Sunday, August 4, 2019

This Day, August 5, In Jewish History by Mitchell A. Levin

August 5 

135: Betar fell to the Romans

1100: Henry I is crowned King of England at Westminster Abby. During Henry’s reign the first attempts were made to introduce the continental principle - that all Jews were the king's property.  Under King Henry, a clause to that effect was inserted in some manuscripts of the so-called "Laws of Edward the Confessor."

1199: Birthdate of Ferdinand III of Castile.  Catholics remember as the monarch who was canonized as Saint Ferdinand III.  Jews remember him as the King who refused the Pope’s demand that Jews be forced to wear special badge and clothing. Apparently he was afraid that if the Jews mistreated they would flee to Muslim Granada, which would be disastrous for the revenues of the kingdom

1264: Anti-Jewish riots broke out in Arnstadt Germany

1381: Rabbis and communal leaders from Speyer, Worms and Mayence met at Mayence to review and reinforce laws pertaining to marriage and the rights of widows in the wake of the Black Death.  One of the rules enacted was Tekanoth Shum which allowed a childless widow to receive a definite portion of her late husband’s property even though she had refused to marry her brother-in-law.

1391: More than 400 Jews were killed in attacks in Barcelona. Attempts by the city Fathers and Artisans to protect them were of no use. The attacks were instigated for the most part by Castilians, who had taken part in the massacres in Seville and Valencia.

1529: Francis I, King of France and Charles V, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire who was also King of Spain appear to settle their differences by signing the Treaty of Cambrai in which Francis agrees to give up his claim to Italy and Charles gives up his claim to Burgundy (a part of modern day France.) The Jews had been expelled from France in 1394, so officially there were no Jews for Francis to mistreat or exploit. Charles treatment of his Jewish subjects depended upon where they lived.  As King of Spain, Charles followed the line established by his forbearers starting with the Spanish Inquisition. As Emperor he took a much more benign attitude towards his Jewish subjects living in central Europe. Pope Clement VII, whose support of the Jews earned him the “accolade of ‘favorer of Israel’ and a price gracious to Israel,” made the mistake of siding with Francis over Charles in their dispute.  Once in control of Italy, Charles allowed his troops to sack Clement’s Rome, safe in the knowledge that no French troops would come to the Pope’s assistance. Dona Gracia, the famous Marrano businesswomen who reasserted her Jewish identity, lent money to both monarchs and her nephew was well known to both of these competing rulers. 

1540: In Agen, France, Italian scholar Julius Caesar Scaliger and Andiette de Roques Lobejac gave birth to their tenth child and third son Joseph Justus Scaliger, “the Hugenot scholar and professor at the University of Leiden” who “argued that it was only possible to establish the true text and meaning of Scripture gaining an understanding of rabbinic sources” and who “maintained Jews should be permitted to return to western Europe simply because of their economic importance but because of their learning.”

1718: Barent Gompertz married Rachel Isaac today in Amsterdam.

1748: Empress Maria Theresa revoked the edict of expulsion directed at the Jews of Bohemia

1769: In a move that set him apart from many of his predecessors and successors, Pope Clement XIV elevated the conditions of the Jews when he declared that they were “no longer under the jurisdiction of the Inquisition and are instead subject to the authority of Rome's cardinal vicar (Vicariato di Roma). Jews were furthermore given permission to work as artisans and even to own small factories.” (As reported by Austin Cline)

1769: Herz Wesel Gumperz and Abraham Wesel Gumperz gave birth Ruben Samuel Gumperz the husband of Roeschen Gumperz

1769: The day after she had passed away, the sixty-five year old wife of Meir Reboya was buried today at the “Alderney Road (Globe Rd) Jewish Cemetery.”

1772: First of the three partitions of Poland begins.  The Jews of what had been Poland and Lithuania will end up in the Prussian, Austrian and/or Russian Empires.  Ironically, the bulk of them will end up living under Russian monarchs who had committed themselves to keeping Jews out of Russia. 

1788(2nd of Av, 5548): In Trier Rabbi Moses Lwów, the son of Joshua Heschel Lwow and Marie Merlé Lwow and husband of Bella Eger passed away today.

1802: Birthdate of Eliakim Carmoly, a French born Jewish scholar and rabbi who would eventually resign from the rabbinate, move to Frankfurt and devote himself to Jewish literature and to the collection of Hebrew books and manuscripts.

1812: Moss Jewell married Eleanor Joseph today at the Great Synagogue.

1814: In New York City, “American Revolutionary War veteran Sampson Means and Catherine (Cohen) Isaaks gave birth to Rebecca Cohen Isaaks Hart, who was an active member of “Synagogue Mickveh Israel” in Philadelphia where she served for thirty years as “President of the Female Hebrew Benevolent Society” and helped to managed the Jewish Foster Home and was the wife of Abraham Hart.

1816: Two days after she had passed away, Maria Hart, the daughter of Stephen and Esther Hart was buried in the United Kingdom today.

1820: In Frankfurt, Adelheid (née Herz) and Carl Mayer von Rothschild gave birth to Mayer Carol Freiherr von Rothschild who became the first Jewish member of the House of Lords of Prussia.

1842(29th of Av, 5602): Fifty-three year old German educator and theologian Michael Creizenach, author of the 4 volume work “Shulḥan 'Aruk, oder Encyklopädische Darstellung des Mosaischen Gesetzes," passed away today.

1834(29th of Tammuz, 5594): Forty-three year old Sarah Nathan , the wife of Isaac Mendez Seixas Nathan and the mother of Grace Nathan passed away in New York City.

1843(9th of Av, 5603): Parashat Devarim and Shabbat Chazon

1843: Birthdate of Jacob Ezekiel Hyneman, the son of Isaac Hyneman who was born in Richmond, Virginia but moved to Philadelphia, PA.  When the Civil War broke out, the southern born Hyneman cast his lot with the Union, serving with the U.S. Army from 1862 to 1865.

1845(2nd of Av, 5605): Captain Henry B. Nones passed away today after which he was buried at the Wilmington and Brandywine Cemetery in Delaware.

1846: Two days after she had passed, 72 year old Sarah (Moss) Barnett, the widow of the late Joel Barnett, was buried today at the “Brompton Jewish Cemetery.”

1848: Birthdate of Adolph M. Radin, the Polish born, German trained American rabbi who has served congregations in Elmira and New York City including the Congregation Gates of Hope and the People’s Synagogue.

1854: Julius Goldschmidt and Caroline Marie Hansen gave birth to Karl Julius Isak Goldschmidt today.

1854: John Griffins, a native of Poland, was arrested today for swindling Reverend Stephen Wilkins, the pastor of a Baptist church in New York.  Wilkins gave money to Griffins because the latter claimed to be collecting funds for a society for "aiding and better the conditions the Jews."  Griffin’s claims were false.

1860: The consecration of the new synagogue to be used by congregation B'nai Israel, located on the corner of Stanton and Forsyth streets, took place this afternoon. The building, which is capable of holding about 800 people, was formerly a Baptist Church, but has recently been purchased, and converted into a synagogue by the above congregation, most of whom are natives of Holland. The interior transformations required to convert it into a synagogue were not extensive or costly -- the only change being a shifting of the position of the pews, so as to leave a space for the "reading desk" in the centre of the church, and the erection of a semicircular ark in the place of the pulpit. The reading desk is the same as that used in the old synagogue of this congregation, in Christie-street, made of rosewood, and surrounded by an enclosure, or railing, about ten feet square, and of elegant workmanship. On the four corners of the enclosure are gas fixtures, in imitation of candies, and over head depends a magnificent bronze chandelier, with numerous jets, all of which were kept burning during the consecration service. The "Ark" is also made of rosewood, with sliding doors, and, when closed, is screened from public view by rich damask curtains, which were presented by the ladies of the congregation. The synagogue was filled to its utmost capacity, yesterday, by an audience composed about equally of ladies and gentlemen. As the congregation B'nai Israel is among the strictest of the "orthodox" party of the Jews, and opposed to the modern "improvements" and "reforms" that have been introduced into some other synagogues, the old customs, seating the sexes apart, was adhered to, and the ladies occupied the gallery, while the gentlemen sat in the body of the church. Among the Jewish clergy of other congregations present were Rabbi Morris Jerome Raphall, of the Greene-street Synagogue; Rabbi Samuel Myer Isaacs, of the Wooster-street Synagogue and Rabbi J.J. Lyons, of the Portuguese Synagogue. The ceremonies of the consecration were arranged and conducted by Rabbi M.R. de Leeuw, of the congregation B'nai Israel. The consecration service opened with a chant from the choir, which occupied the enclosure surrounding the reading-desk, and was led by the minister of the congregation. The trustees of the synagogue then entered bearing the "sacred scrolls," and proceeded by twenty-four young girls, dressed in white, with blue scarves, and each one carrying in her band a basket of flowers. The trustees took their position in the open space, between the reading-desk and the ark, and were flanked on either side by a column of the young girls, who commenced picking flowers from their baskets and throwing them at their feet, while the choir chanted a dedication psalm. The bearers of the sacred scrolls, accompanied by the honorary officers of the church, men marched in procession seven times around the synagogue, each circuit being accompanied by an appropriate chant from the choir. On each return of the procession to the open space fronting the ark they were pelted with roses from the fair hands of the young misses until the ground was literally covered with these fragrant floral offerings. The seventh circuit having been completed, the ark was opened, the sacred scrolls were deposited therein, the doors were closed, the damask curtains were drawn close around it, and the perpetual lamp which depends from the ceiling in front was ignited, never to expire. After another chant from the choir, Rev. Dr. RAPHALL ascended the platform on which rests the ark, and addressed the congregation in a few remarks befitting the occasion, taking for his text the passage of Scripture commencing, "How beautiful are thy Tabernacles, O Lord of Hosts." He alluded to the persecutions which the children of Israel had suffered under the Roman Empire, and all through the Middle Ages, even to the time when they crossed the ocean and landed in this home of freedom and equality. He spoke of the progress of the congregation B'nai Israel, from the time when he first addressed them in their Synagogue in Pell-street until now, and exhorted them to renewed devotion and praise to the Lord for the prosperity that had attended them. Rabbi Isaacs alluded in disparaging terms to the innovations of the "reform party" among the Israelites, which he attributed to religious pride. He thanked God that the congregation B'nai Israel remained uncontaminated by these pretended reforms, and adhered strictly to the ceremonials of their fathers. A consecration prayer was then delivered by Rabbi de Leeuw, and the ceremonies closed with a Hallelujah by the choir.

1860: The London correspondent for the New York Times reported that the Times of London no longer enjoys any special advantage over its competitors because it has lost its monopoly on information.  The accumulated wealth of the Times had given it access to the telegraph providing it with an advantage over its poorer competitors.   “But since the monopoly of telegraphic communication has been secured by that clever and far-seeing German Jew, Mr. Reuters, all the journals are supplied, share and share alike, at the same time, and at the same tariff. In many specialties, such as "City Intelligence" and "Foreign Correspondence," the Daily News is nearly equal to the Times. The leading articles of the Telegraph are generally on the same subjects as those of its high-priced rival, and the Post, Herald and Star each appeal to their own peculiar class of readers.”

1861: At the meeting of the Board of Alderman in New York City this evening the report of the Committee donating $30,000 to the Hebrew Benevolent Society was adopted, but was subsequently reconsidered and laid over, on the motion of Alderman Tuomey.

1861: At a time when President Lincoln had called for “90 day volunteers” Herman Stern began his 3 month service with Company of the 83rd Regiment.

1861: Twenty-eight year old Jefferson Medical College trained laryngologist Dr. Morris Joseph Asch joined the United States Army today at which time he was assigned to the surgeon-general’s office after which he would become “surgeon-in-chief to the Artillery Reserve of the Army of the Potomac, medical inspector Army of the Potomac, medical director of the 24th Army Corps, medical inspector of the Army of the James, staff surgeon of General P. H. Sheridan from 1865 to 1873.”

1865: A correspondent for the Levant Herald wrote from Smyrna today describing the mortifying effects of the Cholera epidemic that has struck the city. Among other things he reported that Hyde Clark, the English engineer, has informed Sir Moses Montefiore of the suffering among the Jewish people. In response, the Jewish philanthropist has begun raising funds from the Jewish communities in London and France and it is thought that he and his associate, Dr. Hodgkins might personally come to the city with the necessary aid.

1865(13th of Av, 5625): Shabbat Nachamu

1865: Birthdate of Leopold Bloch, the resident of Pilsen who was transported to Terezin where he was murdered in 1942.

1865(13th of Ave, 5625): Thirty-one year old author Naphtali Keller whose works include to stores - "Sullam ha-Haẓlaḥah" and "Debek lo Tob", a tale of Galician Jewish life passed away today.

1867: Birthdate of “eastern Prussia” native Hermann Wronker, the founder of S. Wronker and Company, the German department store chain he operated with his brother Simon which he was forced to sell when the “company was aryanized” before being killed at Auschwitz in 1942.

1871: Less than a month after his birth, author Marcel Proust, the son of Jeanne Clémence (Weil) Proust, “the daughter of a wealthy Jewish family from Alsace,” was baptized in the Catholic faith of his father Adrien Proust “at the church of Saint-Louis d’Antin” today.

1872: In Baltimore, MD, Moses and Jane (Alborn) Friedenwald gave birth to Racie Friedenwald who became Racie Adler when she married Cyrus Adler.

1872: In London Sir Philip and Lady Magnus gave birth to Laurie Magnus the husband of Dora Spielmann, “the eldest daughter of Sir Isidore and Lady Spielman” and “editor of John Murray’s Educational Publications” who was active in the Anglo-Jewish community as can be seen by his membership on the Jewish Board of Deputies and service as Warden at the West London Synagogue.

1873: “ From A Traveler” published today provides the views of an American merchant in Switzerland on the treatment of religious groups in Europe as opposed to the United States concluding that “in the end tolerated must be secured to all.  I am led to this course of reflection from observing the wrong done the Jews than those inflicted on dissenting Christians.  If the great Rothschild does not devote his accumulated wealth to the assertion and maintenance of the rights of his people then he will deserve the execration of mankind.  That family, with a few others, have it within their power to say to the Governments of southern and eastern Europe ‘this far and no father.’”  (Editor’s note – This view of the all -powerful Jewish families is one of those myths that went up in smoke with the Shoah.)

1876: Leopold Wintner who had assumed the position of the eight rabbi of Temple Beth El in Detroit gave his farewell sermon today. When Wintner delivered a sermon at the Church of Our Father in May of 1876, he became “the first Detroit rabbi to preach in a local Christian church.”

1877: Birthdate of Hermann Ludwig Mass, a Protestant minister from Badem and one of the Righteous Among the Nations who attended the Six Zionists Congress and was imprisoned by the Nazis for helping Jews to escape from Europe.

1877: Birthdate of Ludwig Hollaender, who studied law at the University of Munich and practiced law there before returning to his hometown of Berlin where he fought growing anti-Semitism as the founder and director of the Central Union of Jews in Germany.

1878: It was reported today Peace Society had sent a delegation headed by Professor Leone Levi to the Congress of Berlin that was supposed to present a petition to the leaders of Europe calling for the use of arbitration as a method of settling international disputes.  Britain’s Lord Salisbury expressed his sympathy with the effort but held out little hope for any action.  Levi was an Italian born Jew who moved to Great Britain where he converted and became a lawyer and author.

1879: “Tracing Some Stolen Goods,” an article published today described how a Jew named Louis Pollard was arrested and falsely accused of stealing shoes worth five hundred dollars from a shoe factory on West Broadway last September.  The police finally realized their error and release him.

1881: It was reported today that mobs have started to attack the synagogues and shops owned by Jews in Pomerania.  The police had to be called to disperse the mobs.

1881: The views of “M. de Bacourt, Talleyrand’s friend, secretary and literary executor” on Americans published today included the following description of the New England Yankee whom others saw as a flinty Protestant as being “the type of the Englishman combined with the subtlety and cleverness of the Jews.  He is a mixture of British pride, coldness and stiffness with Hebrew cunning.” (Editor’s note – One can only imagine how those New Englanders who put stumbling blocks in front of the Jews would have felt about this description.)

1881: Based on information that first appeared in the London Standard, “Beaconsfield’s Manuscripts” published today descried the high prices that these works by Benjamin Disraeli brought at auction citing in particular the original copies of the novels The Young Duke and Contarini Fleming which were written in his own hand.

1882: The Standard Oil of New Jersey is established. During the 1930’s “Standard of New Jersey…forged a synthetic oil and rubber cartel with the Nazi-controlled I.G. Farben.”  This “helped the Third Reich to make significant gains “in the development of synthetic rubber and gasoline”; gains which would prove to be of invaluable assistance to the Nazis during WW II.  During the 1930’s Farben’s holding in Standard of New Jersey “were second only to those of John D., Jr., himself.” (For more about Standard Oil and the Jewish people, see The Secret War Against the Jews by John Loftus and Mark Aarons.)

1883: It was reported today that there was an anti-Semitic riot at Presburg in protest over the not guilty verdicts rendered in the case of Esther Solymosi.

1883: “The Scientific Gossip” column published today explained earlier comments by M.G. Lagneau about the differences in birthrates between Catholics, Protestants and Jews. Although Jews have a lower birthrate than the other two religions, there mortality rate “is remarkably low” a condition  attributed to their religious dietetic and hygienic regulations, early marriages, the fact that most Jewish women do not work out of the home and “general sobriety.”

1885: In Kovno, Lithuania, “Rachel and Hyman Jehuda Osinsky” gave birth to Moshe Osinsky, who came to England in 1900 where as Montague Maurice Burton he became a successful maker and seller of men’s clothing, and married  Sophia Amelia Marks with whom he had four children – Barbara, Stanley, Raymond and Arnold.

1885: Herzl withdrew from the court service in order to become a writer.

1888: It was reported today that plans have been to provide the youngsters at the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children with an extra summer excursion.

1888: According to a review of Quince Culture by W.W. Meech published today, the fruit is so mild that In Palestine it is eaten as soon as it is picked from the tree.  According to Jewish tradition, the quince was “the apple” that Eve used to tempt Adam.

1888: “Hearing the New Rabbi” published today described the views of the recently elected spiritual leader of The Temple of Gates of Hope on the use of the pulpit and “the duties of the one who occupies it” which included the idea that just ‘as the statue in our harbor proclaims light and peace to all nations os the pulpit must proclaim light and peace to all mankind.” (Temple of Gates of Prayer was the forerunner of today’s Park Avenue Synagogue)

1889: Salvatore Levy was arrested on charges of obtaining credit under false pretenses.  A  Greek Jew, Levy claimed to be the son of Elie Levy, who had a seat on the Bourse in Paris and had sent him to America.

1889: Assemblyman Charles “Silver Dollar Smith got into an altercation with Samuel Roberts at the Golden Rule Hotel during a meeting of Republicans of the 8th Assembly District.  [Smith was a Jewish political leader named Solomon who, among other things, passed out free Matzot at his saloon each year before Pesach. 

1889(8th of Av, 5649): Erev Tish’a B’Av

1889(8th of Av, 5649): Seventy-seven year old Isaac Phillips passed away this morning in New York City.  A successful businessman, he worked in the cutlery industry in Philadelphia and New York before pursuing a life of public service including work as a Customs Examiner and Surveyor of the Port.  He also edited the Courier Enquirer.  A life-long Democrat, he attended the convention that nominated James K. Polk to serve as President of the United States.. An active member of the Sephardic community, he was one of the founders of Mount Sinai Hospital.  In 1834, he married Sophia Phillips and after she died in 1855, he married Miriam Trimble, a gentile woman who had converted to Judaism. He was the son of Naphtali Phillips who held a position of responsibility at the Custom House and was editor of the National Advocate

1889: The members of gang called the Yellowstone Cowboys were sentenced to the Albany Penitentiary for their role in terrorizing a boarding house owned by Jew in Ulster County. (Compare this to what was going on in Russia at this time)

1889: Seventy-eight year old author and German “feminist” Fanny Lewald who converted to Christianity at the age of 17 passed away today.

1890: When asked about the order to enforce the Russian edicts of 1882 against the Jews, Sir James Fergusson, the Under Foreign Secretary told the House of Commons “that the British Government could interfere with the Czar’s treatment of the Jews.” (Sort of reminds you of the British not being able to “interfere” with Hitler’s “treatment of the Jews.”)

1890: The U.S. State Department cabled the American Legation at St. Petersburg asking if there was “any foundation” to reports of wholesale Jewish expulsion.

1890: A man described as a slender 5’ 8” German Hebrew attempted to obtain three copies of a recently issued book using a forged purchase order from H.C. Squires, a gun dealer on Broadway.

1890: “Dancing At Saratoga” published today provided a summary of activities and events at the New York resort including the fact “that Judge Hilton no longer holds a controlling interest in…the Grand Union Hotel” and there the “Hebrews are once more welcomed there.”

1890: Rabbi Freudntahl, the superintendent of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum of Baltimore married “Miss Addie Sutto” at the New York home of her parents.

1890: In New York founding of the “Russian-American Hebrew Association, Educational Alliance” an organization seeking “to exercise a civilizing and elevating influence upon the immigrants, to Americanize them” which defending “the Russian immigrants against unjust attacks” whose President since its founding was Adolph M. Radin.

1891: “Russian Jews Released” published today describe the decision to let a group of Jews from Russia enter Baltimore now that the Maryland State Board of Immigration has been “given satisfactory assurances that the immigrants would not become public charges.

1892: A letter printed in an English publication, the Jewish Chronicle, “confirmed the failure of Baron de Hirsch’s colony in Argentina.” According to the writer, the conditions at Moiseville, the Jewish colony, “baffled description.  The land selected for the settlement was ill chosen and an enormous number of the families are huddled together in tents and sheds, where they have been living for months in idleness and intrigue.” After failing to improve conditions, Colonel Goldsmid disbanded the colony and made arrangements for eight hundred of the colonists to sail back to Europe.

1892: Birthdate of Hartford, CT native Emanuel Cohen, the “newsreel editor for Pattie News,” the vice president in charge of productions for Paramount” and the husband of “the former Madeline Bender.”

1893: “Rabbi Cohen Has The Records” published today described the dismissal of Rabbi Louis Cohen by the congregation at 44 Orchard Street led by President Abraham Finberg and Secretary Samuel Finkelstein and the problems they have encountered in obtaining the congregation’s records from the former rabbi.

1894: “Masquerade Ball at Deal Beach” published today described this social event that included Bryan Kennelly and Lou Rolston dressed as “a Hebrew merchant and his wife.” (Is it Shylock or Rothschild?)

1894: Two days after she had passed away, 45 year old Betsy (Levy) Defries, the daughter of Moses and Esther Levy and the wife of I.L. Defries was buried today at West Ham Jewish Cemetery.

1894: “Remains of the Eight Cities” published today provided a detailed review of A Mound of Many City: Tell-el-Hesy Excavated by Fredrick Bliss the American archaeologist who worked at the site under the auspices of the Palestine Exploration Society and under the direction of the famed British archaeologist Flinders Petrie

1895: “Objects To Having Jews Converted” published today described “Aaron Drucker’s indignation” that “has been aroused” by the Saturday afternoon meetings in the Church of Sea and Land “for the purpose of converting his co-religionist to Christianity.” He broke up one such meeting when shouted “Such meetings as this should not be held!  It is an outrage to humanity.  If a man is born a Jew… nothing can change him!” Efforts to convert the Jews of the Lower East Side continued despite his objections.

1895: Louis Stern, a New York dry goods merchant, went on trial today in Kissingen, Germany on charges that he had insulted Baron von Thuengen, the Deputy Commissioner of the city’s Spa much to the delight of “the Jew-baiters” and “the anti-Semitic press.”

1895: Birthdate of Newark, NJ native William Sawelson, the WW I Doughboy who was posthumously awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for service at Grand-Pre, France. Sawelson served as a Sergeant, United States Army, Company M, 312th Infantry, 78th Division. His citation reads: “Hearing a wounded man in a shell hole some distance away calling for water, Sgt. Sawelson, upon his own initiative, left shelter and crawled through heavy machinegun fire to where the man lay, giving him what water he had in his canteen. He then went back to his own shell hole, obtained more water, and was returning to the wounded man when he was killed by a machinegun bullet.”

1895: “The Aldemanic Law Committee met this afternoon and decide to recommend that the Hebrew Benevolent Orphan Asylum Society be allowed to sell the property from 76th to 77th Street, Third to Lexington Avenue.”

1895: It was reported today that Meyer J. Stein, a lawyer in New York has expressed his outrage along with that of several of his co-religionist over the letterhead of the Hotel Lowry that says in red ink “3$ per day. No Jews.”

1896 “Free Trade In Money” published today provides the view of Edward Atkinson that the attempt to switch  United States currency from a gold standard to a bi-metal standard is a plot spearheaded by William Jennings Bryan, the silver miners and “the Jews bankers.”

1896: “Notes of Stage People” published today provided a preview of the fall season in New York including Oscar Hammerstein’s production of the romantic comic opera “Santa Maria” which will open at the Olympia.

1897: The roof garden on the Hebrew Institute Building opened for its second season this evening. The delay in re-opening this facility which provides relief from the heat for thousands on the Lower East Side was brought by the need to finish “extensive repairs…to the building” that will make it nicer for those seeking some semblance of “coolness.”

1897: The Straus sterilized milk booth (so named because they are funded by Nathan Straus) which was located at the roof garden of the Hebrew Institute  last year opened today “for the first time this year.”

1898: “A Riot In East New York” published today described a spontaneous outbursts of violence when Jewish immigrant mothers thought that attempts to vaccinate their daughters were an attempt to put the mark of the cross on their bodies and convert them to Christianity.

1898(17th of Av, 5658): Seventy-six year old Isidor Bush the native of Prague whose “maternal great-grandfather was Israel Hönig, Edler von Hönigsberg, the first Jew raised to nobility in Austria” passed away in St. Louis MO. He moved to the United States after the failed Revolutions of 1848 where he enjoyed an exciting life that included a career in banking, service in the Union Army and helping to develop the Jewish community in St. Louis and the wine growing industry in Missouri; an effort that was felt all the way back to France.

1899(29th of Av, 5659): Seventy-five year old Myer Stern passed away today at Bath Beach while staying at the Hotel Argyle. A native of Bavaria, at the age of 16 he went to work for a banking house owned by the father of Baron Hirsch before coming to the United States where he became a successful banker and merchant.  An active philanthropist, he served as President of the Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum, first President of the Institute of Deaf Mutes and was a founder of Temple Emanu-El.

1899: Israel Zangwill, the author of “The Children of the Ghetto” was one of the first passengers to come down the gangplank of the SS Campania when “she docked at the Cunard pier” today.

1899: Israel Zangwill left New York this evening to visit Judge Meyer Sulzberger in Philadelphia, PA

1899: The United Hebrew Charities acknowledged that it had raised an additional $200.50 for an impoverished family that sought to move to the country since both of the parents had become chronic invalids as result of overwork in the city. The contributions ranged from as much as $20 from A.A. Levy to fifty cents from Philip Domich.

1902: Herzl’s trip to the Ottoman Empire begun on July 22, 1902 ends.  Of the trip, Herzl writes, "The negotiations have again led to no results." Herzl comes to the conclusion that the direct road to Palestine was for the time being blocked. He hopes to advance the indirect road of El Arish.
Herzl offers to liquidate the entire Ottoman national debt in return for a concession to "Haifa and its environs."

1903: Herzl begins his journey to visit the Jews of Russia.  The trip will end on the 18th day of the month.

1904: In Hungary, Jacob and Sarah Mandell gave birth to Carl Mandell the ex-husband of Tennessee native Sylvia Mandell.

1906: Today, eleven English-speaking Jews held a formal meeting in Havana with the intention of founding a congregation and cemetery. The venue was the home of Manuel Hadida at Pasaje Arcado No. 9. Hadida was a Sephardic Jew originally from Algeria, who apparently had migrated from North Africa to Paris, and then to the United States. Evidently it was from the United States that he moved to Havana. Typical of the period, most of the others were Ashkenazi "Americans," although some had been born in Europe. At the first meeting Louis Jurick was elected chairman of the Hebrew Congregation of Cuba, and Manuel Hadida was chosen as general secretary.

1906: Birthdate of Nobel Prize-winning economist, Wassily Leontif. Born in St. Petersburg, the son of an economist, Leontif received his Ph.D. from Berlin University. He began teaching at Harvard in 1932. He won the Nobel Prize "for the development of the input-output method and for its application to important economic problems." Later in life he developed an interest in environmental issues. He passed away in 1999 at the age of 92.

1908(8th of Av, 5668): Erev Tish’a B’Av

1908: In Ashton, England, UK Charles Rothschild and Rozsika Edle Rothschild (née von Wertheimstein) gave birth to “Miriam Rothschild, the heiress who discovered how fleas jump, brought Chaucerian wildflowers back to modern England and was acknowledged as one of the world's most distinguished naturalists.’

1908: In Charenton-le-pont, Meir Pines and his wife gave birth to Sholomo Pines the Israeli scholar who made Aliyah in 1940 and is best known for his English translation of Maimonides’ Guide for the Perplexed.  The Shlomo Pines Society, founded in 1990 is dedicated to advancing his work a preserving his memory

1910: In Brooklyn, Jennie (Marrow) Green and “Hyman Levy Green, a garment manufacturer” gave birth to biochemist David Ezra Green.

1911(11th of Av, 5671): Shabbat Nachamu

1911: Millard Cantor is scheduled to serve as Cantor at Shabbat Morning services at Isaiah Temple.

1911: Dr. Gerson B. Levi is scheduled to deliver the sermon this morning at Congregation B’nai Sholom-Temple Israel.

1911: Max von Oppenheim, the son of a member of the Jewish banking family who had converted to Catholicism so he could marry Max’s mother and a team of 5 archaeologist began “a digging campaign” at Tell-Halaf.

1912: In Brooklyn, NY, attorney Samuel Chugerman and his wife Helen gave birth to Daniel Chugerman who gained fame as director Daniel Mann. (A reported by William Honan)

1913: Funeral services are scheduled to be held this morning for 19 year old Donald Milton Malkan, the son of Phillip and Bertha (Burgheim) Malkan followed burial at Rosehill Cemetery.

1913: In Mt. Vernon, NY, Abraham and Lena Federman Levy gave birth to Bernard G. Levy, the youngest of their six children who worked as a jewelry salesman for several companies before opening “his own store, ‘Bernie Levy, Jeweler’ in Tuckahoe, NY.”

1914: As Europe stumbles into what will become a World War Montenegro declared war on Austria-Hungary

1915: The German Army occupied Warsaw during WW I

1915: Three thousand mostly young Jewish workingmen and workingwomen attended a mass meeting tonight in Cooper Union “for the purpose of takings steps toward the organization of a Jewish congress” which would to “ameliorate the conditions of Jews all over the world.”

1915: It was reported today that among the ten thousand prisoners being held by the Germans in a camp “near the university town of Giesen in Upper House includes “Russian Jews.”

1916: “The Day’s New Editors” published today described the change in leadership at the “New York national Jewish daily newspaper which is now under the control of a board of three Jewish scholars, Professor Isaac Hurowitz, William Edlin and Dr. A. Coralnick.

1916: “Movie Ad Men In Association” published today described the first meeting of the Associated Motion Picture Advertisers whose Executive Counsel includes Jesse Lasky, Paul Gulick and Harry Reichenbach.

1916: Tickets are scheduled to go on sale today for a benefit arranged by Daniel Frohman to raise money for the Actor’s Fund of America to be held at the New Amsterdam Theatre.

1916:  Having been able to concentrate 50,000 troops at Romani in response the attack by the Germans and Turks, the British Imperial forces went on the offensive putting an end to the last attempt by the Central Powers to take the Suez Canal and opening the way for the British to begin to seriously considera campaign that liberate Palestine and take them all the way to Damascus by war’s end.

1917: In New York, Benjamin Swartz, the Chairman of Draft Board 151 explained the failure of his board to make public its number of recruits because “as a matter of fact, we were going so fast and things were coming in our way in such fine shape that we decided it would be better to wait until we got our quote and then let the good news out and that is what we did.”

1918: It was reported today that the Hebrew University has received a gift of five thousand shares of the Jewish Colonial Trust valued at $25,000 from Jacob Schiff.

1918: In Poland, Rabbi Mordechai Dov Eidelberg and his wife gave birth to Shlomo Eidelberg, WW II resistance fighter and Professor Emeritus of Jewish History at Yeshiva University in New York.

1918: “Twenty-four new welfare workers were graduated from the training school of the Jewish Welfare Board of the United States Army and Navy” this evening in New York.

1918(27th of Av, 5678): Seventy eight year old Moritz Guedemann, the chief rabbi of Vienna passed away today.

1919: It was reported today that “as a tribute to the memory of Oscar Hammerstein, Hugo Riesenfeld, Director of the Rioli and the Rialto, ordered the flag on the Rialto to be flown at half-mast” during the funeral of Oscar Hammerstein while a bugler played “Taps” from the roof of the theatre.

1919(9th of Av, 5679): As the Minsk Offensive continues and the Jews of that city wonder if they will be living under Polish or Soviet rule, Tish'a B'Av is observed.

1920: Representatives “of the Hungarian University Club, Hungarian Self-Culture Society and the Hungarian-American Federation addressed today addressed an appeal to Berthold Singer, the Spanish Consul in Chicago whose country “is looking after American interests in the former dual monarchy” asking that Charles Huszar, the former Premier of Hungary not be allowed to visit Chicago because “many Hungarians hold him responsible for pogroms and oppression of Jews in Hungary.”

1922: Birthdate of Tel Aviv native and Columbia educated psychologist Hiam Ginott best known for the work Between Child and Parent.

1925(5th of Av, 5685): Tu B’Av

1925: In Brooklyn, Phillip and Minnie Shainmark Bloom gave birth to Joel Nachum Bloom “who in his 21 years as director of the science museum and planetarium at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia transformed a lackluster exhibition space into a bright and appealing one with hands-on experiments and walk-through exhibits, including a giant, pulsing human cell…” (As reported by Dennis Hevesi)

1925 Birthdate of Richard Heffner who conducted some two dozen interviews with Elie Wiesel for his public television productions "The Open Mind" and "Dialogues: A Series of Conversations on the Crucial Issues of Our Times” which were published as Conversations with Elie Wiesel

1926: Houdini stays in a coffin under water for more than one hour

1933: Archaeologists working for the Palestine Exploration Fund discovered an ancient synagogue, dating from the sixth century C. E near Nahalal.

1933: “The Big Brain” based on story by Sy Bartlett who also wrote the script was distributed today in the United States by R.K.O. Pictures

1933: In Montreal, The arrival of Sir Herbert Samuel in Montreal, as leader of British delegation to the fifth biennial conference of the Institute of Pacific Relations, is made the occasion of attack by anti-Semitic newspaper, Le Patriot, which charges him with being the emissary of the "Elders of Zion" to open Canada to Jewish refugees from Germany.

1933: The Nazi Lawyers' Association addresses a formal letter to business establishments threatening them with a boycott if they continue to employ Jewish lawyers.

1933: In Frankfort, Court imposes a two months' imprisonment sentence upon a Jewish journalist for wearing a swastika, even though he contends that he renounced Judaism in 1922 and had applied for membership in the National Socialist Party.

1933: In Hamburg, The Heinrich Heine monument is removed from the city park.

1933: The Nazi Rhine officials issue an order prohibiting the employment of Jews as non-qualified labor in the entire Rhine district. Employers are warned of penalties if they employ Jews who do not produce a special card entitling them to employment.

1934: “Good Morning, Eve!” a comedy short starring Leon Errol was released today in the United States.

1934(24th of Av, 5694): One hundred Jews are killed in an anti-Semitic pogrom at Constantine, Algeria.

1936:  Arab disturbances and on the division of responsibilities between the Palestine and the British governments.

1936(17th of Av, 5696): Fifty-six year old Irvin Frank Lehman, the Pittsburgh born son of Moses and Franny Frank Lehman and husband of Franny Fanny Klein Lehman who was “one of the original trustees of the Federation of Jewish Philanthropies” passed away today.

1936: “A letter from President Roosevelt, made public” today “by the United Palestine Appeal in connection with its forthcoming publication, the United Palestine Appeal Year Book for 1936 which is designed to raise $3,500,000, declares that the Jews have a right to settle in Palestine.”

1936: “A group of residents of North Bergen, NJ, filed a petition with the township commission” today “asking for the removal of a Talmud Torah, a Jewish religious center and school at 1,154 Fourth Avenue, a residential street of semi-detached houses.”

1937: In Tel Aviv, Amnon Drori and Ella Drori, the daughter of Alexander and Ester Govorkovski  gave birth to Amir Drori

1937: The British Palestinian policy gained its first ground today when Dr. Chaim Weizmann, president of the World Zionist Congress, made an eloquent though guarded plea in favor of the partition principle to the biennial congress.

1937: Birthdate of Dan Shomron the Sabra who would play a key role in the 1976 Raid on Entebbe and served as the 13th Chief of Staff of the IDF.

1937: The 20th Zionist Congress, held in Zurich, decided by a vote of 285 against 115, to hold the political debate behind closed doors. 

 1937: In Geneva, the Permanent Mandates Commission reminded the British Colonial Secretary, Mr. Ormsby-Gore, that Britain administered Palestine on its behalf.

1938: As they attempted to halt Arab instigated violence, British troops clashed with a band of armed men, killing three and wounding four.

1938: “Alexander’s Ragtime Band” a musical with a script co-authored by Irving Berlin who along with Alfred Newman wrote the score was released in the United States today.

1938: “Algiers’ produced by Walter Wagner (born Walter Feuchtwanger) and starring Hedy Lamar was released in the United States today by United Artists.

1938: “The Crowd Roars” produced by Sam Zimbalist and featuring Lionel Stander as "Happy" Lane was released in the United States today by Loew’s, Inc.

1939: “Indianapolis Speedway” a drama with a script by Sig Herzig and music by Adolph Deutsch was released in the United States today.

1940(1st of Av, 5700): Rosh Chodesh Av

1941(12th of Av, 5701): Sixty-five year old  Yaakov Ben Zion Mendelson, the rabbi of the Bergen Street Shul  and a leading member of the Assembly of Hebrew Orthodox Rabbis of America and Canada passed away today.

 1941(12th of Av, 5701): The Holocaust continued to gain momentum. In Rasaininai, 213 men and 66 Jewish women were murdered.

1941: A three day long slaughter of Jews begins in Pinsk that results in the death of eleven thousand Jews. 

1942: “Tales of Manhattan” an “American anthology film” produced by Sam Spiegel, with music by Sol Kaplan, with a script co-authored by Ben Hecht and co-starring Edward G. Robinson was released in the United States today by 20th Century Fox.

1942: In the Warsaw Ghetto German soldiers came to collect the 192 (there is some debate about the actual number and it may have been 196) orphans and about one dozen staff members to take them to Treblinka extermination camp. The children were under the care of Janusz Korczak, the pen name of Henryk Goldszmit a Polish-Jewish children's author, pediatrician, and child pedagogue, known as Pan Doktor (Mr Doctor). Korczak had been offered sanctuary on the “Aryan side” of Warsaw but turned it down repeatedly, saying that he could not abandon his children. Now too, he refused offers of sanctuary, insisting that he would go with the children. The children were dressed in their best clothes, and each carried a blue knapsack and a favorite book or toy. Joshua Perle, an eyewitness, described the procession of Korczak and the children through the ghetto to the Umschlagplatz (deportation point to the death camps):

... A miracle occurred. Two hundred children did not cry out. Two hundred pure souls, condemned to death, did not weep. Not one of them ran away. None tried to hide. Like stricken swallows they clung to their teacher and mentor, to their father and brother, Janusz Korczak, so that he might protect and preserve them. Janusz Korczak was marching, his head bent forward, holding the hand of a child, without a hat, a leather belt around his waist, and wearing high boots. A few nurses were followed by two hundred children, dressed in clean and meticulously cared for clothes, as they were being carried to the altar. (...) On all sides the children were surrounded by Germans, Ukrainians, and this time also Jewish policemen. They whipped and fired shots at them. The very stones of the street wept at the sight of the procession.

According to a popular legend, when the group of orphans finally reached the Umschlagplatz, an SS officer recognized Korczak as the author of one of his favorite children's books and offered to help him escape, but once again, Korczak refused. He boarded the trains with the children and was never heard from again.

Korczak's evacuation from the Ghetto is also mentioned in Władysław Szpilman's book The Pianist

"One day, around 5th August when I had to take a brief rest from work and was walking down Gesia Street, I happened to see Janusz Korczak and his orphans leaving the ghetto. The evacuation of the Jewish orphanage run by Janusz Korczak had been ordered for that morning. The children were to have been taken away alone. He had the chance to save himself, and it was only with difficulty that he persuaded the Germans to take him too. He had spent long years of his life with children and now, on this last journey he could not leave them alone. He wanted to ease things for them. He told the orphans they were going out in to the country, so they ought to be cheerful. At last they would be able exchange the horrible suffocating city walls for meadows of flowers, streams where they could bathe, woods full of berries and mushrooms. He told them to wear their best clothes, and so they came out into the yard, two by two nicely dressed and in a happy mood. The little column was lead by an SS man who loved children, as Germans do, even those he was about to see on their way into the next world. He took a special liking to a boy of twelve, a violinist who had his instrument under his arm. The SS man told him to go to the head of the precession of children and play – and so they set off. When I met them in Gesia Street the smiling children were singing in chorus, the little violinist was playing for them and Korczak was carrying two of the smallest infants, who were beaming too, and telling them some amusing story. I am sure that even in the gas chamber, as the Zyklon B gas was stifling childish throats and striking terror instead of hope into the orphans hearts, the Old Doctor must have whispered with one last effort, ‘it's all right, children, it will be all right’. So that at least he could spare his little charges the fear of passing from life to death." The Pianist - Page 96

Sometime after, there were rumors that the trains had been diverted and that Korczak and the children had survived. There was, however, no basis to these stories. Most likely, Korczak was killed with most of his children in a gas chamber upon their arrival at Treblinka. There is a memorial grave for him at the Powązki Cemetery in Warsaw.

1943: Along with 11 other women Liane Berkowitz was executed Plötzensee Prison for their part in the German Resistance Movement.

1943: In “Rockaway, Queens, NY, pharmacist Hyman Pearlman and his wife gave birth to “music man” Samuel Clarke "Sandy" Pearlman.

1943: Harold Alfond, the founder of Dexter Shoes, married Dorothy Levine of Waterford, Maine.

1943: Eva-Marie Buch a member of the Red Orchestra who had been arrested “for passing message to French slave workers in factories” was hanged today “in Plötzensee Prison, Berlin”

 1944:  Polish fighters liberated the Gesoiowaka Labor Camp from the Germans. Among those freed were 384 Jewish prisoners.  

1944: The Mekfure carrying 394 Romanian Jews seeking refuge in Palestine sank today

1945: On the day before the atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, the bombing of Hangkew, the cite a “strategically placed radio transmitter” and home to large number of Jewish refugees, which had begun in July, came to an end.

1947: Birthdate of Rabbi David Nathan Saperstein, an alum of Cornell, Hebrew Union College and American University, who was “the director and chief legal counsel at the Union for Reform Judaism’s Religious Action Center” and “the first non-Christian to held the post of United States Ambassador-at-Lary for International Religious Freedom”

1947: Today, as the British returned to work from the three-day bank holiday weekend, they dealt with the reality that anti-Jewish riots and “disturbances had “taken place in Glasgow, Bristol, Hull, London, Warrington. Salfrod where “a crowd of several thousand had thrown stones at shop windows, West Derby “where arsonists set fire to a wooden synagogue,” Liverpool where “workers at Canada Dock found ‘death to all Jews’ painted above the entrance” and Ecles where John Regan, “a former sergeant major” told a crowd of 700 that Hitler was right – exterminate every Jew.”

1947: Israel Rokach, the future Mayor of Tel Aviv was imprisoned in the prison at Latrun

1947(19th of Av, 5707): Lucian Kahn, the son of Ohio businessman Lazard Kahn and the former Coralie Alice Lemann of Donaldsonville, LA and the brother of Marie, Milton, Bertram and Jerome Kahn passed away today “while visiting his daughter in San Francisco” after which during a community salute, it was said that “it is doubtful if a more civic and community-minded person ever lived in Hamilton, OH.”

1948: Today Austrian banker Sonja Kohn was born to Jewish refugees from Eastern Europe in Vienna. “She grew up in Vienna in a small Jewish community. In the 1970s, with her husband Erwin Kohn, she started an import-export business and moved to Milan, Italy. In 1984 she founded the Bank Medici in Vienna. One year later, she moved to New York. They lived in Monsey, a large, ultraorthodox Jewish community. Increasingly orthodox, she covered her hair as is customary for traditionally orthodox women. The Kohns founded a small brokerage firm, the Eurovaleur Inc. In New York City she became known as “Austria’s woman on Wall Street.” In 1990s, they moved back to Vienna. There, she cooperated with Gerhard Randa of Bank Austria. The Bank Medici was relaunched in 2003 as an Aktiengesellschaft. Sonja is shareholder of 75 percent and is head of the bank's supervising board. She also became consultant of the Vienna Stock Exchange and was member of the supervisory board of Italian Finlombardia bank.

1948: In light of the realities of the military situation and the failure of the UN to act, the Israeli government explicitly rejected the proposal for an internationalized Jerusalem.

1950: The Saturday Review published “The Squaw Man Rides Again,” Robert Gessner’s reviews of the western film “The Broken Arrow”

1951: Funeral services are scheduled to be held this morning of Isidor Freedman, the wife of Selma Freedman one of the founders and leaders of the Hebrew Teachers Training School for Girls.

1953: Premiere of “From Here to Eternity” for which Fred Zinnemann won an Oscar as Best Director.

1955: The task of marking the border between Israel and Egypt “in the Nitzana/Auja vicinity” was completed today.

1957(8th of Av, 5717): Nobel Prize winning chemist Heinrich Otto Wieland passed away.  Wieland was not Jewish. According to one source, Wieland provided educational opportunities for Jewish students who were expelled under the terms of the Nuremberg Laws. Wieland was also an associate of members of the White Rose, a secret anti-Nazi organization whose membership was, for the most part, killed off by the Gestapo during the last years of the war.

1958: Birthdate of  Israeli  political leader Silvan Shalom, the native of Tunisia who made Aliyah in 1959 and served in a number of ministerial positions including Vice Prime Minister

1959(1st of Av, 5719): Rosh Chodesh Av

1960: The Metropolitan Synagogue of New York is scheduled to hold Shabbat Eve services at its temporary home” – Community Church.

1960: Funeral services are scheduled to be held this morning in Forest Hills for David Goldman, the husband of Ina Goldman and father of Patricia and Mark Goldman

1962(5th of Av, 5722): Actress Marilyn Monroe was found dead in her Los Angeles home. She was 36. Her death was ruled a probable suicide from an overdose of sleeping pills. Monroe had converted to Judaism when she married playwright Arthur Miller.

1963(15th of Av, 5723): Tu B’Av

1963(15th of Av, 5723): Ninety-one year old bantamweight champion Sigmund “Sig” Hart passed away today.

1964:  Mel Brooks marries Anne Bancroft.

1964: “Bande à part,” which would later be released in the United States as “Band of Outsiders” starring Sami Frey was released today in France.

1964: Birthdate of Adam Nathaniel Yauch, the son of a Catholic father and a Jewish mother, the American rapper “best known as a founding member of the hip hop group Beastie Boys” who “sometimes worked under the pseudonym Nathanial Hörnblowér.”

1964: David Hurst appeared in the role of “Paedagogus” when “Electra” opened at the Delacorte Theatre during the New York Shakespeare Festival.

1965: Sandy Socolow produced a report on the CBS Evening News that showed “U.S. Marines torching dozens of thatched huts” at the village of Cam Ne which “defied the upbeat assessment of the war” being presented by the Department of Defense.

1966: Birthdate of actor Jonathan Silverman the son of Rabbi Emanuel Silverman and the grandson of Rabbi Morris Silverman.

1968(11th of Av, 5728): Sixty-eight year old New York born and Columbia Law School educated attorney Herbert. W. Aldenstein, the husband of “the former Mrs. Jennie L. Whitehall” with whom he raised a daughter and a son, John K. Haldenstein who “was associate chairman of the board of rustees of the Jewish Home and Hospital for the Aged” and “former President of the Central Bureau for the Jewish Aged” passed away today after suffering “an aneurism.”

1973(7th of Av, 5733): Seventy-three year old Dr. Ernst Papanek, the native of Vienna who came to the United States in 1940 where he eventual became “a professor of educational psychology at Queens College passed away today.

1973:  In Athens, five people were murdered and another fifty-five were wounded when 2 Palestinian terrorists machine gunned the passenger lounge at the airport.

1975: Birthdate of Iddo Goldberg, the Israeli actor who played Yitzchak Shulman, in the film version of Defiance, the book and film that told the story of the Bielski partisans, a group led by three Jewish brothers who saved and recruited Jews in Belarus during the Second World War.

1976(9th of Av, 5736): Tish’a B’Av is observed for the last during the Presidency of Gerald Ford.

1976: ABC broadcast the first episode of “What’s Happening!!” a sitcom produced by Bernie Orenstein, Saul Turtletaub and Bud Yorkin.

1976: Leonard Bernstein conducted the German-language premiere of Candide, at Wiener Stadthalle in Vienna.

1978: Birthdate of Israeli tennis player Harel Levy.

1979(12th of Av, 5739): Eight-four year old “Jacob S. Potofsky, former president of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America” whom President Jimmy Carter described as “one of the giants of the American labor movement” passed away today.

1980(23rd of Av, 5740): The former Kitty Rovine, the widow of Ukrainian-American Herman Brodsky to whom she had been married for more than fifty-seven years, passed away today in Philadelphia.

1981: After more than 4 years, the 18th government under Prime Minister Menachem Begin came to an end.

1981: Ariel Sharon replaced Menachem Begin as Minister of Defense.

1981: Yitzhak Berman succeeded Yitzhak Moda’i as Minister of Energy and Water Resources.

1981: Mordechai Tzipori, succeeded Yoram Aridor as Communications Minister

1982: Prime Minister Begin and his Cabinet met this evening in Jerusalem to consider the situation in Lebanon in light of the American expression of the to re-establish and maintain a cease-fire.

1983(26th of Av, 5743): Eight year old Trenton native Rabbi Saul Habas, the husband of “Ruth Janette Zerkowsky Habas” passed away today after which he was buried in the Natchez City Cemetery in Adams County, Mississippi.

1983: “The Star Chamber” a judicial thriller directed by Peter Hyams, produced by Frank Yablans and co-starring Yaphet Kotto was released in the United States today.

1983(26th of Av, 5743): Seventy-nine year old I. J. (Israel James) Kapstein, the boyhood friend of S. J. Perlman who became a successful novelist and English professor while raising a daughter Judith an a son, Jonathan with his wife Stella passed away today.

1985(18th of Av, 5745): Eighty-seven year old Arnold “Arnie” Horween who was the first Jewish captain of the Harvard football team and then went on to a career in the NFL and coaching passed away today.

1986(29th of Tammuz, 5746): Ninety year old New York native John Alexander, the WW I veteran who was guided during his career at Rutgers by theatrical legend Paul Robeson and who made football history in 1922 when as a member of the Milwaukee Badgers played the position of “outside linebacker” much to the surprise of the Chicago Cardinals passed away today.

1987: Mathew Broderick was in a car accident in Northern Ireland in which he was seriously injured and the passenger in the other was killed for which he was eventually found guilty of “careless driving and fined $175.

1988: “Track 29” co-starring Sandra Bernhard as “Nurse Stein” was released today in the United Kingdom.

1989(4th of Av, 5749): Shabbat Chazon

1993: A soldier was kidnapped and killed north of Jerusalem

1995(9th of Av, 5755): Because today is Shabbat, this evening is Erev Tisha B’Av

1995(9th of Av, 5755): Eighty-six year old New York native Bertram Harris who “played guard on the Rutgers University football team from 1928 to 1930: passed away today.

1995(9th of Av, 5755): Israeli composer Menachem Avidom passed away at the age of 87.

1996: “Shylock” a one act play that “focuses on a Jewish actor named Jon Davies, who is featured as Shylock in a production of Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice” opened at Bard on the Beach in Canada today.

1998(13th of Av, 5758): Ninety-eight year Jacques Landesberg, the husband of Isabelle Goldberg Landesberg, passed away today after which he was buried at Mount Hebron Cemetery in Flushing, NY.

1998(13th of Av, 5758): Harel Bin-Nun, 18, and Shlomo Liebman, 24, were shot and killed in an ambush by terrorists while on patrol at the Yizhar settlement in Samaria. (Jewish Virtual Library)

1998: Two soldiers were killed during an ambush at Yizhar.

1999: Matan Vilnai succeeded Ehud Barak as Minister of Culture and Sport

1999: Yithak Vaknin began serving as Deputy Minister of Communications.

1999: Efraim Sneh began serving as Deputy Minister of Defense.

1990: Yeshiva University and The Lincoln Square Synagogue are in a state of mourning over the deather of Helen Newman Greenwald, the wife of Herbert Greenwald and the mother of Rose (Mrs. Morton L.) Landowne.

2001: The New York Times book section featured a review of Francine du Plessix Gray’s biography of Simon Weil, the ‘atheist Jew’ entitled Simon Weil

2001: U.S. Premiere of “Wild Iris” co-starring Emile Hirsch.

2001: “Israeli helicopters fire a pair of laser-guided rockets at a carrying the Hamas terrorist Amer Hassan Madiri

2001: For the first time TNT broadcast the made-for-television film “James Dean” written by Israel Horovitz and directed by Mark Rydell.

2001(16th of Av, 5761):Tehiya Bloomberg, 40, of Karnei Shomron, mother of five and 5 months pregnant, was killed when Palestinian gunmen opened fire on the family vehicle between Alfei Menashe and Karnei Shomron. Three people were seriously wounded, including her husband, Shimon, and daughter, Tzippi, 14.

2002: At the Umm al-Fahm junction a terrorists set off a bomb killing himself and wounding his Israeli-Arab taxi driver.

2002(27th of Av, 5762): Twenty-nine year old Avi Wolanski and his wife 27 year old Avital Wolanski were murdered “when terrorists” from “The Martyrs of the Palestinian Popular Army” “opened fire on their car.”

2002: “A heavily armed Palestinian in a wet suit was shot and killed by Israeli police as he swam ashore near an Israeli settlement.”

2004: “The rapid growth” of the Casah Bahia chain of department stores “and Samuel Klein’s role in building it into a regional economic force were the subject of one of the case studies in The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid which was pubished today.

2005: In Los Angeles, actress Rena Sofer, the daughter of Rabbi Martin Sofer and Sanford Bookstaver gave birth to their first child Avalon Leone.

2005: Nicole Sarah Mackey, daughter of Mark and Karen Mackey, granddaughter of Harvey and Elaine Luber, and an all-around great person, becomes a Bat Mitzvah in Little Rock, Arkansas.

2006: Marissa Carson, daughter of Laura and Bill Carson is called to the Torah as a Bat Mitzvah in Cedar Rapids, IA.  As the Israelis are battling those who would destroy the Jewish state, there is additional drama and poignancy to the opening words of her haftarah, “Comfort, ye, comfort my people – Nachamu, Nachamu ami.”

2006(11th of Av, 5766): Fadiya Juma'a, 60, and her daughters Sultana, 31, and Samira, 33 were killed by Hezbollah rockets.

2006: Jerry “Reinsdorf was inducted into the Appleton, Wisconsin Baseball Hall of Fame today in a ceremony at Fox Cities Stadium prior to that evening's game between the Midwest League Wisconsin Timber Rattlers and Beloit Snappers.”

2006(11th of Av, 5766): Ninety-nine year old “producer, direct and actor” the brother of Jack, Jules and Ben White and husband of Claretta Ellis whose career including everything from making musical comedies to WW II armed forces training films.

2007: An exhibition entitled “Dateline Israel: New Photography and Video Art” comes to a close at the Jewish Museum in New York City.

2007(21st of Av, 5767): Eighty-nine year old Amos Manor, the survivor of Auschwitz who was Director of Shin Bet for ten years passed away today.

2007: Tevi David Troy, the holder of a Ph.D. from the University of Texas, a “member of the Kemp Mill Synagogue in Silver Spring, Maryland, where he lives with his wife, Kami (née Pliskow) and their four children” began serving as United States Deputy Secretary of Health and Human Services today.

2007: The Sunday New York Times Book Section reviewed Dalia Sofer’s first novel, The September of Shiraz, a “richly evocative, powerfully affecting depiction of a prosperous Jewish family in Tehran shortly after the revolution” and 15 Stars: Eisenhower, MacArthur, Marshall: Three Generals Who Saved the American Century by the Jewish author Stanley Weintraub.

2007: The Sunday Washington Post book section reviewed Girls Gone Mild by Jewish author Wendy Shalit and Fateful Choices: Ten Decisions That Changed the World, 1940-1941 by Ian Keshaw. “The last decision Kershaw explores -- moving to the industrial-scale murder of Europe's Jews -- wasn't so much a decision as the endpoint of a long trajectory of anti-Semitism that found its ultimate exponent in Hitler and its impetus in the speed of his victories in 1940 and 1941. This final chapter is a horrifying chronicle of the "spiral of radicalization" in Nazi thinking that led from Mein Kampf to Auschwitz-Birkenau. It is a fitting coda to Kershaw's thoughtful, far-reaching examination of events that echo down to today.”

2007: The Cedar Rapids Gazette featured an article about In Tolerance a precision contractor manufacturing company owned by Jewish community leader Robert Becker describing it as “a Cedar Rapids company leading the way in family-friendly policies.”

2007: Eighty-year old Jean-Marie Lustiger, the French Cardinal who was a born Jewish in Poland and whose mother died in a Nazi Concentration Camp, passed away today. (As reported by Tagliabue)

2008: In Little Rock, AR, opening session of From Ruins to Glory, a course of study based on a virtual tour of the Temple.

2008: In St. Paul, MN, the Modern Marvels series, “Jewish Adventures in the Graphic Novel” examines The Quitter by Harvey Pekar..

2008: Shaul Mofaz officially entered the race to be leader of Kadima and received a blessing by Shas spiritual leader Rabbi Ovadia Yosef

2008: Yakov Kreizberg conducted his final symphony at the BBC Proms.

2009: The Pittsburgh City Council President declared to to be "Evelyn Kozak Day" in Pittsburgh in 2009 in honor of her 110th birthday, saying that” this daughter of Ukrainian Jewish immigrants “was the oldest living Pittsburgher.

2009(15th of Av, 5769): Tu B’Av - “According to the Talmud (tractate Ta'anit, 30b-31a), Tu B'Av was a joyous holiday in the days of the Temple in Jerusalem: Unmarried girls would dress in simple white clothing (so that rich could not be distinguished from poor) and go out to sing and dance in the vineyards surrounding Jerusalem. One of the happier holidays on the Jewish calendar, the Fifteenth of Av is today considered the Israeli equivalent of Valentine's Day. Yet another holiday with agricultural origins, Tu B'Av is said to be the day that the members of the twelve tribes were first allowed to marry each other. While often forgotten elsewhere, Tu B'Av is a fairly big deal in Israel. People send cards and give flowers to their loved ones, and hold special "Holiday of Love" parties.

2009: The Times of London reported today that the Lebanon-based militant group Hezbollah has stockpiled 40,000 rockets near the border with Israel and is training its guerillas to use missiles capable of striking Tel Aviv,. According to the report, militants are now being trained in the use of both long-range ground-to-ground missiles as well as anti-aircraft missiles to use against Israel. Israel, the United Nations and Hezbollah itself have all said that the milita is stronger today than it was during the Second Lebanon War. While the northern front has been relatively quiet since the 2006 conflict, Deputy GOC Northern Command Alon Friedman told The Times that the peace could "explode at any minute." Last month, Hezbollah Secretary General Hassan Nasrallah predicted that Israel would attack Hezbollah strongholds in southern Lebanon sometime before next spring. Nasrallah told Lebanese media his organization would launch missiles at Tel Aviv if Israel attacks the Shi'ite group's positions in Lebanon. He warned that "the equation had changed" in its method of resistance against Israel and threatened to attack Tel Aviv should the IDF bomb the southern suburbs of Beirut, as it did during the 2006 war. Senior Israel Defense Forces staff and defense establishment personnel have expressed extreme concern over the possibility of a serious incident on the Lebanese border in the near future. Tensions with Hezbollah have risen lately, especially since one of the organization's warehouses of Katyusha rockets in southern Lebanon blew up last month. In response, defense officials have held several high-level consultations on the situation. The explosion revealed that Hezbollah was still stockpiling rockets south of the Litani River, in violation of Lebanon's obligations under UN Security Council Resolution 1701, which marked the end of the Second Lebanon War. The Times obtained surveillance footage showing Hezbollah guerillas trying to extract rockets and munitions from the site of the explosion. UN peacekeeping forces were subsequently blocked from entering the site for investigation. Israel, meanwhile, has said that UNIFIL had precise information about the cache and a number of other installations where Hezbollah is storing rockets, but that peacekeeping force had done nothing. Senior IDF officers believe that Hezbollah has completely rebuilt its network of bunkers and arms stockpiles in south Lebanon, but has located them almost entirely inside Shi'ite villages rather than in open areas, as it did sometimes in the past. The warehouse explosion revealed this fact, and has prompted Hezbollah to worry that Israeli intelligence may know where its new bases are located.

2009: In case of Jews replace Jews, it was announced today that A.O. Scott and Michael Phillips “would take over hosting duties on ‘At the Movies’ from Ben Lyons and Ben Mankiewicz.”

2009(15th of Av, 5769): Budd Schulberg, an American screenwriter, television producer, novelist and sports writer passed away.  He was known for his 1941 novel, What Makes Sammy Run?, his 1947 novel The Harder They Fall, his 1954 Academy-award-winning screenplay for “On the Waterfront,” and his 1957 screenplay for “A Face in the Crowd.”

2009: The New York Times reviewed Wrestling With Moses: How Jane Jacobs Took On New York’s Master Builder and Transformed the American City by Anthony Flint

2010: A screening of "Azi Ayima", a documentary that explores the roots of the Moroccan Jewish community, is scheduled to be shown at the Leavantine Cultural Center in Los Angeles, CA.

2010: Bankito, sometimes referred to as "Jewstock" -- a youth-oriented Jewish culture festival is scheduled to begin on the shore of Bank Lake, north of Budapest.

2010: The Senate confirmed Elena Kagan to a seat on the Supreme Court today, giving President Obama his second appointment to the high court in a year, and a political victory as the Senate neared the end of its business for the summer. Ms. Kagan, a former dean of the Harvard Law School and a legal adviser in both the Clinton and Obama administrations, was approved by a vote of 63 to 37 after hearings and floor debate that showcased competing views of Democrats and Republicans about the court, but exposed no significant stumbling blocks to her confirmation. She becomes the fourth woman ever named to the court, and will join two other woman currently serving, including Justice Sonia Sotomayor, the first Obama administration nominee, who was confirmed almost exactly one year ago.

2010: Rep. Steve Cohen (D-TN) has been easily re-nominated in his Democratic primary tonight, beating back former Memphis Mayor Willie Herenton's effort to make race an issue against the white progressive Congressman from a majority-black district. With 59% of precincts reporting, Cohen leads by a whopping 79%-20%. This result so far seems identical to last cycle's Dem primary, in which the incumbent Cohen faced a challenge that not only centered around race, but also featured seemingly anti-Semitic attacks against him.

2010: Mark Cuban, the owner of the Dallas Mavericks, lost out on his bid to buy the Texas Rangers baseball team.

2010(25th of Av, 5770): Ninety-three year old Stanley Simon, the former Vice President of Bulova Watch Company who assisted veterans following World War II passed away today (As reported by Maraglit Fox)

2011: Roseanne Barr appeared on The Tonight Show with Jay Leno and announced her candidacy for president in the 2012 presidential election, running on the "Green Tea Party" ticket

2011: In Israel, the JCC Maccabi Games are scheduled to come to a close.

2011: Jewish Rock Artist Sheldon Low is scheduled to perform at a musical family Shabbat service at Temple B'nai Shalom, in Fairfax, VA.

2011: Bellamy, the daughter of Debbie and Michael Beecher will be the center of attention at her baby-naming ceremony that is scheduled to take place at Temple Judah, in Cedar Rapids, IA

2011: This morning, the Air Force struck five targets in the Gaza Strip following several strikes earlier yesterday coming in response to increased rocket fire emanating from the Strip in recent days, including one rocket which reportedly landed in the Lachish area but caused no damages or injuries.

2011: Due to escalation in rocket fire from Gaza Strip, Defense Minister Ehud Barak decided today to deploy a battery from the Iron Dome anti-rocket defense system outside the southern city of Ashkelon.

Barak's decision came after close to thirty rockets have been fired into Israel since the beginning of July.

2011: Ten dairy farmers staged a small protest rally today near Industry, Trade and Labor Minister Shalom Simhon's home in Moshav Even Menachem in northern Israel.  The farmers protested Simhon's support of the government's dairy market reform, which is likely to cut their profit margin.

2012: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Price of Inequality by Joseph Stiglitz, Einstein’s Jewish Science by Steve Gimbel, Uncanny Valley and other Adventures in the Narrative by Lawrence Weschler and What in God’s Name by Simon Rich

2012: A revival of “Fiddler on the Roof” sponsored by the Tulane Summer Lyric Theatre, featuring Cantor Joel Colman, is scheduled to have its final performance.

2012: Dozens of mortars were fired at Kerem Shalom from the Gaza Strip Sunday night, hours after an IAF airstrike killed a terrorist in Rafah. Authorities urged residents to remain in fortified shelters and lock their doors.

2012:  Lex Shatilov failed to win an Olympic medal today, finishing the men’s floor exercise in sixth place

2012(17th of Av, 5772): Ninety-six year old Martin Segal head of the Segal Company and “the elder statesman of Lincoln Center” passed away today. (As reported by Robin Pogrebin)

2012: In an ambitious and sophisticated attack, global jihad terrorists infiltrated Israel tonight after breaking into an Egyptian military base and stealing two armored jeeps. One of the vehicles, likely boobytrapped, exploded as it rammed through the Kerem Shalom crossing, which is shared by Israel, Egypt and the Gaza Strip. A number of terrorists succeeded in exiting the second vehicle before it was destroyed by an air strike. They crossed into Israel and engaged in a firefight with IDF troops.

2012(17th of Av, 5772): Ninety-eight year old Ben Heineman, the successful businessman who wrote speeches for Adlai Stevenson and advised Lyndon Johnson during his presidency, passed away today. (As reported by Denise Grady)

2012(17th of Av, 5773): Eighty-six year old Sami Rohr passed away today. (As reported by Dennis Hevesi)

2013: “The Strange Case of Wilhelm Reich” a documentary about “the controversial Jewish psychoanalyst and experimental scientist Wilhelm Reich” is scheduled to be shown at the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival.

2013: “Fill the Void” a film that tells the story of an Orthodox Hassidic family from Tel Aviv is scheduled to open at the Bear Tooth Theatre in Anchorage, Alaska which is in an interesting choice of venues for such a film.

2013(29th of Av): Yarhrzeit of Abraham Cahan, the editor of The Jewish Daily Forward who passed away on the 29th of Av, 5711 (August 31, 1951)

2013(29th of Av: Yarhrzeit of Rabbi Samuel Salant

2013(29th of Av: Yarhrzeit of Moshe Leib Halpern, the modern Yiddish poet.

2013: Jeff Bezos announced his purchase of The Washington Post from the family of Katherine Graham, the daughter of Eugene Isaac Meyer the Los Angeles born Jew who bought the bankrupt paper in 1933.

2013: A massive operation to inoculate some 150,000 children in the south of the country against polio began this morning as part of a Health Ministry effort to stamp out the virus before it can infect anyone. (As reported by Haviv Rettig Gur)

2014(9th of Av, 5774): Tisha B’Av2014(9th of Av, 5774): Eighty-seven year old Dr. Jesse L. Steinfeld, Nixon’s Surgeon-General passed away today.  (As reported by William Yardley)

2014: A 72 hour cease-fire is scheduled to begin today at 8 a.m. local time

2014: This evening, The Wiener Library for the Study of the Holocaust & Genocide is scheduled to host an Online Resource User-Testing Focus Group which is part of the growing interest in the digitization of historical collections.

2014 Israeli security forces announced the arrest of Hussam Kawasme, a native of Hebron thought to be the ringleader of the terror cell responsible for the kidnapping and murder of three Israeli teens in mid-June.” (As reported by Avi Issacharoff)

2014: The Israel Antiquities Authority announced today the discovery of “a hoard of coins from the fourth year of the Jewish Revolt against Rome — minted months before the fall of Jerusalem in 70 CE —“just outside of the Jewish capital city. (As reported by Ilan Ben Zion)

2014: “As the 72-hour truce between Israel and Hamas appeared to be holding, Israel was preparing to send a delegation to Cairo to participate in negotiations. (As reported by Raphael Ahren)

2014: In Jerusalem,  a Palestinian stabbed a security guard “near the police station in Ma'aleh Adumim, close to Jerusalem”  making this third such attack in the last twenty four hours and comes on the same day that Moslem worshippers threw rocks and Molotov cocktails from the Temple Mount.

2014(9th of Av, 5774): Eighty-six year old physician and Holocaust survivor Emanuel Emek Tanay lost his battle with prostate cancer today.

2015: The Oregon Jewish Museum and Center for Holocaust Education is scheduled to host a screening of “Paper Moon.”

2015: In Baltimore, MD a three day workshop on Holocaust education that focuses on giving educators the tools to help their students understand the Holocaust sponsored by the Jewish Museum of Maryland in conjunction with the Baltimore Jewish Council and the Maryland State Department of Education is scheduled to come to an end.

2015: In Berlin, the 14th European Maccabi Games are scheduled to come to an end today.

2016: As the 2016 Olympics are scheduled to open in Rio, Gabe Friedman writes that the seven Jewish Americans to watch are Aly Raisman (Gymnastics), Nate Ebner (Rugby), Anthony Ervin (Swimming), Merrill Moses (Water Polo), Eli Dershwitz (Fencing), Monic Rokhman (Women’s rhythmic gymnastics) and Zack Test (Rugby).

2016: Israel plans on fielding “its largest-ever Olympic delegation at the 2016 Olympics” which are scheduled to officially open today. (As reported by Luke Tress)

2016: Mathew A. Reimer is scheduled to “ascend the bimah at Temple Sinai” this evening “for the first Shabbat service over which he will officiate as the congregation’s new Senior Rabbi.” (As reported by the Crescent City Jewish News, the source for everything Jewish in the Cajun heartland)

2016(1st of Av, 5776): Rosh Chodesh Av

2016: “The Baghdad municipality announced today it would demolish and then give to a developer the 100-year-old home of Iraq’s first finance minister, Sir Sassoon Eskell,” “who was born into an aristocratic Baghdadi Jewish family in 1860 and who was instrumental in founding the Iraqi government’s laws and financial infrastructure”  “while an official in Iraq’s Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities slammed the decision as a “violation” of the law.”

2016: Claudio Bonadio, “a federal judge in Argentina” decided today to reopen “a criminal complaint against former President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner in which she had been accused of conspiring to derail an investigation into the bombing of a Jewish center here in 1994 in which 85 people were killed.”

2017(13th of Av, 5777): Shabbat Nacahamu

2017: “Emergency services evacuate five buildings in the center of Jerusalem” today “as a large brush fire broke out in one of the city’s central parks.” (TOI Staff)

2017: “Cleveland Partnership Minyan: Bridging Divides” partnership minyan is scheduled to take place at Anshe Chesed Fairmount Temple in Beachwood, Ohio

2017: “Gershon Leizerson and The Yiddish Blues Drifters” a “new folk outfit from Jerusalem” is scheduled to perform at Yiddish Summer Weimar this evening.

2017: Lip Schmeltzer who “sang at the annual White House Chanukah Party” in 2015 is scheduled to perform this evening on the second day of the Shabbat Nachamu Weekend sponsored by the Association of Orthodox Jewish Scientist (AOJS)

2018: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors or of special interest to Jewish readers including the recently released paperback editions of An Odyssey: A Father, A Son and an Epic by Daniel Mendelsohn and Class Mom by Laurie Gelman

2018: “The Oslo Diaries” and “My War Hero Uncle” are scheduled to be shown today, on the closing day of the Jerusalem Film Festival.

2018(24th of Av, 5778):Sixty-four year old Alan Robert Rabinowitz, the Brooklyn born son of Frank Rabinowitz, “a high school P.E. teacher” and “Shirley (Felman) Rabinowitz, the University of Tennessee Ph.D. conservationist best known for his work with saving the Jaguars from extinction passed away today. (As reported by Richard Sandomir)

2018(24th of Av, 5778): Ninety-two veteran comedic actress Charlotte Rae, the Milwaukee born daughter “Meyer and Esther )Ottenstien) Lubotsky,” “Jewish immigrants from Russia” passed away today.

2019: In Atlanta, GA, the Breman Museum is scheduled to host the last of its “Magical Mondays.”

2019: In London, JW3 is scheduled to host a screening of “Ask Dr. Ruth,” a biopic about the world’s most unlikely sex therapist.

2019: In the wake of yesterday’s seizure of another tanker by Iran, citizens in Israel and the United States are left to ponder today if this is another move that will lead to armed conflict that is bound to include asymmetrical warfare.

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