Wednesday, July 1, 2020

This Day, July 2, In Jewish History by Mitchell A and Deb Levin Z"L

July 2                      

311: Miltiades began serving as Bishop of Rome (Pope) during the reign of Constantine the Great, the Roman Emperor who moved against the Jews in his effort to make the Roman Empire Christian.

419: Birthdate of Valentinian III, the Roman Emperor who issued a decree prohibiting Jews from practicing law and holding public office.

437: Valentinian III began his reign as Emperor of the Western portion of the Roman Empire

936: Otto I began his reign as King of Germany.  During his reign  Rhenish Rabbis received  ”a responsum from the rabbis of Palestine in answer to a question addressed to them…concerning the appearance of the Messiah” (As reported by Rabbi Isaac ben Dorbolo circa 1150)

1029: Birthdate of Caliph Al-Mustansir of Cairo. He was the grandson of the third Fatimid caliph, al-Hakim founder of the *Druze sect who promulgated a variety of ant-Jewish and anti-Christian decrees which he later he rescinded. His grandson ruled in this more liberal environment in which the Jews were able to propser. A Jewish merchant named Abu Sa’ad or in Hebrew Abraham ben Yashar and his brother Abu Nasr Hesed were two leaders of the Jewish community during Mustansir’s reign.

1298:  Albert I of Habsburg defeated Adolf of Nassau-Weilburg at the Battle of Göllheim serving to cement the dominant position of the Habsburgs in the Germanic states of central Europe.  As is the case with so many Christian monarchs, Albert’s treatment of his Jewish subjects was a mixed bag. In 1298 he 1 endeavored to suppress riots based on the blood libel that were sweeping the Rhineland and imposed a fine on the town of St. Poelten.  But in1306, “he punished the Jews in *Korneuburg on a charge of desecration of the Host.”

1389: The Pope issued a bull condemning the attacks on the Jews of Bohemia that had begun on Easter Sunday, April 18, 1389.  The mobs ignored the Pope and Emperor Wensceslaus refused to protect his Jewish subjects claiming that they deserved to suffer since they should not have been out of their houses on Easter Sunday.

1453: Spanish statesman Alvaro de Luna whose friendship with the Jews including a thirty year friendship with Abraham Benveniste and Joseph ha-Nassi was beheaded today in the presence of Friar Alfonso de Espina “the fiercest enemy of the Jewish race” after being falsely implicated in the death of Queen Maria.

1490: A Chumash with commentary by the Ramban was published for the first time. This happened 35 years after Gutenberg printed his famous Bible. This Chumash was not the first book to be printed in Hebrew.  That honor probably goes to Tractate Berakhot of the Babylonian Talmud which was printed by Joshua Solomon Soncino in 1483. The Ramban is Rabbi Moshe ben Nachman also known as Nachmanides.  He was a Spanish physician and noted Torah scholar who lived during the 13th century.  He is not to be confused with the Rambam, Moses Maimonides who was also born in Spain and who was an even greater Torah scholar.  The Ramban was born after the Rambam had already passed away.

1494: Spain ratified The Treaty of Tordesillas which divided all new found lands outside of Europe between Portugal and Spain.  This was bad news for the Jews since it meant they would be banned from a wide swath of land including the Americas and the Spice Islands off the coast of Asia.  Fortunately, Protestant countries like England and Holland would not feel bound by this absurd piece of paper and Jews would be able to settle and prosper in the lands that would be “discovered” and colonized over the next two centuries.

1566: Nostradamus passed away.  His grandfather was Jewish but his father converted to Catholicism.  According to one source Nostradamus was thought to have been a descendent of the lost Jewish tribe of Issacher, a tribe that was noted to be knowledgeable in astrology and the mystical arts. 

1567(15th of Tammuz  5327): According to testimony given by Elias ben Nehemiah to the board of rabbis at Safed, the earliest possible date for the death of Meir Ashkenazi, “the envoy of the Tatar Khan in the 16th century killed by pirates.

1688: “The perceived linkage between Sabbatians and Protestant subservices possibly spurred Solomon Franco” reportedly the firs Jew to live in the North American colonies, “to publish today a royalist panegyric, “Truth Spring Out of the Earth” which he dedicated to Charles II.

1776: The Continental Congress resolved "these United Colonies are & of right ought to be Free & Independent States." This marked the actual declaration of independence by the thirteen colonies. While there were some Jews who were Loyalist, most favored the cause of Independence and supported it with the lives, their fortunes and their sacred honor. (Editor’s Note – July 2 is the date that founding father John Adams said would be “celebrated by succeeding Generations as the great anniversary Festival…from one end of the continent to the other.)

1778: Philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau passed away.  Unlike many of his contemporaries, Rousseau took a comparatively view of the Jewish people.  Among other things he wrote, “We shall never know the inner motives of the Jews until the day they have their own free state, schools and universities where they can speak and argue without fear.  Then, and only then, shall we know what they really have to say.”

1800:  Rabbi Seixas officiated at the wedding of Charleston merchant Isaac Moses and Esther Isaacks, the daughter of the late Moses Isaacks.

1807: Jacob Samuel Cantor married Hannah Lazarus at the Great Synagogue.

1809: After passing away in Spitafields, London, “the widow of Samuel Zachariah was buried today.

1811: In Wolfenbüttel, Germany, Samuel Meyer Ehrenberg and Henriette Ehrenberg (Maas) gave birth to Philipp Ehrenberg

1816(6th of Tammuz, 5576): Gershom Mendez Seixas passed away. Born at New York City in 1745, he was the son of Isaac Mendez Seixas (1708-80) and Rachel Levy, daughter of Moses Levy, an early New York merchant. Seixas became the minister of Shearith Israel, the Spanish and Portuguese congregation of his native city, in 1766, and occupied the rabbinate for about, half a century. At the outbreak of the American Revolution he at once espoused the Patriot cause, though many of the Christian ministers of the city sympathized with the Tories. It was largely due to his influence that the Jewish congregation closed the doors of its synagogue on the approach of the British, and decided to leave the town rather than continue under British rule. On the appearance of the British fleet in New York Bay (Aug., 1776) Seixas preached a sermon in English in which he feelingly stated that the synagogue services on that occasion might be the last to be held in the historic edifice. On the dispersion of the congregation Seixas left New York for Stratford, Conn., taking with him the scrolls of the Law and other ceremonial paraphernalia belonging to his charge. At Stratford he was joined by several members of his flock. When, in 1780, the Patriots who had fled to Philadelphia were about to establish a permanent congregation, Seixas was requested to officiate, and he at once proceeded thither from Connecticut, taking with him the synagogue property of his former charge. In this way was established the Congregation Mickvé Israel of Philadelphia. On the completion of its newly erected house of worship, Seixas was one of the committee that waited on the governor of Pennsylvania, inviting him to attend the dedication; and in the course of his patriotic address at the ceremony he invoked the blessing of Almighty God on "the Members of these States in Congress assembled and on his Excellency George Washington, Commander-General of these Colonies." During his entire stay at Philadelphia, Seixas showed himself a public-spirited citizen, figuring also as a zealous defender of religious liberty. Thus when Pennsylvania adopted the religious test as an indispensable qualification for office, he and several members of his congregation addressed the Council of Censors on the subject (Dec., 1783), characterizing the test as "unjust to the members of a persuasion that had always been attached to the American cause and given a support to the country, some in the Continental army, some in the militia, and some by cheerfully paying taxes and sustaining the popular cause." Westcott, the historian, expressly calls attention to this protest, stating "that it doubtless had its influence in procuring the subsequent modification of the test clause in the Constitution." After the war Seixas returned to New York and resumed his former position as rabbi of Congregation Shearith Israel. He was one of the first ministers to preach a regular Thanks-giving Day sermon (see "Daily Gazette," Dec. 23, 1789), and was also one of the fourteen clergymen participating in the ceremony of the inauguration of George Washington as first president of the United States. In 1787 he became a trustee of Columbia College in the city of New York, and held that office continuously to 1815, being the only Jew ever so honored. When the college was incorporated, Seixas' name appeared in the charter as one of the incorporators. Seixas was on terms of intimate friendship with the ministers of other denominations, particularly with the Episcopal clergy of New York. The latter, tradition relates, frequently visited the Portuguese synagogue, while the Jewish minister in turn was invited to address Christian congregations. The manuscript of one such discourse delivered by Seixas (Aug., 1800) in historic St. Paul's, New York, is still preserved by his congregation. Public-spirited at all times, he earnestly exhorted his congregation to support the administration during the War of 1812; and an address containing his appeal for the sufferers during that struggle is still extant. He also took the lead in philanthropic work, founding in 1802 the charitable organization known as "Hebra Hased Ve Amet," which is still (1905) in existence. Seixas was twice married, his first wife being Elkalah Cohen (1749-85), to whom he was wedded in 1775, and his second, Hannah Manuel, whom he married in 1789. His descendants are among the prominent Jewish families of New York. His remains lie in the old cemetery on New Bowery, in the city of New York.

1819: Michelle Brisack and Samuel Marx gave to their daughter Sara the future wife of Israel Lazarus.

1820: In London, Rosetta and Edward Emanuel Micholls gave birth to Octavia Micholls who became Octavia Dresend when she married Ephraim Dresden.

1824: Fred Collins, he son of Hyman Collins and Mary Davis was circumcised today in London.

1826: Official date on which the Hebrew Mutual Benefit Society, the oldest such organization in New York, was formed today (There are some reports that the society was actually formed six years before this date. The eighteen founding members chose Israel B. Kursheedt as President; Elias Phillips as Treasurer; John Jackson as Secretary.

1828: Birthdate of Joseph Unger, the native of Vienna who became a prominent Austrian jurist who was appointed to the House of Lords by Emperor Franz Joseph.

1834: Birthdate of Jules Quesnay de Beaurepaire the antidreyfusard who resigned as President of the Civil Chamber of the Court Cassation “before the first quashing of the verdict that had convicted Dreyfus.”

1838: A day after he passed away, “Moses Hart of Middlesex Street” was buried today at the Brady Street Jewish Cemetery.

1839: Abdülmecid I, succeeded his father Mahmud II as Sultan. During his reign, he promised Albert Cohn that “no improvements should be introduced in the legal conditions of the Christian subjects of Turkey which would not also apply to the Jews”

1843(4th of Tammuz, 5603): Westphalia native and Baltimore “merchant and shopkeeper” Zalma Rehine, the son of Isaac Rheine, uncle of Isaac Lesser and husband of Rachel Judah passed away today.

1850(22nd of Tammuz, 5610): Seventy-four year old Moses Ezekiel, the husband of Katherine E. Ezekiel with whom he had ten children passed away today in Edinburgh, after which he was buried in the Scottish city.

1852: In Miskolcz, Hungary, author and bible scholar Michael Heilprin, the son of Phineas Mendel Heilprin and his wife gave birth to his son Louis who came to United States in 1856 and eventually worked on several projects in The Historical Reference Book.

1852: In Germany, Joseph Davis and Rosalie gave birth Sarah Bienenstock, the St. Louis educated wife of Charles Bienenstock,  a member of Temple Israel’s  Sabbath School Board and “director of the United Charities” who served as “a delegate to the National Council of Jewish Women at Chicago in 1893.”

1853: The Russian Army invades Turkey, beginning the Crimean War. The British and the French both sided with the Turks, assisting them in the defeat of the Russians. The Paris Treaty of 1858, concluding the war, granted Jews and Christians the right to settle in Palestine, forced upon the Ottoman Turks by the British for their assistance in the war effort. This decision opened the doors for Jewish immigration to Palestine.

1854(2nd of Tammuz, 5614): Anglo-Jewish writer Charlotte Montefiore passed away.  Born in London in 1818, “she took an active part in the Jewish Ladies' Benevolent Loan and Visiting Society as well as in the Jewish Emigration Society, of which she was one of the founders. She was the active friend of the Jews' Free School, the Jews' Infant School, the West Metropolitan School, and of many other educational establishments.” Among her works were “A Few Words to the Jews of London” which was published in 1851. (Jewish Encylcopedia)

1854: Jews living in Los Angeles, having recognized the necessity of organizing in order to provide for religious services, a Jewish cemetery and Jewish welfare needs, met today and formed the Hebrew Benevolent Society of Los Angeles, the first charitable group to be founded in the city. Samuel K. Labatt was elected president, not only because he had the language facility of a native-born American, but also because he had similar experience in New Orleans. The following year, the Hebrew Benevolent society established a Jewish cemetery in Chavez Ravine. This society still exists, now over 145 years old under the name of Jewish Family Service of Los Angeles having been active longer than any other such group in Southern California. As the first president, Samuel K. Labatt was responsible for local efforts in defending the fair name of Jewry against the 1855 anti-Semitic attack by William Stow in the California State Assembly.

1855: In a letter written today, Thomas Hugo, Senior Curate of St. Botolph, described “The Thieves Exchange” in London which is populated by 15,000 individuals including “Jews of the lowest grade.”  “But the great majority are nominally Christians.”

1858: Regina and Dr. Moses Marx, the son of Samuel Marx were wed today in Gliwice.

1861: Birthdate of Alber Ulmmann, a graduate of CCNY, member of the New York Stock Exchange, author whose works included Tales of Old New York and a founder the Judeans.

1861: Alfred Mordecai, Jr., was commissioned a 2nd Lieutenant in the United States Army.  He was the son of Major Alfred Mordecai, one of the most prominent Jewish soldiers in the U.S. Army at the outbreak of the Civil War.  Major Mordecai, who was a southerner by birth, could not bring himself to fight against those among whom he had grown up.  Yet, unlike others, he was honorable enough not to be able to fight against the Union, so he resigned.  His son had no such qualms and served throughout the war with distinction, eventually rising to the rank of Brigadier General.

1862: Abraham Lincoln signed a re-configured Morrill Act into law creating land-grant colleges or universities.  Iowa was the first state to accept the provisions of the act, subsequently creating Iowa State University. Dr. Alan Singer is one of the distinguished Jewish graduates of Iowa State. The creation of tax-payer supported schools of higher education not tied to any religious denomination would be a boon to the bourgeoning Jewish population.

1862: In New York City, Solomon and Jael Belais gave birth to David Belais.

1862: In the United Kingdom, the Secretary of State “transmitted” Louis Loewe's Certificate of Naturalization to the applicant.

1863: Philadelphian Joseph Meyer was wounded today at Gettysburg while serving with  Company I, of the 26th of Regiment

1863: At Gettysburg, Joshua Chamberlain, the Bowdoin College professor who was proficient in Hebrew as well as seven other languages, combined wisdom and courage to keep the Confederates from taking Little Round Top and thus thwarting the attempt to roll up the Union line.

1863: Captain Joseph B. Greenhut of the 82nd Regiment, Illinois Infantry was selected by its commanding officer, Lieutenant Colonel Edward S. Salomon to lead fifty volunteers on a mission to dislodge Confederate sharpshooters who were “picking off” gunners and officers serving on the Union Army’s front line.  Greenhut led a bayonet charge and successfully dislodged the Rebel marksmen from the houses in which they were hiding. Henry L. Stimson would eventually send Greenhut an official letter of commendation for the brave manner in which he behaved.  Greenhut and Salomon were two of the many Jews who fought at Gettysburg.

1863: At Gettysburg, the 59th New York Volunteer Regiment which had been formed by Philip J. Joachimsen, held off an attack by the 48th Georgia during an assault on Cemetery Ridge.

1863(15th of Tammuz, 5623: Sixty-two year old Isaac ben Jacob Bejacob a Lithuanian born bibliographer, author, published and leader of the Jewish community passed away in Vilnius today.

1868: Birthdate of Shmuel Yitchak Hillman the native of Kovno who served as a Dayan of the London Beth Din and was the grandfather of Israeli President Chaim Herzog and the great-grandfather of Isaac Herzog.

1870: It was reported today that the Jewish Messenger has strongly ridiculed the efforts of the London Society for Promoting Christianity Among the Jews.” The Messenger proudly noted that the Society had spent $200,000 last year and had only been able convert 4 adults and “nine infants.”  With such meager results, the Messenger suggests that the millions that have been over the past 63 years in an attempt to convert Jews would have been spent to improve the lot of the many indigent and needy Christians.  Furthermore, if the Jews have held fast to their faith over the centuries when faced with the threat of fire and sword, why would anybody think that they would convert now that they were living in a society where they enjoyed comparative peace and the rights of citizenship.

1870: Birthdate of Philadelphia native Joseph W. Salus, the “President of the Broad Street Trust Company and head of A. Salus and Son who had previously “represented Atlantic City in the New Jersey Assembly.”

1871: It was reported today that the Jewish Times has “severely” denounced pronouncements made at the recent conference of American Rabbis held at Cincinnati, Ohio, as not being “representative of Judaism. The Times took issue with the presenter who “repudiated” the concept of a personal God, “denied that the belief in a personal God was taught in biblical Judaism and said that the God of the Bible was “implacable,” capable only of meting out punishment and that “the idea of personal and pardoning God had its origin in Christianity.” The Times also took issue with another speaker who agreed that there was no personal God which made an “absurdity” out of the concept of offering a prayer to God.  The Times was alarmed by the fact that nobody took issues with these and other similar speakers and that one of these speakers had been selected to develop a new prayer book.  The Times wondered if the leaders would ultimate wish to remain “within the pale of Judaism.”

1871: Victor Emmanuel II of Italy entered Rome after its conquest from the Papal States making it the capital of the newly unified nation of Italy.  Jews had played an active role in the various acts that led to the creation of modern Italy.  For once, the Jews were not disappointed at the outcome as Italy became one of the most hospitable places for Jews to live until the 1930’s.

1871: The Anglo-Jewish Association was established in London based on the principles of the French Alliance Israelite. It was soon imitated in Germany in the form of the Lifaverein der Dutchen Juden.

1872:  ON the Lower East Side, Francis and Mary Mundelein gave birth to Cardinal George Mundelein, the Archbishop of Chicago who, in the 1930’s, was an outspoken critic of Hitler and the Nazis.

1872: The cornerstone was laid this afternoon at the corner of Lexington & 63rd for a new synagogue to house Ansche Chesed which has outgrown its current facility on Norfolk Street near Houston.  When finished, the building, which will cost a quarter of a million dollars will have space for 1,400 congregants as well as classrooms and offices for the staff.  Rabbi Mielziner officiated at the ceremony which included a speech about the history of the congregation by its leader, President Herman who placed an artifact filled box into the cornerstone.  Rabbi Vidaver, of Congregation B’nai Jeshrun gave a sermon in English and ceremonies were closed with the singing of the 150th Psalm.

1873: Jonathan Manly Emanuel, the London born son of Dr. Manly Emanuel who during the Civil War began serving in the Engineer Corps of the United States in 1862, began a month long service at the Navy Yard in Philadelphia today.

1873: In what has become an annual summer event, 432 children from the Hebrew Orphan Asylum and the Hebrew Free Schools of New York enjoyed a day-long outing that included a barge trip from Manhattan to Long Island, plenty of fun and fresh air as well as a goodly supply of food and drink including fresh milk. The group left at 8:30 in the morning and arrived home at 7 in the evening.  The committee responsible for the event included Lewis S. Levy, Chairman, Asher T. Meyer, Treasurer and Julius Rosenbaum, Secretary.  More such trips are planned for later in the summer.

1875: Birthday of Staten Island native Frederick Paul Keppel the Third Assistant Secretary of War during World War I who played a key role in having “a double triangle placed above the graves of the Jewish soldiers” who died in France “instead of the cross”

1877: “The French Parliament” published today explained the failure of the stock exchange  to fall in response to last month’s political upheaval was a result of Germans and Jews controlling the Bourse. As many as three-fourths the speculators on the exchange are said to Jews or German speaking individuals regardless of their country of origin. [This is an example of the International Zionist Jewish Banker myth that grew right along with the growth of finance capitalism.]

1878: Birthdate of University of Georgia trained attorney and Congressman Charles Gordon Edwards who 1911 introduced a resolution that “would direct the Secretary of War and the Secretary of the Navy to ‘institute an immediate investigation to ascertain how far and what discriminations are operating against Jews’ in the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Naval Academy, Military Academy and all branches of the services.”

1879: The New York Times published the terms of the will of the late Baron Lionel de Rothschild.  The estate is valued at 2,700,000 pounds.  His sons, Sir Nathaniel and Mr. Alfred were named as executors.

1881: After President James Garfield was shot by Charles J. Guiteau today, Jews in Schenectady, NY held a special prayer service at Gates of Heaven 

1881: Among the speeches to be delivered as during the Commencement Ceremonies at Williams College is “The Ancient and the Modern Jews” by Austin B. Bassett of Albany, NY. [Note – I cannot find a reason for Bassett’s choice of topics.  He must have been a good student since his essay had won a prize when he graduated from public school in Albany.]

1882: As the deadlock between the railroads and the freight handlers continued undelivered materials and goods of all sorts continued to accumulate on the piers of New York and New Jersey as the number of striker breakers, including Russian Jewish immigrants, continued to decrease in number. 

1883: At Benevidas, “a prominent Jewish merchant” by the name of Mias was gunned down by a Mexican named Vela whom Mias had been ejected from a store by Mias because he was drunk.

1883: Sir Marcus Samuel and his wife gave birth to the second child and oldest daughter Neillie, the wife of Walter Henry Levy and then “Basil Ionides, the son of Luke Ionides.”

1883: The trail of the Jews charged with murdering a Christian girl, Esther Solymosi, as part of their Passover observance, continued today at Nyireghyasza, Hungary, with testimony by a raft proprietor testifying that he had seen the Police Magistrate coerce witness to provide the testimony he desired.

1883: In the Land of the Lion and The Sun: Modern Persia by C.J. Willis, M.D. which was reviewed today, the author reported that on his visited to the Shah during “the ceremony of Aid-i No –Ruz or New Year’s Day” “twenty wretched Jews in rags and tatters” stood in the courtyard next toe large tank waiting “to be thrust head over heels in the water.” [Iran is modern day Persia]

1883: Barrow Eskin, a Jewish immigrant from Russia applied for assistance today at Castle Garden. He had returned from Chicago along with his wife and six children because he could not find work. 

1884: Isaac Jacobs, a Polish Jew who is suspected of murdering Mrs. Etta Carleton of Watertown, NY, was arraigned in Cambridge District Court on charges that he had stolen a watch and chain from Robert Douglass of Cambridge, MA. Jacobs claimed that he was in Boston the night of the murder.

1885: Josef Ahondorowsky, a Russian Jew, his wife and six children arrived at Castle Garden aboard the Steamship State of Indiana.  He claims that their passage was paid for by the Hebrew Aid Society of Paris and he is completely destitute.

1887: “The Parnellites Protest” published today described the quest for Irish Home Rule including the statement that “The English are not amenable to reason at present in matters of Irish politics than was Pharaoh in matters of Hebrew politics.” A century earlier, Americans seeking “home rule” had depicted King George III as Pharaoh and cast themselves in the role of the Children of Israel.  Now it was the turn of the Irish to do the same.  The Jewish story of the Exodus has become a common motif for slavery and liberation. This is yet another example of Jews and Judaism have provided cultural motifs for the general society, even when that society is busy rejecting individual, real-live Jews.

1889: In Galicia, Chaya and “Shaya Hassenfeld” gave birth to Henry J. Hasseneld, “a founder and board chairman of Hasenfeld Brothers, a pencil and toy manufacturer” and “a founder of the Rhode Island Bureau of Jewish Education who was the husband of “Marion Hassenfeld.”

1891: Birthdate of Chicago native Alfred "Jake" Lingle, Jr, the Chicago Tribune journalist who was shot and killed because, it was later revealed because of his involvement with the underworld and who at the age of have been converted from Judaism to Catholicism.

1891: Dr. Richard J. H. Gottheil, who lectures on Syriac languages and literature at Columbia, is scheduled to sail for Europe today aboard the Normannia for Europe.  While in London, he will be meeting with Dr. Paul Friedman, the Berlin native who has been trying to find a place of refuge for Russia’s suffering Jews.

1892: L'Osservatore Romano, the Vatican's official newspaper, runs a front-page story about Jews trying to suppress natural Christian reactions to their evil behavior. "Don't play with fire. The people's ire, although at the moment somewhat dampened by sentiments of Christian charity and by the tender influence of the Catholic clergy, may at any moment erupt like a volcano and strike like a thunderbolt." (As reported by Austin Cline)

1892: Birthdate of Vienna native and journalist Jacob Landau, the longtime writer and executive with the Jewish Telegraphic Agency who was the husband of Ida Bienstock Landau and who was such a close friend of Albert Einstein that the famed physicist served as the godfather for his son Albert Einstein Landau.

1893: “A Russian Lutheran, Chased Out of His Native Place Is Supported by Benevolent Jews” published today described the plight of Gottfried Kasier an ethnic German living in Russia who fled after an imperial ukase commanded that he and his comrades convert to Greek Orthodoxy. They hid themselves among Jews leaving the country and currently are living in a Jewish shelter in London.

1893: It was reported today that in the United States there are 1,364 newspapers printed in 27 foreign languages, 14 of which are published by Jews. The Germans lead with 857 such publications.

1894: In Chomutov, Czech Republic, Josef and Ida Kann gave birth to Irma Kann who became Irma Seligman when she married Emil Seligman (Both of them were murdered at Auschwitz in 1944)

1894: “Scarabs and their History” published today provided a detailed review of Scarab: The History, Manufacture and Religious Symbolism of the Sacrabaeus by Isaac Myer.

1894: In Budapest, Lipót Kertész, a bookseller, and his wife, Ernesztin Hoffmann gave birth to Kertész Andor who gained fame as photographer André Kertész.

1894: It was reported today that Harris Schneider, a Jewish cloakmaker “living at 119 Forsyth Street died while undergoing an operation in Mount Sinai Hospital eight weeks ago. He is survived by his wife and five children the eldest of which is 12 or 13 years old.

1894: Doctors Landinski, Solotaroff and Brothers spoke to a large group of Jewish mothers today on “the care and feeding of children during the warm weather” and “on the uses of sterilized milk and barley water as introduced by Nathan Straus.”

1895: A group of underprivileged Jewish children returned to New York City from the two day excursion to Rockaway Beach Hebrew Sanitarium.

1895: Birthdate of Albert Pick, Jr. whose family had “started a hotel and equipment supply business in 1857 and who added to the family wealth by starting Pick Hotels Corp “which controlled 15 hotels in 1976 when it was sold to Bass Brothers enterprises of Texas.”

1896: Theodor Herzl began a trip to England that would last until July 20.

1896: Russian soldiers reportedly wrecked the houses of Jews living at Mizabisch during which they killed and wounded several of them.

1896(2st of Tammuz, 5656): Jules S. Abecasis, the well-known rubber broker and leader of the Sephardic community passed away today as a result of injuries suffered when an express wagon collided with his bicycle.

1897: The will of Mayer Lehman was filed in the Surrogate’s office today.

1898: Private Joseph Weinstein of New London and Corporal Charles Lowenthal were among those who were mustered into U.S. service as the mustering process began for the 3rd Regiment Connecticut Volunteer Infantry.

1899: In Brooklyn William and Jennie Peiser gave birth to Walter Gilbert Peiser, the husband of Frances Henrietta Peiser, the graduate of the University of Cincinnati and the Hebrew Union College who served as a rabbi in Cleveland, OH, Austin, TX and Baton Rouge, LA where he also served on the faculty of LSU.

1899: “The Riots in Belgium” published today attributed the “disorder” in Belgium to “clericalism” which “in France has been allied with Jew-baiting to prolong” the abuse of Dreyfus.

1900: Nine year old Russian Jewish immigrant David Sarnoff arrived in the United where he went from selling newspapers to being head of R.C.A.

1901: Jacob Saphirstein begins printing The Jewish Morning Journal the first Yiddish daily morning newspaper established in New York. “Its staff of writers includes Jacob Magidoff (city editor), Ḥayyim Malitz, A. M. Sharkansky, M. Seifert, I. Friedman, and Peter Wiernik. While professedly Orthodox and Zionistic, it is the most secular of the Yiddish papers in America, and is an ardent advocate of the Americanization of the Russian immigrants who form the bulk of its readers.”

1902: Leo N. Levi, the national president of B’nai B’rith, Simon Roeder and “Isadore Singer of the Jewish Encyclopedia are scheduled to address the first meeting of Jewish group which has as its goal “a Jewish renaissance,” especially among young Jews.

1903: Birthdate of Thurgood Marshall, the grandson of slaves who fought the long legal battles for civil rights, served as a Supreme Court Justice and was a hero to future Justice Elena Kagan and Senator Al Frankin.

1904(19th of Tammuz, 5664): Parashat Pinchas

1904: “Religion of Biblical Nations” published today described The Dictionary of the Bible which Charles Scribiner’s plans on offering to the public this fall which contain contains a 121 page chapter on “The Religion of Israel by Professor Kautzsch and a 51 page chapter on the “Religion of Babylon” by Professor Jastrow

1906: Delegates at today’s session of the Federation of American Zionist meeting responded enthusiastically to a letter from Max Nordau that contained “a strong appeal for support of the Jewish institutions in Palestine.”

1906: It was reported today that the Oberrat of the Israelites of Baden, the national association of the Jewish inhabitants of Baden sued Der Israelit for libel

1906: In Strasbourg, “Anna (née Kuhn) Bethe, who like her father was Jewish and Albrecht Bethe, a privatdozent of physiology at the University of Strasbourg gave birth Nobel Prize winning physicist Hans Bethe who was raised as a Protestant following in the religious footsteps of his father.

1907: The 18th annual convention of the Central Conference of American Rabbis opened at Frankfort, Michigan.

1908(3rd of Tammuz, 5668): Sixty-nine year old German pharmacologist Matthias Eugen Oscar Liebreich passed away today in Berlin.

1908: Playwright and actor Charles Klein and his wife Lillian Gottlieb gave birth to their second son, John V. Klein eight days before their 20th wedding anniversary.

1909: At the end of a successful seven week strike, “triumphant bakers marched through the Lower East of Manhattan carrying a loaf of bread five wide and fifteen feet long” which was emblematic of their hard won victory. Most of the bakers involved in the strike were Jewish.

1910: In Prague, Emil and Alice Adler gave birth to Holocaust survivor “Hans Günther Adler, who wrote under pseudonym H. G. Adler.”

1911: “Russia Hoodwinking US About Passports For Jews” published today described how if, when questioned by a Russian consular official if he is Jewish, “the Russian Consul, in accordance with instructions from the Russian Government, refuses to honor the American passport which is signed by the Secretary of State.”

1911: Birthdate of Victor Rabinowitz, “a leftist lawyer whose causes and clients over nearly three-quarters of a century ranged from labor unions to Black Panthers to Cuba to Dashiell Hammett to Dr. Benjamin Spock to his own daughter…” (As reported by Douglas Martin)

1912(17th of Tammuz, 5672): Tzom Tammuz

1912: In Baltimore, MD, the Democratic National Convention which Samuel Untermyer II attended as a delegate from New York, came to a close having nominated Woodrow Wilson for President.  Among his supporters is Louis Brandeis, the noted lawyer and future Supreme Court Justice.

1913: The 24th annual convention of the Central Conference of American Rabbis opened in Atlantic City, NJ.

1913: Miss Elsie R. Mahler, the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Jacob H. Mahler married Edward E. Sebartt of St. Louis at the Congress Hotel in Chicago.

1913: In Didsbury, Mancester, Israel Sieff and Rebecca Marks gave birth to their youngest son Marcus Joseph Sieff who became Lord Siefff of Brmption and “was chairman of Marks and Spencer from 1972 to 1984 during a highly successful period.”

1913: At 21 York House, Fieldway Crescent, Islington Simon and Marie Beloff gave birth to Sir Max Beloff the British historian who would elevated to the Peerage

1914: Today as the European leaders took the measures that would lead to WW I with all that that meant for the world in general and Jews in particular “Kaiser Wilhelm II received recommendation from the German military for Austria-Hungary to attack Serbia as quickly as possible, since Germany was more prepared to mobilize than either Russia or France.” (Editor’s note – this would seem to put the lie to the German complaint that they did not bear at a disproportionate amount of blame for the war, since they were, in effect, egging their ally to attack the Serbs)

1914: Seventy-seven year old British political leader Joseph Chamberlain, who while serving as Colonial Secretary played a key role in the Uganda Plan, offering to provide a 5,000 square mile space in “an isolated part of what is now Kenya” to Herzl as a place where Jewish settlers could fulfill the Zionist dream.

1914: Today has been designated “Education Day” at the “25th anniversary conference of the Central Conference of American Rabbis” being held “at Temple Beth El in Detroit, Michigan.”

1915: Today, ex-Senator Flint who represented a committee that had petitioned for the commutation of Leo M. Frank’s death sentence invited ex-Governor Slaton of Georgia who granted the pardon to visit southern California.

1915: In response to “an appeal from a committee of prominent Jews” in New York City, “headed by Jacob H. Schiff “ “an imminent strike of 50,000 garment workers was averted today when the Cloak, Suit and Skirt Manufacturers’ Protective Association voted to submit to arbitration the differences between it and the Cloakmakers’ and  Skirtmakers’ Union.

1915(20th of Tammuz, 5675): Sixty-seven year old Julius Kalezky, the Russian born Rabbi who has led Adas Israel, a 5,000 member congregation in New York City whose written works included The History of the Jews in the Ancient East passed away today.

1916(1st of Tammuz, 5676): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

1916: Associate Supreme Court Justice Louis D. Brandeis is scheduled to “address a meeting of the Zionist Organization of America at the Metropolitan Opera House” in Philadelphia,

1916: The funeral for Louis Hershfield, the father of Isidore and Lillian Hershfeld, who had come to New York more than seventy years ago and was “one of the founders of the Ladies’ Fuel and Society is scheduled to take place the Uptown Talmud Torah on East 111th Street.

1916: It was reported today that Felix M. Warburg Chairman of the Joint Distribution committee which represents the American Jewish Relief Committee, the Central Relief Committee for Jews Suffering Through the War and the People’s Relief Committee has addressed an open letter to all the Jews of the United States urging them to continue to give generously to the fund for the relief of the suffering co-religionists in Europe.”

1917: In Asbury Park. NJ, a special “Hebrew Evening” is scheduled to be held during the 9th Annual Convention of Young Judaea.

1917: Dr. Cyrus Adler, the President of the United Synagogues of America, resigned from that post during the organizations convention at the Jewish Theological Society “after a resolution had been adopted according approval to the Zionist movement and the election of a delegate” “to represent the organization at” the upcoming meeting of the American Jewish Congress.

1918: At Winnipeg, the “Fifteenth Annual Convention of Canadian Zionists adopted a resolution affirming their ardent wish than at an eventual peace conference the Entente Powers grant the demand of the Jewish people for a publicly recognized and legally assured home in Palestine and expressing the hope that the British Government will assume a protectorate over Palestine to assure its inhabitants a strong and just liberal government.”

1918: Pitcher Ed Corey made his major league debut with the Chicago White Sox.

1918: It was reported today that “widespread anti-Semitic propaganda and the danger of anti-Jewish outbreaks have prompted the All-Russian Extraordinary Commission for the Suppression of a Counter-Revolution to issue a warning against the agitation” and to declare “that any attempt to provoke anti-Jewish outbreaks…will be rigorously suppressed and the participants in it executed.”

1919: As the great powers and local nationalist work to sort out the fate of the dismembered Ottoman Empire, in Damascus, the Syrian National Congress declared independence today for “Greater Syria” which included “present day Syria, Israel, Lebanon and Jordan.”

1919: The text of the treaty signed by Poland and the allied and associated powers published today included Chapter 1, Article 11 that states that “Jews shall not be compelled to perform any action which constitutes a violation of their Sabbath nor shall they be placed under any disability by reason of their refusal to attend courts of law or to perform any legal business on their Sabbath” and that “Poland declares her intention to refrain from ordering or permitting lections, whether general or local to be held on a Saturday, nor will registration for electoral or other purposed to be compelled to be performed on a Saturday.”  (Editor’s note – this would not keep the Poles from trying to expel their Jewish population in the 1930’s before the start of WW II.)

1920: “Form Family League” published today described the incorporation of “the Isaac and Razel Salzberg Family Association” in Patterson, NJ which is made up of more than fifty relatives of “this prominent silk merchant.”

1920: “Return of Jewish Dead” published described the work of the Jewish Welfare Board led by Colonel Harry Cutler “in connection with the photographing of graves soldiers dead in France and the return of their bodies to the United States.”

1920: It was reported today that Professor Harold Laski, the Manchester (UK) communal leader Nathaniel Laski, is leaving Harvard “to take a chair at the London School of Economics.

1920: It was reported today that “Miss Jean Barondess, daughter of Joseph Barondess, was one of the principals of the Arongo Opera Company” that performed in Cuba last month along with the famous tenor Enrico Caruso.

1920: It was reported today that Muriel Elise Landau, the sister of Annie Landau, the head of the Evelina de Rothschild School in Jerusalem, “is the first Jewess in England” to have won “the great honor of the degree of Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons.

1921(26th of Sivan, 5681): Jacob A. Cantor, a leader of the New York Democratic Party for forty years, passed away.  The son of immigrants from London, Cantor served in numerous positions including President of the Borough of Manhattan, President of the New York State, and member of the United States House of Representatives.

1923: “The first coupons to fall due on the bonds” issued by the municipality of Tel Aviv “are paid at the offices of the Guaranty Trust Company.”  Although the bonds were issued in pounds, they will be redeemed in dollars for the convenience of the American bondholders.  Meyer Dizengoff, the Mayor of Tel Aviv, is present for the redemption ceremony.

1926: The annual convention of the Rabbinical Assembly of the Jewish Theological Seminary in America which is being held at Long Branch, NJ is scheduled to have its final session today.

1927: The Rothschild Hospital in Jerusalem is partially destroyed as an earthquake hits Palestine.

1929: Birthdate of Abraham Avigdorov the native of Moshav Mitzpa whose father Gad was killed in the 1936 Arab Revolt who received the Hero of Israel Award for destroying two machine gun nests in March of 1948.

1930: In Cleveland, OH, the eight annual convention of Junior Hadassah is scheduled to continue for a second day.

1930: Birthdate of Jack Garfein the native of Mukacevo who survived Auschwitz and come to the U.S. at the end of WW II where he became a successful film and theatre director.

1931(17th of Tammuz, 5691): Tzom Tammuz

1931: Tempers flared at today’s meeting of the World Zionist Congress as New Yorker Berl Locker, leader of the Paole Tzion likened the Revisionists led by Valdmir Jabotinsky to the “Hitlerites.”  Locker relented and apologized for his remarks.  Jabotinsky responded with an impassioned speech demanding a Jewish state on both sides of the Jordan and assailing the leadership of Chaim Weizmann.  Ben Gurion responded in defense of Weizmann and his efforts to negotiate with the British. He ridiculed the Revisionists as “easy Zionist” who ignored the reality of the situation in Palestine. American Zionist leaders expressed their support for Weizmann.  The conflict between the two wings of the Zionist movement is driven by the restrictions of the Passfield White Paper and the obvious fact that the British government is reneging on the Balfour Declaration.

1932: “Monsieur Albert” a comedy with a script co-authored by Benjamin Glazer and with music by Marcel Lattès who would die at Auschwitz was released today in France.

1933: In Chicago, Mayor Kelly addresses the ZOA at the formal opening of its convention.

1933: Chaim Weismann is the guest of honor at Jewish Day at A Century of Progress Exposition aka, The Chicago World’s Fair.

1933: “The Knight of the Long Knives,” a purge of the Nazi Party that began on June came to an end living Hitler in complete control of the party.

1935: Birthdate of pianist and educator Gilbert Kalish. Kalish has been the pianist for the Boston Symphony Chamber Players since 1969. He is the Leading Professor and Head of Performance Activities at SUNY, Stony Brook. He was also on the faculty at Tangelwood Music Center for 30 years.

1935(30th of Sivan, 5695): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

1935(30th of Sivan, 5695): Seventy-five year old Sir Francis Montefiore, the grandnephew of Sir Moses Montefiore, passed away today in London.

1935: Birthdate of Budapest native and Bergen-Belsen survivor Vilmos György Stern who gained fame as William George Stern, “the owner of the British Stern Group” who “in 1973 became Britain's biggest bankrupt with debts of £118 million,:

1936: The Palestine Post reported that Yitzhak Glazer, a local watchman, was shot dead by Arab terrorists in Hadera. Another guard, Jacob Bahar, was severely injured by Arab fire at Motza. Arab terrorists, interned at the detention camp at Sarafand, went on a hunger strike, as a protest against the camp's conditions. Arab "tree-killers" cut down about 40 old, fruit-bearing olive trees in Zichron Ya'acov.

1936: The Palestine Post reported that Dr. Paul Zubek from Vienna was to be deported after police found a large quantity of Nazi literature in his flat in Tel Aviv.

1937: CBS radio broadcast the last episode of “The Gumps” a radio sitcom based on the comic strip with scripts written by Irwin Shaw and directed by Himan Brown.

1937: “New Faces of 1937,” a musical comedy with a script by Nat Perrin, Philip G. Epstein and Irv S. Becher and co-starring Milton Berle and Parkyakarkus (Harry Einstein) was released in the United States today
1938: “Led by Dr. Stephen Wise of New York, more than 1,000 leaders of American Jewry opened the forty-second annual convention of the Zionist Organization of America” tonight in Detroit.

1938: “Italy Puts Curbs on Books Written by Jews; Bars Translations and Obstructs Sales” published today described what are allegedly “the first steps taken against Jews by Italy.”

1938: In Genoa, Rabbi Riccardo Reuven Pacifici who was murdered at Auschwitz and his wife Gioia Pacifici Tagliacozzo gave birth to their youngest child Raffaele Efraim who eventually settled at Kfar Saba.

1939(15th of Tammuz, 5699): In Haifa, an unidentified killer murdered Abraham Joseph Cohen, “one of the few surviving members of the tiny Samaritan Jewish community in Nablus.”

1940: Today, a US patent was granted for a process of using slow neutrons developed by Italians physicists including Bruno Pontecorvo that “led to the discovery of nuclear fission”

1941: First broadcast of “The Adventures of the Thin Man” a radio series produced by Himan Brown.

1941: Nazi-instigated pogrom claimed many Jewish lives in Lvov.

1941: Following the Nazi occupation, the telephones of all the Jews in Riga, Latvia, were disconnected today.

1941: With the approval of the Nazis, “Latvian armed youths wearing red and white armbands dragged Jews out of their home after which they variously arrested them, beat them, shot them or killed them in some other manner.

1941 (7th of Tammuz, 5701): A German cavalry unit on patrol in Lubieszow, Volhynia, Ukraine, murders Jewish resisters.

1941(7th of Tammuz, 5701): “A mobile killing squad, Einsatzgruppe C's Einsatzkommando 4a, assisted by an infantry platoon, massacred 1,160 Jews” at Łuck.

1941: U.S. premiere of “Sergeant York” produced by Jesse Lasky and Hal B. Wallis, with a script co-authored by Howard Koch, music by Max Steiner and featuring “George Tobias as Private Michael T. "Pusher" Ross, a soldier from New York City.”

1942(17th of Tammuz, 5702): Tzom Tammuz

1942 (17th of Tammuz, 5702): The Jewish community from Ropczyce, Poland, is murdered at the Belzec death camp.

1942: The Bulgarian government demanded that all Jewish households in Monastir hand over 20 percent of the value of all assets, including property, furniture, cash, and household items.

1942: The New York Times reported on the "slaughter of 700,000 Jews" in German-occupied Poland.

1943(29th of Sivan, 5703): Seventy year old Alfred Blumenthal, the German born son of “Selig and Julian Blumenthal” died today at the Theresienstadt Ghetto.

1943(29th of Sivan, 5703): Helena Nordheim, later Helena Kloot- Nordheim, one of five Jewish members of the 1928 Dutch Ladies’ Gymnastic Team that placed first ahead of teams from Italy and Great Britain was gassed today

1943: In Chicago, insurance executive Herman Rubin and the former Lorraine Helman gave birth to Ruthelyn “Rachel” Adler.

1944: Salomao Nauslausky was among the first five thousand members of the Brazilian Expeditionary Force (BEF) that left Brazil for Europe aboard the USNS General Mann. While serving with the BEF in Italy, Nauslausky served with such distinction that “he was mentioned in dispatches.

1944: Allied bombers executed the heaviest bombings inflicted on Hungary during the war which led Hungarian radio to accuse Jews of guiding the bombers to their targets with radio transmissions and light signals

1944: As the Red Army closed in on the Lithuanian city of Vilna, the Germans seized 1800 Jews from their work in the factories and took them to Ponar where they were shot.

1944: Responding to Allied threats that he would be held personally responsible for war crimes, Regent Miklos Horthy order “a halt to all further deportations of Jews and Eichmann was advised to return to Germany.”

1945: Following yesterday’s comments by Monroe Goldwater, chairman of the 1945 campaign of the Jewish Appeal of Greater New York “that V-E day had brought with it the revelation of …new opportunities to aid new opportunities to aid the victims of war and persecution, Jews now have additional time to raise funds since the deadline has been extended to September 1, 1945.

1945: “A two-day seminar conducted under the auspices of the National American Christian Palestine Committee opened at the Princeton Inn today as two score educators and clergymen prepared an educational program on problems in the Near East.”

1946: In Manhattan, May (née Zimelman), a substitute teacher, and Irving Roy Silver, a clothing sales executive gave birth to Ronald Arthur “Ron” Silver Tony-award winning actor and political activist.

1946: President signed the Luce-Celler Act of 1946, a law that had been originally proposed by Representative Emmanuel Celler to deal with immigration matters related to Native Americans and Filipinos

1946: At eight o'clock this evening, radio station WEVD will broadcast the news in Yiddish.

1946: At 8:15 pm radio station WEVD will broadcast a program called "The Jewish Philosopher"

1946: Dr. Nahum Goldman, Rabbi Stephen Wise, Rabbi Abba Hillel Silver and Louis Lipsky are scheduled to meet with President Truman today "to describe the situation in Palestine and to talk over the implementation of the Presidential recommendation for entrance of 100,000 Jews into the territory."

1947: Birthdate of Larry David, the actor, writer and producer best known for his work on Seinfeld" and his own HBO show.

1947: Today a statement by a group of Senators led by Ohio Republican Robert A. Taft and Florida Democrat Claude Pepper calling for the United Nations to take “prompt action on the Palestine issue” was released by the ZOA.

1948: “In Föhrenwald, Wolfratshausen, Germany, Polish Jews, Frania and Israel Rubinek, who was a factory worker, theatre company manager, Yiddish Theatre actor, and Talmudic scholar and who were hidden by Polish farmers for over two years during World War II” gave birth to Saul Rubinek  the Canadian character actor, director, playwright, and producer of television, theatre, and film” who has had roles in notable films including Against All Odds (1984), Wall Street (1987), The Bonfire of the Vanities (1990), True Romance (1993), and Unforgiven (1992).”

1948: Seventy-two year old Milton Wallenstein, the youngest child of Esther Hellman Wallenstein, the founding president of the Hebrew Infant Asylum passed away today.

1948: In Tel Aviv,  A group of “dissident artists” including Joseph Zaritsky, Moshe Castel Yehezkel Streichman and Yohanan Simon “published a manifesto in Haaretz” stating that new association that they were forming “must emphasize achievements in Jewish painting and not sink into mediocrity.”  (Editor’s Note – Jewish artists were “duking it out” in the midst of the War for Independence in which the infant Jewish state was literally fighting for its life.

1949: Five hundred delegates attended the opening session of the “26th national convention of the Hapoel Hamirachi” where they heard a messaged from Vice President Alben W. Barkley who “saluted the state of Israel” and “expressed the hope that it may become a powerful influence for democratic values…”

1949: After 727 performances the curtain came down at the Broadway Theatre of the original Broadway production of “High Button Shoes” with lyrics by Sammy Cahn and music by Jule Styne.

1950: The Government of Israel came out tonight in full support of the United Nations measures seeking to end the war in Korea. This is stark contrast with stand of several Arab states including Egypt, which have come out in favor of “neutrality” in responding to what the Israeli government recognized as acts of aggression on the Korean Peninsula.

1951: At the Congress of the dissident Romanian Orthodox Church in America held in Chicago today, Valerian Trifa who had belong to the anti-Semitic Iron Guard during World War II  was chosen to seve as the bishop. Thanks to the efforts of Israeli historian Zev Golan, his past was exposed costing him his home in the United States.

1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that China accepted the US bid for peace in Korea.

1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that the first issue of Omer, the vowelized daily newspaper for new immigrants in simple Hebrew, had appeared on newsstands. It included a glossary in Spanish, French, Arabic and Yiddish.

1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that a young man was killed by an Arab Legion sniper in the Musrara quarter of Jerusalem.

1952(9th of Tammuz, 5712): Seventy-one year old NYC native and CCNY alum, Elias Cohen the realtor who provided a summer retreat for deserving boys and girls at his “Tanquility Farm and Camp starting in the summer of 1919 passed away today in Jerusalem.

1952: Today, “Assisted by the staff at the D.T. Watson Home for Crippled Children, Jonas Salk injected 43 children with his killed-virus polio vaccine.”

1953: “Houdini,” the film about the Jewish magician starring Tony Curtis born Bernard Schwartz with a script by Philip Yordan was released today in the United States today.

1958: U.S. premiere of “King Creole” a movie based on novel by Harold Robbins, directed by Michael Curtiz, produced by Hal B. Wallis, co-starring Walter Matthau and featuring Vic Morrow.

1959: Ogden R. Reid officially presented his credentials as the United States Ambassador to Israel.

1961(18th of Tammuz, 5721): Tzom Tammuz observed because the 17th fell on Shabbat.

1961(18th of Tammuz, 5721): Eighty-nine year old Paul Baerwald the husband of Edith Jacobi Baerwald and “a partner in the New York firm of Lazard Frères from 1907 to 1930, who retired in order to devote himself full-time to philanthropy” passed away today.

1961: American author Ernest Hemingway took his own life.  Hemingway’s first novel, The Sun Also Rises, featured a Jewish character, Robert Cohn. Cohn was a friend of the novel’s protagonist, Jake Barnes.  Cohn is not only insecure, he is an insecure Jew. While attending Princeton, his sense of insecurity is heightened by his brushes with anti-Semitism.  In the best of tradition of Hemingway, Cohn compensates for his Jewishness and insecurity by becoming a boxer.  The Jewish jock, especially the Jew as a boxer may have resonated well with readers of the time, since Jews held a number of boxing titles during the 1920’s and 1930’s.  Although Hemingway was not Jewish, his books were featured at Nazi book burnings where the works of Einstein, Freud, et al were consumed by the flames. 

1962: The first Wal-Mart store opens for business in Rogers, Arkansas. Over the year’s Wal-Mart would prove to be a useful place to shop for Jews living outside of major metropolitan areas who were observing the dietary laws.  Not only did Wal-Mart carry numerous Kosher items, but many of its affordable house-brands carried the Hechser as well.

1964: President Lyndon Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964.  Jewish political leaders played a major role in passing this piece of landmark legislation.  Congressman Cellar, Chairman of the House Judiciary Committee, was the driving force in getting the bill through the House of Representative.  Today we take the provisions of this anti-discrimination law for granted.  It is difficult to believe how controversial it was forty years ago and what an act of political courage it took to support this law.  Although thought of as a law to end racial discrimination, the law banned discrimination based on several criteria including religion.

1965: The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission which had been created to enforce Title VII of the Civil Rights Act and which put teeth in the concept of ending discrimination based on race, sex, religion and national origin began its work today.

1966(14th of Tammuz, 5726): Parashat Balak

1966(14th of Tammuz, 5726): Forty-nine year old Harvard trained economist and former Brandies professor William A. Salant, the husband of “the former Dorothy Griesbach and father of Peter, Nicholas and Tony Salant died in an automobile accident today.

1967: “The Israeli Air Force bombs Egyptian artillery positions that had supported the commandos at Ras Al-'Ish”

1969:  As hostilities heated up along the Suez, Israeli paratroops conducted their second deep penetration of Egyptian territory in less than a week, killing thirteen, taking 3 prisoners and gathering additional intelligence for the IDF.

1969: “Daddy’s Gone A-Hunting,” a horror film directed and produced by Mark Robson and a screenplay co-authored by Larry Cohen was released in the United States today.

1972(20th of Tammuz, 5732): Eighty-three year old architect Harry M. Prince “who was First Deputy Commissioner of Tenement Housing from 1934 to 1938 and then deputy commissioner of Housing and Buildings until 1941” passed away today.

1975: An attempt was made today at the Odessa airport to prevent Lev Roitburd, who would be sentenced to two years in prison, from leaving for Moscow.

1976: The Jerusalem Post reported that Israel began proceedings, through the French government, for the release of 98 Israelis held by hijackers in Entebbe, Uganda. The hijackers extended their deadline for three days and released 101 hostages. The remaining hostages included 98 Israelis and other Jews of dual nationality, as well as a crew of 12.

1976: As the hostage crisis at Entebbe enters Day 6 and the IDF works to refine its rescue mission, Ehud Barak is reassigned and sent to Kenya and Yoni Netanyahu is moved up to take charge of the assault phase of the operation.

1976: Today, Shimon Peres wrote to Prime Minister Rabin that “the final twist” in the plan” to rescue the hostages at Entebbe “ was that the most forward squad would leave the plane in a flag-bedecked Mercedes, masquerading as the Ugandan strongman Idi Amin, who was due back from Mauritius” which led Rabin to respond with ““1. When is Idi Amin due back from Mauritius? 2. Why a Mercedes?”

1976: Joshua Shani flies the second most important mission of his career this evening as proves to the Defense Minister and the Chief of Staff that Operation Thunderbolt is feasible by landing his Hercules C-130 in the dark at Ofira Airbase.  Now that Shimon Peres, who was on the plane, sees that the nighttime landing which is critical to the operation’s success is possible he can return and sell the plan to Prime Minister Rabin and the Cabinet.

1977: Russian born writer Vladimir Nabokov passed away.  Nabokov was not Jewish but his wife’s family was.  More importantly, his father had a champion of Jewish rights in the days of Czarist Russia.  Nabokov was living in France in 1940.  Because of these aforementioned “Jewish connections” a Jewish welfare organization helped get him out of the country when the Nazis marched into Paris.

1980: The first London production Stephen Sondheim’s “Sweeny Todd” opened at the West End’s Theatre Royal

1980: Birthdate of Jerusalem native Tamar Eisenman “the singer, songwriter and producer” who began playing the guitar at the age of six when living in San Francisco with her parents.

1984: Small arms fire directed at an Israeli car in Jerusalem wounded several children.

1986: “About Last Night” a comedy based on a play by David Mamet and directed by Edward Zwick was released today in the United States.

1988(17th of Tammuz, 5748): Parashat Balak

1988(17th of Tammuz, 5748) Eighty-five year old Joel Sylvan Geffen the Kovno born son of Tobias and Sara Geffen, the Conservative Rabbi and Zionist and the husband of “the former Sylvia Mintz” with whom he had two children, passed away today.

1990: Efraim Gur was appointed Deputy Minister of Communications.

1990: Calvin Trillin wrote the first of his weekly "Deadline Poet" column – humorous poems about current events- for The Nation magazine toay.

1995(4th of Tammuz, 5755): One hundred four year old author and journalist George Seldes passed away today. (As reported by William Dicke)

1995(4th of Tammuz, 5755): Rabbi Menachem Mendel Futerfas, known informally as Reb Mendel,  who was a famous Chabad Mashpia.and who had been imprisoned in the Soviet Union because of his religious work passed away today after which he was buried in London.

1997: “Men in Black,” an off-beat sci-fi comedy directed by Barry Sonnenfield was released today in the United States.

1999: Larry Summers replaced Robert Rubin as U.S. Secretary of Treasury

2000: The New York Times features reviews books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including MacArthur’s War: Korea and the Undoing of an American Hero by Stanley Weintraub and The Unwanted Gaze: The Destruction of Privacy in America by Jeffrey Rosen.

2001: Doctors at Jewish Hospital in Louisville implanted the first AbioCor heart replacement in a seven hour long operation. Unlike earlier artificial hearts such as the Jarvik-7 the AbioCor has no wires or tubes that stick out of the chest and connect to a big compressor. The battery-powered, plastic-and-titanium device is the size of a softball.

2001(11th of Tammuz, 5761): Sixty-eight year old Holocaust survivor, organic chemistry professor and chairman of the Israeli League for Human and Civil Rights Israel Shahak passed away today.

2001(11th of Tammuz, 5761): Aharon Obadyan, 41, of Zichron Ya'akov was shot and killed near Baka a-Sharkia, north of the West Bank city of Tulkarem and close to the 1967 Green Line border, after shopping at the local market.

2001: Fifty-one year old Yair Har Sinai of Susiya disappeared today.

2001: The PFLP set off two separate bombs which injured six people in Tel Aviv today.

2001: Forty-one year old Aharon Obadyan was shot by a terrorist at Baka a-Sharika.

2001: Yehud suburb bombing: 2 bombs which were planted in cars of 2 Yehud residents explode. The explosion caused no serious injuries. PFLP claimed responsibility

2002: Because of her past ties to Ernst and Young, Cynthia Glassman had recused herself from the SEC’s “audit-independence case” brought against that firm which decided by an administrative law judge today.

2003: “Palestinian police officers, in pressed new uniforms and dented old cars, reasserted their authority in Bethlehem after Israeli forces withdrew to the town's edges.” (As reported by James Bennett)

2003: “Appearing side by side before meeting here this evening, the Israeli and Palestinian prime ministers declared mutual respect and expressed hopes for peace, while Israeli forces prepared to withdraw from the West Bank town of Bethlehem.”

2004: In “Arguing That Israel Should Return Land and Apologize,” published today Jonathan Rosen reviewed How Israel Lost The Four Questions by Richard Ben Cramer.

2004: “In an execution-style killing carried out in front of a cheering crowd on today, a Palestinian man accused of collaborating with Israel and of sexually molesting his young daughters was placed on his knees in a public square and shot by Palestinian gunmen.”

2005(25th of Sivan, 5765): Eighty-nine year old Oscar winning cinema screenwriter Ernest Lehman    who was responsible for the scripts for such hits as “The Sweet Smell of Success,” “The Sound of Music,” and “North by Northwest” and  gained additional fame as the director of “Portnoy’s Complaint” passed away today. (As reported by Margalit Fox)

2006: Final performance of a revival production Jerry Herman’s “Maime” at the Kennedy Center in Washington, DC.

2006. Rabbis Stephanie Alexander and Aaron Sherman celebrate their wedding anniversary

2006: Rabbi Stephanie Alexander celebrates her birthday in Cedar Rapids, Iowa.

2006: West Magazine published “How Hollywood Really Operates” by Leonard Mlodinow.

2006: Israel continued its military efforts to gain the release of abducted Israel Defense Forces soldier Gilad Shalit. An Israel Air Force attack helicopter launched a missile before dawn striking the office of Palestinian Prime Minister Ismail Haniyeh in Gaza City. Also before dawn, the IAF struck the headquarters of a Palestinian Authority security organization founded by Hamas in Gaza, killing one of the group's operatives and injuring another, Israel Radio reported.

2007: Matan Vilnai began serving as Deputy Minister of Defense.

2007:  The Verbatim section of Time Magazine quotes the words of New York Mayor Michael Bloomberg as he withdraws from the Republican Party. “Real results are more important than partisan battles, [and] good ideas should take precedence over rigid adherence to any particular political ideology.”  According to some, Bloomberg’s switch to Independent presages a run for the Presidency in 2008 which would make him the first viable Jewish candidate to ever seek the top job in America.

2007: In Jerusalem, "Life in Film," a series focusing on the Jewish communities around the world as captured in film, features "Judaism in Iran - Past and Present." The event includes a meeting with Orly Rachmian from Ben Gurion University and Machon Ben-Zvi and selections from a documentary about the lives of Jews in Iran.

2007: President George Bush commuted the sentence of convicted government official “Scooter” Libby.  Mr. Libby was an aide to Vice President Cheney and one of the Jews serving in the Bush administration. 

2007(16th of Tammuz, 5767): Famed soprano Beverly Sills passed away at the age of 78.

2007(16th of Tammuz, 5767): Hy Zaret, one of the last of the Tin Pan Alley lyricists, whose most indelible work was the oft-recorded 1955 hit “Unchained Melody” but whose oeuvre ranged from jingles to songs about science to ballads of love and war passed away at the age of 99.

2008: Samuel Israel III the convicted hedge fund manager surrendered to federal authorities.

2008: In a news conference held today by Hassan Nasrallah, the leader of the terrorist group called Hezbollah, held a news conference during which he stated that his group conducted a detailed investigation into the fate of Ron Arad, the missing Israeli navigator. He declined to reveal the information unearthed during the investigation, claiming that he had turned over the results to the United Station

2008: Majdi Halabi’s family received a telephone call from an inmate in Damon Prison who claimed that Halabi had been abducted and was being held in the vicinity of Nablus in the West Bank

2008: General Robert Magnus completes his tour as the 30th Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps.

2008: In Paris, premiere of “The Fly” “an opera in two acts by composer Howard Shore.”

2008: “Leisure Time in Israel” featuring the works of Israeli photographer Orit Siman-Tov opens at the JCC in Manhattan. 

2008: Penny “Pritzker and her husband hosted a $28,500 per plate fundraiser for Mr. Obama's campaign in Chicago with Warren Buffett and his wife, and Obama advisor Valerie Jarrett.”

2008(29th of Sivan, 5768):  Three Israelis were killed and dozens more wounded when a Palestinian construction worker driving a bulldozer plowed deliberately into a crowded bus and a string of cars in downtown Jerusalem. Jerusalem residents Bat Sheva Unterman, 33, Elizabeth Goren-Friedman, 54, and Jean Raloy, were named as the fatalities in the attack. Unterman was a resident of Jerusalem's Rehavia neighborhood, and worked as a nanny in a religious kindergarten in the city's Har Homa quarter. She was killed when the car she was driving was crushed by the oncoming bulldozer. Unterman's 6-month-old daughter, Efrat, was evacuated from the car just before the vehicle was hit.Her husband, Ido, was notified only hours after the attack that his wife had been killed.Unterman was the daughter of Rifka and James Lubenstein, immigrants from Holland. Her husband, Ido, is the grandson of Rabbi Isser Yehuda Unterman, who served as chief rabbi of Liverpool and of Tel Aviv, and also as chief rabbi of Israel from 1964-1973.The Unterman couple had tried for years to have children, but managed only with the birth of Efrat last year. Bat-Sheva had extended her maternity leave by a few months, returning to work last week with her daughter to celebrate the end of the year party. Unterman's friend, Meira Schwartz, described her as a person filled with faith, who never gave up her dream of having children, even after having to go through countless procedures. "Until Efrat was born, the children in the kindergarten were like her own, and she was a nanny of the highest excellence, with exemplary patience for each and ever child," said Schwartz. Unterman will be laid to rest at 11:30 P.M. in the Givat Shaul cemetery in Jerusalem. Elizabeth Goren-Friedman, originally from Austria, was a resident of Katamon who worked as a teacher in a school for the blind. She was laid to rest at 10:30 P.M. in Givat Shaul. Goren-Friedman was divorced and the mother of three children: Yael, 16, Issachar, 19, and Zvi, 23. Both of her sons were students at the Horev hesder yeshiva in Jerusalem.  Her friends described her as a "wonderful person," who volunteered regularly at the Hadassah Ein Kerem Hospital. Rachel Sakrovish, who worked with Goren-Friedman, said her colleague was an excellent teachers. "It's hard to speak about her in the last tense. Lili was a wonderful person. There was not a student that she did not help progress on a personal, educational, and rehabilitative level. We knew that if a student was retreated or having difficulties, Luly was the teacher who would do the fundamental work to help him advance.""When I think of her, I remember the phrase, 'a woman of valor, who can find,'" she said. Jean Raloy, an air-conditioner technician who lived in the Gilo neighborhood, was the third person killed in the terrorist's murder spree. His nephew said "the first thing with Jean was his family." Raloy, who was born in Iran, was married to Hanna and the father of two daughters and a son, and was to become a grandfather in about a month.

2008: The Jerusalem Post reported that a London university made history this week when it appointed the country's first professor of Israeli studies. The University of London's School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) named Dr. Colin Shindler, reader in Israeli and Modern Jewish Studies and chair of the Center for Jewish Studies, as the first professor of Israeli studies in the UK

2009: Today the fourth annual week devoted to the cooperation of the IDF and the Israel Antiquities Authority in preserving the country's environment and antiquities comes to an end with this last day focusing primarily on current archeological issues.

2009: The Randi & Bruce Pergament Jewish Film Festival features a screening of “Goyband,”  a campy comedy that’s a cross between “Dirty Dancing” and “My Big Fat Greek Wedding” in which a fading teen idol is booked to perform at a kosher Catskills hotel-casino and a romance ensues between the hotel owner’s already engaged daughter and the boy band icon.

2009: The Washington Post featured a review of The Sweet Science and Other Writings: The Sweet Science, The Earl of Louisiana, The Jollity Building, Between Meals, The Press by A.J. Liebling.

2009: The London Gazette published the official announcement from the Crown Office that the Queen has named David Anthony Freud  Baron Freud, a life peerage.

2010: An exhibit of the paintings of Israeli, award-winning, artist Liron Sissman is scheduled to open at the prestigious National Arts Club in Manhattan.

2010: A southbound lane of traffic on Highway 4 south of Beit Leed was closed to traffic this morning because of the march on behalf of of abducted soldier Gilad Shalit. It's the sixth day of the march to Jerusalem from the Shalit family's home in the westen Galilee.

2010: The Health Ministry removed its warning about bathing at beaches in Bat Yam, south of Tel Aviv, today following checks of water quality. The public was warned at the beginning of the week not to go into the water at a number of the beaches because of the flow of sewage into the sea.

2011(30th of Sivan, 5771): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

2011: In a rare musical treat, Cantor Joel Caplan, son of Richard and Ellen Caplan, and father of Ilan Caplan is scheduled to lead services at Agudas Achim in Iowa City, Iowa.

2011: Rabbi Raphael Bensimon and Rabbi Feivel Staruss are scheduled to lead services in Cedar Rapids, Iowa during which the congregation will participate in Feivel’s Aufruf.  Rabbi Strauss is the fiancée of Abbie Silber, daughter of Laurie and Dr. Bob Silber, a mensch in the truest sense of the term.

2011: Hani Skutch is scheduled to appear at the Off the Wall Comedy Club in Jerusalem this evening.

2011: Eldad Hadad, one of the Nehariya policemen released from prison earlier this year after serving time for avenging a known criminal was shot tonight near the synagogue he normally prays at. He was taken to the hospital where he was operated on in moderate to serious condition

2011: Today, the Quartet of Middle East peace negotiators said it is concerned about "unsustainable conditions" facing people in Gaza but said additional flotillas should be discouraged.

2011: Former International Monetary Fund chief Dominique Strauss-Kahn, whose house arrest was lifted following concerns about the credibility of a hotel maid who accused him of sexual assault, left his rented townhouse for a few hours today before returning and darting back inside. Strauss-Kahn has been accused by the maid of trying to rape

2012: Yitzhak Shamir laid to rest at Mount Herzl

2012: Officials in Kenya say that two Iranian agents arrested with explosives planned to attack Israeli, American, British or Saudi Arabian targets inside Kenya. The officials said today that the plot appears to fit into a global pattern of attacks or attempted attacks by Iranian agents, mostly against Israeli interests.

2012: Rabbi Rick Jacobs, newly chosen President of the Union for Reform Judaism is scheduled to meet with President Shimon Peres.

2012: Israeli cellist Yoed NIr is scheduled to perform at the Royal Albert Hall in London.

2012: Today the Israel Antiquities Authority announced that an archeological dig found a mosaic floor describing the story of biblical Samson and a Hebrew inscription from an approximately 1,600-year-old synagogue in the lower Galilee.

2013: At Tel Aviv University, Dr. Lev Kapitaikan is scheduled to deliver a lecture entitled "History and Religious Architecture of the Early Islamic Period, ca.650-750: The First Mosques and the Enigma of the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem”

2013(24th of Tammuz, 5773): Eighty-eight year old Auschwitz survivor  Simon Kohn who opened Simon Kohn’s Kosher Deli in 1963 at University City, a suburb of St. Louis, which later moved to Creve Cour, passed away today. (As reported by Joe Bonwich)

2013: A 17th-century German medal that portrays the Jews as responsible for a contemporary famine is one of some 400 Judaica items, ancient coins, medals, Israel memorabilia and documents scheduled to be sold today at a Jerusalem auction sponsored by the Kedem Auction House and antiquities collector L. Alexander Wolfe. (As reported by Ofer Aderet)

2013: A painting by Italian Jewish artist Amedeo Modigliani, projected to be sold for NIS 30 million (some $8.25 million), fetched a disappointing NIS 25.4 million ($7 million) at an auction in Jerusalem today. (As reported by Lazar Berman)

2013: A Turkish deputy prime minister linked the "Jewish diaspora" to recent anti-government unrest and the country's Jewish community expressed fears today the comments could make them targets of popular anger

2014: As a part of the Alte Actors (Old Actors) program at Chai Point, are scheduled to be performing at Summerfest

2014: The annual rummage sale at Temple Menorah in Milwaukee is scheduled to come to an end.

2014: As the ‘Whole House of Israel” mourns, the families of for Naftali Frankel, 16, Gilad Shaar, 16; and Eyal Yifrach, 19 sit shiva

2014: “A day after slain Israeli teens Gil-ad Shaar, Naftali Fraenkel and Eyal Yifrach were laid to rest, Jewish-Arab tensions flared today with the discovery of the body of Muhammed Abu Khdeir, 16, in the Jerusalem Forest.” (As reported by Yifa Yaakov and Marissa Newman)

2014: “The full recording of the desperate call made by one of the slain Israeli youths to the emergency police hotline on June 12 was released today, and in it the perpetrators can be heard singing in Arabic and whooping after loud noises — presumably gunshots — ring out in the car. The kidnappers are also heard excitedly crying out, “Three!”  (As reported by Yifa Yaakov)

2015: In Philadelphia, The National Museum of American Jewish History is scheduled to host a panel of leading legal activists and scholars who will explore the past, present, and future of LGBT rights as part of the “National LGBT 50th Anniversary Celebration”

2015: “The Israeli army archive released the hand-written operations log of the dramatic 1976 hostage rescue in Entebbe today, including the 1:55 a.m. note that the commander of the mission, Yoni Netanyahu, had been wounded.”

2015: “A to Israeli officer said” today that “the IDF has acquired intelligence that Hamas is providing weaponry and other support to the Islamic State’s Sinai affiliate, Wilayat Sinai, the group thought to be behind yesterday’s deadly attack on Egyptian security services”

2015(15th of Tammuz, 5775): Ninety-one year old “David Aronson, an Expressionist artist whose vivid paintings, charcoal drawings and sculptures captured the tension between his Orthodox Jewish upbringing and the biblical injunction against making graven images” passed away today.,_1949.jpg

2016(26th of Sivan, 5776): Parsha Shelach-Lecha (Send forth) – Read about the Spies and a whole lot more.

2016(26th of Sivan, 5776): Eighty-seven year old Nobel Prize winning author Elie Wiesel passed away today.

2016: “Israeli soccer star Eran Zahavi gave fans of Guangzhou R&F a glimpse of possible brilliance to come during his debut match in the Chinese Super League” today.

2016: “The Israeli Air Force attacked targets belonging to terror groups in the Gaza Strip early this morning, the IDF said, hours after a rocket fired from the coastal enclave landed outside a preschool in the border town of Sderot, causing damage but no injuries.”

2017: The Jazz-Klezmer-Band "" is scheduled to perform at the Gula Bar-Restaurant in Jerusalem.

2017: Dan Shapiro, the former Ambassador of the United States is scheduled to speak this evening at the Jerusalem Cinematheque in an event sponsored by the Times of Israel and Nefesh b’ Nefesh.

2017: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or books of special interest to Jewish readers including the recently released paperback editions of The Bridge Ladies: A Memoir by Betsy Lerner and Leaving Lucy Pear by Anna Solomon.

2017: 141st Anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence.

2018: Two days before the anniversary of the great rescue, JW3 is scheduled to host a screening of “Entebbe” this evening in London.

2018: Today, in an interview with ABC News, “made a declaration of independence from Donald Trump” for whom he once said, he would take a bullet.

2018: As IDF medical personnel provide aid to Syrian refugees from Assad’s attacks, Israelis wait to see if Assad will heed Israeli warnings not to enter the demilitarized zone along the Golan while bracing themselves for more incendiary attacks from Gaza.

2019: As part of his series on “The Ten Lost Tribes” Rabbi Dr. Raphael Zarum, the Dean of the London School of Jewish Studies is scheduled to lecture on the “Jewish versus Assyrian Culture” today.

2019: The Contemporary Jewish Museum is scheduled to host “Mindfulness Meditation in the Gallery” led by Steven Tierney.

2019: Today’s “screening of the Pride shorts program,” is scheduled to “be accompanied by a panel discussion featuring Joëlle Bentolila (Director of Starboy), Rabbi Rene Pfertzel (Kingston Liberal Synagogue), Rabbi Mark Solomon (Interfaith Consultant for Liberal Judaism) and chaired by Asher Tlalim (Head of the Pears Short Film Fund at UK Jewish Film).”

2019: Four days after she had passed, funeral services are scheduled to be held at Eben Israel Cemetery for centenarian Ruth Lillian Feder, the widow of Iz Feder and mother of Ron, Neil and Steven Feder followed by a shiva minyan this evening.

2020: Urban Adamah is scheduled to host a virtual “Singing Circle for the Soul” led by Anna Cone.

2020: Live on Zoom, the YIVO Institute is scheduled to present “Yiddish Children’s Literature and Jewish Modernity.”

2020: The Illinois Holocaust Museum is scheduled to host another session of Children’s Storytime.

2020: Michael Glassner, Donald Trump’s chief operating officer, is reportedly settling into his new role dealing with legal affairs after having been demoted following the “disappointing Tulsa campaign rally.”

2020: Today, a 90 day extension order is scheduled to end which Ahmed Omar Saeed Sheikh, one of those who murder Daniel Peal will go free

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