Friday, October 4, 2019

This Day, October 5, In Jewish History by Mitchell A and Deb Levin


610: Phocas, the Byzantine Emperor during whose reign the Jews of Antioch revolted was murdered by his successor Heraclitus.

871: A scribe stopped writing a ketubah that he had dated the 16th day of Tishrei because he had made a mistake on the date.  [This ketubah would turn out to be the oldest dated document found when the Genizah of Cairo was opened in the 19th century]

1143: The king Alfonso VII of Leon recognizes Portugal as a Kingdom. When Alfonso came to the throne he sought to curtail the rights granted them by his father but he saw “the error of his ways” and moved to restore these rights in attempt to gain the benefits of having loyal Jewish subjects on his side.  “In the beginning of his reign, Alfonso VII (1111) curtailed the rights and liberties that his father granted the Jews. He ordered that neither a Jew nor a convert may exercise legal authority over Christians, and he held the Jews responsible for the collection of the royal taxes. Soon, however, he became friendlier, confirming the Jews in all their former privileges and even granting them additional ones, by which they were placed in parity with Christians. Judah ben Joseph ibn Ezra had considerable influence with the king, and after the conquest of Calatrava (1147) the king placed Judah in command of one of his fortresses, later making him his court chamberlain.”

1214: King Alfonso VIII of Castile passed away. Alfonso enjoyed the company and pleasure of Jewish paramour, Rahel la Fermose (Rachel the Beautiful).  She reportedly used her position to gain the appointment of her co-religionists to position of power.  This made her numerous enemies among the Christian nobles and clergy who plotted the murder of Rachel and several of her Jewish compatriots.  According to some, Alfonso was present at the time of her murder. This tale of monarchal love and betrayal has provided the theme for several literary works including “Die Jüdin von Toledo” a novel by Lion Feuchtwanger

1167: Raymond Trencaval, a French viscount who was looked upon favorably by the Jews of Beziers (France) was murdered.  His son, Roger raised troops to punish those responsible for the murder.  He spared the Jews because they had been faithful to his father. This all had more to do with what became known as the Albigensian Heresy than it did with the Jews.  In fact, Roger employed Jews as Sheriffs one of whom was Moses de Cavarite.

1285: King Philip III of France passed away.  During his reign, the Inquisition, which had been instituted in order to suppress the heresy of the Albigensians, finally occupied itself with the Jews of southern France who converted to Christianity. The popes complained that not only were baptized Jews returning to their former faith, but that Christians also were being converted to Judaism. In March 1273, Gregory X formulated the following rules: relapsed Jews, as well as Christians who abjured their faith in favor of "the Jewish superstition", were to be treated by the Inquisitors as heretics. The instigators of such apostasies, as those who received or defended the guilty ones, were to be punished in the same way as the delinquents.”  In an era when monarchs were dueling with the Church over who had the ultimate power, King Philip did nothing to resist the papal pronouncements.

1450: Ludwig IX expelled the Jews from Lower Bavaria.

1600: Birthdate of Thomas Goodwin the English Puritan theologian and preacher the author of Moses and Aaron: Civil and Ecclesiastical Rites, Used by the Ancient Hebrews

1682(3rd of Tishrei, 5443): Abraham Abele Gombiner the Polish rabbi born in 1635 known as the Magen Avraham passed away today.

1737: António José da a Brazilian dramatist, known as "the Jew" (O Judeu) and his wife D. Leonor Maria de Carvalho, whose parents had been burnt by the Inquisition were imprisoned by the Inquisition  on charges of “judaizing” based on a slaves denunciation of the two made to “the Holy Office.”

1769: Uriah Hendricks, the son of Aaron Hendricks and his first wife Eva Esther Hendricks gave birth to Mordecai Gomez Hendricks

1789(15th of Tishrei, 5550): Sukkoth

1796: In Pohrebyshche. Sholom Shachne, Rebbe of Prohobisht, the son of Rabbi Avrohom HaMalach and the grandson of the Maggid of Mezritch and his wife gave birth to Chasidic rebbe Israel Ruzhin, known as “The holy one from Ruzhyn.”

1799(6th of Tishrei, 5560): Last Shabbat Shuva of the 18th century.

1806(23rd of Tishrei, 5567): Simchat Torah

1808(14th of Tishrei, 5669): Erev Sukkoth

1808: In Charleston, SC, Rabbi Jacob Suares officiated at the wedding of Israel Solomons to Esther Ottolengui.

1809: Isaac Selig married Rachel Raphael today at the Western Synagogue.

1818: Lew Way, “an English clergyman” “the real founder of the reorganized London society for Promoting Christianity Among the Jews delivered a petition to Emperor Alexander I of Russia and the allied rulers” with which he sought “to advance the emancipation of the Jews of Europe”

1809(25th of Tishrei, 5570): Levi Yitzchok of Berditchev, “also known as the Berdichever” a disciple of the Maggid of Mezritch passed away today after his son Israel “succeeded him as leader in the Chasidic Movement.

1818: Lew Way, “an English clergyman” “the real founder of the reorganized London society for Promoting Christianity Among the Jews delivered a petition to Emperor Alexander I of Russia and the allied rulers” with which he sought “to advance the emancipation of the Jews of Europe”

1820: In Arhus Denmark, Thamar (Terese) Rée and Hartvig Philip Rée gave birth to Anton Hartvig Rée

1822: In Liverpool, Miriam Aaron and Abraham Franklin gave birth to Ellis A. Franklin, “the Vice-President of the Anglo-Jewish Association, Life Member of the Council of United Synagogue” and a “Member of the Board of Deputies” who was the husband of Adelaide Samuel with whom he had seven children.

1823: Twenty year old German-born composer Julius Benedict was introduced to Beethoven today in Vienna following which “he was appointed Kapellmeister of the Kärnthnerthor theatre at Vienna.”

1823: Lawrence Phillips married Zipporah Rees today at the Western Synagogue.

1825(23rd of Tishrei, 5586): Simchat Torah

1827: Birthdate of Wilna native Moses Ha-Kohen Reicherson the grammarian and Hebrew teach who came to New York in 1890 where he continued teaching and writing until his death in 1903.

1829: Birthdate of German painter Ludwig Knaus whose works include “The Ghetto.”

1842: In London, “solicitor Joshua Alexander and his wife Jemima, the daughter of Sara de Abraham Mocatta and David Abarbanel Lindo” gave birth to David Lindo Alexander the English barrister and Jewish community leader who joined with Claude Montefiore in opposing the Balfour Declaration and the Zionist movement and who was the husband of Hester Joseph, the daughter of stock broker Simeon Joseph.

1846(15th of Tishrei, 5607): Sukkoth

1848: Isaac Noah Mannheimer, a Jewish scholar, who had been returned by Brody to the Austrian Reichstag, delivered a “memorable” speech on the subject of the Jewish tax.  Mannheimer was held in such high regard that “On his seventieth birthday the city of Vienna conferred honorary citizenship upon him.”

1848: Birthdate of Alexander Kisch, the native of Prague who tutored the family of Baron Horace de Gunzburg before starting his rabbinic career which took him to Bohemia, Zurich and finally back to Prague.

1849: In Wien, “Mose and Regina Finzi” gave birth to Alfred Abraham Frinzi, the “husband of Rachele Finzi” with whom he had five children.

1851(9th of Tishrei, 5612): Erev Yom Kippur

1853(3rd of Tishrei, 5614): Tzom Gedaliah

1854: Hermann Mayer Salomon Goldschmidt discovered a new asteroid, 32 Pomona.

1856: Reverend Charles Harris, "a Christian Jew" is scheduled to preach today at the first Methodist-Episcopal Church in NYC.  Apparently the Jews for Jesus type movements are lot older than we think.

1857: The City of Anaheim, CA was founded. According to recent figures 2.11% in Anaheim (zip 92804), CA are Jewish. Scott Schoeneweis may be Anaheim’s most famous Jew. The son of a Jewish mother, he was only southpaw in the Anaheim Angels' bullpen for the 2002 World Series, Scott helped his team win the first championship in franchise history.

1857: Birthdate of Julius Plotke the German lawyer and communal leader who was “a trustee of the Jewish Colonization Association, of the Alliance Israélite Universal and of the Aid Society of German Jews.”

1862: The New York Times takes advantage of a letter that it has received from a Jewish writer asking why he cannot receive an exemption from military service on religious grounds since he cannot pork, the food provided by the Army to review the entire matter of the diet being served to the soldiers serving in the Union Army.

We have before us a letter from a Hebrew correspondent, who adverting to the exemption from military duty of Quakers, Shakers, and such religious orders as deem it incompatible with their religion to fight, asks the pertinent question: "Why should I not be exempted because of my religious abhorrence to the army ration? Must I be forced to partake of a flesh that is forbidden by my law, and of which a large portion of my allotted food is composed?" We can hardly take up the query and answer it as especially adapted to the Hebrew, although we believe there are many patriotic men of the persuasion marching on with the Union army, but as a proposition applying at large, the pork question is worthy of consideration. We hold it as a fact, not patent, that the smallest item connected with the physical well-being of the army, assumes an importance at this moment as great as that which affects its moral. Good food is as much a necessity of war as good powder, and should be equally well tested and chosen. We candidly believe that our ill-arranged army ration is doing as much to destroy our men as the bullets of the enemy. Pork! pork! perpetually pork' and beef, perpetually beef! It does not require medical authority to know that there is an instinctive craving in every organism for a variety of food; and no matter how excellent any one article may be, too frequent use only inspires disgust and loathing, and consequently a failure to nourish. A ration composed wholly of cereals and animal food, is ill adapted for health in Winter, but in Summer is simply a slow poison. If, as is now the case, a large portion of those meats are salted, the evil is heightened and the system works to the promotion of bilious and scorbutic diseases. For the ill feeding of our soldiers in the field there is no excuse whatever. Nothing is gained on the score of economy, for the soldier that is ill-fed, whether it be by shortness of provender, by badness of quality or by sameness and ignorance of dietary, is a burden upon the State, and unable to encounter the mental or physical responsibilities of his position. A battle upon a well-satisfied stomach is half won. There is no reason that a positive schedule for the soldiers' food should be laid down-and-strictly adhered to through every exigency and every season. The whole country teems with an abundance of food that would form admirable substitutes for the perpetual pork and beans, an abundance that would now in on our ill-fed armies if the signal be but given and the market thrown open for competition. There is a vast glut of Fall vegetables and fruits; enough wasted in some small districts to put new life and health into a hundred thousand men. There is no reason why these necessities should not be forwarded from the localities of the formation of regiments, and the people called on to contribute each his mile. They have responded grandly to the call for luxuries for the sick and wounded, is there any less reason that they should respond to the wants of those that are in health when the object is to retain that health which is to make the soldier effective on the battle-field? Again, the army ration gives no spices or strong aromatic substance, while every physician knows that health cannot be kept without them, especially in a hot climate. Pepper, onions, thyme, sage, garlic, parsley, ginger, cloves, and cinnamon are as absolute as bread, and must find their way wherever alcohol is debarred. These are suggestions for every domestic circle having one of its members in the camp. In these days of easy transportation there will be no difficulty in each and every family sending forward that which will add to the comfort and health of the soldier. Whatever tends to alter the diet and make a change from the daily routine, will be as much an era as Delmonico's to the dinnerless, or a hotel feed to a Pike's Peak digger.

1863: Birthdate of Berlin native and Egyptologist Ludwig Borchardt who founded the German Archaeological Institute at Cairo 1907 which he served as director for 19 years.

1864: Birthdate of Arthur Zimmerman, German Foreign Secretary who authored the Zimmerman Telegram which helped to push the United States into World War I on the side of the Allies which led to the Allied Victory, which led, eventually, to the creation of the State of Israel.

1865(15th of Tishrei, 5626) First day of Sukkot

1865: The New York Times reported that THE FEAST OF TABERNACLES. -- The Jewish "Feast of Tabernacles" commenced at sunset last evening, and will continue for seven days. It is an occasion of great joy. Boughs are suspended in the synagogues and private houses, to signify that the children of Israel are dwellng in booths. The observance commenced on the return of the Jews from the Babylonish captivity; and the book of Nehemiah expressly declares that "since the days of Joshua, the son of Nun, had not the children of Israel done so." The first and eighth day being the Sabbath, on the occasion of a "solemn assembly," the residue of the time is devoted to mirth and hilarity

1865: Birthdate of Sarah Catherine Elias, the wife of Ezekiel Ezra Isaac Elias, both of whom died in China and the mother of Reuben Ezekiel Ezra Elias.

1866: Pauline and Leopold Cohen gave birth to Jacob H. Cohen, the mayor of Seneca, Kansas.

1867(6th of Tishrei, 5628): Shabbat Shuvah

1867(6th of Tishrei, 5628): Sixty-six year old French financier and political leader Achille Fould, the son of Beer Leon Fould passed away today at Tabres.

1870: At today’s meeting of the Central Temperance Union, Reverend G. W. Samson attempted to harmonize the group’s opposition to alcohol with the frequent to wine in the Bible. In a speech entitled “Hebrew Wines and Bible” he “argued that the wine of the Bible…was pure unfermented juice of the grape.” [This would come as shock to everybody from the sons of Aaron to Samson, etc.]

1873: In Alsace, France, Jacob Weill and his wife gave birth to Albert Weill who died in Hong Kong and who was the husband of Rosie Weill.

1877: Birthdate of Belle Moskowitz who served as a political advisor to Al Smith when he ran successfully ran for governor of New York and unsuccessfully ran for President in 1928.

1878(8th of Tishrei, 5639): Shabbat Shuva

1878(8th of Tishrei, 5639): Seventy-eight year old Maria Michael (Miriam bat Mordecai) passed away today in the United Kingdom.

1878: Birthdate of Esther Raphiel who would be buried in the Jewish Cemetery at Natchitoches, LA.

1878: The Medal of Honor was issued to Sergeant George Geiger who received the highest decoration the U.S. issues to its service personnel while serving with Company H of the 7th Cavalry.  At the Battle of the Little Big Horn, “with 3 comrades during the entire engagement (he) courageously held a position that secured water for the command.”  The Battle of the Little Big Horn is also known as Custer’s Last Stand.

1880(30th of Tishrei, 5641): Sixty-one year old composer and impresario Jacques Offenbach passed away today.

1882(22nd of Tishrei, 5643): Shemini Atzeret

1882: It was reported today in Vienna, the Emperor has thanked the Hungarian Prime Minister “for the energy he has shown in suppressing the riots against the Jews in Pressburg.

1882: The Gemiles Chesed Kranken Unterstuetzungs Verein, a Hebrew Society, was incorporated today in New York State.

1883: In Kharkiv, Ukraine Lvov Lev Leon Rubinstein and Ernestine Rubinstein gave birth to Ida Rubinstein.

1884(16th of Tishrei, 5645): Second Day of Sukkoth

1884: Forty-nine year old Gabriel Richter, a Polish Jew, was arrested tonight and taken to the Seventeenth Precinct State House on charges of arson. He denied the charge claiming he had been at the synagogue.

1884: It was reported today that Sir Moses Montefiore had planned on fasting this past Yom Kippur.  However, after 18 hours, the centenarian succumbed to his doctors please – “The Almighty does not want us to kill ourselves” – and broke his fast.  The physician has sent telegrams assuring everyone that the aging Jewish leader “is an excellent health.”

1884: It was reported today that services will be held in synagogues all over Europe on the 26th and 27th of October to celebrate the 100th birthday of Sir Moses Montefiore.

1884: Suicide In A Police Court” published today reported that Alexander Endelstine an English Jew who tried to commit suicide at New York’s Jefferson Market Police Court yesterday is being treated at St. Vincent’s Hospital and that he will be prosecuted  for embezzlement and attempted suicide if he survives.(Editor’s note – Was attempted suicide a capital crime?  Makes you wonder about the justice system)

1884: The Association of Jewish Immigrants whose members included Louis E. Levy, Abraham Kaufman and Samuel S. Fels, was formed at meeting at Wheatly Hall in Philadelphia, PA

1885: “As It Was Written, A Romance” published today provides a review of As It Was Written: A Jewish Musician’s Story by Sidney Luska. (Sidney Luska is not Jewish.  It is the pseudonym of Henry Harland)

1885: “In Memory of Montefiore” published described the Mincha Service at Temple Emanu-El where Adolph Sanger, the President of the Board of Aldermen delivered “an eloquent eulogy on the life and character of Sir Moses Montefiore.”

1886: City of Johannesburg, South Africa founded.  Many of the Jews living in Cape Town moved north to Johannesburg to take advantage of the discovery of diamonds and gold. Barney Barnato and Sammy Marks were two of the more famous Jewish entrepreneurs who during this period.  Marks amassed a fortune from his activities in gold and diamond mining.  After expanding his business interests, this practicing Jew assumed civic responsibilities as a negotiator during the Boer War and serving as a Member of Parliament. Barnato founded the De Beers Consolidated Mines for mining diamond fields.

1887: In Bayonne, France, Azarie "Henri" Cassin and Gabrielle Deborah Cassin gave birth to René Samuel Cassin - jurist, combat veteran of  World War I, member of the Resistance in WW II and leader of the French Jewish community, and winner of the Nobel Prize Winner for Peace,

1887: In Chicago, “President Grover Cleveland laid the cornerstone for the Auditorium Building designed by Dankmar Adler.

1889(10th of Tishrei, 5650): Yom Kippur

1889: In New York City where all the Jewish places of worship are open all day today, the services” for Yom Kippur “which are of very solemn and impressive character” end “with the blowing of the shofar indicating the annual fast is over.”

1889: It was reported today that “according to the latest available statistics” over seventy-six million Russians belong to various Christian denominations while Jews, Moslems and pagans constitute 5,626,000 of the Czar’s subjects.

1889: It was determined today that the reason the Pioneers of Liberty not being allowed to hold their dance and concert last night, erev Yom Kippur, at the Clarendon Hall was because they had not obtained a license for a concert and if this Jewish group had been content with holding a dance the authorities would not have interfered.

1889: Birthdate of Brooklyn native “industrial engineer and pioneer in the field of time management, Samuel R. Gerber, “a graduate of Cooper Union and the Polytechnich Institute of Brooklyn” who was President of both the Kent Metal Manufacturing Company and the Ortho Chemical Corporation and who was married to Tyl Gerber with whom he had one son and one daughter.

1889: It was reported today that thousands of Jews “who have been expelled from Russia…have taken temporary refuge in England.”  Eventually they intend to settle in Argentina

1890: During his talk tonight at the New York Academy of Music, Dr. Tallmadge described his recent visit to Palestine including passing through “the tract of 800 acres belonging to the Universal Israelite Association” which points “to the reoccupation of the Holy Land by the Israelites.”

1890: Birthdate of Alexander N. Sack the  Moscow born, Russian lawyer and faculty member of the Saint Petersburg University who in 1930 came to the United States where taught at NYU and Northwestern while developing a reputation on international finance especially as it dealt with the problems of governmental debt,

1891: “An Indictment of Russia” published today which traces the history of mistreatment of Jews in the land of the Czars opens by saying that “The Jew represents at once humanity’s oldest and least familiar fact.  The records which he embodies visibility before us in his curled hair, in his eager eyes and bended nose, in his gestures, his utterance, the peculiarities of his family and religious life belong to the very childhood of the race.” (Notice that even in praise 19th century authors unwittingly turned to offensive stereotypes.)

1891: “The Jews In Olden Times” published today provides a detailed review of A History of the Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ by Emil Schurer, the German theologian whose area of expertise was this period of history.

1892: Abraham Langer, a Jewish poultry dealer related the story of the attempt to rob him to the incredulous Central Office detectives in New York

1892(14th of Tishrei, 5653): Erev Sukkoth

1892 (14th of Tishrei, 5653): Sxity-three year old Rabbi Mayer Samuel Weiss, the “father of magician Harry Houdini and the first rabbi of Zion Reform Congregation in Appleton, Wisconsin, passed away today.

1893: The cornerstone was laid today for the West End Synagogue on West 82nd Street in New York City.

1893: Reverend Christian Adolf Stoecker, the German “Jew baiter” and anti-Semite completes his tour of the United States and sets sail from New York for his homeland today.

1894: In Pars, the name of M. Pingault, the sugar broker who was arrested on charges of embezzling 144,000 English pounds from Baron Hirsch, has been stricken from the list of brokers.

1895: Today, “Mrs. Hannah G. Solomon… organized the Louisiana Section of the Council of Jewish Women

1895: “The William Berrian Book Sale” published today provided a list of books belonging to the William Berrian Library by Bangs & Company including John Allen’s Modern Judaism, Beeton’s The Jews in the East, W.H. Rule’s History of the Karaite Jews, Rabbi Grossman’s Judaism and the Science of Religion, Iliowizi’s Jewish Dream’s and Realities, Betteny’s Judaism and Christianity, T.A. Davis’s  Am I a Jew or a Gentile? and Betteny’s Jew and Gentile.

1896;Among the gifts acknowledged t during this afternoon’s meeting of the Board of Trustees of Columbia University was one $5,000 from Jacob Schiff “to aid needy students” go “through college” and a collection of Hebrew and Arabic manuscripts from William Walter.

1897(9th of Tishrei, 5658): Erev Yom Kippur; in the evening Kol Nidre is chanted for the first time during the Presidency of William McKinley.

1897: In Bremen, Norbert Salter and his wife who converted to Christianity in 1897 gave birth to designer Georg Salter.

1897: “Truly A Cosmopolitan Town” published today described Red Jacket, Michigan, “perhaps the most cosmopolitan town in the United States” with a population of 8,000 whose no less than thirty different nationalities included an untold number of Jews.”

1898(19th of Tishrei, 5659): Sukkoth Chol HaMoed

1898: Arthur Loew, the founder of MGM, and his wife the former Mildred Zukor, daughter of Adolph Zukor gave birth to twin sons – Arthur Loew and David L. Loew who served as a member of the board of directors of MGM and later established his own independent production company.

1898(19th of Tishrei, 5659): Twenty-five year old Charles Koransky, who suffered from consumption who had been denied treatment at the hospital on Blackwell’s Island because he was Jewish and planned on seeking treatment at Mount Sinai Hospital, died early this morning.

1898: “Rabbi Honored In Detroit” published today described plans by Mayor Maybury and “pastors of several city churches” to honor Rabbi Louis Grossman who will be leaving Detroit after 14 years to serve as Professor of Philosophy at the Hebrew Union College and Congregation B’nai Yeshurun in Cincinnati, Ohio.

1898: In Moldova, “Shin Ben-Zion and Rivka Chaya Gutman” gave birth to Nachum Gutman

1898: Herzl and David Wolffsohn want to establish the Jewish Colonial Bank immediately. The Bank was intended to handle the financial affairs of the Zionist movement.

1898: In an attempt to draw the Ottoman Empire into the German sphere of influence which would eventually have a major impact on the Jews of Palestine and the Zionist movement Kaiser Wilhelm II visited Constantinople.

1899: Three days after he had passed away, “Alfred Lambert Falck, the youngest son of Ernest Flack” was buried today at the Balls Pond Road Jewish Cemetery.

1899: Dr. Solomon Mandelkern of Leipzig the poet who has translated several American authors including Longfellow into Hebrew, arrived in New York aboard the SS Werra so he could visit his son Israel who lived at 196 East Broadway.

1899: One day after her death, Rebecca Hyams, “the widow of Moses Hyams” was buried today at the Plashet Jewish Cemetery in London.

1900: According to The English Zionist Federation's poll: 60 candidates for Parliament declare themselves in favor of Zionism.

1900: Birthdate of Baron Friedrich Carl von Oppenheim the German banker and industrialist who worked to save Jews from the Nazis and was imprisoned for his alleged role in the attempt to assassinate  Hitler – activities for which he was honored by Yad Vashem.

1901(22nd of Tishrei, 5662): Shemini Atzeret

1901: Birthdate of German Banker and Zionist leader, Hans Beyth Shmuel

1902: Herzl sends a copy of Altneuland to the Grossherzog Friedrich of Baden and to Rothschild. Altneuland appeared almost simultaneously in a Hebrew translation, Tel Aviv, by Nahum Sokolow.

1902(4th of Tishrei, 5563): Tzom Gedaliah observed

1902: In Philadelphia, Joseph Feinberg and Fanny Lieberman, the owners of “a watch-repair and jewelry store” gave birth to Louis Feinberg who gained fame as Larry Fine, one of the Three Stooges.

1902: Birthdate of Hamburg born American art collector Curt Valentin who left Nazi Germany in 1934 and established what became the Curt Valentin Gallery

1902(4th of Tishrei, 5563): Seventy year old Joseph Morris Asch, the Phladelphia born son of Joseph and Clara Asch, the and Jefferson Medical College trained physician Joseph Morris Asch who served with the Union Army during the Civil War after which he pursued a career as a laryngologist in New York City passed away today.,_Morris_Joseph

1905: Birthdate of Bellva Plain.

1908(10th of Tishrei, 5669): Yom Kippur

1908: When “The Melting Pot” by Israel Zangwill opened this evening “at the Columbia Theatre in Washing, the audience included President and Mrs. Roosevelt, William Loeb, the president’s advisor; Secretary of State Elihu Root; Secretary of Commerce and Labor Oscar Strauss, Simon Wolf and Isaac Solomon, a wealthy Baltimorean.”

1908 (10th of Tishrei, 5669): In Houston Texas Adath Yshurun holds Yom Kippur Services. The morning services began at 7a.m. with a sermon in German entitled “The Majesty of the Law.”  Minchah services began at 3:30 with a sermon in English entitled “The Waning Day.”

1909(20th of Tishrei, 5670): Chol Hamoed Sukkoth

1909(20th of Tishrei, 5670): Rabbi Falk Vidaver passed away today in New York City at the age of 65.  The cause of death was Bright’s Disease.  Before coming to New York, Rabbi Vidaver lived in San Francisco where he was the leader of the largest congregation west of the Rocky Mountains.  Vidaver served as the rabbi at the congregation at 72nd Street and Lexington Avenue for 12 years before retiring three years ago.  He was a leading commentator on the Bible and was also well-known for his Hebrew poetry which was published in Russia, Hungary and the United States.

1909: When The Melting Pot opened in Washington D.C. this evening, President Theodore Roosevelt leaned over the edge of his box and shouted, "That's a great play, Mr. Zangwill, that's a great play."  Zangwill is Israel Zangwill.  He was Jewish; T.R. was not.

1910(2nd of Tishrei, 5671): Second Day of Rosh Hashanah

1910: Birthdate of Louis “Lou” Boasberg who played tackle for the 1931 Tulane University football team they went 11-0, finished second in the nation and went on to play in the 1932 Rose Bowl.

1912: In Fort William, Ontario, Max Laskin and Bluma Zingel, Laskin gave birth to Bora Laskin, the 14th Chief Justice of Canada.

1912(24th of Tishrei, 5673): New York City gangster Jack Zelig was murdered in an apparent attempt to keep him from testifying in the Rosenthal murder case. (The only problem with the various descriptions of his death are that they say he was murdered on the day before a murder trial was supposed to start.  But October 5 was a Saturday and it would have been highly unusual for a trial to have started on a Sunday)

1913(4th of Tishrei, 5674): Tzom Gedaliah observed for the first time during the Presidency of Woodrow Wilson.

1914(15th of Tishrei, 5675): Sukkoth

1914: In Washington, DC, “a private dispatch” was received by the State Departure which “said conditions in Jerusalem were such that food could not be obtained by a large portion of the population and that “many people were facing starvation.”

1915: It was reported today from Berlin that “the truth is the distress of Russian Polish Jewry is appalling” with “hundreds of thousands literally starving” making it appear that “Russia is trying to solve the Jewish question by annihilating the Jews.”

1915: “The New Synagogue, the latest of the liberal Jewish congregations to be founded in New York City” which has been holding services at the Aeolian Hall “announced that it has” purchased “the building at 43 West 86th Street as its permanent house of worship” and that the “structure will be transformed for synagogue and school purposes.”

1916: Birthdate of Abbeville native and fighter for the Free French Francis Huré who serve as France’s Ambassador to Israel from 1968 to 1973.

1916(8th of Tishrei, 5677): Forty year old Francis Deak Pollak, a graduate of Columbia Law School and member of the firm of Sullivan & Cromwell since 1906 who was a trustee of the Jewish Agricultural and Industrial Aid Society passed away today at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore.

1916: “Jewish Harmony Restored” published today described the revised plan adopted for creating an American Jewish Congress which “limits the number of delegates to be elected by the Conference of National Jewish Organizations to 25 percent of the entire representation, thereby removing the charge of the ‘democratic’ associations that the conference was trying to obtain control of the Congress.”

1916: Morris Israel who used to check the hats and coats of diners at the Ritz Restaurant in Brooklyn sued his former employer for violating the terms of his employment contract regarding the payment of tips.

1917(19th of Tishrei, 5678): Fifth day of Sukkoth

1917(19th of Tishrei, 5678): After four days of torture by Turkish authorities during which she revealed nothing about her action or her fellow Jewish spies, Sarah Aaronsohn “shot herself in the mouth” cause a wound that was mortal but would not prove fatal until several more days of suffering. The aid provided by Sarah and her brother Aaron to the British, helped convince some of the English leaders that it would be beneficial to replace “Turkish rule in Palestine with a Zionist entity under British rule.’

1917: In Karkov, speakers attending the Railway Congress “state that the same anti-Jewish prejudice is spreading in the Department of Ways and communications” that “led to the resignation of the Jewish employees at the postal and telegraph offices in Odessa.

1917: At Stockholm, a “delegation of the Polei-Zion presented a memorandum to the Dutch-Scandinavian suggesting” the following reforms for Palestine: 1) abolition of restriction of immigration and colonization by Jews, increased facilities for naturalization and unrestricted freedom for institutions promoting Jewish colonization; 2) creation of modern, democratic legal conditions and political measures for the development of the productive forces of the country; conferring upon Palestine self-government; 3) grant of national autonomy of Jews there.”

1917: In Bessarabia, a plot masterminded by “German colonists and officials of the old Czarist regime” aimed at the new government and the Jews was discovered.

1917: In Pavlovsk, military authorities “finally restored order” after days several days of “anti-Jewish disorders.”

1918: The Battle of the Hindenburg Line came to an end with the Allied forces successfully breaching the final German line of defenses.  Sir John Monash, the Australian-Jewish General, played a key role in planning the offensive. 

1918: The 165th Regiment, including Sergeant Abraham Blaustein hiked for ten hours from Jubecourt to Bois de Montfaucon in the Argonne Sector where they were held in reserve.

1918: Newly appointed German Chancellor Prinz Max von Baden asked the Allies for an immediate Armistice.  Thus began the sequence of events that would lead to the Armistice that ended WW I in November and the myth that Germany was “stabbed in the back” instead of defeated on the battlefield.

1920(23rd of Tishrei, 5681): Simchat Torah

1920: The final section of the railway which ran between Jaffa and Lydda and which had been completed in September was “inaugurated at a ceremony” today attended by the British High Commissioner, Herbert Samuel

1920: Evening classes, including courses in Public Speaking, Bookkeeping, Accounting, Stenography Typing. Americanization and English for foreigners, Business Preparation, Radio and Spanish are scheduled to begin at the 92nd Street YMHA under of the direction of Principal Henry Levy

1920: “Feeling increasingly oppressed by life under Bolshevik rule where the family was identified as bourgeoisie, the family of Mendel Berlin, a timber trader and philanthropist (and a direct descendant of Shneur Zalman, founder of Chabad Hasidism), his wife Marie, née Volshonok and their son Isaiah Berlin “left Petrograd today for Riga, but encounters with anti-Semitism and difficulties with the Latvian authorities convinced them to leave, and they moved to Britain in early 1921 after which Isaiah graduated from Oxford and became a leading historian and philosopher.

The family of Mendel Berlin, a timber trader and philanthropist (and a direct descendant of Shneur Zalman, founder of Chabad Hasidism), and his wife Marie, née Volshonok and their son Isaiah Berlin

1921: Sixty-eight year old New York architect Cyrus Lazelle Warner Eidlitz who designed the New York Times Building on Times Square and whose father was Jewish passed away today.

1923: “Young Medardus” a silent film directed by Michael Curtiz was released in Austria today.

1924: Birthdate of William Szathmary the son  of Hungarian Jewish parents better known as Bill  Dana who gained fame with his character “Jose Jimenez.”

1924: Birthdate of Fritz Mandelaaum, who gained fame as Frederic Morton, the biographer of the Rothschilds.

1926: Birthdate of Avraham Eidelson who gained fame as Avraham “Bren” Adan “an Israeli Major General former Head of Southern Command who served in the military between 1947 and 1973.”

1927(9th Tishrei, 5688): Erev Yom Kippur

1927: In Jerusalem, Bela and Eliezer Feinstein gave birth to Meir Feinstein, the WW II British Army Soldier and member of the Irgun who chose to commit suicide with fellow fighter Moshe Barazani rather die at the end of a British rope.

1928: Today, Major John A. Warner of the New York State Police “indefinitely suspended and reprimanded Corporal H.M. McCann of Troop B for the part he played in the questioning of Rabbi Berel Brennglass in Massena, NY, on September 22. Corporal McCann was suspended ‘for gross lack of discretion in the exercise of these duties and for conduct unbecoming an officer.’”

1929(1st of Tishrei, 5960): Rosh Hashanah

1929: “The Trespasser” a film that had both a silent and talkie versions edited by Cyril Gardner was released in the United States today.

1930: In Lower Silesia, Adolf Selten, a Jewish bookseller and his Protestant wife gave birth Nobel Prize winner Reinhard Selten who was raised in the faith of his mother.

1932: Birthdate of songwriter Ronald Norman Miller, the Chicago native whose career took off when “he was discovered by the founder of MoTown.

1932: Birthdate of Dame Barbara Goodman, DBE, QSO, JP “an Auckland, New Zealand politician. She was Mayoress of Auckland City as well as a former Auckland City Councillor for 12 years. She was married to former Auckland City Councillor Harold Goodman, who became deputy Mayor of Auckland City in the late 1970s. Her husband died on 16 August 1988 and she succeeded him onto the council in a by-election. Dame Barbara was a councillor for the Citizens and Ratepayers group. While on council, Dame Barbara championed liberal causes like tolerance towards the gay community and pro-women's rights over abortion. For ten years she was Chairperson of Odyssey House Auckland, which operates a range of specialist programs for adolescents, parents, and other adults experiencing serious difficulties with substance abuse, gambling, and other associated problems. She opposed the New Zealand government's plan to build a $500 million rugby stadium on Quay Street in Auckland's waterfront area.[citation needed] She is the niece of former Auckland City mayor, Sir Dove-Myer Robinson in whose honour Dame Barbara spearheaded a memorial sculpture in Aotea Square, which was built in 2002. The sculpture celebrates the contribution "Robbie Robinson" made to the city.

1933(15th of Tishrei, 5694): Sukkoth

1933: William Dodd, the new United States Ambassador to Germany, gave a speech explaining and defending the New Deal.  When Dodd met with FDR before going to Germany, the President told his new ambassador that he wanted him to be a spokesman for democracy.  Dodd would become increasingly outspoken in his warnings about the dangers of the Hitler regime. Unfortunately, Americans were more concerned about making sure that Germany would make her reparations payments than they were about the rise of totalitarian anti-Semitic dictators.

1934: “The Crisis is Over” directed by Robert Siodmark, with a script co-authored by Curt Siodmark and with music by Franz Waxman was released today.

1935: In Kovel, Poland, timber merchant Aaron Bernholz and his wife Paula gave birth to Berl Bernholz who gained famed as movie entrepreneur Ben Barenholtz. (As reported by Richard Sandomir)

1936(19th of Tishrei, 5697): Fifth day of Sukkoth

1936: In Danzig, the Nazi plans for the future of the city were outlined by the head of the Danzig district of the National Socialist (Nazi) Party and the President of the Danzig City who said “Jews must boycotted both socially and economically.”

1936: The American Joint Distribution Committee reported today that “twenty-six centers in nine European countries were training 1,248 young persons this Summer for emigration chiefly from German and Poland to countries of eventual settlement.”

1936: At Geneva, the Polish delegate told the League of Nations that the powers must agree to a relaxing of immigration quotas so Poland could reduce her Jewish population on which he cast aspersions.  (Editor’s note: This was three years before the German invasion of Poland.  The three million Jews of Poland suffered a wave of anti-Semitism in the 1930’s that has been lost in the “fog of Holocaust rememberance.)

1936: While “fifty marauders invaded” the Jewish neighborhoods in the East End of London smashing windows and plate glass store fronts with brick and stones “Britain’s Fascists announced plans today for an augmented series of meetings in London’s East End.”

1937: Birthdate of Abraham Riechstadt, the native of Safed who gained fame as Israeli musician Abi Ofraim.

1938(10th of Tishrei, 5699): Yom Kippur

1938: In Nazi Germany, Jews' passports were invalidated, and those who needed a passport for emigration purposes were given one marked with the letter J ("Jude" – "Jew").

1938: Following a request by Heinrich Rothmund, head of the Swiss federal police, the German government recalls all Jewish passports and marks them with a large, colored "J." This is to prevent German Jews from passing as Christians and smuggling themselves into Switzerland.

1939: Two months after premiering in the United Kingdom, New York City premiere of “U-Boat 29”, the American version “The Spy In Black”   produced by Alexander Korda with a screenplay by Emeric Pressburger.

1940(3rd of Tishrei): Shabbat Shuvah

1940: All soldiers who have been granted furloughs “in compliance with War Department Circular No. 5” so that “they may observe Rosh Hashanah” are required to report for duty at noon today.

1941: City College announced that two professors in the Chemistry Department “have received a grant of $200 from the medical fund of the Ella Sachs Plotz Foundation to continue their studies on human detoxication.”

1941 (14h of Tishrei, 5702): Former Supreme Court Justice Louis D. Brandeis, the first Jewish member of the nation's highest court passed away at the age of 84.  See the article from the Biography Website for more information about Justice Brandeis who was living proof that one could achieve success in America while maintaining his Jewish identity. Louis Brandeis was born in Louisville, Kentucky in 1856 to a family tolerant of Jewish and Christian rituals. In later life Brandeis might be best described as a secular ­humanist. Although he completed his secondary education in Germany, he returned to the United States where he studied law at Harvard. After settling in Boston, Brandeis became a successful lawyer spending a good deal of his time pursuing cases with a political bent. In particular, he enjoyed representing small companies against giant corporations, and aiding the cause of the minimum wage against companies opposed to this principle. In 1912, he supported Woodrow Wilson's nomination for Presidency and in 1916, was appointed a Supreme Court judge, the first Jew ever to be appointed to this position. Brandeis showed little interest in Jewish affairs until the turn of the century when a combination of his professional work and a changing political climate brought about an alteration. He was introduced to Zionism by Jacob de Haas, an English Zionist, and later still by Aaron Aaronsohn, the Palestinian botanist and founder of Nili. Brandeis became active in Zionist affairs during the First World War, when he accepted the role of Chairperson of the Provisional Executive Committee for General Zionist Affairs. Brandeis had a major impact on the American branch of the Zionist movement, drawing to it a number of sympathizers, improving its organization and its finance. While he resigned his official position on joining the Supreme Court, he nonetheless worked behind the scenes to influence President Woodrow Wilson to support the Zionist cause. After the war, Brandeis headed a delegation of American Zionists to London where at a conference differences emerged between Chaim Weizmann and himself. These arguments over the role of the organization and its pursuit of political activities caused a rift between the two leaders with Weizmann gaining the upper hand. Brandeis withdrew from Zionist activity although he continued to take part in Eretz ­Israel economic affairs. Brandeis did intervene from time to time in political matters for example he appealed to Roosevelt to oppose the British partition scheme of 1937 calling instead for the whole area of Eretz ­Israel to become a Jewish National Home. Brandeis represented a rather different genre of Zionism, one born out of the American context that affirmed Zionism as part of American ethnic identity. It was Brandeis who coined the term that "to be a good American meant that local Jews should be Zionists."  “The banks and waters of the Jordan, once supposed to have miraculous healing powers have been drained and freed of their malaria breeding places through a gift of $25,000 given by Louis D. Brandies.”

1942: The Nazis deported 1,000 Jews from Theresienstadt to Treblinka. Another 6,000 would be sent to the death camp at Treblinka by the end of the month.

1942(24th of Tishrei, 5703): The Nazis murdered 3,000 Jews in Dubno who had been rounded up and marched to outlying pits. Silently, without screaming or weeping, they all undressed, bid each other farewell, and then were summarily shot.

1942(24th of Tishrei, 5703): “Xamp guards bludgeoned to death 90 French-Jewish female prisoners” “in the attic of a building of the Budy-Bor Auschwitz subcamp, near the main death camp set up by Nazi Germany during World War II in occupied Poland.” (As reported by Cnaan Lipshiz)

1943: The Nazis deported 1,260 children from Bialystok and 53 doctors and nurses were transported from Theresienstadt to Birkenau. They were told their destination would be Palestine. They would all perish.

1943: Birthdate of Congressman Richard Cardin, representing Maryland’s Third District in the House of Representatives.

1943: “Shortly before being unloaded from their cattle cars in Danzig, the two hundred Danish Jews who had been arrested by the Nazis were given some “filthy water” which was the first liquid they had been given since leaving Copenhagen.

1945: “Bloomer Girl,” a musical with music by Harold Arlen and lyrics by E.Y. Harburg opened at the Shubert Theater on Broadway.

1945: In an event referred to as Black Friday a six-month strike by the set decorators represented by the Conference of Studio Unions (CSU) boiled over into a bloody riot at the gates of Warner Brothers' studios in Burbank, California.  Warner Brothers also had labor problems with the Screen Actors Guild.  For those who think that Jews were always pro-labor left-wingers, think again.

1945: In a final bid to use persuasion and diplomacy to change British policy, Chaim Weizmann meets with Ernest Bevin, the Foreign Minister in the new Labor Government.  Having turned its back on the party’s pro-Zionist stance, the belligerent Bevin tells Weizmann, “If you want a fight, you can have it.”  Even as Bevin is threatening the aging Zionist leader, Ben Gurion has decided to adopt a more militant stance creating the Jewish Resistance Movement which include members of Haganah, Palmach and in a new wrinkle, members of the Irgun and the Stern Gang.

1945:  Meet The Press makes its radio debut.  The “granddaddy” of all news interview shows would later move to NBC where it continues to appear sixty years after is radio start.  Meet the Press was the brainchild of its first produced Lawrence E. Spivack.  On television Spivack would play the role of moderator.  Sometimes he would join the members of the press and be part of the four person interview group.

1946(10th of Tishrei, 5707): Yom Kippur

1946(10th of Tishrei, 5707): Sixty-four year old Rabbi Avraham (Arthur) Marmorstein, the son “of Yehuda Leib (Leopold) Marmorstein and Rivka (Regina) Marmorstein and the husband of Tobe (Antonia) Marmorstein passed away today in London.

1946: After a month, the curtain comes down on Ben Hecht’s “A Flag is Born” at the Alvin Theatre.

1947: Founding of The Actors Studios which starting in 1931 was led by Lee Strasberg who held that position until his death three decades later.

1948(2nd of Tishrei, 5709): Second day of Rosh Hashanah

1949: After two years of being broadcast by ABC, “You Bet Your Life” starring Groucho Marx was broadcast for the first time by CBS radio.

1949(12th of Tishrei, 5710): Sixty-two year old Boston born, Harvard Law School graduate and WW I Army veteran Abraham E. Pinanski, “a member of the Massachusetts Superior Court since 1930,” the “President of the Hebrew Free Loan Society of Boston” since 1936 and “President of the Jewish Child Welfare Association” who was the husband of “Viola R. Pinanski” with whom he had four daughters passed away today.

1950: Television game show “You Bet Your Life” starring Groucho Marx makes its debut.

1951: In “City Opera Offers ‘Dybbuk’ Premiere” published today Olin Downes reviews the opening performance of David Tamkin’s opera which he wrote “was a remarkable accomplishment.”

1951: In Ireland, Robert and Evelyn Geldof gave birth to singer-song writer and social activist Bob Geldof.

1954(7th of Elul, 5714): Seventy-four year old Albert Montefiore Hyamson the British historian, Fellow of the Royal Historical Society and President of the Jewish Historical Society and Zionist who served as Chief Immigration Officer for the Mandatory Government in Palestine passed away today.

1955: Frances Goodrich and Albert Hackett”s dramatization of "The Diary of Anne Frank,” opened at the Cort in New York. Directed by Garson Kanin, with sets designed by Boris Aronson with Susan Stasberg in the role of Anne, the play is deemed a success by the critics and audience alike.

1956: The Dinah Shore Chevy Show hosted by Dinah Shore (Frances Rose Shore) was broadcast for the first time on NBC television.

1957(10TH of Tishrei, 5718): Yom Kippur and Shabbat coincide.

1959: Mollie Abrams was buried today at Beth Shalom in Shaler Township, PA.

1961: “Breakfast at Tiffany’s” sophisticated New York film produced by Richard “Dick” Shepherd, with a screenplay by George Axelrod and featuring Martin Balsam was released today in the United States by Paramount Pictures.

1961: The first clipping for the show that would become Anyone Can Whistle appeared in The New York Times today "For the winter of 1962, Arthur Laurents is nurturing another musical project, The Natives Are Restless. The narrative and staging will be Mr. Laurents's handiwork; music and lyrics that of Stephen Sondheim. A meager description was furnished by Mr. Laurents, who refused to elaborate. Although the title might indicate otherwise, it is indigenous in content and contemporary in scope. No producer yet." (As reported by Mark Eden Horowitz)

1961: Broadway premiere of “Blood, Sweat and Stanley Poole” written by William and James Goldman which featured a performance by James Caan.

1962: “Dr. No” based on the novel of the same name produced by Harry Saltzman, featuring Joseph Wiseman and with music by Monty Norman was released today in the United States.

1964: “Quick, Before It Melts” a comedy featuring Norman Fell was released in the United States today

1965(9th of Tishrei, 5726): Erev Yom Kippur; Kol Nidre

1965: In “Jerusalem, Israeli Sector, Yom Kippur, the day of atonement and the holiest day in the Jewish calendar began at sundown today.

1967(1st of Tishrei, 5728): For the first time Jews observe Rosh Hashanah in a united Jerusalem, the capital of the modern state of Israel.

1969(23rd of Tishrei, 5730): Simchat Torah is celebrated for the first time during the Presidency of Richard Nixon.

1969: Sixty-nine year old Russian born, Harvard educated Dr. William Dameshek, “a pioneer in the study of blood” and leader in the movement to “establish hematology as a specialty” who was married to Rose Dameshek with whom he had one child, passed away today.

1971(16th of Tishrei, 5732): Second day of Sukkoth

1972:  Birthdate of Nebraska defensive tackle and New England Patriots draft pick Christian Peter whose “lengthy history of violence against woman” led Myra Kraft to convince her husband to relinquish the team’s right to him “only a week after the draft” had been completed.

1973: In London, Ashraf Marwan, the son-in-law of Gamal Abdel Naser and the Mossad agent code-named “Angel” warned his Mossad handlers of the war that would begin the next day at sundown. Zivi Zamir, the chief of Mossad who was present at the meeting and fully aware of the ramifications of a massive mobilization of reserve soldiers on Yom Kippur, called home and sounded the alarm

(As reported by Tal Krz-Oz)

1973: “General Ariel Sharon was shown aerial photographs and other intelligence by Yehoshua Saguy, his divisional intelligence officer. General Sharon noticed that the concentration of Egyptian forces along the canal was far beyond anything observed during the training exercises, and that the Egyptians had amassed all of their crossing equipment along the canal. He then called General Shmuel Gonen, who had replaced him as head of Southern Command, and expressed his certainty that war was imminent.”

1973: “Soviet advisers and their families left Egypt and Syria, transport aircraft thought to be laden with military equipment landed in Cairo and Damascus, and aerial photographs revealed that Egyptian and Syrian concentrations of tanks, infantry and SAM missiles were at an unprecedented high.”

1973: Chief of Military Intelligence Major General Eli Zeira reassured “special means” listening devices were not producing any warning signs that war was imminent. Only later would the Israeli government find that Zeira had not activated these devices.

1973: The Israeli missile boat flotilla concluded its first full-scale maneuvers the day before the start of the Yom Kippur War.  These boats with their unique missile armament would play a key role in protecting the Israel coast during the fighting.

1973: On the eve of what would become the Yom Kippur War, the division manning the Israeli defenses along the Suez Canal requested reinforcements. The requests was denied because the Israeli General Headquarters had decided that the Egyptian troops massed on the west bank of the Suez Canal were engaged in military exercise; military exercises that senior command was sure were about to come to an end.  

1973: Disturbed by continued massing of Egyptian and Syrian forces on their respective borders with Israel and the withdrawal of Soviet ships from Egyptian ports, the Chief of Staff puts the active Israeli Army on its highest level of preparedness.  He also ordered a limited mobilization of certain reserve units.  The numerical strength of the Israeli Army lay with the reserves.  Only a full mobilization of these forces could meet the onslaught of combined Egyptian, Syrian and Jordanian armies.

1976: Yorkshire Television broadcast the second episode of “Dickens of London” with music by Monty Norman.

1977(23rd of Tishrei, 5738): Simchat Torah

1979(14th of Tishrei, 5740): Erev of Sukkoth

1979: “Starting Over” a comedy directed by Alan J. Pakula, produced by James L. Brooks who also wrote the script and with music by Marvin Hamlisch and Carole Bayer Sager was released today in the United States.

1979: “Nosferatu the Vampyre” a horror film produced by Michael Gruskoff who began his career in the mailroom of the William Morris Agency, was released in the United States today.

1980: Pitcher Steve Ratzer made his major league debut with the Montreal Expos.

1981: Raoul Wallenberg became an honorary citizen of the United States.  Using his status a Swedish diplomat, Wallenberg worked to save the lives of the Jews of Hungary.  Thanks to his efforts he saved the lives of somewhere between 20,000 to 100,000 Hungarian Jews  The bill to make Wallenberg an honorary citizen was sponsored by Representative Tom Lantos, who as a teenaged Hungarian Jews sought refuge in one of Wallenberg's safe houses.  Wallenberg is listed as one of the “Righteous Among the Nations” at Yad Vashem.

1983: During the Israel bank stock crisis “the stock exchange again opened with large numbers of sell offers.”

1983: Martin Leach-Cross Feldman assumed office as a Judge of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana

1983: In Queens, NY, Barry Eisenberg and the former Amy Fishman gave birth to actor Jesse Eisenberg.

1984(9th of Tishrei, 5745): Erev Shabbat and Erev Yom Kippur

1985(23rd of Tishrei 5746): Simchat Torah

1985:  After 813 performances, the curtain came down on West End production of “Little Shop of Horrors” by composer Alan Menken and writer Howard Ashman

1985: Sixty-two year old Holocaust survivor and successful real estate entrepreneur Joseph Kushed “the father of Murray and Charles Kushner and the grandfather of Marc Kushner and Trump son-in-law Jared Kushner passed away today.

1985(23rd of Tishrei, 5746): At Ras Burqa, an Egyptian soldier machine gunned a group of Israeli tourists murdering Hamman Shelach – an Israeli judge in the Jerusalem Magistrates’ Court and the son of Israeli poet Yonatan Ratosh, his wife Ilana, his 12 year old daughter Tzlil, 38 year old Anita Griffel, 10 year old Amir Baum, 10 year old Dina Baria and 13 year old Ofri urel in episode made even worse by reports some Egyptian politicians hailed the killer as hero.

1986: The Sunday Times of London ran a story on its front page under the headline: "Revealed — the secrets of Israel's nuclear arsenal" based on information supplied by Mordechai Vanunu.”

1986(2nd of Tishrei, 5747): Second Day of Rosh Hashanah

1986(2nd of Tishrei, 5747): Seventy-five year old Rudolf Flesh, the holder of a PhD from Columbia and husband of Elizabeth Terpenning best known for his popular work Why Johnny Can’t Read passed away today

1986(2nd of Tishrei, 5747): Eight-seven year old Ohio born Reform Rabbi and anti-war activist Abraham L. Feinberg who marred Patricia Blanchard after the death of his first wife Ruth Katsh passed away today.

1986(2nd of Tishrei, 5747): Movie producer Hal Wallis passed away.

1988: Israel banned Meir Kahane's Kach Party on grounds of racism.

1989: “The Punisher” an action film with a script by Boaz Yakin was released in Germany today.

1990(16th of Tishrei, 5751): Second Day of Sukkoth

1990(16th of Tishrei, 5751): Meir Kahane founder of Jewish defense league was assassinated at the age of 58.

1990: “Henry & June” directed by Phillip Kaufman who co-authored the script along with his wife Rose was released in the United States today by Universal Pictures.

1990: “Avalon” a must-see movie directed, produced and written by Barry Levinson with music by Randy Newman was released in the United States today by Tristar Pictures.

1993: Seventy-five year old Robert Constant Moses, a native of Phillip, SD, a graduate of Beloit High School who was a WW II veteran, a draftsman at Barber Coleman and the father of Nancy Margulis, a pillar of the Cedar Rapids Jewish community, passed away today.

1995(11th of Tishrei, 5756): Ninety-one year old viola virtuoso Lillian Fuchs passed away today

1996(22nd of Tishrei, 5757): Shemini Atzeret

1996(22nd of Tishrei, 5757): Eighty-eight year old Elmer Berger, the Rabbi who was such a proud foe of a Jewish state that he authored Memoirs of an Anti-Zionist Jew in 1976, (As reported by Eric Pace)

1997: The Sunday New York Times book section featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or on topics relating to Judaism or the Jewish people including Son of Rosemary by Ira Levin, The Body Perfect: An Intimate History of American Girls by Joan Jacobs Brumberg, The Journals of Ayn Rand, edited by David Harriman and A Jewish Mother From Berlin and Susanna by Gertrude Kolmar. This slim volume contains Brigitte M. Goldstein's translations of two short novels by Gertrude Kolmar, a poet who perished in the Holocaust in 1943. In these works, as in her verse, Kolmar explores alienation and misfortune with a vivid, emotionally piercing force; here maternal love, devotion and innocence become not refuges from tragedy but lightning rods that seem to attract it. In 'A Jewish Mother From Berlin,' written in 1931, in which the title character loses her only genuine connection to the world, her 5-year-old daughter, Kolmar's eloquence carries the reader past certain weaknesses in pacing and execution, taking us deep into the heart of the isolated mother's anguish. With ''Susanna,'' a later work, written in 1940, Kolmar's command is stronger, yielding a tighter, more persuasive fairy tale that also works as an erotic puzzle and a memoir. The title character is an elusive, mentally unstable girl, described from a distance of years by her former governess with an incomprehension suffused with heartbreak. As we read both these works, our estimation of Kolmar's worth as a writer must compete with our dismay over her destiny: a lifetime of effort strangled by the calamities of history. The least her faithful, worthy achievement deserves is the gratitude of successive generations of readers.

2000: In “The Pogrom In Limerick” published today John Derbyshire contended that the “anti-Semitic pogrom of 1904” and not an episode in 1690 was “the darkest episode in the city’s history.”

2000: At the outset of the second Intifada, Rabbi Chaim Brovender, the founder of Yeshivat Hamivtar in Efrat, was traveling along the Tunnel Road connecting Gush Etzion with Jerusalem when a crowd of Arabs from Beit Jala stopped him. After being pulled from his car and severely beaten, he was taken to a Palestinian police station in Bethlehem, where he was further harassed before being thankfully transferred to the IDF alive.

2001: Thirty-four year old ended his major league career today when he pitched his final game for the Cleveland Indians.

2001: Today, a letter signed by at least 50 American Jewish figures -- including current and former officials from some of the nation's most influential Jewish organizations -- will be presented to the White House, expressing support for the administration's war on terrorism and policy efforts in the Middle East. The letter comes after days of criticism of the administration's plans by the American Jewish groups, including the main pro-Israel lobbying organization in Washington, the American Israel Public Affairs Committee, or Aipac. What is happening, officials said, amounts to a fundamental division within a traditionally unified constituency on an important issue of American foreign policy.

2003(9th of Tishrei, 5764): Erev Yom Kippur

2003: “‘The Eternal Road,’ In Endless Quest of a Stage” published today described the authors fascination with “Max Reinhardt’s lavish pageant of Jewish biblical history and seemingly timeless persecution…first staged in 1937.”

2003: Israel bombed an Islamic Jihad base in Syria, the first Israeli attack deep inside Syrian territory in three decades.

2003: The New York Times book section featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or on topics relating to Judaism or the Jewish people including The Great Unraveling: Losing Our Way in the New Century by Paul Krugman, They Marched Into Sunlight: War and Peace, Vietnam and America, October 1967 by David Maraniss, The Speakeasies of 1932, Illustrations by Al Hirschfeld, Living A Year of Kaddish by Ari L. Goldman and The Bielski Brothers: The True Story of Three Men Who Defied the Nazis, Saved 1,200 Jews, and Built a Village in the Peter Duffy. “After discovering that their parents and other family members had been murdered by the Nazis, three brothers -- Tuvia, Zus and Asael Bielski -- took to the Soviet forests, and encouraged friends and relatives to join them. Tuvia, the eldest, did not want to turn away any Jews, and helped others escape the ghettos of Novogrudek (now Navahrudak in Belarus) and Lida; they once led a group of 800 through swamps to hide on an island deep in the forest. As Peter Duffy writes in his first book, ''The Bielski Brothers,'' to survive, the brothers assigned groups to gather food, build shelter and fix weapons; informers were killed and whole villages were threatened with burning in the event of betrayal. For two and a half years the Bielskis offered the best chance for Belarusian Jews to live. ''We don't have to be heroes,'' Tuvia said. ''We just have to live through this war. Whoever will make it, he is the biggest hero.'' When the brigade was disbanded in July 1944, the group had 1,140 members. Asael was killed seven months later in East Prussia; Tuvia and Zus emigrated to Israel, where Tuvia died in 1987 and Zus in 1995.

2004(20th of Tishrei, 5765): Eighty-two year old comedian Rodney Dangerfield, the man who got no respect, passed away. (As reported by Mel Watkins)

2005(2nd of Tishrei, 5766): Second Day Rosh Hashanah

2005: The WB broadcast the first episode of “Related” created by Marta Kauffman and starring Lizzy Caplan.

2005: “The Squid and the Whale” an “American arthouse comedy-drama film written and directed by Noah Baumbach” and co-starring Jesse Eisenberg was released in the United States today by Samuel Goldwyn Films.

2005: Haaretz reported on High Holiday Services being held in Houston, Texas.  The services were on the campus of Rice University and were intended to provide a gathering place for Jews from New Orleans who were in Houston because of Hurricane Katrina.  For the New Orleans Jews the services took on the flavor of a re-union. 

2006: Amy Goodman appeared on the Colbert Report in an effort to promote her new book was Static: Government Liars, Media Cheerleaders, and the People who Fight Back

2006: A Muslim journalist facing charges of sedition for advocating ties with Israel was recently attacked and beaten by a crowd in Bangladesh that allegedly included leading officials of the country's ruling party. Salah Uddin Shoaib Choudhury, editor of the Weekly Blitz newspaper, an English-language publication based in the Bangladeshi capital of Dhaka, was working in his office when nearly 40 people stormed the premises, beat Choudhury, leaving him with a fractured ankle, and looted cash that was kept in the company safe.

2006: Eliot Spitzer told the Empire State Pride Agenda that as governor he would work to legalize same sex marriage in New York.

2006: In “Lemony Snicket reaches ‘The End’, Todd Leopold describes the completion of “A Series of Unfortunate Events.”

2007(23rd of Tishrei, 5768): Simchat Torah

2007: “Garage” an Irish film directed by Lenny Abrahamson was released today after having premiered at the Cannes Film Festival in May.

2007: “Appomattox” an opera composed by Phillip Glass which takes its name from the place where Lee surrendered to Grant premiered at the San Francisco Opera today.

2008: As part of the yearlong celebration of pianist Leon Fleisher’s 80th birthday, a concert titled Leon Fleisher & Friends is performed by an ensemble that includes keyboard colleagues and former students Yefim Bronfman, Jonathan Biss and Katherine Jacobson-Fleisher, Fleisher’s wife is performed in Baltimore, MD.

2008: Eighty-year old, Dr. Ernest Beutler, “a leading hematologist whose studies opened an important new window onto the treatment of leukemia” passed away today. (As reported by Jeremy Pearce)

2008: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or on topics of special interest to the Jewish people including Hot, Flat and Crowded: Why We Need a Green Revolution — and How It Can Renew America by Thomas L. Friedman and paperback versions of The Indian Clerk by David Leavitt, The Mascot: Unraveling the Mystery of My Jewish Father’s Nazi Boyhood, by Mark Kurzem, The Zookeeper’s Wife: A War Story by Diane Ackerman. The Diary of Petr Ginz: 1941-1942, edited by Chava Pressburger, translated by Elena Lappin as well as an essay about Pulitzer Prize winning author Steven Millhauser

2008: At the Kennedy Center, final performance of nn “abridged version of Girl Crazy,” a 1930’s George and Ira Gershwin musical.

2009: Attorney Stuart E. Weisberg discusses and signs his new biography, "Barney Frank: The Story of America's Only Left-Handed, Gay, Jewish Congressman," at the Sixth & I Historic Synagogue, in Washington, D.C.

2009(17th of Tishrei, 5770): Chol Hamoed Sukkoth

2009(17th of Tishrei, 5770): Ninety-six year old Soviet mathematician Israeli Gelfand passed away.

2009: Captain Ben Sklaver was buried in family plot in Jewish cemetery in Connecticut.

2009: Shortly after a border policeman was moderately wounded this afternoon when he was stabbed in northern Jerusalem near the Shuafat refugee camp, Palestinians hurled rocks at security forces in the area, leaving a policeman lightly hurt.

2009: This evening arrested police in Dimona two men, a 41-year-old and a 57-year-old, who are suspected of vandalizing the Uvdat National Park in the Negev on Sunday night. The men denied involvement in the incident which left hundreds of archaeological artifacts at the UNESCO World Heritage Site severely damaged. The suspects will be brought before the Beersheba Magistrate's Court on Tuesday for a remand extension hearing.

2010: Center for Jewish History, Yeshiva University Museum and YIVO Institute for Jewish Research are scheduled to present “16 mm Postcards: Home Movies of American Jewish Visitors to 1930s Poland.” According to the organizer at Yeshiva University, this exhibition brings to life the landscape of people in Poland through the amateur movies of immigrant American Jews who traveled "back home" in the 1920s and 1930s. These films offer a rare, intimate and--quite literally--moving picture of Jewish families, towns and society in pre-World War II Poland

2010: Avraham Tal is scheduled to rule on Yigal Amir’s petition to end his separation from fellow prisoners.  Amir is serving a life sentence for murdering Yitzhak Rabin. Amir says he does not pose a threat to his fellow prisoners because the murder of Rabin was a one-time that cannot be replicated. [Chutzpah- when a child who killed his parents pleads for clemency because he is an orphan.]

2010: Philip Roth" 31st book, a novel entitled Nemesis -- which involves a polio epidemic in 1940s Newark, N.J. -- is scheduled to come out to day

2010: A documentary entitled “Nuremberg” scheduled to end its weeklong premier American showing today at the Film Forum.  This hitherto unseen documentary was made by Stuart Schulberg, brother of the famed writer Budd Schulberg.  The American public is getting see this informative piece of cinema 62 years after its creation thanks to the effort his daughter, Sandra Schulberg.

2010: Following the release on yesterday of minutes of Prime Minister Golda Meir's meeting with her war cabinet on the second day of the 1973 Yom Kippur War, today the state archives released the minutes of eight additional meetings that the prime minister held during the war's first four days. The documents provide a rare look at the military and diplomatic efforts made just hours before the Arab attack on Israel. They also attest to the existence of an intelligence source who provided credible information of an imminent attack, enabling Israel's political leadership to consider a preemptive strike on Egypt and Syria. IDF chief of staff David Elazar suggested during the meetings "When there are skirmishes we tell the truth, but during wartime we must not tell the truth." The documents show the close ties between King Hussein of Jordan and Israel's leadership on the eve of the war. They also again reveal Israel's complacency regarding the Arab armies' military might. On the day the war broke out, Yom Kippur, the chief of military intelligence, Eli Zeira, was still expressing the belief that Egyptian president Anwar Sadat would not start another war with Israel. Despite that view, and against the recommendations of then-defense minister Moshe Dayan, Meir decided to mobilize 200,000 reserve soldiers so as to provide a substantial boost to the military in the event that war broke out. Meir and senior defense officials also worked to procure additional military hardware, in the form of 40 fighter jet and 400 tanks, from the United States. The prime minister even considered a secret meeting with U.S. president Richard Nixon without the knowledge of the cabinet, in a effort to convince the American leader to come to Israel's assistance.

2010: Today settlers gave new copies of the Koran to Palestinians in a West Bank village whose mosque was burned in an attack blamed by Palestinians on settlers.

2011: Rabbi Mindy Avra Portnoy is scheduled to deliver the last lecture in the series “Not Matriarchs: Lesser Known Women of the Hebrew Bible” at the JCC of Greater Washington.

2010: The state of Iowa proclaimed today Raoul Wallenberg Day.

2011:An Israeli scientist won this year’s Nobel Prize in Chemistry for discovering a material in which atoms were packed together in a well-defined pattern that never repeats. Recent Nobel prizes have generally split credit for scientific advances among two or three people, but this year’s chemistry prize and accompanying 10 million Swedish kronor ($1.4 million) went to a single scientist: Daniel Shechtman, 70, a professor of materials science at Technion - Israel Institute of Technology. The citation from the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences states simply, “for the discovery of quasicrystals.” Such regular but non-repeating patterns, defined by precise rules, have been known in mathematics since antiquity and are found in mosaics of medieval Islamic tiles, but it was thought impossible in the packing of atoms. Dr. Shechtman discovered the same type of structure while studying a metal mix of aluminum and manganese. His notebook recorded the exact date: April 8, 1982. Scientists believed that crystals in materials all contained repeating patterns, and Dr. Shechtman took years to convince others. During the announcement, the Nobel committee noted that one colleague said, “Go away, Danny” and that he was even asked to leave his research group. Quasicrystals have since been found in many other materials, including a naturally occurring mineral from a Russian river.” (As reported by Kenneth Chang)

2011: The National Labor Court suspended doctors' resignation letters this afternoon in response to the state's request for an emergency hearing.

2012: “The Flat” directed by two time winner of the Israeli Academy Awards; Aaron Goldfinger is scheduled to be shown at The Hamptsons International Film Festival this evening.

2012: In Grand Forks, ND, B’nai Israel is scheduled to host a Shabbat Harvest Potluck Dinner with services lead by Cantor Alane Katzew.

2012: Riots broke out on the Temple Mount this afternoon as hundreds of Muslim worshipers threw stones at police officers, following a week of confrontations between right-wing Jews and Muslims on the site

2012: A 23-year-old American citizen snatched a security guard’s gun and opened fire in an Eilat hotel this morning, leaving one person dead and three others suffering from shock.Two people were evacuated to the Joseftal Medical Center.

2012: While Congress is in recess until after the November elections, 2 Democratic legislators -Senator Robert Menendez and Representative Howard Berman – are working on measure to strengthen the sanctions against Iran.

2013: “Displaced Visions: Émigré Photographers of the 20th Century,” is scheduled to come to an end.

2013: Shoshannah Nambi, a member of the Abadyudaya Jewish community is scheduled to speak on the roles of the women in her community and the challenges they face this evening at Congregation Adat Teyim in Springfield, VA.

2013(1st of Cheshvan, 5774): Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan

2013: In addition to celebrating Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan and reading Noah, the traditional minyan at Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids will mark the 40th anniversary of the Yom Kippur War which began on October 6, 1973.

2013: A nine year old girl who was shot in the neck by one or more terrorists at Psagot has been evacuated to Shaarei Tzedek Hopitals “with what was initially described as a serious injury to her upper body.” (As reported by Gil Roen)

2013: A Palestinian vehicle rammed a checkpoint this morning near the settlement of Elon Moreh in the West Bank, injuring two Border Police officers at the site and speeding away

2013: Slamming the US as arrogant, dishonest, untrustworthy, and controlled by Zionists, Iran’s Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei said today that “some” aspects of President Hassan Rouhani’s trip to the United Nations General Assembly in New York last month were “not proper.” (As reported by The Times of Israel)

2014: The Center for Jewish History is scheduled to host a series of symposiums on archival research.

2014: Maccabi Tel Aviv led by former NBA guard Jeremy Pargo, a one-time Cavalier is scheduled to play the Cleveland Cavaliers coached by Israeli David Blatt, the former coach of Maccabi Tel Aviv.

2014: “After the Defense Ministry rejected a US request to establish field hospitals in the Ebola-stricken western African countries, the Foreign Ministry announced today that it will dispatch three teams — in coordination with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Agency for International Development Cooperation (MASHAV) — to bordering African nations at risk of infection.” (As reported by Marissa Newman)

2014: The Israel Defense Forces said that its troops opened fire on “suspects” attempting to cross the border from Lebanon, apparently hitting one and forcing them to retreat. According to UN monitors, the suspects were a Leabanese Army patrol, one of whose members was wounded.

2014: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Innovators: How a Group of Hackers, Geniuses, and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution by Walter Isaacson, The Zone of Interest by Martin Amis and I’ll Drink to That: A Life in Style, With a Twist by Betty Halbreich with Rebecca Paley.

2015(22nd of Tishrei, 5776): Shemini Atzeret – In the evening Simchat Torah

2015: The Oxford University Jewish Society is scheduled to hold “a Simchat Torah evening service with lots of dancing” this evening.

2015(22nd of Tishrei, 5776): Seventy-three year old producer Larry Brezner who played a major role in the successful careers of Robin Williams and Billy Crystal passed away today.  (As reported by Margalit Fox)

2015(22nd of Tishrei, 5776) Sixty-five year old Belgian filmmaker Chantal Akerman, the daughter of Holocaust survivors, passed away today.

2016: In honor of the heroism and courage of Raoul Wallenberg, Governor Laurence J. Hogan has officially declared October 5th, 2016, as Raoul Wallenberg Day in the State of Maryland.

2016: “One Week and a Day” and “Atomic Falafel” are scheduled to be shown on the opening night of a film festival in Washington, DC celebrating contemporary Israeli Cinema.

2016: The University of Lethbridge in Alberta, Canada, announced today that Anthony Hall, “a professor accused of promoting anti-Semitic conspiracy theories and denying the Holocaust” “has been suspended without pay pending the outcome of an internal invstigation into possibled violations of Canada’s Human Rights Act.”

2016: A rocket fired from the Hamas-controlled Gaza Strip exploded in the western Negev town of Sderot this morning.

2016(3rd of Tishrei, 5777): Fast of Gedaliah

2016(3rd of Tishrei, 5777): Thirty-four year old Major Ohan Cohen, a pilot with the IAF who was returing from a raid on terrorist targets in Gaza, died today “after ejecting from his F-16 while attempting to land at the Ramon Air Base.”

2016(3rd of Tishrei, 5777): Ninety-five year old cutting edge script writer Austin Kalish passed away today. (As reported by Anita Gates)

2016: “As of today,” Dr. Victor Parsonnet “officially retired as chief of surgery as ‘the Beth,” “69 years after he began his internship as what was then called Newark Beth Israel.”

2017(15th of Tishrei, 5778): Sukkoth

2017: In “Harvey Weinstein Paid Off Sexual Accusers for Decades” published today Jodi Kantor and Megan Twohey documented the decades long abuse that has ended the powerful Hollywood mogul’s career.

2017: Raoul Wallenberg Day

2017(15th of Tishrei): Yarhrzeit of William “Bill” Schueller, beloved husband of Eleanor Schueller, father of Deb Levin and father-in-law of Mitchell Levin

2017: University of Iowa Hillel is scheduled to celebrate Sukkoth this evening with the Lutheran Campus Ministry.

2017: The Oxford University Jewish Society is scheduled to host Sukkoth morning service followed by lunch at the Chaplains’ house.

2018: As the day begins Israelis will see if today will mark another of the six month of the Friday’s of violence in which Hamas mobs attack IDF forces and breach the border or a day in which the peaceful words of Hamas leader Yehya Sinwar become a reality.

2018(26th of Tishrei, 5779): Eight four year old Herbert David Kleber, the Pittsburgh born son of Dorothea and Max Kleber and Jefferson Medical College trained physician who was a pioneer in the field of addiction treatment passed away today. (As reported by Katharine Q. Seelye)

2018: Observance of Raoul Wallenberg Day

2019(6th of Tishrei, 5780): Parashat Vayeilech; Shabbat Shuva; for more see

2019: This evening, in Palo Atlo, CA, the Oshman Family is scheduled to host “Return: A Yom Kippur Experience,” featuring “breakout sessions that offer opportunities to turn inward and toward one in aother in the spirit of the High Holidays.”

2019: This evening Israeli entertainer Isaac Sutton is scheduled to perform “Broadway Israel,” a celebration of Broadway musicals at Feinstein’s/54.2019: In Memphis, TN at Temple Israel, Rabbi Feivel Strauss is scheduled to lead the Torah Study session preceding Shabbat Morning Services.

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