Monday, July 6, 2020

This Day, July 7, In Jewish History by Mitchell A and Deb Levin Z"L

July 7

1274: Pope Gregory X confirmed a bull issued in 1272 banning charges of blood ritual.

1307: King Edward I, the monarch who expelled the Jews from England, died.

1320: In Pastoureaux (Southern France), an unnamed shepherd started a crusade against the Jews. It spread throughout most of southern France and northern Spain destroying one hundred and twenty communities. At Verdun, 500 Jews defended themselves from within a stone tower. When they were about to be overrun they killed themselves.

1358: Hundreds of Jews were murdered in Catalonia

1520: Cortes defeats a force of Aztecs who had chased him out of Mexico City.  It would be more than a year before Cortes would be able to conquer the capital city.  Among those with Cortes was a converso or crypto-Jew named Hernando Alonso who worked as a blacksmith.

1572: King Sigismund II Augustus, one of the monarchs who invited Jews to settle in Poland, passed away.

1629(17th of Tammuz, 5389): Yom Tov Lipmann Heller was imprisoned at Vienna today.

1637: In Copenhagen, Denmark, found of Trinitatis Church which, during World War II served as a hiding place for Torah scrolls belonging to the “Great Synagogue” which were returned to the Copenhagen congregation after the War.

1639: After having been tortured for more than a month, Sabbatarian believers who were accused of “Judaizing” went on trial today in Transylvania.

1690(1st of Av): Rabbi Hillel ben Naphta Zevi of Altona, author Bet Hillel, novella on the code passed away

1733: Forty-one Jews settled in the colony of Georgia. Among them were Spanish, Portuguese, German and English Jews.

1743(23rd of Tammuz): Chaim ben Moses ibn Attar also known as the Ohr ha-Chaim after his popular commentary on the Pentateuch. Born at Meknes, Morocco in 1696, he became a leading rabbi in his native land before leaving for Eretz Israel in 1733. He finally arrived in Jerusalem in 1742 “where he presided at the Beit Midrash Knesset Yisrael.”  He is buried on the Mount of Olives where his gravestone may still be seen.

1753:  The Jewish Naturalization Act of 1753 received royal assent today. It would be repealed a year later.  Jews would not become full citizens with the right to sit in Parliament until the middle of the 19th century.

1754(17th of Tammuz, 5514): Tzom Tammuz

1754: At Geislautern, Germany, Abraham Aberle and his wife gave birth to Aaron Worms, chief rabbi of Metz

1773: Birthdate of Isaac Ben Hrisch Katzenelnbogen, the native of Deutschland who was the husband of Fanny Neuburg.

1781(14th of Tammuz, 5541): Parashat Balak

1781(14th of Tammuz, 5541): Moses Joseph Schiff, the son Joseph Schiff and Brendle Rheinganum and husband of Gutchen Scheyer passed away today.

1791: Birthdate of Rotterdam native Sarah Lit, the wife of Harry De Groot with whom she had seven children

1795: Isaac Nathan Lear married Ann Magnus at the Great Synagogue.

1803: Birthdate of Bolette Salonmonsen, the wife of Zecharias Levy and the mother of Isaac, Arnold and Herman Levy.

1815: Joseph Oppenheim, the son of Kitty Joseph and Michael Oppenheim was buried today in the United Kingdom.

1816: Emanuel Nunes Carvalho, the rabbi at Philadelphia’s Congregation Mikveh Israel delivered a sermon on the “Occasion of the Death of Rabbi Gershom Mendes Seixas.” This “was the first Jewish sermon printed in the United States.” A native of London Carvalho had served as rabbi in Bridgetown, Barbados and Charleston, SC, before coming to Philadelphia where he would die in 1817.

1822(18th of Tammuz, 5582): Tzom Tammuz observed on the same day on the Jewish calendar as the yahrtzeit of the Jewish community of Morgentheim, Austria which was massacred on that date (5058)

1831: In Merzig, Germany, Esther and Baruch Loew Rothschild gave birth to Columbus, GA resident Nathan Baruch Rothschild, the husband of Sophie Rothschild and the brother of Leopold Rothschild.

1836: Joseph II of Galicia, in an alleged effort to improve the educational status of Rabbis, decreed that no Rabbis be appointed if they did not attend a University. Little came of his decree.

1840: Orientalist Louis Loewe, who traveled with Sir Moses Montefiore and served as his interpreter today wrote “I am about to start for Damascus accompanying Sir Moses and Lady Montefiore on this holy miss mission to that place” which was the first sentence in the first entry of the diary that he kept while accompanying a party if leading Jews to Damascus where they hoped to refute the allegations that Jews had ritually murdered Capuchin Monk Father Thomas.

1851: Louis Lucas, the husband of London native Frances Cohen with whom he had nine children was buried today at the Brady Street Jewish Cemetery.

1851: Asher and Esther Isaacs gave birth to Isaac Asher Isaacs, the husband of “Hannah (Annie) Zyberlast Isaacs with whom he had six children and who was presented with a “Testimonial from the Manchester Congregation of British Jews” in February of 1908 “in recognition of her service as secretary for twenty seven years”

1852: Polish native Mary Goldsmith Prag, the daughter of Isaac Goldsmith, “San Francisco’s first schochet,” the mother of Florence Prag Kahn, the first Jewish woman to serve in Congress, arrived in San Francisco today crossed the Atlantic to New York City, and crossing the Isthmus of Nicaragua “by mule and canoe” and then sailing north despite chills and fever.

1853: In a letter dated today addressed to the Emperor of Japan Commodore Mathew Perry uses the phrase “pacific overtures” which will provide the title for the Stephen Sondheim musical about the “opening of Japan.”

1853: In Emden, German “Betty and Simon de Beer” gave birth to Jacob Simon de Beer, the founder of J. de Beer and Son, the early manufacturer of baseballs that became sports equipment manufacturer De Beer Lacrosse  who was “the husband of Jenny de Beer” and father of Fredrick S. de Beer

1855: In Syracuse, NY, Abraham Stern and his wife gave birth to Samuel Stern an attorney who married Libbia Wile who served as the first assistant district attorney of Onondaga County, NY before moving to Spokane, Washington.

1857: Pinckney A. Hyams and Pauline Baum were married today in Charleston, SC.

1858: In Great Britain, Nahum Salamon and his wife gave birth to Alfred Gordon Salamon, a specialist “in the Chemistry of Fermentation” who was a “member of the Commission to Enquire in the Cause of Beer Poisoning in Manchester” and who “was instrumental along with his father in introducing ‘Saccharin” into the United Kingdom.

1859: Jacob Isaac Abrahams married Nancy Bosman at the Great Synagogue today.

1859: In Bavaria, “Seligman Sonn and Bella Heineman” gave birth to R.A. Sonn, the husband of Dora Fried who was educated at “the German-American Seminary in Milwaukee” before becoming the Superintendent of the Hebrew Orphans’ Home in Atlanta and writing the Hebrew primer Or Chodosh.

1860: In Plymouth, England, Nathaniel Hart and Dinah Nathan gave birth to Rachel Lizzy Hart who settled in New Zealand.

1860: In the Kaliště, Pelhřimov District, Vysočina Region, Bernhard Baruch Mahler and Marie Mahler gave birth to composer Gustav Mahler who converted to Catholicism to further his career, a move that earned him derision from his critics and no relief from the anti-Semites. Mahler passed away in 1911.

1860:  Birthdate of Abraham Cahan who from  1903 until his death in 1951, was the editor of the "Jewish Daily Forward", the most popular and most enduring of all Yiddish newspapers.

1861: In Dublin, Liverpool native David Jacobs and his wife gave birth to their youngest son, Julius Jacobs, the husband of Hannah Hands of Maida-vale, London whom married in 1882 and member of the Liverpool City Council from 1902 to 1904 who “retired from political work in 1904” because of the terms of his father will and devoted himself to communal work including serving as the President of the Liverpool Hebrew Philanthropic Society.

1861: Birthdate of Austrian native and University of Vienna educated journalist Eduard Pollak, the “advertising manager of the New York German language newspaper Staats Zietung.”

1862: John Wood, Drummer, of Company A, Thirty-sixth Regiment N.Y.V., died in the Jews' Hospital.  The Jew’s Hospital (later known as Mt. Sinai) had been built in the 1850’s to meet the health needs of New York’s burgeoning Jewish population.  Its role changed during the Civil War as it became a major health care facility for treating the sick and wounded of the Union Army.

1862: Birthdate of German playwright Ludwig Fulda whose works included Der Talisman (1892), Jugendfreunde (1897) and Maskerade (1904) who committed suicide in 1939 when he was denied entrance to the United States.

1865: A day after he passed away, eighteen year old Michael Alex Aria, “the son of Alexander and Judith Aria was buried today at the Balls Pond Road Jewish Cemetery.

1866: Birthdate of Chicago businessman and Democrat Party member Emanuel M. Abrahams who “served in the Illinois House of Representative from 1907 to 1911” before being elected to the Chicago City Council.

1868: Three days after she passed away, Frances Bright was buried today at the Lauriston Road Jewish Cemetery.

1871: Daniel Joseph, the father of Sir Otto Jaffe established the Belfast Hebrew Congregation “which worshipped at the Great Victoria Street synagogue.

1872: In Philadelphia, “Fannie (née Ephraim) and Levi Mastbaum” gave birth to Jules Ephraim Mastbaum, whose Stanley Company of American “became the largest movie theatre chain in the world in 1926” and who was the husband of “Etta Wedell Mastbaum, the daughter of Rachel P. Lit who founded the original store that became Lit Brothers” and the brother-in-law of two sons of “Adam Gimbel, the founder of Gimbels department store.”

1873: Baruch Fränkel and Rosa Eibenschütz gave birth to Sándor Fränkel who gained fame as the Hungarian psychoanalyst and associate of Sigmund Freud, Sándor Ferenczi

1874: In Vienna, Bustav and Charlotte Prizbram gave birth biologist Hans Leo Prizbram, the grandson of Austrian banker Friedrich Schey von Koromla and founder of “the biological laboratory in Vienna” who died in Theresienstadt at the age of 70.

1876: Sixty-five year old Louis Goodman was buried today at the Balls Pond Road Jewish Cemetery.

1879: The Executive Board of the Council of the Union of American and Hebrew Congregations met this morning with Moritz Loth presiding and Lipman Levy acting as secretary.  The board met to prepare for the upcoming meeting of the Council which was scheduled to begin on the following day.

1881: In Kentucky, Governor Blackburn has declared today to be a day of public fasting and prayer where all business is suspended so that citizens can go to churches “or other places of worship”  to pray for the recovery of President Garfield who has been shot by an assassin. [For Jews, the importance of this is that the governor has acknowledged that there are other houses of worship than those used by Christians.]

1881: In Częstochowa, Poland, Dora Paternack and Sigmund Pasternack, a bandmaster gave birth to their eldest son Josef Alexander Pasternack who was the conductor of several prominent American symphony orchestras including the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, the Boston Symphony Orchestra and the Philadelphia Philharmonic Society where he broke musical and social grounds when he had Marian Anderson perform there.

1882: As the Freight Handler’s strike in New York continues cargo fails to leave the port despite the availability of large numbers of foreign born workers including Russian Jews to work the docks.  According to critics, they lack the skill and knowledge to work effectively.  As the strikers become more desperate, incidence of violence increase as can be seen by the stone-throwing attack on Jews at the 30th Street Yards.

1882: The current labor strife between the freight handlers and the railroad companies is described as battle between Teutonic and Celtic Races on the one hand and Russian-Semitic and Latin volunteers on the other hand.  In a tactic that would become quite common during labor disputes, the owners and their supporters would try and pit worker against worker; in this case Germans and Irish against Russian Jews and Italians.

1882: It was reported today that in Russia, Count Tolstoi, the Minister of the Interior has ordered the authorities at the frontier “to do all this is possible to facilitate the return of the Jews.” 

1882: The newly formed Propaganda Verein, most of whose members were Jewish, met tonight at the Golden Rule Hall on Rivington Street.  The evening’s theme was “The Jewish Question” – the future of the Jewish race and the anomaly of the persecution of Jews.

1883(2nd of Tammuz, 5643): Forty-six year old Joseph Reckendorfer who was a supporter of the United Hebrew Charities and the Hebrew Orphan Asylum as well as a member of Temple Emanu-El passed away today.

1883: “The Alleged Passover Murder” published today described recent event in the trial of Jews accused of ritual murder of a Christian girl, Esther Salomossy, at Nyreghaza, Hungary.  Two of the accused claimed that their confessions had been obtained by force and coercion.  The defense counsel told the court that the people of Tisza-Eglar, where the alleged murder had taken place have “been taught that it was not wrong to testify falsely against the Jews” if the interests of the country required a conviction.

1884: In Boston, Isaac Jacobs, a Polish Jew who is the prime suspect in the murder of Etta G. Carleston, is expected to make his next court appearance on charges of having stolen a watch a chain.

1884(14th of Tammuz, 5644): Eleven year old Harold Phillips passed away today after which he was buried in the Hebrew Cemetery in Natchitoches, LA.

1884: “Case of Pauper Immigrants” published today, described evidence gathered by the Emigration Commissioner that the clerks at Castle Garden were not be vigilant in seeing to it that immigrants who lacked funds or financial sponsors were kept from entering the country.  Among those metntioned were Henry Brolsky, his wife and six children had arrived aboard the SS Assyrian Monarch.  According to Brolsky, the Hebrew Society of London had paid for their passage.  He said he had family in St. Louis, but had no funds to make the trip. Another example was an un-named family from Poland who had arrived on the SS Australia.  Their passage had been paid for by the Hebrew Society of London. The immigrants claimed they had been told that the Commissioners of Emigration would provide them with funds once they had arrived. [The report cited examples of non-Jews as well.  The issue of “pauper immigrants” would bedevil the immigration debate among Jews as well as the general society until World War I staunched the human flood tide.]

1884: In Munich, “Orthodox Jewish margarine manufacturer Sigmund Feuchtwanger and his wife, Johanna née Bodenheim” gave birth to Lion Feuchtwanger, German -born dramatist and narrator who escaped to the United States at the outbreak of World War II.

1884: A review of the Universal History: The Oldest Historical Group of Nations and the Greeks by Leopold von Ranke includes the famous German historian that the laws of Moses stand in stark contrast to the Egyptians because they involve “an opposition to kingship and claim to be an emanation from the deity.”  Furthermore they represent the first attack on “a national nature worship” and provide the grounds for the creation of monotheism, a principle on which “is built a civil society which is alien to every abuse of power.”

1887: Mrs. Betty Michaelis refused to attend today’s meeting of a committee that had been appointed by Mrs. Henrietta Loeser, the President of the Henrietta Verien to determine if she should be expelled from the society.

1887: The trustees of Gates of Hope suspended Rabbi E.B.M. Browne from his position as leader of the congregation after a special committee of investigation found that guilty of charges of “conduct unbecoming a minister.”

1887: Twenty-six year old Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, who was serving as “an officer in the officer…was elected ruler of Bulgaria” today. In moves that marked him as unique among European nobility Ferdinand boasted about his relationship with Baron Hirsch saying “I was really brought by Jews; I spent my life with Baron Hirsch.  I am half a Jew, as people often reproach me” and expressed support for Herzl by saying that his plan to create a Jewish homeland “is a grandiose idea” that “has my full sympathy.

1887: J.E. Phillips presided over tonight’s meeting at the Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue where the Jewish citizens discussed plans for a possible celebration of the 400th anniversary of the expulsion from Spain and Columbus’ first voyage to the New World.

1887: In Lizona, which was then part of the Russian Empire, Chezkel Zachar Mordechai Chagall (Shagal) and Feige-Ite Chagall gave birth to Moishe Zakharovich Shagalov (Moishe Segal) who gained fame as Marc Chagall whose life lasted almost one hundred years. He developed his art against a backdrop of World War I, the Russian Revolution and its Stalinist aftermath, Paris during the thirties, the Holocaust and the birth of the state of Israel. One can only appreciate Chagall by seeing Chagall. There are numerous websites where his art may be viewed. The “Praying Jew” is my personal favorite.

1888: Rabbi Jacob Charif (Jacob Sharp) arrived early this morning at Hoboken aboard the North German Lloyd steamer. Chariff, from Wilna Russia, has been brought to the United states by the United Society to serve the needs of New York’s “orthodox down-town Jews.” Charif refused to leave the boat or meet with the welcoming committee until Saturday evening, after the end of Shabbat.

1888: “On Shabbos Maatos-Maasei, the trans-Atlantic ship Allaire docked at Hoboken, on the New Jersey side of the Hudson River. After Havdalah, at approximately 10 p.m., the chief rabbi was taken to a nearby hotel. The leaders of the appointing congregations and more than 100,000 people crowded the streets for an opportunity to catch a glimpse of him. Hoboken had never before seen such a large crowd.” (Jewish Press)

1888:”The Summer Corps At Work” published today described the work of fifty physicians appointed by the city to provide medical care for those living in the most crowded quarters in the city. Dr. C.W. Wolfretz, who has been assigned to cover “a district from Division to Broom Street and Bowery to Eldridge where the overcrowded tenements are primarily occupied by Polish and Hungarian Jews, has discovered that the people sleep on the roof to get relief from the heat and that the children are susceptible to measles.

1889: It was reported today that some social scientists, many of whom live in Germany, are impatiently awaiting the establishment of Jewish state in Palestine as a way of proving their theories about governance and nationalism. Since there are those who contend that the recent success of Jews has taken place in a Christian society and that Jews would not be nearly as successful living in a society where they were both the governed and the governor.

1889(8th of Tammuz, 5649): Sixty seven year old Rabbi Elias Karpeles passed away in Vienna.

1889: “Darmesteter, The Linguist” published today notes that “scant notice has been given in the United States to” the passing of Arsene Darmesteter  the Jewish Sorbonne lecturer on Mediaeval French and literature” whose death means that “the world has lost one who was a Columbus in the vast eternal seas of philological discovery.

1890: In Roundout, a case of assault and battery involving Polish Jews was withdrawn from the Recorders Court after the parties agreed to pay court costs

1891: The weekly cruise for underprivileged children sponsored by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children is scheduled to take place today

1892: The business session of the third annual Central Conference of American Rabbis is scheduled to open at ten o’clock this morning. Reports will be present on conversion and cremation of the dead.

1892: Birthdate of Chicago native Philip Sachs, the graduate of Kent College of Law who combined the practice of law with being a leader in the Jewish community as can be seen by his membership of the Young Men’s Jewish Charities and B’nai B’rith.

1892: Rabbi Kaufmann Kohler is scheduled to read a paper entitled “Is Reformed Judaism Destructive or Constructive?” at the evening session of the Conference of American Rabbis.

1893: “Coaxing Immigration published today described the efforts of the Canadian government to recruit people from the western United States to settle in the Northwest Territories and Prairie Provinces. Including Russian Jews from Chicago some of whom the government of Calgary feels are unfit because they “know nothing about agriculture.”

1894: Barbara Elisabeth Gluck who wrote her poetry under the name of Betty Paoli was buried today at Vienna’s Central Cemetery.

1894: Seventy one year old Christian Friedrich August Dillmann a German born orientalist and Biblical scholar who wrote commentaries on Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy and Joshua as well as “a dissertation on the origin of the Hexateuch” passed away today.

1895: It was reported today that Lord Rosebury has raised Sydney Stern to the Peerage after the “well known Jewish financier contributed £50,000 to the Liberal Party.” According to the Jewish Chronicle Stern has spent a great deal of money on his political ambitions and little on the poor. “This is in striking to contrast of many other millionaires of his faith” like the Rothschilds, Montefiores and Goldsmids “whom the Queen has honored for their many acts of charity.

1895: It was reported today that theatre goers in London have no interest in seeing Samuel B. Curtis’s “Sam’l of Posen.”  They do not have “the faintest interest in the Polish Jews or would dream of trying to understand his Yiddish Jargon.”

1895(15th of Tammuz, 5655): Twenty year old Alma Meyer passed away today in Newark, NJ.

1895: “Heine and the Germans” published today described the controversy between the Heine Memorial Committee and the Park Commissioners in New York City over the erection of a monument to the German author as well as the opposition of some German-Americans  who view him as “a Napoleon worshipper, a purchased scribe of Louis Philippe  and a bitter-hearted and revengeful Jew.”

1896: Birthdate of Austrian native and American artist Joseph Margulies whose works include “Chasid.”

1898(17th of Tammuz, 5658): Tzom Tammuz

1898: In Chicago, Rose (Rabinoff) and Isidore Horwitz or Horowitz gave birth to their second son Ralph who as Ralph Horween played and coached football at Harvard  and played and coach for the Chicago Cardinals in the NFL.

1899: Benjamin Kossman began serving as a Quarter-Master Sergeant today.

1899: “The Straus Milk Depots Open” published today listed the three locations where “modified milk for sick children and pure pasteurized milk in bottles can be had at all times.”  Thanks to the generosity of Nathan Straus a half-pint of milk can be purchased for one cent.  A new formula perfected by Doctor R.G. Freeman at the Nathan Straus Pasteurized Milk Laboratory is especially useful for “very young babies who are ill.”

1899: “On the Lower East Side of Manhattan, “Hungarian-Jewish immigrants Viktor Cukor, an assistant district attorney, and Helén Ilona Gross gave birth to George Dewey Cukor, the movie director whose parents chose the middle name of Dewey as a way to honor Naval Hero Admiral George Dewey and whose long and distinguished career ncluded two Catherine Hepburn – Spencer Tracy classics. But he may be most famous for the movie that he did not direct. Cukor was the first director for "Gone With the Wind" but he was fired before he could complete the project. He passed away in 1983

1900: Constantin C. Arion, who as the Rumanian Minister of Foreign Affairs would say that his “Government would grant rights to the Jews in accordance with the peace treat” and that the Government “would completely abolish Article 7 of the Rumanian Constitution” which states that “Jews in Rumania are aliens and that naturalization is only possible for them individually” began serving as Minister of Religion and Public Instruction today.. (Editor’s Note – Going back to the Congress of Berlin, Rumanian government were always promising to emancipate the Jews living in the country and always failing to do so.)

1901: The Summer Assembly of the Jewish Chautauqua Society began today.

1901:  Birthdate of producer Sam Katzman.  Katzman’s work includes a series of Superman serials and early Elvis Presley films.

1901: The New York Times reports on the popularity of Montefiore Isaacs, the Union Club Member who is a nephew .of Sir Moses Montefiore.  The popular bachelor is known for his skill as magician which he freely shares for charitable events as well as his knowledge of Shakespeare.

1902: Herzl appears before the Royal Commission.

1903: The funeral of Albert F Hochstadter, prominent businessman and a Trustee of Temple Emanu-El is scheduled to take place today at this famous New York Jewish house of worship.

1903: “Upward of 6,000 Jews attended the solemn memorial service held in the Great Assembly Hall at Mile End this evening, ‘for those of our faith murdered in Kishineff.’”

1904: Theodor Herzl is laid to rest at the Döblinger Friedhof. Thousands of Jews took part in the funeral procession. In his will Herzl asked that his body be buried next to his father, "to remain there until the Jewish people will carry my remains to Palestine."

1904: As a sign of the political right’s loss of power in the wake of the Dreyfus Affair, the government banned the religious orders from teaching in France.  When Pope Pius X strenuously objected, the French broke diplomatic relations with the Vatican.

1905: Birthdate of Anglo-Austrian violinist and viola player Max Rostal, the husband of Sela Trau and the father of psychologist Sybil B.G. Eysenck.

1905: Birthdate of novelist and screenwriter Frderick Kohner, the native of Teplitz-Schönau which is now a part of the Czech Republic who like so many of his generation was forced to leave Europe because of the United States and was able to make it to the United States where he wrote the novel Gidget, based on his the life of daughter, which resulted in the Gidget movies, those quintessential surfer movies that glorified the beach world of Southern California.

1906(14th of Tammuz, 5666): Parashat Balak

1906: Rabbi Browne preached a sermon this morning at the service in the Synagogue of the Congregation Beth Tefillah, at 107th Street and Lexington Avenue, where he was formerly the pastor, on "Hints for Christians and Jews at Summer Resorts" where he said in part that “if you look at the Jew in the Summer resorts I want you to remember that you see only a part of the Jew, and that is the worst part” because “he is on a spree – he is out for fun and enjoyment – and yet he does not forget himself to become immoral…”

1906: “The Socialists issued a manifesto warning the people to be prepared for the next few days for massacres of Poles and Jews which are being arranged by the police and troops…”

1907: Birthdate of Abraham "Abe" Ellstein an American composer who along with Shalom Secunda, Joseph Rumshinsky, and Alexander Olshanetsky, Ellstein was one of the "big four" composers of his era in New York City's Second Avenue Yiddish theatre scene

1907: Rabbi Charles Freund of Salt Lake City, Utah, gave the opening prayer at this morning’s session of the 18th Annual Convention of the Central Conference of American Rabbis.

1907: Papers on “The Religious Influences of Childhood Upon Adolescence” and Judaism in the Nineteenth Century Illustrated by Stereopticon Views – A Lesson in Popularizing the Study of Jewish  History” were presented at this evening’s session of the 18th Annual Convention of the Central Conference of American Rabbis.

1908:  In Denver, the Democratic National Convention, which nominated William Jennings Bryan who had to battle charges of anti-Semitism, opened today.

1909: Birthdate of Eddie Mayehoff, the Baltimore born salesman who discovered that show business was really for him as can been by a career as bandleader, comedy writer and actor whose work including appearing in “A Visit to a Small Planet” for which he earned a Tony nomination.

1910: “Russian Attack Jews” published today that “the situation of the Jews at Kieff is becoming worse,” with “organized bands” frequently attack Jews” which the whole “Jewish population is terrorized.”

1911: The Jewish Chautauqua Society, which had been founded in 1893, opened its 15th Annual Summer Assembly today in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

1911: Birthdate of Alliance, Ohio native and Miami University of Ohio graduate Walter Ings Farmer, who became a Monuments Man rather than return to the United States when the fighting stopped in 1945,

1912(22nd of Tammuz, 5672): Thirty-two year old “socialist and communal worker” Abraham Litman passed away today in St. Louis.

1913: Tonight, Franz Rosenzweig, “decided to convert to Chrisitianity under the influence of one of his relatives, Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy, who was a Protestant theologians, with the proviso that the come become Chrisitian ‘as a Jew.” (Editor’s note – in one of the famous theological turnaround, Rosenzweig would change his mind after attending Yom Kippur services in the fall.) (As reported by Michael Goodman)

1913: At Atlantic City, NJ, the 24th annual convention of the Central Conference of American Rabbis which has issued a Union Prayer Book, a Union Hymnal, a Union Haggadah and a collection of Prayers for Private Devotion, came to an end today.
1914: Today, in the wake of the assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand, tensions continued to mount with Austria-Hungary convening a Council of Ministers, including Ministers for Foreign Affairs and War, the Chief of the General Staff and Naval Commander-in-Chief which lasted for over six hours.

1914: “The 25th annual convention of the Central Conference of America” which has been meeting in Detroit for more than a week “adjourned today following the election of officers.”

1914: It was decided today that teacher’s schools similar to the one in Cincinnati that has been established by the Reform movement “will, in the course of time, be established elsewhere” in the United States.

1915: “Rabbi Hertz At The Front” published today described the recent visit of the Chief Rabbi of the British Empire to the troops including a speech at Rouen where he reminded the soldiers “of the old Jewish legend of a second deluge, a deluge of fire that would sweep over the earth” ending with the line ‘Even our enemies will yet bless those who will have insured victory to Great Britain.’”

1915: According to reports published today “Alfred A. Wilson, an American engineer, who has just arrived in” New York City “from Egypt and Palestine” said “the Turkish Governor of Jerusalem had treated the Jews very harshly” giving them the choice of becoming “Turkish subjects or leaving the country” which led him to force as many as 500 to board an Italian steamship at Jaffa “in one day without being given time to home and bid good-bye to their families or get any of their belongings.”

1915: According to a statement issued today by the Turkish Consulate in New York, the Jews in Palestine are enjoying “the best treatment” at this time since the outbreak of the World War.

1916: In Vienna, the Yiddishe Zeitgung published “two orders by the military commander of the Chelm District in Poland” the first of which said the Jewish community would “fined 25,000 Kronen” if any Jew is found to be guilty” of spreading alarming rumors and the second of which served as a reminded that Jews were not to travel unless that had received “special permission.”

1917: At a meeting in the offices of Nathan Straus, the Chairman of the Executive Committee the Congress Administrative Committee of which Colonel Harry Cutler of Providence is Chairman, it was decided to postpone the meeting of the American Jewish Congress from September 2 to November 18, 1917.

1917: During an afternoon when the Russian Mission “was entertained this afternoon at a concert on the Mall of Central Park, Ambassador Oscar S. Straus appealed “to Americans to fight with all their might to make all peoples free like those of the United States” while condemning “the threatened streetcar strike as an aid to the enemy” and urging “the union and the companies to accommodate their differences until the Kaiser was beaten.

1918: It was reported today that the population of the Austro-Hungarian Empire stands at 5,356,465 of which over 900,000 a Jews living in Hungary.

1918: In the Bronx, Louis and Stella Epstein gave birth to Rose Epstein who gained fame as “Rose E. Frisch, a scientist whose influential work showed that women without enough body fat would have trouble becoming pregnant, but that they also had a lower risk of breast cancer.”

1919: In Chicago, Samuel and Sarah Braverman Polisky gave birth to Sylvia Polisky who became Sylvia Padzensky when she married Edward Padzensky and began her life as a member of the Cedar Rapids, Iowa community.

1919: Three days after he has passed away funeral services were held for Emil Kahn, the “husband of Lenora (Levy) Kahn” followed by burial at the Rosehill Cemetery.

1919: In Chicago, funeral services were held Hyman Harvey Levine, the son of Ben and Augusta Levine

1919: In Chicago, funeral services were held for Charlotte Beck Switzer, “the wife of Leon O. Switzer, the mother of Elizabeth Jane Switzer and the daughter of Robert Beck” after which she was interred at Forrest Home.

1920: Today, in London Associate U.S. Supreme Court Justice Louis D. Brandeis “was elected President of the International Zionist Conference and Dr. Max Nordeau was named Honorary Presidentl

1920: “In Cairo, William and Helen (Hirsch) Chalon gave birth to Egyptian anesthesiologist Jack Chalon.

1920: In London, Rebecca Sieff, Dr. Vera Weizmann (wife of Israel's first president, Dr. Chaim Weizmann), Edith Eder, Romana Goodman and Henrietta Irwell founded Women's International Zionist Organization (WIZO)

1920: Rabbi Nathan Krass of Temple Emanu-el and  “a member of the executive board of the American Jewish War Relief and Joint Distribution Committees is scheduled to set sail today aboard on the New Amsterdam as he begins his second visit to evaluate the needs “of the suffering Jews in Eastern Europe and Palestine.”

1920: Arthur Meighen, who was pro-Zionist, began his first term as Prime Minister of Canada.

1921: In Chicago, Leon and Julius Bahr Kahn gave birth to University of Chicago educated pharmacologist Julius Bahr Kahn, Jr. the husband of Carol Kahn.

1921: Dr. Joseph H. Hertz, the Chief Rabbi of the British Empire finished his visit to Vancouver, Canada.

1922: Hadoar, the first daily Hebrew newspaper published in the United States was converted to a weekly

1924: “Assails Dawes Report” published today described a speech by Erich Ludendorff, the senior German general turned fascist political leader in which he claimed the “Dawes plan was made and inspired by Jews for the purpose of putting Germany under Jewish control” and told his political followers that “as in the battle between the darkness and light, the battle between the good and the bad and the battle between the Jews and the Nordic race, we must battle for victory and the right.”  (Editor’s night: As one of the most senior German generals during WWI, Ludendorff had told the Kaiser he had to surrender but also help to create the myth that German had lost because it was stabbed in the back – a myth that covered the failure of the Imperial General Staff that was useful in fanning the embers that would roar back in the flames of the Second World War and the Shoah.)

1927: In New Orleans, coffee merchant Arthur Ransohoff and the former Babette Strauss gave birth to producer Martin Ransohoff who is responsible for one of the best movies ever made – “The Americanization of Emily.”  (As reported by Neil Genzlinger)

1928: Birthdate of Avraham Shalom Bendor, the native of Vienna who joined the Palmach in 1946 and served as head of Shin Bet from 1981 to 1986.

1931: Bialystok born Rosa Raisa  and her husband Riacomo Rimini, leading performers with the Chicago Civic Opera Company gave birth to their daughter Rosa Giuletta today at Presbyterian Hospital

1933: Mr. and Mrs. Sydney Ginsburg of 21 Bialik Street in Tel Aviv are the proud parents of a newly born son.  Mrs. Ginsberg is the former Ella Bach.

1934(24th of Tammuz, 5694): Parashat Pinchas

1934(24th of Tammuz, 5694): Mendel Beilis—“a Jewish factory manager in Kiev, Ukraine, accused of murdering a Christian child to use his blood to bake matzah for Passover—“ whose blood libel trial attracted international attention died suddenly today in Saratoga Springs, NY.

1935: Birthdate of Ronald Chester Picoff, the Brooklyn born graduate of Columbia Medical School who served on the faculty of the University of Vermont.

1936(17th of Tammuz, 5696): Tzom Tammuz

1936: At Providence, RI, Morris Rothenberg, who will become administrative chairman of the Zionist Organization of American after serving as president for four terms, closed the organization’s “convention with a final declaration of unity.

1936: Sixty-eight year old John Foster Fraser, the author of The Conquering Jew which contains the results the author’s studies of the Jew, his adaptability and vitality” and well as the views on the future of the Jews, passed away today.

1936: Rabbi Eugene Kohn, President of the Rabbinical Assembly of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, addressed the opening meeting of its annual convention at Tannersville, NY.

1937: The Peel Commission Report describing the investigation of the 1936 Arab Riots was published. The Commission recommended the partition of Mandatory Palestine into two states. The Zionist Congress would, while rejecting the actual borders, agree to consider the proposal. The Arabs rejected it out of hand.

1938: In response to the growing Arab violence the British cruiser, HMS Emerald which was “homeward bound from the East Indies was diverted to Haifa from Malta” and is to dock at the port in Palestine today.

1938: British troops clashed with an armed band of Arabs trying to cross in Palestine from Trans-Jordan. This did not stop other Arab infiltrators from joining their brethren in the fight against the British and the Jewish citizens of Palestine.

1939: “The Rules of the Game” a big budget French film starring Nora Gregor and with music by Joseph Kosma was released in Paris today.

1940: In “Palestine Season Closes,” published today Dr. Peter Gradenwitz describes the recently ended musical season of the Palestine Symphony Orchestra.  The season included thirteen concert series in Tel Aviv, Haifa and Jerusalem as well as additional performances at various agricultural colonies that brought the total of performances to 80.

1940(1st of Tammuz, 5700): Five thousand Jews of Kovno executed by Nazis.

1940: Molka and Mendel Dorfman, the parents of Boris Dorfman along with many of his uncles “were arrested on charges of anti-Soviet behavior and Zionism” which led to his mother being sent: to Solikamsk camp in the Urals and his father being “sent to Karaganda camp in the Gulag where he died in 1942. (Editor’s note Bessarabia native Boris Dorfman authored about 1000 articles on Jewish issues in Yiddish, Russian, Ukrainian, Polish and German for publications including Birobidzhaner Shtern, was one of the founders of Shofar, the first Jewish newspaper in the former USSR and the father of American publicist Michael Dorfman)

1940: Admiral Sir Barry Edward Domvile a leading British Pro-German anti-Semite in the years before the Second World War was interned starting day during World War II under Defence Regulation 18B

1941 (12th of Tammuz, 5701): Thirty-two Jews are killed in Mariampole, Lithuania.

1941: In France, a collaborationist military force, Légion des Volontaires Français (French Volunteer Legion), is established.

1941 (12th of Tammuz, 5701): Two thousand Jews are murdered at Khotin, Ukraine

1941: Birthdate of Yisrael “Poli” Poliakov the native of Jerusalem who switched from being an agricultural student to a career in a comedy which was marked by his role in the creation of HaGashash HaHiver.

1942(22nd of Tammuz, 5702): One thousand Jews from Rzeszów, Poland, are killed at the Rudna Forest. Fourteen thousand are deported to the Belzec death camp.

1942: Himmler held a meeting in Berlin with three high ranking men. It was decided that medical experiments would commence on the Jews. Emphasis would be placed on Jewish women in Auschwitz. Himmler pledged his coconspirators to secrecy.

1943: Birthdate of Joel Siegel who would become a household icon while serving as Entertainment Editor on GMA from 1981 through 2007.

1943: In the Negev, about 30 minutes south of Beersheba, Kibbutz Tel Ha Tzofim (Scout’s hill), which was later renamed Revivim (Showers) by Berl Katznelson was founded today.

1943(4th of Tammuz, 5703): Saul Kozlowski, an 18 year old Communist was arrested by the Gestapo in Vilna, Lithuania.  The Gestapo wanted to the known the identity of leader of the underground known as “The Lion.”  After hours of torture, Kozlowski identifies Isaac Wittenberg, a Jew living in the ghetto, as being “the Lion.”  As the Germans turned away to discuss their next step, Kozlowski grabbed a knife and slit his own throat.

1944(16th of Tammuz, 5704): Fifty-eight year old photographer Erich Solomon died at Auschwitz today.

1944:Anti-Nazi resister Judith Auer (née Vallentin) who had been part of the the Saefkow-Jacob-Bästlein Organization was arrested today; an action that would be followed by her being tortured and hung by her captors.

1944: Approximately 437,000 have been deported from Hungary to Auschwitz since May 18.

1944(16th of Tammuz, 5704): Fifty-nine year old Georges Mandel (born Louis George Rothschild) the French journalist and member of the resistance was murdered by the French fascists controlled by Vichy.

1944: British Prime Minister Winston Churchill informs Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden that he is in favor of the Royal Air Force bombing Auschwitz. From July 7, 1944, to January 19, 1945, the Allies will bomb industrial targets near Auschwitz at least four times, including one resulting in the accidental bombing of Auschwitz.  But they will never bomb the death camps or the railroad leading to them.  To some people, Eden takes on the role of the scapegoat regarding the Jews.  Churchill always wants to help but somehow his number two always thwarts him. 

1944: During WW II, during the battle for Saipan, Bernard Gavrin, an American G.I. was declared missing in action. (JTA)

1944(16th of Tammuz, 5704): While serving at Saipan, in the Marianas Islands today as the Surgeon for the 2nd Battalion, 105th Infantry Regiment, 27th Infantry Division 29 year old Captain Benjamin L. Solomon took care of the wounded as Japanese troops charged the aid station where he was working and then refused to evacuate but instead stayed and defended the position in hand to hand combat and then by manning a machine gun until he was killed.  This action earned him the Congressional Medal of Honor.

1944: Judith Auer, a native of Switzerland who was raised by a Jewish family after she was orphaned in 1917 and who was a member of the anti-Nazi resistance “was arrested at her workplace” today in what would prove to be the first step towards her death by hanging in October.

1944: In Lithuania, partisan forces, including the Jewish Brigade led by Abba Kovner, join the Soviets in the attack on Vilna.

1944(16th of Tammuz, 5704): Fifty-eight year old Erich Salomon the Berlin born engineering and zoology student turned photographer who had the unique distinction of taking pictures of the signing of the 1928 Kellogg-Briand Pact (which outlawed war) and a session of the U.S. Supreme Court died in Auschwitz.

1944: In a case of too little too late, Hungary’s Regent Horthy ordered an end to the transport of Jews to Auschwitz after at least a half of a million of his countrymen had been ship to the death camp.

1945: Birthdate of Cleveland born Adele Goldberg the computer wizard raised in Chicago where she earned her Ph.D. in Information Science at the University of Chicago.

1945: Chief Judge Irving Lehman of the New York State Court of Appeals “tripped over his pet boxer, Carlo and broke his ankle in two places” while walking around his country estate. (This seemingly minor mishap would be a direct cause of his death in September of 1945.

1946: “Five thousand Jews, including members of Parliament and survivors of German camps demonstrated in Trafalgar Square today against Britain’s ‘aggressive action’ in Palestine and sent a deputation to present a resolution of protest to Prime Minister Attlee.”

1947: CBS began broadcasting “Escape,” a radio “anthology series” narrated by Paul Frees.

1947: Harriet Shapiro married Fred Rochlin in a “small living room…packed to capacity with relatives and friends” at the house on Sentinel Avenue in Los Angeles, California.

1947(19th of Tammuz, 5707): Seventy-year old Frank Taffel the native of Krystynopol who settled in Atlanta where founded Fulton Auto Exchange and Congregation Beth Jacob passed away today.

1948:  The settlers who were defending Kfar Darom against Egyptian attacks agreed to be evacuated.  Kfar Darom had been cut off from direct military help since the end of June.  Air drops of supplies failed to reach the embattled settlement because of Egyptian anti-aircraft.  Their stubborn resistance helped to slow the Egyptian advance on Tel Aviv and bought time for the Israelis defending the approaches to the major Jewish population centers. The successful evacuation took place during the night of July 7-8.

1948: Franklyn M Begley a UN official, the local Jordanian commander and by the Israeli local commander initialed the Mount Scopus Demilitarization Agreement today.

1948: Abdullah el-Tell, the Military Governor of Jerusalem “signed the "Mount Scopus Agreement" by which the Israelis agreed that Mount Scopus would be demilitarized and come under United Nations supervision.”

1948: “Givati commander Shimon Avidan issued orders to the 51st Battalion to the Tall al-Safi area.”

1948: It was reported today that Bernard D. Rubin, the President of Sweets of America, the company that manufactures Tootise Roll candies is survived by “his widow, Mrs. Ray Rubin a daughter, Mrs. Natalie Jaffe; a son, Edgar Rubin; his father, Joseph; a brother, William Rubin and three sisters, Mrs. Hannah Stone, Mrs. Eleanor Messer and Mrs. Sadie Marantz, all of New York.”

1948: During the War for Independence, with the truce period about to expire the Security Council asked each side if they would extend it for ten days.   The Jews accepted the proposal.  The Arabs rejected it. 

1949: New York City premiere of “Follow Me Quietly” the film noire directed by Richard Fleischer and Anthony Mann whose mother was Jewish and who also co-authored the story on which the film was based.

1950: “Crisis” produced by Arthur Freed and Directed by Richard Brooks in his directorial debut was released today in the United States.

1950: U.S. premiere of “Once A Thief” a film noir directed and produced by W. Lee Wilder based on a story by Max Colpet and Hans Wilhelm.

1951: U.S. premiere of “Queen For A Day,” a comedy in which Leonard Nimoy makes his cinema debut in the role of “Chief.”

1952: The Republican National Convention which Walter A Hass, the President of Levi Strauss attended as an alternate, opened today in Chicago.

1955(17th of Tammuz, 5715): Tzom Tammuz

1955(17th of Tammuz, 5715):Fifty-for year old CCNY grad and U of Pennsylvania trained dentist Nathan Chenitz who has been practicing in Newark, NY since 1956 passed away tonight “in the Beth Israel Hospital.”

1955: Today Richard L. Neuberger, the grandson of “German Jewish immigrants” and the first Democrat to be elected to the United States from Oregon in the years between 1914 and 1954 “introduced into the Congressional Record a call for the total abolition of all motor racing in the United States.”

1955: U.S. premiere of “We’re No Angels” the movie version of “My Three Angels” a play written by Samuel and Bella Spewack directed Michael Curtiz.

1956(28th of Tammuz, 5716): Yiddish songstress Isa Kremer passed away

1958: Today, in Washington, D.C., Ohev Sholom Congregation which had been founded in 1886 merged with Talmud Torah which had been meeting at 467 E Street, SW “for almost 50 years”  “merged creating a congregation of more than six hundred families.”

1959: In “Emergence of Nazis Seen” published today, Frederick Wallach claims that there is a resurgence of Germany of support and/or lionization of Hitler as can be seen by “a recent German poll which revealed that Germans as a whole still list Hitler among the five Germans who did the most good for the German nation.”

1960: United Artists releases “Elmer Gantry” directed by Richard Brooks, with a screenplay by Richard Brooks and music by Andre Previn.

1960: Physicist Theodore Maiman demonstrated the first laser today.

1960: In London, world premiere of “Inherit the Wind” the film treatment of the play co-authored by Jerome Lawrence directed and produced by Stanley Kramer with music Ernest Gold who was forced to flee pre-war Austria because “his paternal grandfather was Jewish.”

1961(23rd of Tammuz, 5721): Seventy-four year old Polish born “Yiddish scholar, novelist and poet, J.J. Trunk, a protégé of I.L. Peretz who was in 1941 was brought to the United States where he joined the staff of The Jewish Day passed away today at Mt. Sinai Hospital

1962(5th of Tammuz, 5722): Parashat Korach

1962(5th of Tammuz, 5772): Bucharest born, Long Island College Hospital trained ear, nose and throat surgeon John Adam Glassbury, the husband of “Betty Blanc Glassbury, a poet and collector of Asian art and father of Eunice Glassbury Dombroff passed away today.

1962: In New York City “Tev Goldsman, a therapist and Mira Rothenberg, a child psychologist” gave birth to Academy Award winning screenplay writer (“A Beautiful Mind”) Akiva Goldsman.

1963(15th of Tammuz, 5723): Seventy-nine year old Rebecca Tcherikower (née Teplitsky), the widow of “Russian-born Jewish historian of Judaism and the Jewish people” who had married him “around 1910” and who was appointed the first YIVO archivist in 1940 “at the new YIVO headquarters” passed away today.

1964(27th of Tammuz, 5724): Fifty-nine year old Olympic gold medal winning discus thrower Lillian Copeland passed away today.

1964: Tens of thousands of Israelis paid honor tonight to Zeev Jabotinsky, whose remains were flown to Tel Aviv from the United States for reburial.

1965(7th of Tammuz, 5725): Moshe Sharett, second Prime Minister of Israel, passed away.  Born Moshe Shertok in Russia in 1894, Sharett grew up in an Arab village near Jerusalem. He graduated from high school in Tel Aviv and then went to Constantinople to study law. At this time Palestine was part of the Turkish Empire and Sharett enlisted in the Turkish Army during World War I. Sharett rose to prominence in the Zionist movement during the 1930’s although he found himself at odds with David Ben Gurion. Sharett was Israel’s first Foreign Minister. When Ben Gurion retired for the first time, Sharett became Prime Minister. Ben Gurion and Sharett continued to clash. When Ben Gurion returned to power in 1955, Sharett returned to the Foreign Ministry. Sharett resigned because he was opposed to the coming Sinai War in 1956. Sharret suffered from "John Adams Disease." Just as John Adams was doomed because he was following George Washington, so Sharrett was doomed because he labored in the shadow of Ben Gurion.

1966: “Three on a Couch” a comedy starring Jerry Lewis who also served as director and producer and featuring Gila Golan was released in the United States today.

1968(11th of Tammuz, 5728):  Seventy-two year od Gertrude Wald Kaphan, the sister of Nobel Prize winning Professor Dr. George Wald and the wife of Dr. Ludwig Kaphan who “was a founder and former president of the Women’s International ORT (Organization for Rehabilitation Through Training” and “a consultant on problems facing Jewish youth in Africa, Europe and Israel” passed away today.

1968(11th of Tammuz, 5728): Fifty-one year old Jerome D. Pitkow, the native of Philadelphia, NYU grad, WW II veteran and vice president and director of Supermarkets General Corporation of Cranford, NJ, passed away today at Rockville Centre, LI.

1969 (21st of Tammuz, 5729): Sixty-nine year old Galicia native Menashe Unger whose expertise in the field Chasidism can be seen his book Social Origins of Chasidism” who in 1934 came to NYC where he became “a writer for The Day” passed away today leaving his widow Ruth Brilliant Unger and his daughter Mrs. Judith Kaiserman to mourn this loss.

1969: Today, “Israeli soldiers gave heroes’ burials to some of the 960 defenders who perished in the historic suicide pact on Masada 1,896” when they interred “the remains of 27 men, women and children found on the rock fortress near the Red Sea by archeologist” in the years between 1963 and 1965, “with full military honors…near the ramps their Roman besiegers had built for the final attack on the fortress.”

1971(14th of Tammuz, 5731): Four people were killed and thirty more were injured during a “rocket attack on a Tel Aviv suburb.”

1973: Kitty Carlisle (born Catherine Conn – pronounced Cohen) performed for the last time with the Metropolitan Opera.

1973: In Israel, premiere of “Kazablan” an “Israeli musical film directed by Menahem Golan and written by Menahem Golan and Haim Hefer.”

1973(7th of Tammuz, 5733):  Seventy-eight year old Max Horkheimer, the German born philosopher and sociologist who sought refuge in the U.S. during the Nazi after his academic credentials were revoked and his institute was closed.  [When you read the NY Times obit, see below, you will be hard pressed to find the simple statement that he was Jewish.]

1974: US Senator William J. Fulbright who will later go to work a lobbyists for the Saudis and the United Arab Emirates and was a constant critic of Israel  said  that Senator Jackson who is working to improve the conditions for Soviet dissidents including Jews, was undermining detente with the USSR

1976: U.S. premiere of “Gus” a Disney comedy featuring Harold Gould as Charles Gwynn and Tom Bosley as Spinner

1977: United Artist released “The Spy Who Loved Me,” the James Bond with a score by Marvin Hamlisch, a screenplay co-authored by Richard Maibum, Phi Betta Kappa graduate of the University of Iowa and featuring Walter Gotell the German born British actor whose family escaped from Nazi Germany, Barbara Bach whose father was Jewish and Milo Sperber the Polish born Anglo-Jewish actor who fled Nazi Germany in 1939.

1978: Funeral services are scheduled to be held this morning in the Bronx for Augusta B. Shapiro, the brother of Harold Shapiro.

1979(12th of Tammuz, 5739): Parshat Chukat-Balak

1979(12th of Tammuz, 5739): Eighty year old Hélène Cazès-Benatar, the Moroccan lawyer and widow of Moses Benatar “who helped refugees even while undermined by anti-Semitic Vichy legislation” and aided Jews from North Africa in their effort to settle in Israel, where “some of her papers are preserved in the Cental Archives of the Jewish people, passed away today. (Editor’s Note – for more see Destination Casablanca: Espionage, and the Battle for North Africa in World War II by Meredith Hindley)

1979(12th of Tammuz, 5739): Four people were killed and 11 more injured when a bomb exploded at Kafr Manda, a town northwest of Nazarthen

1980(23rd of Tammuz, 5740): Famed writer Dore Schary passed away. Born Isadore Schary in 1905, Schary dropped the "Isa" from Isadore to create his first name. Like so many other Jews of his era, Shary helped create the cinematic version of the American Myth. He won an Oscar for the screenplay "Boys Town." He produced the canine classic "Lassie Come Home." But his greatest work came when he returned to Broadway and wrote the script for "Sunrise At Campobello." Shcary did not hide his Judaism. He was active in numerous Jewish organizations and served as the head of the Anti-Defamation League.

1981: The 11th Maccabiah Games which opened yesterday “to the sound of clarion trumpets, the landing of Israeli army parachutists and the spectacle of 2,000 gymnasts in a huge Star of David formation at suburban Ramat Gan Stadium” continued for a second day in Tel Aviv.

1982: “White Dog,” a cinematic treatment of Romain Gary’s novel of the same name and directed by Samuel Fuller was released in France today.

1983: The Oklahoma Outlaws football team announced that seventy-one year old Hall of Fame Coach Sid Gillman had come out of retirement to serve as the team’s Director of Operations.

1983(26th of Tammuz, 5743): Ninety-one year old Ukrainian born Music Director Samuel Kaylin who composed the scores for the Charlie Chan and Mr. Moto movies passed away today in Bakersfield, CA.

1986(30th of Sivan, 5746): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

1986: The United States Supreme Court struck down Gramm-Rudman deficit-reduction law.  Senator Warren Rudman was an apparent anomaly on two counts.  First he was elected from New Hampshire, not exactly a state with a large Jewish population and second he was a conservative Republican.

1987(10th of Tammuz, 5747): Eighty-two year old Harvard grad and NYU trained attorney Robert Pilpel who has served on the staff of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee who raised two children – Robert and Judith – with his wife Harriet passed away today.

1988: Seventy-seven German Latin American scholar, historian, and writer Erwin Walter Palm who escaped European anti-Semitism to which he was particularly sensitive because he was married to the Jewish poet Hilde Löwenstein passed away today.

1991: LL Cool J’s recording of “Who's Afraid of the Big Bad Wolf?” the 1933 pop song “with additional lyrics by Ann Ronnel” was released on cassette today.

1992:  The comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 crashes into the planet Jupiter.  According to David Levy, one of the trio who discovered the comet, it was the most widely watched such phenomena in history.  Canadian born David Levy was an English major in college.  His career in astronomy began as an amateur.  He sees a definite connection between his Jewish heritage and astronomy. For example, Pesach always comes at the full moon, the night sky on Yom Kippur is always the same and Shabbat does not end until three stars can be seen in the sky.  His Judaism and his astronomy are so intertwined that he and his bride decided they wanted to be married under the night sky.

1994: “The body of Arye Frankenthal, 20, from Moshav Gimzo near Lod, who had left his base in the south the previous day, was found stabbed and shot near the Arab village of Kafr Akab, near Ramallah.” (Jewish Virtual Library)

1994(28th of Tammuz, 5754: Seventeen year old Sarit Prigal, was shot to death when terrorists opened fire from a passing car near the entrance to Kiryat Arba.

1995(9th of Tammuz, 5755): Seventy-four year old Martin Bucksbaum who with his brothers, Maurice and Matthew, built one of the country's first shopping centers in Cedar Rapids, Iowa” passed away today in Des Moines, IA. (As reported by Stephanie Strom)

1995: Today, Ehud “Barak was appoint Minister of Internal Affair by Prime Minister Rabin.”

1996: “Star of Joyce’s Firmament” published today described the little known story of Stella Steyn, the Irish woman who was part of the life of James Joyce.

1997: Today in Israel 26 year old Islamic terrorist Hassan Salameh was sentenced “to 46 consecutive life terms for engineering three suicide bombings that killed 46 people in 1996”

1998: In Claims for Art Collection Pose a Challenge to Hungary,” published today Judith Dobrzynski describes the efforts by the Nierenberg family to retrieve a portion of the art collection that was successively seized by the fascists and the communists

1999: Eighty-six year old Aaron M. Wise who had served as the rabbi at Adat Ari El Synagogue from 1947 to 1978 was buried today after services his synagogue.

1998: “Shakespeare’s Villains,” “a one man-man player created and performed by Steven Berkoff” opened for the first time today “at London’s Royal Theatre in Haymarket.”

2000: “Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon” a film nominated for 10 Oscars with a script co-authored by James Schamus was released today in Taiwan.

2000(4th of Tammuz, 5760): Ninety-three year old Ruth Werner, a member of the Red Orchestra, pass ed away today.

2001: At the Israel Festival in Jerusalem Conductor Daniel Barnboim startled the audience by announcing that he was going to play a piece by Wagner as second encore which sparked a half hour debate following which a few members of the audience left but most stayed to hear the performance of the Tristan and Isolde prelude.

2002: “Behind a Century of Photos, Was There a Jewish Eye?” published today opens with Garry Winogrand’s claim that “to be a great photographer” “it was first of all necessary to be Jewish and then explores the connection between Jews and cameras.

2003: In an attempt to comply with Palestinians demands for peace negotiations today, “Israel’s cabinet agreed to release 300 or more Palestinian prisoners in the coming days.” (As reported by Greg Myre)

2003: Israeli and Palestinian ministers sat down together for meetings here today, as the two sides worked to fill in details of a new peace plan.

2003: Two Israelis were killed this evening when “an explosion tore apart a home in the village of Kfra Yavetz in central Israel” in a moments of violence which authorities have not said is “a terrorist attack.”

But on Monday night, a powerful explosion tore apart an Israeli home near the West Bank, and the police were investigating the incident early today as a possible suicide bombing. Investigators found two bodies in the rubble, one of a woman and the other of a young man, the police said.

2004: “I, Robot” a sci-fi thriller based on the work by Isaac Asimov, with a screenplay co-authored by Akiva Goldsman and featuring Shia LaBeouf premiered at the Mann Village Theatre in Los Angeles.

2005: Outfielder Adam Greenberg made his major league debut with the Chicago Cubs.

2005: Twenty-five Outfielder Adam Stern made his major league debut with the Boston Red Sox making him the second Jew from Canada to make the majors.

2006(11th of Tammuz, 5766): Ninety-seven year old Dr. Israel Horowitz, who will be buried at Adath Israel Cemetery in Cincinnati, Ohio,  passed away today in Chicago.

2007: “When Nietzsche Wept” a movie based on the novel by Irvin D. Yalom and co-starring Michal Yannai and Jamie Elman was released in Israel today.

2007: At the Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion Museum in New York, an exhibition called “Cinema Judaica: The War Years” comes to an end. This unprecedented exhibition of iconic Hollywood film posters from 1939 to 1949 illustrates how the motion picture industry countered America's isolationism, advocated going to war against the Nazis, influenced post-war perceptions of the Jewish people and the founding of the State of Israel, and shaped the face of contemporary Jewish life

2007: In Jerusalem, a classical music concert entitled "Music in All the Shades" presents "Bel Canto in Ein Kerem," featuring soprano, Maria Yofa, flautist, Antoli Kogan, and pianist, Alexander Sneiderman.

2007: “Beyond The Myth, Art Endures,” published today described Mexico’s celebration of the centenary of the birth of painter Frida Kahlo, the daughter of a Jewish businessman whose work has been overshadowed by her husband, Diego Rivera.

2007: Today, British born actress Rachel Hannah “Weisz presented at the American leg of Live Earth.”

2008:   U.S. District Court Magistrate Judge Jon Scoles ruled during a detention hearing for Juan Carlos Guerrero-Espinoza, 35, and Martin De La Rosa-Loera, 43 that the two Agriprocessors Inc. supervisors arrested last week for aiding and abetting illegal workers at the Postville meat processing plant to possess and use fraudulent identity documents will remain in federal custody until their trials.

2008: The Washington Post reports on the arrival of Jewish pilgrims in Safi, Morroco.

It's an uncommon sight for an Arab country: hundreds of joyous Jewish pilgrims gathering without fear around a rabbi's tomb, greeted by local Muslim officials who share a prayer with them at a synagogue.  Yet most of the 400 Jews who converged on the Moroccan coastal town of Safi _ some from nearby cities, others from as far as France or Israel _ at a weekend pilgrimage said they felt welcome here. While religious tensions flare in Jerusalem and beyond, in Morocco, Jews and Muslims say they nurture a legacy of tolerance and maintain common sanctuaries where adherents of both religions pray. Decades of emigration to Israel by Morocco's Jews and terrorist bombings in Casablanca that targeted Jewish sites haven't diminished the draw of these annual pilgrimages. During the festival that began Friday, visitors prayed and feasted around the shrine of Abraham Ben Zmirro, a rabbi reputed to have fled persecution in Spain in the 15th century and then lived in Safi, where he is buried with six siblings. A half-Jewish, half-Muslim band played local tunes during a banquet, including a song in French, Arabic and Hebrew with the line: "There is only one God, you worship Him sitting down and I while standing up." The pilgrims were joined Sunday by Aaron Monsenego, the great rabbi of Morocco, who prayed alongside the regional governor and several other Muslim officials at the shrine's synagogue for the good health of Morocco's King Mohammed VI and his family. "It's very important for us to pray altogether," Monsenego told The Associated Press. Regional governor Larbi Hassan Sebbari said, "We're also very proud of it: it gives a lesson to other countries of what we do together without any taboo." While several Arab states refuse to recognize the Jewish state's right to exist, reject Israeli visitors and ignore the remnants of their local Jewish heritage, Moroccans insist it is not the case in this moderate Muslim nation and U.S. ally. Once home to some 300,000 Jews, Morocco hosts the Arab world's only Jewish museum, funds Jewish institutions and frequently holds events to celebrate Judeo-Moroccan heritage. Still, the Jewish population here has dwindled to about 4,000 _ most in Casablanca. Economics, fears of living in an Arab state and sporadic discrimination drove hundreds of thousands of Moroccan Jews to Israel, Europe or America over the past few decades. Many left in 1948 when the state of Israel was created, or in 1956 when Morocco won independence from France. Other waves followed after the Israeli-Arab conflicts of 1967 and 1973 caused riots in some Moroccan towns. Jewish leaders who stayed say they practice their religion freely and that synagogues are well protected by police, especially since the 2003 bombings in Casablanca. And despite the bombings, Casablanca _ Morocco's commercial capital _ still boasts 32 active synagogues. "There was never any racism in Safi," said Haim Ohana, one of only 10 Jewish people remaining in a town where 6,000 Jews once lived. "People left from here because they were poor," said Ohana, who helped organize the pilgrimage and runs several businesses. The pilgrimage rituals are called Moussem in Arabic and Hilloula in Hebrew. Many of the pilgrims, including ultra-Orthodox Jews from Israel and French and Canadian businessmen, are émigrés who say they come to pray in Safi because of their emotional ties to Morocco. Therese Elisha, an Israeli, said she makes the pilgrimage every other year. "This is the town where I grew up, the synagogue where I prayed," she said. "I feel at home." "We're maintaining a bridge over the divide of the exodus," said Simone Merra, a human resources manager in Paris. Some of Morocco's Jews wonder how long their community will remain. Nadia Bensimon, who runs a fashion boutique in a coastal town, said she had no plans to leave. "But that could change if the Islamists become too powerful," she said. Morocco's main Islamist opposition party _ Adl wal Ihsan _ enjoys broad support, but it is banned from politics; secular parties dominate parliament. Though most of his relatives now live abroad, Ohana said his family traces its arrival in Morocco to 2,076 years ago. "As for Safi, we've been here for nine centuries," he said. "It's my town; I'd see no reason to leave."

2009: Barry “Goldberg's self-titled 1974 album was reissued with never before released tracks and a restored sound.”

2009: Starting tonight and continuing on each successive Tuesday night during July the amphitheatre in Liberty Bell Park offers a different Jerusalem performing artist each week. This Jerusalem Municipality project is made possible through cooperation with The Jerusalem Foundation and the International Cultural Center for youth.

2009: The funeral for Anita Rabinowtiz, the wife of Rabbi Stanely Rabinwoitz is scheduled to take place at Adas Israel in Washington, DC followed by interment at the congregation’s cemetery in southeast Washington.

2009: “In Bruges” is the first film shown at the film festival, Summer Movies at the Merkaz. The Merkaz describes itself as “a unique combination of an absorption center, community center and activism center located in the heart of the German Colony, one of the most beautiful, peaceful and dynamic neighborhoods in Jerusalem.”

2010: The 7th AICE Australian Film Festival is scheduled to show tense political thriller, Balibo, in Tel Aviv.

2010: This evening at Manhattan’s Plaza Hotel, Israeli Prime Minister Netanyahu addressed a roomful of more than 300 Jews on the subjects of Iran, his government’s eagerness for direct peace talks with the Palestinians and the swell meeting he had just had with President Obama at the White House.

2011: “Rothschild Fine Art,” an exhibition featuring objects’ des art from Rothschild Fine Art, a premier gallery in the cultural center of Tel Aviv, is scheduled to open today at ARTHamptons Art Fair in Bridgehampton.

2011: D.C. Councilman Tommy Wells is scheduled to take part in the Jewish Community Relations Council’s noontime series at the Lillian and Albert Small Museum.

2011: Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu was scheduled to fly to Sofia today for meetings with Bulgarian Prime Minister Boyko Borisov and President Georgi Parvanov. Netanyahu will be accompanied on the trip to Bulgaria by some eight ministers who will take part in a joint government meeting. He is slated to return to Israel this evening.

2011: An Israel Defense Forces soldier was wounded lightly by an explosive device planted near his tank in the southern Gaza Strip this morning.

2011: The Environmental Protection Ministry ordered the Eilat Ashkelon Pipeline Co. (EAPC) to cease their work in the Nahal Zin and surrounding nature reserve following last week's devastating jet-fuel oil spill after the ministry found that the company was not effectively carrying out the cleanup but rather exacerbating the environmental damage. EAPC responded to the ministry's order, saying that fault lies with the digging contractor, which had failed to follow instructions from environmental authorities and had ruptured the pipeline in the course of its work, Israel Radio reported.

2011: In “Setting the record straight: Entebbe was not Auschwitz” published today Yossi Melman marked the 35th anniversary of the mission that rescued Jewish hostages held by Arab terrorists in Uganda.

2012: The egalitarian-traditional minyan at Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids is scheduled to celebrate “Red White and Blue Shabbat” while beating Iowa’s unprecedented heat wave with “Sundaes on Saturday” where congregants will build their own Cool Kosher Concoctions.

2012: One of Israel's top contemporary troupes, Vertigo Dance Company, is scheduled to perform Mana at Jacob’s Pillow in Beckett, Maine.

2012: “The Alexander Soros Foundation presented its inaugural ASF Award for Extraordinary Achievement in Environmental and Human Rights Activism to a Liberian activist.”

2012: Israeli cellist Yoed Nir is scheduled to perform at the Super Bock Rock Festival in Lisbon, Portugal

2012: Tens of thousands of Israelis gathered in central Tel Aviv tonight to voice their demand for mandatory conscription in the army or national service, in the largest protest yet of the summer, and the biggest show of force since the “Camp Suckers” movement began six months ago.

2012: As the country is embroiled in a debate about turning haredi scholars into soldiers, the Jerusalem Municipality and the Bezalel Academy of Arts and Design have launched a different venture: a haredi track at Bezalel’s prestigious art institute.

2013: “The Dead Man and Being Happy” is among the films scheduled to be shown at the 30th Jerusalem Film Festival.

2013: The British Association for Jewish Studies Annual Conference 2013: “Memory, Identity, and Boundaries of Jewishness” is scheduled to begin in Canterbury, UK.

2013: The Pears Institute for the study of Antisemitism is scheduled to host a colloquium featuring Sham Ambiavaga, Frank Chalk, Lorenzo DiTommaso, David Feldman, John Gray, William Lamont, Paul Lay, Dame Jinty Nelson, Sir Michael Pepper, Daniel Pick and Marina Voikhanskaya

2013: Israel Air Force rescue crews have brought to safety the pilot and navigator of an “F-16i” training fighter jet that broke up off the coast of Gaza this afternoon after its engines mysteriously died. (As reported by Tzvi Ben-Gedalyahu

2013: Alfred Le Guelllec, who together with his wife Augustine, was posthumously recognized today as a “righteous gentile” in an emotional ceremony held at his hometown of Douarnenez in the westernmost tip of France. (As reported by Elhanan Miller)

2014: In the UK, the Wiener Library for the Study of the Holocaust & Genocide is scheduled to host Dr Gábor Kádár lecturing on “Hero or War Criminal? Regent Horthy and the Destruction of Hungarian Jews.”

2014: “Igor and the Crane’s Journey” and “The Sturgeon Queens” are scheduled to be shown at the Berkshire Jewish Film Festival.

2014: As “warning sirens were heard in the cities of Sderot, Netivot, Ofakim, and Rahat, as well as further afield in Rehovot, Gan Yavne, Gadera and Beit Shemesh, in the hills outside Jerusalem” and terrorists produced a video telling citizens of Beersheba to “flee before it is too late” forty more rockets were fired from Gaza after 8 p.m. this evening.

2014: “IDF spokesman Lt. Col. Peter Lerner said the military had called up 1,500 reserves troops, mostly from the Home Front Command and Iron Dome air defense crews, and deployed two additional conscripted infantry brigades, Paratroops and Givati, to the border with the Palestinian enclave today” (As reported by Joshua Davidovich and Mitch Ginsburg)

2014: “Former Maccabi Tel Aviv basketball team coach David Blatt was named today as Euroleague’s coach of the year, shortly after securing a contract with the NBA’s Cleveland Cavaliers. Blatt was awarded the prestigious title after he received a majority of votes in a ballot in which all of this year’s Euroleague coaches took part.”

2015: In Jerusalem, Ari Sacher, “a scientist who develops missile systems in Israel” is scheduled to deliver a lecture on “The Miracle of the Iron Dome.”

2015: “Some Like It Hot” directed by Billy Wilder, costarring Tony Curtis and Marilyn Monroe is scheduled to be shown as part of “Lights! Camera! Great German and Austrian Filmmakers of Hollywood’s Golden Age” at the 92nd Street Y.

2015: “Israel’s Religious Service Minister David Azoulay said today that he does not consider Reform Jews to be Jewish and urged them to turn to Orthodox Judaism.” (As reported by Times of Israel) [Editor’s Note: Wonder what he would have to say about Rabbi Abba Hillel Silver]

2016: Today is the deadline for Judge Maxwell Wiley of the State Supreme Court in Manhattan to rule on a series of evidentiary issues in the re-trial of Pedro Hernandez who has been accused of murdering Etan Patz the 6 year old son of Stan and Julie Patz who disappeared in 1979.

2016(1st of Tammuz, 5776): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

2016(1st of Tammuz, 5776): Israeli born journalist and military affairs correspondent of Time magazine Aaron J. Klein, the author Striking Back: The 1972 Munich Olympics Massacre and Israel's Deadly Response passed away today

2016: “The Times of Israel’s Jewish world editor Amanda Borschel-Dan received the B’nai B’rith World Center Award for Journalism, which recognizes excellence in Diaspora reportaģe, at a ceremony in Jerusalem today/. She was given the award along with Allison Kaplan Sommer of Haaretz newspaper.”

2016: “Israeli-owned chocolate emporium Max Brenner in New York’s Union Square is scheduled to offer Pina Chocolada drink, Melting Chocolate Truffle cake and chocolate syringes” as part of today’s observance of World Chocolate Day.

2016: YIVO Institute for Jewish Research and Institute for Israel and Jewish Studies at Columbia University are scheduled to co-host a conference on “Women, the City and the Yiddish Theatre.”

2017(13th of Tammuz, 5777): Seventy-eight year old Russian born brilliant mathematician who lost her teaching position when she tried to move to Israel and eventually became a “lecturer at Hebrew University,” “a professor of mathematics and UC, Berkeley” and a member of both the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the National Academy of Sciences passed away today. (As reported by Kenneth Chang)

2017(13th of Tammuz, 5777): Eighty-one year old Kenneth Silverman, the son of Lithuanian Jewish immigrants and winner of both the Pulitzer and Bancroft prizes passed away today. (As reported by William Grimes)

2017: “Letters from Baghdad” is scheduled to open at theatres in Chicago, Albuquerque, NM and Winston-Salem, NC today.

2017:  In Manhattan, the West Side Jewish Center is scheduled to host “InShabbos, July 2017.”

2017: As part of the Maccabiah, “a very special Kabbalat Shabbat event is scheduled to take place at Jerusalem’s oldest train station.”

2017: Daniel Polisar, co-founder of Shalem College is scheduled to prevent the final lecture in “The Zionist Vision: A New Look at Theodor Herzl”

2018: Israelis near Gaza observe Shabbat under the protection of additional Iron Dome Batteries that had been sent south in response to the heighten security threat

2018: Israeli firefighters are on high alter “in light of the five fires that broke out before Shabbat that included one “in the Sycamore Reservoir” where “dozens of acres of eucalyptus trees were burned down

2018(24th of Tammuz, 5778):  Parashat Pinchas;

2019: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and of special interest to Jewish readers including The Body In Question, a novel by Jill Ciment, A Thousand Small Sanities: The Moral Adventures of Liberalism by Adam Gopnik, The Guarded Gate: Bigotry, Eugenics, and the Law That Kept Two Generations of Jews, Italians and Other European Immigrants Out of America by Daniel Okrent and a listing of the fifty best memoirs of the past fifty years that includes Patrimony by Philip Roth, A Tale of Love and Darkness by Amos Oz, This Boy’s Life by Tobias Wolff, Personal History by Katharine Graham and  The Memory Chalet by Tony Judt.

2019: Today, Andrés Cantor, an Argentine Jew, and Sammy Sadovnik, a Peruvian Jew are scheduled to serve as “play-by-play announcers for Telemundo’s” broadcast for FIFA Women’s World Cup championship match.

2019: “Jews, Money, Myth,” and exhibition at the Jewish Museum in London that “explores the ways in which Jews have been associated with money over the past 2,000 years” will not be closed today as originally scheduled because due to “popular demand” it will remain open until October.

2019: In San Francisco, the Jewish Community Library is scheduled to host “a facilitated discussion of The Empress of Weehawken, of Irene Dische’s 2005 novel about her family history, told from the perspective of her anti-Semitic German grandmother.

2019: In San Francisco, the Jewish Community Library is scheduled to host novelist Sheldon Greene whose works include Prodigal Sons, After the Parch and The Apple Seed.

2020: Havurah on the Hill is scheduled to present on line “Tavern in the Shul: How to L’Chaim Like a Pro!” which is “a beginner’s guide to mixing cocktails with a Jewish flair!”

2020 Via Zoom, B’nai Jeshurun Congregation is scheduled to host “Men’s Club Happy Hour” where attendees discuss topics of current interest along with a little comedy.

2020:  Israelis are preparing today to deal with what Dr. Moshe Sharist, the director of Ichilov’s Emergency Medicine Division” has said is the “second wave” COVID-19 cases the new stringent government measures enacted to limit the impact of the upsurge in cases of the virus.

2020: Based on his public utterances, Prime Minister Netanyahu is scheduled to continue working on his “annexation plans.”

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