman, “a member of the staff of Beth David Hospital” and husband of “the former Celia Margolin” who was the brother of Anna, Manya, Juliette, Nathan, Jacob, Simon and Leo Glassman passed away today after suffering a fatal heart attack.

1955(12th of Iyar, 5715): Eighty-nine year old Rose Sheuerman Shloss, the daughter of Abraham and Bronette Sheuerman, and the wife of Max Shloss passed away today after which she was buried at the Emanuel Cemetery in Des Moines, IA.

1956:  Birthdate of author David Guterson, the author of the novel Snow Falling on Cedars which won many awards, including the 1995 PEN/Faulkner Award.  The son of Jewish parents, Guterson is a self-described agnostic.

1957: The Anne Frank Foundation was formed in Amsterdam.   This is one of the organizations dedicated to preserving the memory of this tragic Jewish figure whose diary has captured and continues to capture the hearts and imagination of millions around the world.

1959(26th of 5719): Seventy-five year old Kovno born leading antique dealer Israel Sack, the founder and head of Israel Sack, Inc which is now being run by his sons “Albert, Harry and Robert” that he raised with his wife “Mrs. Ann Goodman Sacks” passed away today.


1961(18th of Iyar, 5721): Lag B’Omer was celebrated for the first time during the Presidency of JFK.

1964: NBC broadcast the first episode of “Another World” a daily soap opera in which Doris Belack played three different roles “during the shows 35-year run.”

1965: Israel Bar-Yehuda completes his term as Minister of Transport and Road Safety

 1970: In deciding the legal case "Walz v. Tax Commission of New York," the United States Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of a New York statute exempting church-owned property from taxation. This decision included all religious buildings i.e.Synagogues and Temples

1970(28th of Nisan, 5730): Yom HaShoah

1970(28th of Nisan, 5730): Allison Krause, a student at Kent State University, was one of four students killed by the Ohio National Guard. The Guard fired on a nonviolent demonstration against the Vietnam War. Krause was a committed Jew, the daughter of a Reform Jewish family, who opposed the US war against Vietnam out of a sense of the meaning of Judaism

1971(9th of Iyar, 5731): Sixty-seven year old Cleveland born and stock and commodity broker Robert Pollak the holder of a Ph.B from the University of Chicago who “wrote columns about theatre and music for several Chicago newspapers” passed away today.

1972(20th of Iyar, 5732): Ninety year old Hetty Goldman, “one of the first female archaeologists who was a member of the Goldman-Sachs banking family” passed away today.

1973: Initial release of Steambath, the film treatment of the play by Bruce Jay Friedman who wrote the script featuring Herb Edelman.

1974: Power hitting first baseman Mike Epstein was released by the California Angels today.

1975(23rd of Iyar, 5735): Comedian Moe Howard passed away.  Born Moses Horowitz in 1897, Howard was "Moe" of the famous comedy group called the Three Stooges.  All of the Stooges were Jewish.  Another example of how Jews were successful in the entertainment field by being "All American" as opposed to ethnic.

1975: Terrorists set off a bomb in a Jerusalem apartment building.

1975: “Seven Beauties,” a WW II prison camp movie co-starring Shirley Stoler was released In France today.

1975: The New York Times featured a review of Jacob Two-Two Meets the Hooded Fang by Mordecai Richler.

1976(4th of Iyar, 5736): Yom HaZikaron

1976: The musical “1600 Pennsylvania Avenue” with lyrics and book by Alan Jay Lerner and music by Leonard Bernstein opened at the Mark Hellinger Theatre.

1977: “Andy Warhol's Bad” a comedy with music composed by Mike Bloomfield and starring Carroll Baker premiered in New York City today.

1977: The first of David Frost’s interviews with Richard Nixon which were produced by Marvin Mintoff, the husband of Bonnie Franklin, was broadcast today.

1978: The Jerusalem Post reported from Lebanon that Arab terrorists murdered four French UNIFIL paratroopers, wounded seven and abducted five. France avoided condemning the P.L.O. responsible for this attack and claimed that the troops were attacked by "irresponsible elements." The Security Council deplored the incident, boosted UNIFIL to the strength of 6,000 men and called on Israel "to complete the withdrawal."

1978(27th of Nisan, 5738): Yom HaShoah

1978(27th of Nisan, 5738): In New Jersey, Maurice L. Sobol, the husband of the late Shrley Sobol and father of Richard Sobol, Linda Thaler and Judith Sobol passed away today.

1979: Nigel Lawson, the scion of prominent Anglo-Jewish financial family began serving as Financial Secretary to the Treasury.

1979: Robert Strauss began serving as the first “Special Envoy for the Middle East” a newly created position created during the administration of Jimmy Carter.

1981(30th of Nisan, 5741): Rosh Chodesh Iyar

1981: “At $25,000-Plus for a Portrait, Painter Aaron Shikler Can Give Critics the Brush” published today described the success of “the Gilbert Stuart of the jet set.”

1982(11th of Iyar, 5742): Just 6 weeks before his 90th birthday, Barnett Janner, who had been made a life peer which meant he was recognized as Baron Janner, passed away today.

1983: Phillip Dougherty reported that “Geers, Gross Advertising has been named agency for Hebrew National Kosher Foods, which has also named Levy, Flaxman & Associates to handle its recently acquired fresh chicken and turkey operation. The main account should be billing $3 million, and fresh fowl, $1 million. The former agency is Scali, McCabe, Sloves, whose account list includes Frank Perdue and all his little chicks. Since Perdue is already in fresh fowl and is eyeing franks made with chicken, it is easy to see why S.M.S. is no longer the Hebrew National agency.”

1984: U.S. premiere of “The Bounty” featuring Daniel Day Lewis as “Sailing Master John Freyer.”

1985: Michael A. Ledeen, an informal envoy of Robert C. McFarlane, the U.S. national security adviser, met with Shimon Peres in Jerusalem and inquired whether Israel had ideas about how to open contacts with Teheran. This is meeting that the Israelis have always cited as the American request for help that brought Israel into what became known as the Iran-Contra affair.

1991: CBS broadcast the final episode of the sixth season of the “Golden Girls” a sitcom created by Susan Harris and starring Beatrice Arthur and Estelle Getty with music by Andrew Gold.

1991(20th of Iyar, 5751): Eighty-seven year old master wood sculptor Chaim Gross passed away today. (As reported by John T. McQuiston)

1993: The Final Episode of “TriBeCa” entitled “Stepping Back” starring Adam Arkin, Richard Lewis, Melanie Mayron and Eli Wallach was broadcast today.

1994: In a letter published today entitled Jews Have Reason to Fear Italian Fascism, Susan Zucotti traces the history of Mussolini et al to explain “why Jews and other Italians are wary of Gianfranco Fini’s resurgent neo-Fascist party.

1994: Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and PLO leader Yasser Arafat signed an according that granted the Palestinians the right of self-rule in the Gaza Strip and Jericho.

1994: In Los Angeles, Tom And Valarie Gould gave birth to Alexander Jerome Gould a USY president turned actor who made his “feature film debut in ‘They’.”

1995(4th of Iyar, 5755): Yom HaAtzma’ut

1997(27th of Nisan, 5757): Yom Hashoah; Rabbi Erwin Herman told the story of the "Yanov Torah" to 500 people at San Diego's community Yom HaShoah services today causing many of them to cry.

1997: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Gospel According to the Son by Norman Mailer.

1997: Barb Feller, executive director of the Granger House in Marion, Iowa, traveled to England to interview John Granger, last surviving grandson of the home’s original owner.  Mrs. Feller is an active member of the Temple Judah community serving as a Hebrew teacher and co-President of the congregation.

1999(18th of Iyar, 5759): Lag B’Omer

1999(18th of Iyar, 5759): Seventy-nine career civil servant Sir Leo Plitatzky passed away today.

1999: NBC broadcast the final episode of “NewsRadio,” a sitcom featuring Jon Lovitz , Phil Harman and Steve Susskin.

2000: Shiite Muslim terrorists “fired five barrages of Katyusha rockets into northern Israel, killing one Israeli soldier and sowing panic in the northern border town of Qiryat Shemona” in what was the fiercest cross border attack since last June.

2001: The Mitchell Report (named for Maine Senator George Mitchell)  “that examined the cause of violence that began in 2000 and gave rise to the so-called Al-Aqsa Intifada was submitted today.

2002: Eighty-six year old Wehrmacht veteran Rolf Friedemann Pauls, “the first ambassador of the Federal Republic of Germany to Israel” passed away today.

2002: The exhibit “Tea House Suite” consisting of “eight new collages by Elaine Lustig Cohen” came to a close at the Julie Saul Gallery in New York

2003: The New York Times featured books by Jewish writers and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including the recently released paperback edition of Master of the Senate: The Years of Lyndon Johnson by Robert A. Caro.

2004: Publication of Ugly Americans: The True Story of the Ivy League Cowboys Who Raided the Asian Markets for Millions by Ben Mezrich

2005: Natan Sharansky completed his term as Minister Without Portfolio.

2005: “Henry IV” directed by Nicholas Hytner opened at the National Theatre.

2005: The premiere of the ballet “An American in Paris” using the “eponymous music by George Gershwin from 1928.”

2006: The American Jewish Committee's centennial events culminates with a gala event attended by US President George W. Bush, UN Secretary General Kofi Annan and German Chancellor Angela Merkel

2006(6th of Iyar, 5766): Luba Kadison, the last surviving member of the Vilna Troupe, an influential Yiddish theater company founded in Europe during World War I, passed away at the age of 99. Caraid O'Brien, a scholar of Yiddish theater and a friend of Kadison announced that she had died at her home in Manhattan. Kadison, whose married name was Luba Kaison Buloff, toured extensively in Europe before becoming a leading actress in Yiddish theater during its heyday on New York's Lower East Side. She was part of a golden age of Yiddish theater that saw serious and satirical plays challenge the dominance of popular musicals. "They did experimental things. They were doing stuff in the style of German expressionists before most English-speaking theaters," said O'Brien, who called Kadison an "incredible inspirational artistic figure." Born in Lithuania in 1906, Kadison began performing in Europe as a child. Her father, Leib Kadison, was a founder of the Vilna Troupe, which performed modernist works by Yiddish writers S. Ansky and Sholom Aleichem, and translations of plays by others, including Maxim Gorky and Henrik Ibsen. In 1923 she married another member of the troupe, Joseph Buloff. The couple came to America in the late 1920s and performed in Lower East Side theaters packed with Jewish immigrants. Kadison had roles in Sholem Asch's "God of Vengeance," I.J. Singer's "Brothers Ashkenazi" and Arthur Miller's "Death of a Salesman." The Holocaust devastated Yiddish culture, and declining use of the language worldwide was eventually mirrored in New York's theater scene. Kadison performed around the globe, and later in life became an interpreter, a teacher and a painter. She wrote a memoir with her husband, "On Stage, Off Stage: Memories of a Lifetime in the Yiddish Theater," which was published in 1992. Buloff, who moved on to a successful career on Broadway, died in 1985.

2006: Ehud Olmert went from Interim Prime Minister to Prime Minister after he established his own government in the wake of Ariel Sharon’s second stroke.

2006: Avraham Hirschson began serving Minister of Finance today “as part of the Kadima –led 31st governemtn.”

2006: Yael "Yuli" Tamir began serving as Minister of Education.

2006: Yaakov Edri began serving as Jerusalem Affairs Minister of Israel.

2006: Meir Sheetrit replaced Ze’ev Boim as Minister of Housing and Construction

2006: Binyamin Ben-Eliezer replaced Roni Bar-On as the Energy and Water Resources Minister of Israel.

2006: Shaul Mofaz was named Minister of Transport

2006: Ariel Atias replaced Avraham Hirschson as Minister of Communications.

2006: Roni Bar-On replaced Ariel Sharon Internal Affairs Minister.

2006: Amir Peretz replaced Shaul Mofaz as Minister of Defense.

2006: Avi Dichter replaced Gideon Ezra as Minister of Public Security.

2006: Ruhama Avraham Balila completed her term as Deputy Internal Affairs Minister.

2007: This year's Jacob's Ladder Festival opened for the first of two days at Nof Ginasar along the Kinneret.  A Cajun dance workshop, fiddle classes and bluegrass gospel music from the Abrams Brothers, a teenage duo from Canada were just a few of the 35 acts featured at this year’s event.

2008: In Chicago, The Spertus Institute of Jewish Studies presented a Yom Hashoah (Holocaust Remembrance Day) Program entitled “Poetry of the Holocaust: New Texts and Enduring Debates.” In this special Yom HaShoah conversation, poet Joy Ladin and DePaul University professor Eric Selinger explored Holocaust poetry, including Ladin’s own remarkable work, The Book of Anna, a collection of narrative poems and diary entries written in the voice of a fictional Czech-German Jewish concentration camp survivor.

2008: Secret government documents from post-World War II stored in Britain’s National Archives opened today “show that British diplomatic and military officials were concerned that sending Jews to German military camps so soon after the Holocaust would spark anger and protests around the world.”

2008: A 2008 U.S. touring production of Marvin Hamlisch’s “A Chorus Line” opened at the Denver Center for the Performing Arts.

2008 The Sunday New York Times book section featured reviews of A Voyage Long and Strange by Tony Horowitz, The Mayor’s Tongue by Nathaniel Rich son of Frank Rich and 1948: A History of the First Arab-Israeli War by Benny Morris.

2009: As part of the PEN World Voices Festival of International Literature the 92nd Street Y presented the second Critics Voice program, “David Grossman on Bruno Schulz” during which Israeli novelist David Grossman, who wrote See Under: Love which stands as a lasting tribute to Schulz discusses the work of this Ukrainian born author who perished in the Holocaust.Born in Drohobycz, Galicia (now Ukraine) in 1892, Bruno Schulz, a drawing teacher by trade, wrote two story collections—Cinnamon Shops (1934) and Sanatorium Under the Sign of Hourglass (1937)—before he was killed by the Gestapo in 1942. His novel-in-progress, The Messiah, has never been found.”

2009: “Spots of Light: To Be a Woman in the Holocaust,”, an exhibition recently opened by Yad Vashem had its last showing at the Royal Palace in Dresden, Germany.

2009: The miniseries based on Sidney Sheldon’s Master of the Game and staring Dyan Cannon “was released on DVD” otoday.

2010: In New York, Manuel Forcano, Professor of Semitic Studies and Vice President of the Catalan Council for the Arts is scheduled to deliver a lecture entitled “Traces of Esther: The Jewish Presence in Contemporary Catalan Literature.”

2010: A screening of “I had a Dream- The Story of Yona Bogale, Leader of Ethiopian Jewry” is scheduled for the opening of the Sheba Film Festival at the JCC in Manhattan. The Sheba Film festival highlights the legacy of Ethiopian Jewry.

2010: Jewish community leaders, Democratic Party officials and others gathered at a dinner in honor of DNC Chairman Governor Tim Kaine, hosted by Ambassador Michael Oren at his Washington home.

2010: The Schechter Institute of Jewish Studies dedicated the first building of its new campus next to the Israel Museum in Jerusalem. The Schechter Institute is a non-profit organization of the Conservative Movement dedicated to the advancement of pluralistic Jewish education in Israel.

2011: Alexandria, VA is scheduled to host its 24th annual Holocaust Yom Ha’Shoah observance which will be attended by the Polish ambassador to the United States and Holocaust Survivor Charlene Schiff who will read an excerpt from her biography, “Don’t Ask For Soap.”

2011: The Tolerance Education Center in Rancho Mirage, CA, is scheduled to present “Fiddlers on MY Roof” featuring Stanley Walden.

2011: The American Jewish Historical Society is scheduled to present the 2011 Emma Lazarus Statue of Liberty Award Dinner honoring Machal and Aliyah Bet, all North American women and men who volunteered in Israel's War of Independence between 1947 and 1949, and Ralph Lowenstein, Ph.D., founder of the Machal/Aliyah Bet Archives; Machalnik; Dean Emeritus, College of Journalism and Communications, University of Florida.

2011: The Maltz Museum of Jewish Heritage is scheduled to present “Flight to Freedom – A Tribute Jewish Artists” during which “Joan Chesterton, Art historian and Professor Emerita at Purdue University, offers a fascinating illustrated presentation that pays tribute to the incredible contributions of four European artists who fled the Holocaust and immensely enriched American art—architect Mies van der Rohe, painter Hans Hoffmann, composer Kurt Weill and filmmaker, Billy Wilder.”

2011: Jewish song leader Mark Levy is scheduled to lead a workshop on “Jews 'n' Jazz!” at the Reutlinger Community for Jewish Living.  “The workshop will trace the development of America's notable Jewish jazz artists and composers beginning with their immigration to the U.S.”

2011: The Cutler Plotkin Jewish Heritage Center is scheduled to present “Jewish Identity in Pioneer Arizona: Anna and Lillian Solomon and Suitable Love” As part of the Arizona Jewish Centennial Series, Emily Jacobson, M.A., will speak about the Solomon family of Solomonville in Graham County. Anna Solomon, the family matriarch was a remarkable woman who raised all six of her children to marry Jews in a region where there were barely enough to form a minyan.

2011(30th of Iyar, 5771): Rosh Chodesh Iyar

2011: UK Chief Rabbi Lord Jonathan Sacks slammed the notion of making peace with Hamas in a speech he gave to the House of Lords today.

2012: Chicago Mayor Rahm Emanuel is scheduled to participate in the Holocaust Remembrance Day ceremonies at the Illinois Holocaust Museum & Education Center in Skokie, Illinois.

2012: As Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, kicks-off a week-end of events marking its 90th anniversary, David Neuman, the son of former Rabbi Isaac Neuman is scheduled to address the congregation during Shabbat Eve Services.

2012: For the first time a production Marvin Hamlisch’s “A Chorus Line” opened at the Marina Bay Sands in Singapore.

2012(12th of Iyar, 5772): Eighty-eight year old Dr. Sidney Katz, the graduate of Western Reserve University Medical school “who developed the Index of Independence of Activities for Daily Living” passed away today.

2012(12th of Iyar, 5772): Forty-seven year old Adam Yauch, a founding member of the “Beastie Boys” passed away today.

2013: Friends and family of Harry L. Ehrenberg, Jr. gather to celebrate the natal day of this mensch who is a pillar of the Arkansas Jewish community

2013: A Kaddish for Bernie Madoff by Alicia Jo Rabins is scheduled to be performed at the Washington Jewish Music Festival.

2013: The winner of the 2nd Annual Jewish Playwriting Contest is scheduled to be chosen today at New Haven, CT.

2013: The Courier-Journal published “A Memorable Derby.”

2013: “Three to Max” a creation of Ohad Naharin, the artistic director of the Batsheva Dance Company is scheduled to be performed at The Joyce Theatre.

2013: The 15th annual Felicja Blumental Chamber Music Festival is scheduled to come to an end.

2013: Planes from the IDF fly missions in Syria

2013: Israeli tightens defenses long her northern border as the situation in Syria deteriorates.



 The airstrike that Israeli warplanes carried out in Syria overnight on Thursday was directed at a shipment of advanced surface-to-surface missiles from Iran that Israel believed was intended for Hezbollah, the militant Lebanese organization, American officials said today

2014: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewsh readers including Love and Treasure by Ayelet Waldman and John Qunicy Adams: American Visionary by Fred Kaplan

2014: The Jewish Historical Sociey of Greater Washington is scheduled to conduct a tour of “Jewish Sites in Arlington National Cemetery including the Confederate Memorial by Sir Moses Ezekiel and the Challenger and Columbia Space Shuttle Memorials.

2014: Jewish education is scheduled to come to an end in the corriodor for the year as Agudas Achim and Temple Judah close their religious schools until the fall.

2014: “The Seder: Meanings, Rituals & Sprituality” is scheduled to close at the Oregon Jewish Museum.

2014: In the Netherlands, Nationale Herdenkingsdag (National Memorial Day

2014: The Jewish Genealogy Society of Greater Washington and the JCC of Greater Washington are scheduled to host author, David Laskin, who will talk about the research that went into the writing of his book, "The Family: Three Journeys into the Heart of the Twentieth Century."

2014: As part of Jewish American Heritage Month, Dr. Ted Merwin is scheduled to lecutre on “The Delectable History of the Jewish Deli at the Jewish Museum in Miami Beach.

2014: Authorities opened an investiagtion today in “anti-Arab graffiti…found spray painted…at a construction site in Kiryant Ye’arim also known as Telz Sonte” which was “another incident in a spate of race-hate ‘price-tag’ attacks by suspected Jewish extremists.” (As reported by Times of Israel Staff)


2014: In Washington, DC, final performance of “Camp David” a play based on the 1978 peace negotations at Camp David.

2014(4th of Iyar, 5774): Seventy-one year old Alan J. Friedman passed away today. (As reported by Bruce Weber)

2014: “Right wing actvists…threw rocks at ploice and damaged a Border Police vehicle” when they “came to Yitzhar to search the home of a copule that had been arrested on suspicion of participating in a ‘price tag’ attack” in the norther norhtern city of Umm al-Fahm.

2014: “A group of 19 Ukranian Jews were immigrating to Israel today ami an escalating crisis that has seen a rising tide of anti-Semitic attacks.”



2015: The Jewish Community Center of Northern Virginia is scheduled to host Dana Kalshov’s presentation “The Israel Defense Forces: A Window on Modern Israeli Society.”

2015: “In the Community: Raise the Roof” is scheduled to be shown at the Philadelphia Jewish Film Festival.

2015: Security personnel shot a 35 year old Palestinian who “attacked one of the guards today at a light rail train stop in Jerusalem.”

2015: Israeli pianist Roman Rabinovich is one of three “young accomplished pianists” chosen by Sir Andras Schiff to perform with the Jupiter Symphony Chamber Players.

2015: “The mortar round that killed four-year-old Daniel Tragerman on the second to last day of the war in and around Gaza last summer was fired from a United Nations installation, Lt. Gen. (res) Benny Gantz, the commander of the army during the 50-day war, said” today.

2016: In Philadelphia, PA, Rabbi Lance Sussman is scheduled to deliver a lecture on “South Philly: An American Shtetl” are part of American Jewish Heritage Month.

2016: The YIVO Institute for Jewish Research is scheduled to present a screening of “Persona Non Grata,” “a Japanese film depicting the life of Japanese diplomat Chiune Sugihara who saved the lives of 6,000 Jewish refugees during World War II by issuing transit visas for them to Japan.”

2016: In Portland, Oregon, Congregation Neveh Shalom is scheduled to host the annual community-wide memorial service erev Yom Hashoah which has been planned by Rabbi Ariel Stone and Rabbi David Kosak.

2016: In Des Moines, Iowa, Tifereth Israel Synagogue is scheduled to host the community “Holocaust Memorial Commemoration.”

2016: Holocaust Remembrance Day (Yom HaShoah) 2016 begins this evening.

2017: At the National Archives in Washington, DC, David Dalin is scheduled to deliver a lecture on “The Jewish Justices of the Supreme Court: From Brandeis to Kagan.”

2017(8th of Iyar, 5777): Ninety-five year old economist William J. Baumol and the author of The Cost of Disease: Why Computers Get Cheaper and Health Care Doesn’t passed away today. (As reported by Patricia Cohen)

2017: The YIVO Institute is scheduled to host a concert that “will explore music of composer Annie Gosfield that takes its inspiration from Jewish culture, history, and the New York immigrant experience.”

2017: “Beneath the Helmet” is scheduled to be shown at the Annual East Bay International Jewish Film Festival.

2017(8th of Iyar, 5777): Eighty-seven year old Edwin Sherin the “producer and executive producer of” the one of the most popular crime series ever, “Law and Order” passed away today. (As reported by William Grimes)

2018: “Defense Minister Avigdor Liberman today rejected an apology from Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas over a speech blaming Jews’ behavior for the Holocaust, and not anti-Semitism, calling the Palestinian leader “a pathetic Holocaust denier.”

2018: “The Last Goldfish” and “Kishon” are scheduled to be shown this afternoon at the 26th Toronto Jewish Film Festival.

2018: “Dozens of Palestinians broke into the Gaza side of the Kerem Shalom border crossing between Israel and the Hamas-run Strip this evening, setting fire to the gas pipeline that supplies fuel to the Strip…” (As reported by Judah Ari Gross)

2018: In Memphis, TN, Temple Israel is scheduled to honor the Temple Israel confirmands this evening.

2018: In Cedar Rapids, IA, as the first part of her Bat Mitzvah weekend, Eleanor Dillon and her family are scheduled to participate in Erev Shabbat services at Temple Judah.

2019(29th of Nisan, 5779): Parashat Achrei Mot;

2019(29th of Nisan, 5779): Begin weekly study of Pirke Avot – Chapter One

2019: Shabbat takes on a double portion of joy with the celebration of the birthday Harry Ehrenberg, a mensch in the truest sense of that term.

2019: One week after the murderous shooting at Chabad of Poway as rabbis deal with how to continue to make their congregations as welcoming institutions while dealing with the reality of the need to increase security Rabbi Yosef Levin Bay is scheduled to host a Solidarity Shabbat and dinner at Chabad of Great South Bay” where he hopes to raise “$50,000 to finance armed security at Chabad centers” which are normally raising funds for educational and spiritual programs including those Shabbat meals which are warm hallmark of Chabad Houses across the world.

2020: The Center for Jewish History is scheduled to present, Live on Zoom, “War Orphans Find Home: Child Holocaust Survivors,” a program sponsored by the “Hear Their Cry: Understanding the Jewish Orphan Experience” Scholars Working Group, which has been meeting at the Center for Jewish History since September 2019.

2020: The Vilna Shul, Boston’s Center for Jewish Culture is scheduled to host a virtual “discussion with writer/producer Karen Goldfarb about her 2016 film ‘Fascination: Helena’s Story,’”

2020: Dr. Aviva Dautch is scheduled to discuss My Russian Grandmother and her American Vacuum Cleaner by Meir Shalev the first in her virtual series on Modern Jewish Literature.

2020 In the darkest moments of the Pandemic, the friends and family get to share in a moment of light as they celebrate the natal day of Harry Ehrenberg, a mensch par excellent.

2020: In Coralville, IA, via Zoom Agudas Achim is scheduled to host “Introduction to Judaism”

2020: Israel’s Supreme Court is scheduled to continue for a second day a two-day hearing that began yesterday to determine whether Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, who has been indicted for corruption, will be allowed to form a new government. (As reported by Reuters)

2020: Temple Israel of Boston is scheduled to host “Modern Couples, Big Jewish Questions. an informative and social opportunity for engaged, partnered, and married couples in their 20s and 30s.

2020: The Streicker Center is scheduled to host Dr. Eric Goldman who is scheduled to host a virtue presentation of “French Cinema Tackles the Shoah.”

2021: Urban Adamah is scheduled to present the first in a two-part series on connecting with the physical and spiritual dimensions of “rest and release” during the shmita year. Includes movement, breath work and connecting to the natural world.

2021: GiveNOLA Day/Federation-Clean Up Phonathon, the Jewish community’s major fund raising event is scheduled to take place today in New Orleans.

2021: The Illinois Holocaust Museum is scheduled to host a virtual Lunch and Learn during which Anne Harris, the wife of the late Rabbi Cyril Harris, is scheduled to share memorable anecdotes about her husband and his “dear friend Nelson Mandela “that will illuminate the personal and special relationship between these two extraordinary leaders.”

2021: The Jerusalem Writers’ Festival is scheduled to continue for a second day.

2021: Fuel For Truth is scheduled to present online “Israel Education Class for Young Professionals.”

2021: The Streicker Center is scheduled to host a conversation with Letty Cottin Pogrebin and her daughter Abigail Pogrebein on the “State of American Feminism.”

2021: The S.F.-based Jewish Community Federation is scheduled to present the first of three straight days of talks and small-group discussions designed to forge community connections among the diverse population (473,000) of people who live in Bay Area Jewish households.

2021: While Israel continues to cope with the aftermath of the Meron tragedy, the political infighting continues which has led to an impasse over “plans to reform the Defense Ministry’s Rehabilitation Department so that it can provide better care for wounded veterans. (As reported by Judah Ari Gross)

2021: Despite the Pandemic and its attendant social dislocation, friends and family celebrate of mensch par-excellence Harry Ehrenberg, Jr.





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