Tuesday, August 13, 2019

This Day, August 14, In Jewish History by Mitchell A. Levin

August 14

508: Maurice, the Emperor of the Byzantine Emperor who in 592 would punish “the entire Jewish community of Antioch after a Jew violated one his laws” began his reign today.

1197: "In the year 4957, on the twenty-eighth of Ab, there was a great persecution of the Jews in the kingdom of Leon at the hand of the two kingdoms that came to besiege it. At that time they removed thence the twenty-four sacred books which were written about 600 years before. They were written by R. Hillel ben Moses ben Hillel, and hence his name was given to the codex, which was called 'Hilleli.' It was exceedingly correct; and all other codices were revised after it. I saw the remaining two parts of it, containing the Former and Latter Prophets, written in large and beautiful characters; these had been brought by the exiles to Portugal and sold at Bugia in Africa, where they still are, having been written about 900 years ago. Kimḥi in his grammar on Num. x. 4 says that the Pentateuch of the Hillel Codex was extant in Toledo."

1349: Walram of Jülich , the Archbishop of Cologne who “protected” the Cologne Council from paying the debt it owned to “a Jewish banker named Meyer of Siegburg who was officially condemned to death, passed away today.

1385: In what might be called the “Battle of the Johns” The Portuguese forces commanded by King João I (King John I) defeat the Castilian army of King Juan I(King John I) at the Battle of Aljubarrota, leaving King Juan as ruler of Portugal. The victory of King João I guaranteed the existence of an independent Portugal which would provide a haven for Jews fleeing Christian persecution in Spain at the end of the 14th and start of the 15th centuries.

1433: John I (King João I) of Portugal passed away.  As the following entry shows, King John I provided a haven for at least one Jew seeking to escape persecution in Spain.

In 1391, an anti-Jewish riot inspired and provoked by the church occurred in Seville and spread rapidly throughout Spain. Jews were being beaten and killed by religious fanatics and many others who were just taking advantage of the rioting to rob the Jews. The streets were flowing with Jewish blood; synagogues, homes and businesses are being destroyed; Jewish property is being stolen. The rioters were yelling; "Convert or Die!" The church promised peace and safety to the Jews who convert. Don Samuel Abarbanel, an observant Jew and his family were forced to convert. At that time the Abarbanels was one of the most distinguished families in Spain.  Its patriarch is Don Samuel Abarbanel, Treasurer of the State, Courtier, and friend to three kings of Spain. But even somebody as powerful as Don Samuel was not immune from the violence. He took the Christian name of Juan Sanchez de Seville and continued to serve King Henry III as his treasurer. He and his family attended church and mass on Sunday, but at great risk they were secret Jews, trying to eat kosher, observe the Sabbath and holidays and pray to Hashem. It was not an easy thing for them to do but they did so for about six years when it became increasingly more difficult. By 1397 Juan Sanchez de Seville and his family were able to escape to Portugal where they threw off their Christian customs and names and resumed their practice of Judaism.

Don Samuel Abarbanel's reputation as a brilliant financier and statesman preceded him. King John I had his agents approach Don Samuel to ask him to be an advisor to the king. Don Samuel readily agreed, and a long personal friendship and relationship began. The relationship was not only between the king and Don Samuel, it was between their two families, their children, and their grandchildren. Samuel's son Judah followed in his father's footsteps. Don Judah was highly respected by King John I who frequently sought his advice. King John I was called "King John the Great." The title was well justified. During John I's reign Portugal prospered. Portugal was entering the age of exploration and acquiring new territories and becoming rich. Don Judah Abarbanel's advice to the king was invaluable in pursuing this course of action. One of King John's sons was Prince Henry the Navigator who ran a school of navigation and encouraged its Navy to explore, discover and settle new territories and to bring greater wealth and prestige to Portugal.      

1447: Following a fire in Posen (Poland) where the original charter granting the Jews "privileges" was written, (by Casimir the Great), Casimir IV renewed all of their rights, making his charter one of the most liberal in Europe. This charter lasted less than a decade before it was revoked.

1569: In Cracow, Isaac ben Aaron Prostitz began printing “R. Naftali Hertz ben Menahem of Lublin’s “commentary on the Torah Portion of Midrash Rabbah.

1587: When Vincent I succeeded his father William as Duke of Mantua today Salamone Rossi was serving in his first year as a court musician and concertmaster.

1587: Thirty nine year old to “Federico II of Gonzaga, the ruler of the Italian city of Mantua at the time of the birth of Leone de' Sommi, the first “unapologetically Jewish playwright and poet” and a ruler who enjoyed Jewish comedians enough to hire “Solly and Jacob” passed away toay.

1591(24th of Av, 1591): Abigdor Eisenstadt, aka Abigdor Sofer ben Moses, “the author of translation of festival prayers and a prayer-book from Polish into German” passed away today.

1629: Rabbi Yom Tov Lipmann Heller, who had been befriended by “Bohemian Court Jew and financier” Jacob Bassevi and who “was arrested at the order of the imperial court of Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II, put in prison in Vienna, and accused of insulting Christianity” was freed today because a group of “generous Jews” paid a first installment of 2,000 florins on the 10,000 florin fine that had been levied against him,

1688: Birthdate of Frederick William I of Prussia whom Veitel-Heine Ephraim served as court jeweler and mint master.

1716:  Italian Rabbi Isaiah Bassani wrote a poem in honor of Zebulon Conegliano passing his examination in medicine today in Padua.

1725: “The Jewish Law of 14 August 1725” “forbade the settlement by Jews in places where they had not previously been settled” including Reichenberg.

1735: Birthdate of Jacob Meyer mystic and magician who gained fame as Jacob Philadelphia the name he took when he converted to Christianity.

1758: Philip Cuyler wrote to David Franks concerning the insurance policy on “good in the Charming Rachell…”

1767: The will of Barbados resident Emanuel Aboaf was dated today.

1788: In Amsterdam, Abraham Benjamin Cohen and Elizabeth Gompertz gave birth to William Cohen.

1779: In Prague, Selig Trebitsch, ḥazzan at the Old New Synagogue and his wife gave birth to Rabbi Menahem Nahum Trebitsch whose writings included “Shelom Yerushalayim"

1787(30th of Av, 5547): Rosh Chodesh Elul

1787(30th of Av, 5547):Isaac de Pinto “a Dutch Jew of Portuguese origin, a scholar and one of the main investors in the Dutch East India Company” passed away. He had been born in 1717 in Amsterdam. In1748, Pinto helped stadholder William IV of Orange, sending or lending him money to defeat the French at Bergen op Zoom. In return he asked for uplifting measures against Jewish merchants forbidding them to sell clothes, gherkins or fish on the street. He proposed to send the poorest Jews to Surinam. Pinto was a man of broad learning, but did not begin to write until nearly fifty, when he acquired a reputation by defending his co-religionists against Voltaire. In 1762 he published his Essai sur le Luxe at Amsterdam. In the same year appeared his Apologie pour la Nation Juive, ou Réflexions Critiques. The author sent a manuscript copy of this work to Voltaire, who thanked him. Antoine Guenée reproduced the Apologie at the head of his Lettres de Quelques Juifs Portugais, Allemands et Polonais, à M. de Voltaire. In 1763 De Pinto became bankrupt as a result of speculation; he had to sell his house on Nieuwe Herengracht with five famous fixed wall-paintings by Jan Weenix. De Pinto moved to another fine mansion in The Hague; he and his family were invited to the palace when Mozart and his sister played. In 1768, Pinto sent a letter to Diderot on Du Jeu de Cartes. His Traité de la Circulation et du Crédit appeared in Amsterdam in 1771, and was twice reprinted, besides being translated into English and German. His Précis des Arguments Contre les Matérialistes was published at The Hague in 1774. Pinto's works were published in French (Amsterdam, 1777) and also in German (Leipzig, 1777).

1793: Birthdate of Baruch Auerbach, the “educator and philanthropist” who founded the Jewish Orphan Asylum in Berlin.

1815: Birthdate Rabbi Maier Zipser “one of the leaders of the Conservative (Neolog) movement of the Hungarian Jewry.”

1818: In St. Thomas, Jacob Baiz, a native of Bayonne, France and his wife Leah Baiz gave birth to Rachel Baiz who became Rachel Levi when she married Joseph Levi.

1820: John Jacob Hays, the grandson of Solomon Hays arrived today in Fort Wayne where he began serving as Indian an Indian agent making him the first Jew to settle in the Indiana city.

1822: In New York, Thomas Strong gave birth to Dr. James Strong a student of the Hebrew language whose pamphlet on the subject was published before the Civil War.  Strong was a member of the Palestine Exploration Committee and traveled there in 1884. (Strong was part of a group of 19th century Christians whose interest in Palestine laid the groundwork for the archaeological activities that became “Israel’s National Pastime.”)

1824: Birthdate of Breslau native Edward Kanter, the Detroit banker and husband of Fanny R. Granger Kanter with whom he had four children – Henry, Charles, Edward and Jessie.

1829: Birthdate of Jules Moch a graduate of Saint-Cyr who fought served in the Crimean War and was captured at the Battle of Sedan during the Franco-Prussian War.

1834: German born Samuel Stiebel and Jane Stiebel gave birh to Charles Dan Stiebel.

1840: Birthdate of New York native Manuel Augustus Kursheedt

1840: The U.S. government sent instruction to Mr. Glidon, the American Consul expressing President Van Buren’s concern over the treatment of the Jews of Damascus and his wish that United States work in concert with the governments of Europe to relieve their suffering.

1840: In New York, Asher Kursheedt and Abigail Judah City College of New York alum Manuel Augustus Kursheedt, whose activities in the Jewish community included serving as “the director of the United Hebrew Charities and the Educational Alliance, managing secretary of the Hebrew Emigrant Aid Society and President of the Young Men’s Hebrew Association.

1844: Morris de Saxe married Abigail Isaacs at the Great Synagogue today.

1850: David Hyams married Rebecca Arrobas today at the Great Synagogue today.

1850: One day after he had passed away, Myer Moses was buried today at the Brady Street Jewish Cemetery.

1855(30th of Av, 5615): Rosh Chodesh Elul

1856: Birthdate of Philadelphia native Isidore Langsdorf, the manufacturer the Roig Cigars and a leading member of Congregation Rodeph Shalom.

1859: Congregation Gemiluth Chassed was founded today in Port Gibson, Mississippi.

1861: Second Lieutenant Leopold Rosenthal began who would be wounded at Fort Magruder in Virginia began his three years of service with the 5th Cavalry today.

1862: Philadelphian Jacob Stern began his service with Company E of the 133rd Regiment.

1862: Jacob Ezekiel Hyneman, a native of Richmond, VA who had moved to Philadelphia with his father in 1850 enlisted in the U.S. Army during the Civil War.  Unlike some other native Virginians, Hyneman was able to choose fighting for the Union as opposed to defending slavery.

1863: Birthdate of London “communal worker” Felix Arthur Davis.

1863: "Affairs at Vicksburg” published today describes conditions a month after the fall of the Confederate Citadel including the following, "When the news reached the North that Vicksburg had fallen, a few thousand Hebrew patriots immediately made an exodus in this direction, with a view of opening a few hundred clothing stores at once. Greatly to their disgust Gen. Grant refused to allow any trade whatever, and much to their pecuniary grief they found that they had brought their shoddy to the wrong market. Something, however, must be done, and so fifty or sixty opened shops for the repair of watches, an equal number opened establishments for taking pictures, another quantity went to work gathering up the immense amount of old rags left everywhere by the rebels, while the balance stood disconsolately for a time around corners cursing Grant in every dialect originating at Babel, and then returned up the river. Those who went into the rag business had a good thing, for rags are high and the quantity left by Confederates in this place was enormous."

1864: In Columbus, Indiana, Samuel Ginsburg and Rachel L. Helfman gave birth to Bernard Ginsburg the husband of Ida Esther Goldman and resident of Detroit, Michigan who was Director of the Jewish Orphan Asylum in Cleveland for eight years and began serving as the first vice-president of the National Conference of Jewish Charities in 1904.

1865: Prussia and Austria signed the Gastein Convention that established the rules for governing Schleswig and Holstein which was one of the steps on Bismarck’s path to making uniting Germany under Prussian rule and making it the dominant power in Europe – a path that led to three wars: Franco-Prussian, WW I, and WW II – which had major impacts on the Jews of the Continent which included the Holocaust.

1865: Today's Foreign Items column reports that The Chief of Police in Warsaw has forbidden the Jews to wear their ancient dress and coiffure, (two curls sticking out from a velvet cap.

1865: Officer Thomas Ward who was murdered by a gang of felons in the line of duty, died at the Jew's Hospital. (Jew’s Hospital would later be known as Mt. Sinai.  The hospital took on the role of treating New Yorker’s regardless of religion during the Civil War when it treated large numbers of Union soldiers wounded during McClellan’s ill-fated Peninsula Campaign.)

1872: A letter published today signed simply “A Jew” took issue with the New York Tribune’s characterization of President Grant’s views on, and relationships with,  the Jewish people.  The writer denied the Tribune’s claim that Grant had apologized for General Oder No. 11 by saying “that his chief of staff had issued and that he (Grant) had countermanded it.  When questioned on the subject in 1868, Grant said that “he issued that order under misapprehension, and regretted his action.  He took the responsibility and did not claim credit for countermanding it.”  The Tribune, whose publisher Horace Greely, was running against Grant for the Presidency, was making the same claims against Grant that had failed to dissuade Jews from voting for the Civil War hero in 1868.  The writer concludes by stating that The Tribune does not understand Jews.  Jews think for themselves.  Some will vote Democrat.  Some will vote Republican.  But none of them will be swayed by the Tribune’s re-hash of the claims left over from the 1868 Presidential Campaign.

1873: According to Chief of Police John Malloy, the man who was murdered in Albany is a Brooklynite named John D. Weston.  He was allegedly murdered by Emil Lowenstein, a German-Jewish barber who had been enlisted by Mrs. Weston with enticements of sharing in the decedent’s property and enjoying her company.

1874(1st of Elul, 5634): Rosh Chodesh Elul

1874: It was reported today that the police superintendent of New York had received a telegram from the Sheriff of McLean Country, Illinois, stating that the ”German Jew named Levy” had confessed to murdering New York businessman Benjamin Nathan.  The sheriff doubts that truth of the confession and thinks the man is “a humbug” looking for a free trip back to New York.

1875(13th of Av, 5635): Shabbat Nachamu

1877: Two days after she had passed away, Adelaide Collins, the daughter of Solomon Collins and Catherine Isaacs and the husband of John Collins with whom she had four children – Kate, William, Louisa and Solomon – was buried today at the Balls Pond Road Jewish Cemetery.

1878: It was reported today that the government is doing nothing to alleviate the suffering from the effects of the famine in southern Morocco.  The Jews of the region are receiving some assistance from co-religionists

1879:  Harris Levy, a 28 year old Polish Jew was shot in the arm on Forsyth Street in New York.  Levy was as a night watchman for Louis Solomans, a manufacturing tailor whose businesses occupied three rooms on the building’s 6th floor.

1881: In Latvia, Abraham I. and Jennie Kaplan Gallant gave birth to St. Louis attorney C. Lew Gallant

1881: “Bleichroder and Thiers” published today described one Frenchman’s reaction to Barthelemy St. Hilaire recommending that the President of the Republic name Gerson von Bleichröder the German Jewish banker with close ties to Chancellor Bismarck be named a Knight of the Legion of Honor.

1881: In Kiev, Abraham and Dvora Wellcher gave birth to Laibel Welcher gained fame as aviation pioneer Arthur L. Wlesh who was a flight instructor and friend of the Wright Brothers.

1881: It was reported today that donations to help defray the cost of the next excursion sponsored by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children can be sent to the offices of the Jewish Messenger on Walker Street.

1881: A concert sponsored by several prominent Jews is scheduled to be held today to raise funds for a cemetery at the popular resort town of Long Branch, NJ. The cemetery, “The Strangers’ Cemetery, will be open to all – rich or poor, Jew or Gentile

1882: It was reported today that there are forty Jews living in Hoboken NJ.

1882: It was reported today that yesterday’s account in the Congressional Record of speech given by S.S. Cox in defense of the Jews of Russia could not have happened since Congress had already adjourned. This was an example of the time-honored technique of entering things into the Congressional Record that were not actually said on the floor of the House and/or Senate.

1882: It was reported that a barrel of gunpowder had accidentally exploded at a shop in Grodeno, Russia killing an untold number of Jewish children attending a nearby school

1882:“Old Time Business Ways” reviewed The Growth of English Industry and Commerce by William Cunningham which included a description of how the reality of Jewish money lending in Medieval England.  While it appeared that the Jews had a monopoly on money lending, “the King had indirectly a monopoly on money-lending” because the Jews “were mere chattels of the King” which meant that “all that they had was his.”

1883: “With Hermann Guthe’s publication of his monograph on the scroll fragment completed” today “the Shapira’s manuscript” which was a scroll of Deuteronomy “officially achieved scholarly recognition.”

1884: It was reported today that Rabbi Henry Zindorf of Detroit’s Temple Beth El has been chosen as Professor of History and Hebrew Literature at Hebrew Union College.

1884: Tonight, in Kingston Jamaica, “David ben Abraham Nunes” married “Amy bat Alfred Delgado,” the granddaughter of “Moses Delgado, amajor figure in the history of Jewish Jamaica” who served as “President of the Kaal Kadosh Shahar Ashamaim, the Sephardic synagogue of Kingston” and who “was responsible for the successful 1831 campaign to grant full civil rights to the country’s Jews.”


1886: On the Lower East Side, Louis and Mary Strauss Frankenthaler gave birth to George Frankenthaler who served as the State Supreme Court Justice and New York County Surrogate.

1887: The members of the jury that convicted Israel Lipski of murder are scheduled to meet with the condemned man’s solicitor today.

1887: It was reported today that Israel Lipski’s solicitor has new facts that will prove that he did kill Miriam Angel, the woman he was convicted of killing.  Lipski’s lawyer has met privately with Judge Stephen and convinced him of his client’s innocence.

1887: It was reported today that that Israel Lipski’s solicitor has “sent a telegram to the Queen” asking her to stay the execution because “he is in possession of facts which will enable him to establish” Lipski’s innocence.

1887: “Old World News By Cable” published today included a description of the excitement gripping London over the upcoming hanging of Israel Lipski, a Polish Jew who was found guilty of murdering Miriam Angel.


1888: An excursion for sick children under the age of six sponsored by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children will take place this morning at nine.

1888: Birthdate of Dr. Paul Zucker, the successful German architect who, when the Nazis came to power left for the United States where he became a citizen in 1944.

1888: Twenty-four year old  Joseph B. David, the Louisville born “son of Theobold and Adelaide (Strauss) David” who practiced law in Chicago where he was a Special Assistant City Attorney before serving several terms as on the Superior Court of Cook County, first as a judge and then as Chief Justice married Emma Siesel today

1889: The seventh free excursion of the summer sponsored by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children is scheduled to leave from the Fifth Street pier of the East River.  Only children without contagious diseases and six years of age or younger will be allowed on the boat.

1889: One hundred twenty Jewish families arrived in Buenos Aires giving birth to the modern Argentinean Jewish community.In 1889, 824 Russian Jews arrived in Argentina on the S.S. Weser from Podolia in western Russia. Many of them became gauchos (Argentine cowboys). The gauchos bought land and established a colony, which they named Moiseville. Due to lack of funding, the gauchos appealed to Baron Maurice de Hirsch for funds and the Baron subsequently founded the Jewish Colonization Association. During its heyday, the Association owned more than 600,000 hectares of land, populated by more than 200,000 Jews. While many of these cooperative ranches are now owned by non-Jews, Jews continue to run some of the properties.

1890: It was reported today that donations to help defray the costs of the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children can be sent to  Nathan Lewis, President; Dr. H. Gomez, Vice President; Hezekiah Kohn, Treasurer: and Joseph Davis, honorary Secretary.

1891: In “Hackney, London,” Amy Davis and Solomon Henry Andrade gave birth to Arthur Frank Andrade.

1891(10th of Av, 5651): Sixty-four year old Emile Frank, the widow of Joseph Frank and passed away at Huguenot, NY. The funeral will be delayed because the body has to be taken back to New York City and tomorrow is Shabbat.

1891:Mr. Rosenbluth, of the Sanitary Aid Society who works with the Trustees of the Baron Hirsch Fund gave one of the Russian Jewish refugees living at Highstown, NJ $5,000 and sent him out to purchase farm lands in an attempt to replicate the success that Jewish refugees have enjoyed farming in Connecticut.

1892: Lewis Novra the son of George Novra and Rebecca Abrahams was buried today at the Balls Pond Road Jewish Cemetery.

1892: Rabbis Aaron Wise and David Cahn officiated at the wedding of Lottie Naomi Swartwood and Leopold Kahn known as “Admiral Dot.” Kahn and Swartwood were both dwarfs.  He had begun performing with P.T.Barnum until he formed the American Lilliputian Company in 1877 where both of them were stars.

1892: Louis-Norbert Carrière the government commissioner who successfully pled at Rennes for Dreyfus's second conviction was appointed government commissioner to the Dreyfus court martial in Rennes today,

1892: “Decline of the Hat Industry in the Oranges” published today offered numerous reasons for the decline of millinery business in New Jersey including the fact that Polish Jews in Newark and Orange are finishing hats for eight and three quarters of a cent per dozen.  “American workmen have always been paid 25 cents per dozen.”  (In reality, the problem was the tariff)

1893: When representatives of the Board of Health, the Street Cleaning Department, the Fire Department and the Police swept through Hester Street and Mulberry Bend in an attempt to clear out the pushcarts and street vendors, they were forced to deal with “an old Jew” selling pears who had padlocked his cart in place and a Jew selling calico wrappers who claimed he could not move his cart because the wheel was broken.

1893: Birthdate of Samuel Simon Leibowitz, American attorney and jurist who would gain fame as the lawyer who defended the Scottsboro Boys.

1893: Jack O”Mara, the bartender at Patrick Devitt’s saloon in Brooklyn, is scheduled to go before the judge on charges that he handcuffed a Jewish paddled named Bruns and then stole his pack.

1894: Two day after his death “in his 48th year,” Oscar Alexander, the husband of Sarah Woolf with whom he had nine children – Henry, Rachel, Leah, Hannah, Amelia, Rebecca, Bertha, Jacob and Rose – was buried today at the West Ham Jewish Cemetery.

1896: Heinrich von Gossler was appointed Prussian Minister of War. During his tenure in office he would defend Jewish manufacturers of rifles of when they were attacked by anti-Semites in the Reichstag. 

1897: In Chicago, Samuel Marlow, a German Jew and his son were arrested today when “officers raided a little frame house on 26th Place” where they found a still that could produce 52 gallons of moonshine a day.

1898: As the staff at the Hebrew Orphan Asylum works to deal with an epidemic of dysentery “a well-known physician said that there forty to fifty cases in apartments in the same neighborhood which he attributed to polluted water.

1898: “The Arrival of the Immigrant” published today described the arrival of Italians at Ellis Island and the Barge Office who have replaced the wave of Jews “from the Ghettoes, the Judenstrasses and the village streets of Russia, Russian Poland and all of Jewish Western Europe” that filled these offices through-out the 1880’s.

1899: A New York Times reporter went to 3,815 Park Avenue which Abraham Reinold, a patient at Georgetown University in Washington, DC gave as his address.  The address given by this mysterious Jews was a vacant lot and no one in the neighborhood knew who he was.

1899: Birthdate of Evelyn Kozak the native New Yorker whose parents had left “Russia to escape anti-Semitic attacks” who would be described as the world’s oldest living Jew when passed away at the age of 113.

1899: In Paris, the police have surrounded the office of the Anti-Semite League where M.M. Guerin, the president of the league and Max Regis, the “noted –Jew baiter” and former Mayor of Algiers have barricaded themselves in attempt to avoid arrest “for political crimes that are punishable with penal servitude.”  A mob of their supporters shouting “Vive l’armee” and Mort aux Juifs’ has gathered outside the building.

1899: “Dreyfus Fight Thickens” published today described the split in French society that centers “around the shadowy and emaciated red-haired Jew, whose uniform of an artillery Captain so ill fits and befits his figure physiognomy.” 

1901: Two days after she had passed away “in her 16th year,” Rachel Davis, the daughter of “Isaac and Betsy Davis” was buried at the Plashet Jewish Cemetery in London.

1903: Birthdate of Hezl Rosenblum, the native of Kaunas who was “a signatory of the Israeli declaration of independence, he worked as editor of Yedioth Ahronoth for more than 35 years.”

1904: Rabbi Meir Berlin and his wife gave birth to Judith Lieberman the wife of Rabbi Saul Lieberman.

1904: Lillie Solomon, the daughter of Anna and I.E. Solomon, who was born in Solomonville, Arizona Territory in 1879, married Jewish merchant Max Lantin of Globe.

1905(13th of Av, 5665): English painter Simeon Solomon passed away. For examples of his art and a whole lot more see


1905: Louis M Mayer and his first wife, Margaret Shenberg gave birth to their eldest daughter Edith “Edie” Mayer who married producer William Goetz.

1907: In Deal, NJ, Judge Joseph M. Proskauer, who served on the New York State Supreme Court before becoming a partner in the law firm now known as Proskauer Rose and the former Alice Naumburg, who helped found the Euthanasia Society of America, a right-to-die group gave birth to “Ruth Proskauer Smith, a longtime reproductive rights advocate who helped found what is now Naral Pro-Choice America.” (As reported by Margalit Fox)


1910: Birthdate of French-Jewish photographer Willy Ronis

1910: Birthdate of Natan Alterman the Warsaw native who gained fame as an Israeli poet, playwright, journalist, and translator.


1910: Birthdate of Herta Herzog, the author of “The Jews as 'Others': On Communicative Aspects of Anti-Semitism” and the wife of Paul Felix Lazarsfeld.

1910(9th of Av, 5670): Tish’a B’Av

1910(9th of Av, 5670): Moses Frankfurt who had been born in 1828 and was married to Babette Frankfurt passed away today in Norfolk, VA.

1911: In Richmond, Indiana, a meeting of the Society of Friends adopts a resolution protesting the treatment of the Jews of Russia.

1911: Today Lazarus Schwartz was elected Mayor of Mobile, Alabama, a position he would hold until 1915.

1914: In what would prove to be a costly act of bravado “the French First and Second Armies crossed the Franco-German border and began fighting the Battles of Morhange and Sarrebourg and the Battle on Mortagne which were part of the ill-fated Battles of the Frontiers – a doomed offensive that would almost cost the Allies the war in the Summer and Fall of 1914. (Editor’s note - there is a direct line from these defeats to the defeats suffered in 1940 and the subsequent collapse of France which led the Jews to Drancy and then to the death camps.)

1915: “In Brixton, south London,” “Arnold Mishcon, a rabbi who emigrated from Russian Poland, and his wife Queenie” gave birth to Victor Mischon, the British solicitor and Laborite who as a life peer became Baron Mishcon in 1978.


1915: Harry H. Schlacht, who is working to form “the American Legion, composed of foreign born Americans who have received military organization” said tonight “these people are loyal Americans” who “are anxious and willing to join the Foreign Legion and are ready to respond to the call for drill just as soon as army officers are appointed to train them.”

1916(15th of Av, 5676): Tu B’Av

1916: It was reported today that the in Russia “no definite decision has been reached” by the government but “the wish has been expressed that the circular of the ex-Minister of the Interior, Prince Cherbatoff abolishing the pale of settlement be confirmed and incorporated by the legislative institutions i.e. the Duma and Council.”

1917:  A memorandum from the Jewish Socialist Labor Union has been delivered to the Dutch-Scandinavian Labor Committee which calls for “perfect civil equality for Jews in every country and their re-establishment in the provinces” which they were forced to leave because of the war.

1917: It was reported today that “the situation in Palestine this Summer is the most serious since the war began,” that “a scheme for the looting of Jerusalem is already being executed” and the only hope of the inhabitants “is that the British armies now hammering at the gates of the Holy Land may soon drive out the Turks.

1917: A cablegram from Kiev sent to The Day, a Jewish daily in New York announced today “that the Ukrainian Congress had elected a member of the Jewish Socialist Territorialist Party as Minister for Jewish Affairs in Ukraine”

1917: In the Bronx, Harry and Molly Glickmann give birth to Martin “Martry” Glickman. A graduate of Syracuse University, where he played football, Glickman was best known for his skills in track & field. In 1936, Glickman was one of two Jews on the U.S. 400 yard relay team at the 1936 Olympics.  The two were replaced just before the event.  According to Glickman, this was in response to pressure Avery Brundage, an anti-Semite and supporter of the Nazi regime. Glickman went on to a very successful career as a sports broadcaster. Glickman’s parents came from Jassy where the Germans and their Romanian allies slaughtered over twenty thousand Jews during the summer of 1941. 

 1918: As the Amiens Offensive, in which John Monash played such a key role comes to an end French forces continue to engage the flagging Germans at the Battle of Montdidier.

1920: After having visited congregations in Denver, Salt Lake City and other Western and mid-Western cities “on behalf of the Palestine Restoration Fund of the ZOA, Rabbi Louis I Newman of the Bronx Free Synagogue is scheduled to return to New York City today.

1921(10th of Av, 5681): Tish’a B’Av is observed for the first time during the Presidency of Warren Harding.

1926: In Paris, Stanisław Simkha Gościnny, “a chemical engineer from Warsaw” and Anna (Hanna) Bereśniak-Gościnna gave birth to cartoonist René Goscinny, the co-creator of Astérix




1926: Birthdate of Martin Broszat “a prominent West German historian and a specialist on Nazi crimes against the Jews.” (As reported by Eric Pace)


1927: Twenty-three year old Julliard trained violinist and composer Samuel Applebaum, the Passaic, NJ born son of “Michael and Fanny (Levine) Applebaum” married Sada Rothman with whom he had two children – Lois and Michael Applebaum.


1928: The original production of “The Front Page,” directed by George S. Kaufman, opened at the Times Square Theatre

1929: The Jewish Agency for Palestine was founded.  The Jewish Agency “became the main organization through which Palestinian Jewry maintained its contacts with world Jewry and with the Mandatory authorities and foreign governments.  It was, in fact, the de facto government of the Jews in the Jewish homeland.

1931: In Chicago, Irene Rose (née Mauser) and Cedric Michael Raphael gave birth to Oscar winning screenwriter Frederick Michael Raphael.

1932: The 1932 Olympics in which Attila Petschauer a gold medal winning swordsman was part of the Hungarian Fencing Team, came to an end today. The 1999 film Sunshine is a multi-generational study of Petschauer’s family and vividly depicts his death at the hands of the Nazis in 1943. Jewish Gold Medal winners included Istvan Barta, Hungary water polo, Gyorgy Brody, Hungary, water polo; Lillian Copeland, USA, athletics, discus throw; George Gulack, USA, gymnastics, flying rings; Endre Kabos, Hungary, fencing, team saber; Miklos Sárkány, Hungary water polo.

1933: While speaking in Prague, Dr. Stephen S. Wise, honorary president of the American Jewish Congress, approves of the boycott against German goods and services.

1933: The Government prohibits the circulation in Germany of all Jewish newspapers printed in foreign countries, irrespective of language, and commands Jewish libraries to remove such periodicals from their quarters.

1934: After buying “the defunct synagogue building formerly run by Rabbi Meyer Isserman,” Rabbi Yaakov Ben Zion HaCohen Mendelsohn opened the Bergen Street Shul today – a “ceremony attended by hundreds of locals along with rabbis from Passaic, West New York, the Bronx, Brooklyn, and Philadelphia.”

1935: President Roosevelt signed the Social Security Act

1936: Today, “the World Jewish Congress adopted the main principles of its organization on a permanent basis, empower the executive committee, which is to be elected, to draft statutes and put them into force” and “also voted a $75,000 budget to finance during the first year the work to which this session has committed the congress.”

1936: It was announced today “at Second Corps Area Headquarters on Governors Island” that “Jewish soldiers in the United States Army will be granted to observe the High Holy Days” starting at noon on September 15th.

1936: Following appeals by ninety-two American citizens to the United States Consul and appeals by a number of Polish citizens to the Polish Consul “for protection against Arab terrorists in Safed” the consuls of these two countries “made representations to the Palestine Government” in Jerusalem “regarding the safety of their nationals in the city of Safed.”

1936: Arnold Spencer Leese was put on trial in London on charges of seditious libel against British Jews. In 1935, Leese who was a licensed veterinarian had proposed using gas chambers to murder Jews.  This led to an indictment “on six counts relating to two articles published in the July issue of The Fascist (the IFL newspaper) entitled "Jewish Ritual Murder," which later appeared as a pamphlet.” He would be convicted and served 6 months in prison.  The experience did not chasten him since he would help members of the Wafften SS escape Justice which would lead to another prison term in 1947.  Leese was so extreme that he attacked fellow fascist Oswald Mosley for being soft on the Jews.

1937: In his closing statement to the 20th Zionist Congress, held in Zurich, David Ben-Gurion said that the subject of a passionate debate regarding the proposed Jewish state was not the integrity of Palestine, which no Zionist can forgo, but the methods for securing the quicker achievement of the common aim. He welcomed the decision of the two-thirds majority of the Executive to negotiate the precise contents of the scheme, while this did not imply any assent to the principle of Partition.

1937: Nazis continued to harass the Zionist delegates in Zurich.

1937: Commissioning of the The USS Blue (DD-387) which on December 7, at Pearl Harbor, Ensign Nathan Asher, a graduate of the Naval Academy took command of since the skipper was ashore and in a harrowing trip lasting one and half hours guided the ship out to open waters and safety while Ensign Milton Moldane, a graduate of Washington University Law School “took charge of the forward machine guns” fighting off the attacking Japanese aircraft.

1937: While the League of Nations debated the recommendations of the Peel Report, Arab attacks against Jews in Palestine continued. Shots were fired at Motza and other Jewish settlements in a significant number of increased terrorist attacks all over the country.

1938: Hadassah, the Women's Zionist Organization of America, announced today that the Jewish children who were among the Austrian exiles expelled from Burgenland by Nazis and set drift on the Danube four months ago will be cared for by the Youth Aliyah (immigration) of movement and sent to Palestine before Sept. 30.

1938(17th of Av, 5698): Fifty-six year old Abraham Zevi Idelson the Latvian born Cantor who in 1922 composed Yiftah (Jephthah) passed away today.


1938: Arab terrorists conducted a series of early morning attacks including one by 200 armed Arabs at “the tiny Jewish colony of Shimroon” and another at Kfar Yabetz where Arabs “burned an orange packing house and uprooted four hundred trees on the grounds of the Kibbutz.”1939: A resolution expressing "deep regret" that the executive of the Jewish Agency for Palestine did not resign immediately upon publication of the terms of the recent British White Paper was adopted today by the World Mizrachi. Mizrachi announced plans to fight the White Paper and calls on World Zionists to refuse to cooperate with the British in Palestine.

1939: Birthdate of Eric Weissberg the American banjo player, best known for the theme from the movie Deliverance.

1940: While fleeing from Paris which had been conquered by the Germans, Italian banker and philanthropist Angelo Donati stopped in Marseille where he was the best men at the wedding of his cousin Piero Sacredoti  and Marseille Ilse Klein, daughter of Siegmund and Helene Klein.

1941: All residents of the Jewish community of Lesko, Poland, are transported to Zaslaw, Poland, and executed.

1941: In the aftermath of the German invasion of the Soviet Union which raised the rate of Jewish genocide exponentially, Stalin sought to ingratiate himself with the West by signing a military alliance with Poland today – just two years after the Communist Jackal had eaten his half of Poland after the Nazi conquest.

1941: As German killing squads slaughter Jews in the Soviet Union, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill jointly issued the Atlantic Charter, stating the Allied goals for the post-war world.

1941: Today, a training report described Isidore Newman, who was being trained as a Wireless Officer with SOE as being “self-assured and thinks with precision.”

1941: In Hungary, The Union of the Jewish Communities obtained “the liberation of the rabbis, leaders of communities, and teachers employed in Jewish schools, who had been arrested after the outbreak of war with the U.S.S.R., from the Targu-Jiu concentration camp. (Jewish Virtual Library)

1942(1st of Elul, 5702): Rosh Chodesh Elul

1942(1st of Elul, 5702): The Germans killed 1,850 Jews from the Lenin ghetto including the parents, sisters and younger brother of Fay Shulman

http://www.jewishpartisans.org/t_switch.php?pageName=mini+bio+short+bio+1&parnum=56#1942: Esther "Etty" Hillesum returned to Amsterdam from Westerbork

1942: The Archbishop of Lvov provided hiding places for Jewish children and Sifrei Torah.

1942: The entire Jewish community from Gorlice, Poland, is deported to the Belzec extermination camp.

1942: On the evening of 14 August 1942, the first day of the Hebrew month of Ellul, a Friday, the SS surrounded the ghetto in the village of Zagrodski, near Pinsk in Belarus (Belorussia), home to five hundred Jewish families. “The commotion and noise on that night”, recalled Rivka Yosselevska, “was not customary, and we felt something in the air.”

1942: A woman named Rivka Yosselevska is one of just four Jews to survive a bloody burial-pit massacre outside Zagrodski, Poland, near Pinsk.

1943: Premiere of wartime musical comedy “This Is the Army” directed by Michael Curtiz, produced by Hal Wallis and Jack Warner, featuring 19 songs by Irving Berlin, co-starring George Tobias.

1944: Twenty-five year old Edwin Newman, the future NBC television journalist and anchor married Rigel Grell today.

1944: “The American Jewish Conference submitted a four point ‘International Bill of Rights’” to the Under Secretary of State Edward Stettinius, Jr which they want submitted to “four-power conference on post-war and international security which is scheduled to meet on August 21.

1944: Five days after “Leon Kubowitzki (later Aryeh Leon Kubovy), the head of the WJC's Rescue Department, relayed a message from Ernest Frischer of the Czechoslovak State Council to the US State Department urging the destruction of the gas chambers and the bombing of railways lines leading to the Auschwitz death camp. US Undersecretary of War John J. McCloy rejected the suggestion five days later, writing to Kubowitzki: "After a study it became apparent that such an operation could be executed only by the diversion of considerable air support essential to the success of our forces now engaged in decisive operations elsewhere and would in any case be of such doubtful efficacy that it would not warrant the use of our resources."

1945: From Larissa, Greece it was reported: "One synagogue is completely destroyed, not even the foundation exists, so thorough has been the German destruction. The other synagogue has been almost-completely destroyed, also- It cannot be used in its present condition

1945: Japan surrendered unconditionally to end WW II.  It took two atomic bombs and the invasion of Manchuria by the Soviet Army to finally convince the Japanese that all was lost.  The official surrender ceremony would not take place until September, 1945 on the decks of U.S.S. Missouri which would be anchored in Tokyo Bay.  While there is general agreement as to what the official start dates were for World War II, we have seen that the end dates both the war in Europe and in the Pacific get a little fuzzy. 

1945: Alfred Eisenstaedt took the iconic photo of a sailor kissing a nurse in Times Square as part of the V-J celebrations that was published in Life magazine.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/V-J_Day_in_Times_Square#/media/File:Legendary_kiss_V%E2%80%93J_day_in_Times_Square_Alfred_Eisenstaedt.jpg

1946: Today, “Will Rogers, Jr” the son of the popular American entertainer and “Board Member of the American League for a Free Palestine” wrote to Barley C. Crum, a Roman Catholic “member of the Anglo-American Commission of Inquiry on Palestine” who supported opening Palestine to unrestricted Jewish immigration” in which he said the League was “determined to challenge” the British claim of “illegality” when it came to the issue of “Hebrew immigration into Palestine” “by publicly announcing the intention to repatriate the Hebrew people to Palestine and by assuming public responsivity for this action…”

1947:  India granted independence within British Commonwealth.  According to some historians, the end of British rule in India had an impact on British policy in Palestine.  The reason the British had wanted to control Palestine, according to them, was to protect the Suez Canal which was part of the route connecting Britain and India.  Once India was independent, the imperative for holding on to Palestine was no longer there and the British were no longer quite so keen to spend blood and bullets on rocks and sands of Palestine.  There other imperial holdings including Transjordan, et al were enough to meet English commercial and political needs.

1947: “The Buchenwald Trial or United States of America vs. Josias Prince of Waldeck et al in which 31 people answered charges of war crimes “related to the Buchenwald concentration camp and its satellite camps” came to an

1947: “Life With Father” a movie version of the novel by the same name directed by Michael Curtiz and music by Max Steiner was released in the United States today Warner Bros.

1948(9th of Av, 5708): Since it is Shabbat, the fast will begin in the evening and be observed on Sunday.  There is an irony in this since it is the first time this day of mourning will be observed in an independent Jewish state.

1948(9th of Av, 5708): Tish’a B’av

1948: A day after testifying before HUAC where he denied being a communist, Harry Dexter White suffered another heart attack as he was arriving at his farm in Fitzwilliam, NH.

1948: Habib Vidal, "the owner of a printing shop and the custodian of the synagogue at Helwan" was one of the Jews arrested in Egypt.  Vidal was sentenced to 15 months at the Huckstep Prison despite the fact that he had not been formally charged or tried in a court of law.  (In Ishmael's House by Martin Gilbert)

1948: The Pan York, a ship filled with Jewish DPs as well as American volunteers for the Israeli army, arrived in Haifa.

1948: Birthdate of Kathi Kamen Goldmark who “had made a lot of friends in the literary world by shepherding authors on book tours when one day inspiration struck: what the very best authors yearn to be, she realized, are rock stars.” (As reported by Douglas Martin)

1948: Today Prime Minister Muhsin al-Barazi who had conducted secret negotiations with Israel which were leading to a summit meeting with Ben Gurion was killed today during a coup today in Damascus.

1951: “A Place in the Sun” starring Shelly Winters and featuring Paul Frees with music by Franz Waxman was released in the United States today by Paramount Pictures.

1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that Jerusalem was assured of a regular supply of ice for domestic purposes from outside of the city and that the government granted a subsidy, due to the cost of the transport of ice from the coast. The Jerusalem Program for Zionism, replacing the Basel Program drawn up at the First Zionist Congress in 1897, was drawn up for the 23rd Zionist Congress to be held in Jerusalem on August 14.

1952(23rd of Av, 5712): David Zvi Pinkas passed away.  At the time of his death at the age of 57, Pinkas was Minister of Communication in the Israeli government.

1952: Shlomo-Yisrael Ben-Meir became on MK “as a replacement for the late David Pinkas.”

1952: Israel and the representatives of the World Jewry announced that they reserved the right to demand restitution payment for the undeclared and heirless property in Austria.

1952: At this time, life in Israel was very difficult.  The Jewish settlers were pioneers in the truest sense of that term. For example, The Medical Advisory Council told the government that a large section of the Israeli population, mainly those who depended solely on the government’s rationing scheme, did not receive sufficient nutrition.

1953: In Los Angeles, Oscar winning set designer and art director Harry Horner and the former Joan Frankel gave birth to James Roy Horner the composer who won two Oscars for the romantic disaster film “Titanic.” (As reported by Sam Roberts)


1953: “The Affairs of Dobie Gillis” a musical comedy based on the short stories about this adolescent created by Max Shulman was released in the United States today.

1953(3rd of Elul, 5713): Eighty-one year old Julius Ullman, the physician who practiced medicine in his home own “for more than sixty years” passed away today.


1953: Forty-eight year old Max Colpet (born Max Kolpenitzky) a native of Koningsberg, whose parents died in a concentration camp during WW II and who was a friend and a collaborator with fellow artist Billy Wilder became a United States citizen today.

1955. “Zero Mostel declined to name names and jousted with the members of Congress, invoked the Fifth Amendment, while standing up for his right to the privacy of his personal political beliefs.”

1957:Mohammed V, who according to Meredith Hindley, found Vichy’s laws pertaining to Jews “appalling” and did what he could given his limited power, to ameliorate their affect went from being Sultan of Morocco to being King of Morocco.

1959(10th of Av, 5719): Seventy-year old labor economist, college professor and author Selig Perlman whose works included A Theory of the Labor Movement and The History of Trade Unionism in the United States passed away today.

1963(24th of Av, 5723): A month after his 57th birthday, playwright Clifford Odets succumbed to colon cancer.

1969(30th of Av, 5729): Rosh Chodesh Elul

1969(30th of Av, 5729): Eighty-eight year old author and publisher Leonard Woolf, the husband of Virginia Woolf passed away today.

1971(23rd of Av, 5731): Parashat Eiken

1971(23rd of Av, 5731): Seventy-nine year old New York native Benjamin Cohen, the husband of Anna Klein Cohen and the father of Gerald Robert Cohen passed away today after which he was buried in “Neveh Zedek-Rose City Lodge Cemetery” in Portland, OR

1972(4th of Elul, 5732):  Actor, composer and musician Oscar Levant passed away.

1973(16th of Av, 5733): Seventy-eight year old Lady Eva Violet Mond Isaacs, née Melchett, Marchioness of Reading passed away today.

1974: “Bring Me the Head of Alfredo Garcia” produced by Martin Baum, with music by Jerry Fielding and co-starring Helmut Dantine, an Austrian gentile whose anti-Nazi activities landed him in a concentration camp after the Anschluss, was released in the United States.

1974: “Valery and Galina Panov demonstrated outside Soviet Embassy in London on behalf of Victor Polsky, the Soviet Jewish activist accused of “dangerous driving”.

1975: A letter from President Gerald R. Ford with today’s date praised John Gunther Dean, the U.S. Ambassador to Cambodia for carrying out the evacuation of the capital city which was “one of the most difficult assignments in the history of the Foreign Service” “with distinction.

1976: It was reported today that “In Morris Township, NJ, the Rabbinical College of America announced that its new President would be Albert Richman” an electrical engineering executive who was a graduate of Cooper Union and “a founding member of the Technion.”

1976: It was reported today that during a White House reception, when Betty Ford, whose husband is running for re-election “was introduced to Bernice Tannenbaum, the board nominee for Hadassah president” she “laughed and said ‘If you’re elected and we’re elected, I’ll see you here again.’”

1977: The new Likud cabinet had announced a policy of equalization of services for the inhabitants of the West Bank and Gaza. Officials claimed that this did not mean annexation or a change in the legal status of these areas, an opinion which was disputed by Arabs, foreign observers and the press.

1977: The American Jewish leadership asked US President Jimmy Carter to clarify his position on his possible recognition of the PLO.

1977: According to Time Magazine Israel provided Lebanese Christians with $30 million to $35million in direct aid.

1979: After losing her seat in the 1977 elections Esther Herlitz “returned to the Knesset today as a replaced for the deceased Yehoshua Rabinovitz.

1979(21st of Av, 5739): Seventy-six year old Harry Cutler, the Russian born son of Elda and Meyer Cutler and husband of Rose Cutler with whom he had had four children passed away today in Long Beach, CA

1979(21st of Av, 5739): Sixty-seven year old Yehoshua Rabinovitz, who had served a Minster of Housing and Minister of Finance, passed away today.

1980: Jimmy Carter, the man who brokered the Camp David Peace Accords, was nominated by the Democrats for a second term.

1980: Bruce Sundlun who become Rhode Island’s second Jewish Governor was a delegate to the Democratic National Convention which came to an end today.

1981(14th of Av, 5741): Sixty-five year old Morton B. Levin, a native of Philadelphia who worked for the federal government for over 3 decades and who was a member of Adas Israel passed away today.

1981: Warner Bros. released “Arthur’s Theme (Best That You Can Do) the Oscar winning song “written by Burt Bacharach, and Carole Bayer Sager.

1982: In Moscow, Anna Shulkina and Aleksandr Epshteyn gave birth to Boris Epshteyn investment banker and attorney, turned Chief Political Analyst for the Sinclair Broadcast and “senior advisor to Donald Trump whose marriage to Lauren Tanick Ephsteyn in 2009 has produced one child to date.

1982: Birthdate of Benjamin Cohen who became known for his dot.com enterprises as a teenager and for a dispute with Apple computers over the domain itunes.co.uk. In 2006, he became technology correspondent for Channel 4 News in the UK

1983: Elvira and Mark Kunis gave birth Mila Kunis who plays “Jackie” on the television hit, That 70’s Show.

1983(6th of Elul, 5743): Seventy-six year old Brooklyn born Julius Yablok, the son of Lena and Louis Yablok and the husband of Miriam Yablok who played quarterback for Colgate University, coached St. Francis College and law partner of Mickey Marcus  passed away today in California.

1985(27th of Av, 5745): Eighty-six year old actress Edith Holm "Gale" Sondergaard who along with her husband writer Herbert Biberman was blacklisted passed away today.

1986(9th of Av, 5746): Tish'a B'Av

1987: Premiere of “No Way Out” co-produced by Laura Ziskin

1987(19th of Av, 5747): In Little Rock, Arkansas, Sheldon Luber, son of Elaine and Harvey Luber passed away.  He left us too soon, but he will always be remembered.

1989(13th of Av, 5749): Ninety-two year old Rosa Levin Toubin, the daughter of Joe Levin and wife of Sam H. Toubin passed away.  A native of Brenham, TX, this graduate of Rice University demonstrated her skill as a Jewish Texan historian with the publication of  History B’nai Abraham Synagouge.

1989(13th of Av, 5749): Sir Dove-Myer Robinson passed away. Born in 1901, he “was Mayor of Auckland City from 1959 to 1965 and from 1968 to 1980, the longest tenure of any holder of the office. He was a colorful character and became affectionately known across New Zealand as "Robbie". He was one of several Jewish mayors of Auckland, although he rejected Judaism as a teenager and became a lifelong atheist. He has been described as a "slight, bespectacled man whose tiny stature was offset by a booming voice and massive ego.”

1990: Leonard Bernstein conducted Copland's Symphony No. 3, BMCO

1991: Comedian Jackie Mason marries his manager Jyll Rosenfeld.

1991: In “The Pioneers of Israel Long Before the State” published today Herbert Mitgang reviewed The Blue Mountain by one of Israel’s premier authors Meir Shalev.

1993: According to Argentinian prosecutor Alberto Nisman the authorization for the Argentinian prosecutor Alberto Nisman, the authorization for the bombing of the AMIA (Argentine Israelite Mutual Association) was given at today’s meeting of Iran’s National Security Council (As reported by Adiv Sterman)

1994: The fifth congress of the European Association for Jewish Studies opened today in Copenhagen.

1994: Ilich Ramírez Sánchez, the terrorist known as "Carlos the Jackal", is captured. Carlos involvement with Arab Terrorists, specifically the Marxist Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) began in 1970. By July 1970 Ramirez was at a training camp in Jordan and after a meeting with Abu-Sharif the PFLP's recruiting officer he became known as Carlos the Jackal. The PFLP gained strength and started to form alliances with other terrorist groups such as the Baader-Meinhof gang and the Italian Red Brigade. Carlos' reputation within the organization grew after "Black September" where he fought against the Jordanian army trying to purge their country of terrorists. In 1972, the PFLP ordered Carlos to kill a respected member of the Jewish community in London, Edward Sieff the president of Marks & Spencer. In December 1973 Carlos went to Sieffs house and shot him, luckily not fatally. Carlos had preceded this by a hand grenade attack on the London headquarters of an Israeli bank and a car bomb in Paris in 1972, which injured 63 people. His international reputation was born. In 1976 he was involved in a skyjacking of an Air France jet to Uganda that lead to the famous raid on Entebbe by Israeli Special Forces

1994(7th of Elul, 5754):  Hamas took credit for the murder of 18 year old Ron Saval today in an ambush near the Kissufim Junction.

1994(7th of Elul, 5754):  Eighty-nine year old Elias Canetti, a novelist, playwright and cultural historian who won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1981, passed away today (As reported by William Grimes)

1996(29th of Av, 5756): Eighty-eight  year old Albert Neuberger, the German born physician who was a Professor of Chemical Pathology and a Fellow of the Royal Society, passed away.

1998: “Slums of Beverly Hills” a comedy about “a teenage girl struggling to grow up in the late 1970s in a lower-middle-class nomadic Jewish family that moves every few months” directed and written by Tamara Jenkins, co-starring Natasha Lyonne Alan Arkin and Carl Reiner and featuring David Krumholtz and Carl Reiner was released today in the United States by Fox Searchlight Pictures.

1999(2nd of Elul, 5759):  Phillip Klutznick, U.S. Secretary of Commerce under President Carter, passed away

2002: “In an interview with American Journalist Amy Goodman Shulamit Aloni described how she believes the charge of antisemitism is used to suppress criticism of Israel.”

2002(6th of Elul, 5762): Seventy-eight year old artist Larry Rivers (Yitzroch Loiza Grossberg) passed away today.

2002: Argentine pianist “Alberto Portugheis was the only Europe-based pianist to play in the concert "Homage to V Scaramuzza" at the Colon Theatre” today.

2003(16th of Av, 5763): Moshe Carmel “an Israeli soldier and politician who served as Minister of Transportation for eight years” passed away today.

2005(9th of Av, 5765): Tish'a B'Av:

2005: “The evacuation of Neve Dekalim” an Israeli settlement in Gaza was completed today as part of the unilateral disengagement plan that was supposed to put an end to violence in the Gaza Strip.

2005: Members of the Ukrainian Conservative party demanded that Jews be prevented from teaching the Tanya in Jewish schools and synagogues. While Ukrainian officials denied any anti-Semitic intentions, others saw a link between this policy and those being...

2005:  The Jerusalem Post reported that “members of the Ukrainian Conservative Party and several far right-wing editors demanded that Jews be prevented from teaching the Tanya in Jewish schools and synagogues.”  While Ukrainian officials at the embassy in Tel Aviv offered assurances that their government was opposed to any anti-Semitic behaviors, others saw a similarity between these demands and those being made in other republics of the former Soviet Union.

2005:  The Cedar Rapids Gazette reported that the Library of American will publish an eight volume collection Phillip Roth’s novels and stories beginning later this summer.  Roth joins Saul Bellow and Eudora Welty as the only American to have their complete works preserved by the Library of America during their lifetimes. 

2005: The Sunday New York Times book section included a review of The Last Expedition: Stanley’s Mad Journey Through the Congo by Daniel Liebowitz and Charles Pearson which describes the quest to find Emin Pasha who was a Silesian born Jew named Isaak Eduard Schnitzer

2006: A U.N. sponsored cease fire takes place along the border between Israel and Lebanon marking an end to five weeks of fighting.

2006: Kohenet’s first Hebrew Priestess Training Institute began today, at the Elat Chayyim Retreat Center in Accord, NY

2006: A Polish humanitarian organization is working to provide humanitarian assistance to hard-hit residents of northern Israel. The non-governmental Polish Humanitarian Organization will ask the Polish government as well as private donors for about NIS 1 million in aid for residents in the north for two projects, in addition to separate funding for Lebanese civilians, said Janina Ochojska, the group's founder and president.

2006: Cease fire goes into effect intended to end the “war” between Israel and Hezbollah in Lebanon. 2006: A month “after a Hezbollah Katyusha rocket hit a train depot killing eight Israel Railways workers service was restored today to the KIryat Motzkin Railway Station, “an Israel Railways passenger station serving the city of Kiryat Motzkin and the surrounding Kerayot region.”

2007: Haaretz reported that fifty-nine years after they were killed in the War of Independence near the Arab village of Tel Arish, the Israel Defense Forces has identified the bodies of five fighters. The men were soldiers in Battalion 52 of the Givati Brigade, and have been identified as First Lieutenant Yehiel Rosenfeld, Private David Kohavi, Private Itzhak Hamami, Private Yehoshua Lustig and a fifth soldier. The remains of the soldiers, who up until now were considered missing, were identified in unmarked graves in the Nahalat Itzhak cemetery. Their families have been notified. The mission to locate the bodies has gone on for approximately ten years. Nine months ago, the graves of the five were dug up, and samples from the bodies were sent to a laboratory in the United States, where DNA from the bones was compared to samples from family members. The decision to dig up the graves was made after lengthy debates between the Chief Rabbinate and the IDF unit that searches for missing people. During the debates, it was determined "beyond reasonable doubt" that the IDF knew the identities of the missing soldiers. The breakthrough was made thanks to the possibility of carrying out the tests in the United States, using technology unavailable in Israel. "These were nine months of taut nerves, during which consistent contacts were maintained with the families," said a source from the IDF unit carrying out the searches. The five soldiers fell during a battle over "Pillbox Hill" near the Arab village of Tel Arish, near Holon. The battle was fought to gain free access between Jerusalem and Jaffa. The remains of Corporal Amos Danieli and Private Itzhak Kandler, also of Batallion 52, are still missing. The remains of a total of 109 fallen soldiers are currently missing, and the fates of ten soldiers are unknown.

2007: Rosh Chodesh Elul, 5767

2008: In Becket, MA, Gallim Dance appears at the Jacob’s Pillow Dance Festival. “Prior to founding Gallim Dance, artistic director Andrea Miller danced with master choreographer Ohad Naharin’s Batsheva, in Tel Aviv. Now, Miller presents her own explosive movement vocabulary, which hangs somewhere between elegance and insanity, in this smart, powerful program.”

2008(13th of Av, 5768): Marvin Pomerantz, 78, a friend and adviser of Republican governors and presidents for four decades who twice served as president of the Iowa Board of Regents, passed away today in Iowa City.



2009: In New York, opening performance of “Peace Warrior” by Israeli Professor Doron Ben-Atar of Fordham University. a historian of the early American republic and a playwright.

2009: In New York, Rooftop Films presents a screening of “Bloomfield or a Childhood Memory" by Eran Barak.

2009: Willy Ronis celebrates his 99th birthday. “The sole survivor of a generation of famous French photographers that included Henri Cartier-Bresson and Robert Doisneau, Ronis has become a media darling. Yet, this son of a Ukrainian-Jewish portrait photographer father and a Lithuanian-Jewish pianist mother, both of whom fled pogroms to settle in Paris, still remains a belatedly recognized outsider. Ronis’s religious mother made sure her son had a Jewish education (Willy was bar mitzvahed at Paris’s venerable Grande Synagogue on the Rue de la Victoire, familiarly known as the Rothschild-Schule). Ronis, however, remained an nonbeliever like his agnostic father, reserving his real devotion for the labor movement. Outraged to see his father working himself to an early death, the young Willy, despite years of studying to be a violinist and composer (the latter studies were with the noted French-Jewish musician André Bloch), became his ailing father’s assistant. An unrelenting diet of tediously static identity photos and posed marriage snapshots spurred Ronis to redefine photography for himself as something essentially dynamic, capturing movement on the spur of the moment with crackling energy. Soon after his father’s death in 1936, Ronis created some of his most celebrated images, like “Front Populaire, 14 Juillet 1936” (“The Popular Front,” July 14, 1936), which immortalized the revelry of humble Parisians after the election of Léon Blum, the first Socialist — and first Jewish — premier of France. A moderate left-winger, Blum resolved to augment workers’ rights, and despite many attacks, such as one by a right-wing National Assembly deputy who termed Blum a “cunning Talmudist,” the newly elected Socialist was widely seen widely as a symbol of hope (short-lived, as it turned out). Ronis’s immediate empathy with workers was translated into photos marked with seemingly unplanned architectural symmetry (which Ronis himself has likened to Bach’s counterpoint), especially when compared to the relatively cold formalism of Cartier-Bresson, or the sometimes sentimental, staged images of Doisneau. Armed with a secondhand Rolleiflex, Ronis captured vivid, strikingly natural-seeming images like “Rose Zehner, Grève aux Usines Javel-Citroën, 1938” (“Rose Zehner, Strike at the Javel-Citroën Factory, 1938”), showing a powerful female labor organizer haranguing fellow workers with theatrical zest. Depicting hefty French laborers as moving with the grace of professional dancers became a Ronis specialty. His subject, Rose Zehner, soon became a Resistance fighter. Zehner would be reunited with Ronis decades later in a 1982 feature-length documentary film, “Un Voyage de Rose” (“Rose’s Voyage”), in which both photographer and subject reminisced about their left-wing friends of long ago. These included French-Jewish cinematographer and union activist Henri Alekan and popular singer Francis Lemarque (born Nathan Korb of Lithuanian-Polish Jewish origin). More pertinent to Ronis’s growing aesthetic mastery was his collegial friendships with fellow photographers like Izis (born Israëlis Bidermanas in Lithuania), David “Chim” Seymour (born David Szymin in Warsaw) and Robert Capa (born Endre Ernö Friedmann in Budapest). The steady rise of European fascism made Ronis feel especially close to these émigré friends and colleagues. Already feeling excluded as a boy, due to schoolyard antisemitic jokes, Ronis was not inclined to try to live under the German occupation overoptimistically, as many French Jews did at first. As Ronis recently told a Radio France Internationale interviewer with typical lapidary concision, “I didn’t want to wear a yellow star.” So he fled to the South of France with false papers (his mother, who refused to leave Paris, managed to survive the occupation, shielded by friends and neighbors). After the war, when Ronis returned to Paris with the woman who would become his wife, he quickly realized that many of his Jewish relatives, friends and neighbors had not been as fortunate. An atypically tragic aura invades some of Ronis’s postwar photos, like those taken at a 1949 commemoration held at Oradour-sur-Glane in west central France, the site of a Nazi massacre where almost an entire village, including women and children, was burned alive. Ronis’s images taken during the commemoration ceremony show visitors (especially children) reacting to the site with somber reverence. As if in a subliminal search for other survivors, Ronis soon became a visual poet of Belleville, then, as now, a lower-class Parisian neighborhood with a historic population of Jewish residents. As Karen Adler’s perceptive “Jews and Gender in Liberation France” (Cambridge University Press, 2006) notes, Ronis “humanized Belleville’s poverty and architectural decline” after World War II. Essential to his capturing of these lines and forms is that for a while after the war, cars were still very scarce, until eventually they returned in force to Paris, suffocating the city. Away from Paris the same year, Ronis took what remains his most loved photo, “Le Nu Provençal: Gordes, 1949” (“Nude in Provence, Gordes, 1949”), a celebration of sensuality that shows his wife at a wash basin in a village bedroom in Southern France. Despite such exultant imagery, to some observers Ronis retains a sense of dislocation and apartness that is integral to his artistry. His friend and fellow photographer Brassaï dedicated his volume of “Conversations With Picasso” “to Willy Ronis, the distant one.” Amid all the merited hoopla, it is worth recalling that this photographer’s sheer survival has an element of the escape artist to it, a sleight of hand that perhaps can never be fully analyzed or understood. Having retired from photography almost a decade ago because of arthritis, and having survived his wife as well as their son, Vincent, Ronis now lives in a humble two-room flat in Belleville. He emerges for public appearances and patiently receives visitors eager to interview and photograph him, sometimes with frankly odd results. Despite what seems like friendly forbearing toward young shutterbugs, Ronis recently confessed to the French daily Le Monde: “I have little esteem for machine-gun [photographers]. It may be a severe notion of my trade, but I believe an image must be deserved before it can be taken.” Ronis has deserved, and taken, some of the memorable images of his century.”

2009(24th of Av, 5769): Erev Shabbat, Leonard Arik Karp, 59, was accosted and murdered by a gang of youths while walking with his wife and daughter along the Tel Aviv beachfront tonight.

2009: The City of Pittsburgh designated today as “Evelyn Kozak Day” which coincide with her 110th birthday.

2010: The 35th Hutzot Hayotzer International Craft Fair is scheduled to come to an end.

2010(4th of Elul, 5770): Eighty-eight year old Moshe “Misha” Lewin, Polish born Holocaust surviror and noted Russian history professor passed away today.



2010: The Daily Mail rated Isaac Rosenberg as one of the ten greatest British poets.

2011: The headstone unveiling for Rose Becker is scheduled to take place today at Eben Israel Cemetery

2011: The 31st IAJGS International Conference on Jewish Genealogy is scheduled to open today in Washington hosted by the Jewish Genealogy Society of Greater Washington.

2011:  The JCC Maccabi Games are scheduled to open in Philadelphia, PA and Springfield, Mass.

2011: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including My Faraway One: Selected Letters of Georgia O’Keeffe and Alfred Stieglitz: Volume I, 1915-1933 edited by Sarah Greenough and recently released paperback editions of Dreyfus: Politics, Emotion, and the Scandal of the Century, by Ruth Harris, Where I Live: New and Selected Poems 1990-2010 by Maxine Kumin and The Cookbook Collector by Allegra Goodman.

2011: Twenty high-school teachers brought to Israel by the UK-based Holocaust Education Trust will complete a 10-day education training seminar at the International School for Holocaust Studies at Yad Vashem. The group, which arrived in Israel on August 5, participated in a series of workshops and lectures conducted by leading academics and experts, covering issues such as 19th-century anti-Semitism in Europe, Jewish life between the world wars in Poland, the Final Solution, and Jewish theological responses to the Holocaust.(As reported by Jerusalem Post)

2011: Israeli NBA star Omri Casspi is returning to Maccabi Tel Aviv, David Federman, one of the club's owners said in an interview with Army Radio today. According to Federman, the majority of Casspi's contract has been negotiated and he will be joining Maccabi for the upcoming season, granted the NBA labor dispute continues and the 2011-2012 NBA season is delayed or canceled all together as many suspect. (As reported by Jerusalem Post)

2011: Egypt, in coordination with Israel, has deployed its military in the northern Sinai Peninsula in order to gain control over the anarchy that has taken hold of the region, a senior Israeli defense official said today.

2011(14th of Av, 5771): Seventy-seven year old transplant expert Dr. Fritz Bach passed away. (As reported by Douglas Martin)


2012: The Eyal Vilner Big Band, led by Tel Aviv native Eyal Vilner, is scheduled to perform at the Garage Restaurant in NYC.

2012: Sacramento city leaders are scheduled to vote on a resolution making Ashkelon its 10th sister city (As reported by Ari Ben Goldberg)


2012: The price of a price-controlled loaf of will bread is scheduled to rise by 6.53% today. “The price of standard 750-gram loafs of dark or white bread will rise to NIS 5.24; a 500-gram challah will increase to NIS 5.72; a 750-gram loaf of sliced and packaged dark bread will cost NIS 7.87; and a 500-gram loaf of sliced and packaged white bread will cost NIS 6.99.”(As reported by Jerusalem Post)

2012: Funeral services for Zev Wolfson are scheduled to be at Sh’or Yoshuv Institute followed by interment at Wellwood Cemetery in Farmingdale, NY.

2012: European rabbis said today that they were lobbying Apple Inc. to pull a mobile app version of “The Protocols of the Elders of Zion,” a notorious anti-Semitic forgery


2012: Some 350 new immigrants from North America — including five sets of twins and two sets of triplets — were welcomed personally by Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu at Ben Gurion Airport this morning. “I’m proud of you,” the prime minister told the group. “We’re all proud of you. Friends of Israel, Jewish and non-Jewish alike, are all proud of you.”


2013: Noam Kat, the Minister for Public Diplomacy at the Embassy of Israel is scheduled to provide a briefing on The Middle East Process.

2013: Israeli jazz guitarist Assaf Kehati and his trio are scheduled to perform at the Bar Next Door in New York City.

2013: Today, Kevin “Pillar was called up to the Blue Jays for the first time in his career.”

2013: The inauguration of Rabbi David Lau “took place today at the official residence of the President of Israel.”

2013: The IDF launched an airstrike on Gaza early this morning in response to rockets fired into southern Israel from the territory, the army said in a statement.

2013: Twenty six convicted Palestinian terrorists were freed by Israel, and welcomed home to the West Bank and Gaza, as part of the US-brokered deal that enabled the resumption of peace talks. (As reported by Asher Zeiger and Michal Shmulovich)

2014: The 92nd Street Y is scheduled to host “Jewish Italy: Food Culture and Travel” during which attendees can “discover Italy’s cucina ebraica (“Hebrew kitchen”) and desserts like sour cherry cheesecake from Rome’s famed Forno del Ghetto.”

2014: “The owners of 21 grocery store branches and kiosks” are scheduled to attend court session in Tel Aviv this morning “where they are expected to be ordered to close on Saturday.” (As reported by Niv Elis)

2014:” The State Department confirmed today that weapons shipments to Israel would be undergoing additional review due to the war in Gaza, but denied reports that the Pentagon had engaged in weapons transfers to Israel behind the back of the White House and State Department.” (As reported by Rebecca Shimoni Stoil)

2014: “The Simon Wiesenthal center requested that a small hamlet south of Paris known as La-Mort-aux Juifs—‘Death to the Jews’—since the 11th century change its name.” (As reported by Stephanie Butnick)

2014: “Today, the South African Jewish Board of Deputies (SAJBD) initiated both criminal and civil charges against Tony Ehrenreich, provincial secretary of the Western Cape branch of the Congress of South African Trade Unions, for hate speech and incitement to violence against the Jewish community’s leadership” when he wrote “The time has come to say very clearly that if a woman or child is killed in Gaza, then the Jewish board of deputies, who are complicit, will feel the wrath of the People of SA with the age old biblical teaching of an eye for an eye,” he wrote. “The time has come for the conflict to be waged everywhere the Zionist supporters fund and condone the war killing machine of Israel.”

2014(18th of Av, 5774): Eighty-year old Leonard J. Fein the Jewish man of letters who founded and edited Moment Magazine and who was the brother of Rashi Fein passed away today.



2015: In “Sabbath” published today, Oliver Sacks examines the big questions of life using the Jewish day of rest as his point of reference.


2015: Shira Garielov, the Israeli musician who “was kicked off American Idol” and is working on “her second LP for the Israeli market” is scheduled to perform at Arlene’s Grocery.”

2015: After premiering at the Sundance Film Festival in January, “Mistress America” a comedy directed, produced and written by Noah Baumbach was released in the United States today.

2015: After premiering at the Washington Jewish Film Festival in February, “Rosenwald a documentary film directed by Aviva Kempner about the career of American businessman and philanthropist Julius Rosenwald was released in the United States today.

2015: The Secure Community Network issued an alert today warning that Hamza bin Laden, who has ambitions to lead al-Qaeda, the terrorist organization founded by his father, posted an audio message calling “for the targeting of Jewish American interests globally.”

2015: Prime Minister “Netanyahu announced the appointment” Danny Danon who in 2013 “asserted that his Likud Party’ was “staunchly opposed to a two state solution” “as Israel’s next Ambassador to the United Nations.” (As reported by David Horovitz)

2015: An exhibition featuring the work of Haifa born artist Guy Yanai is scheduled to come to an end today.


2016: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including American Heiress: The Wild Sage of the Kidnapping, Crimes and Trial of Patty Hearst by Jeffrey Toobin and Cousin Joseph: A Graphic Novel written and illustrated by Jules Feiffer.

2016: the UKJF is scheduled to sponsor a screening of “Bulgarian Rhapsody” – Bulgaria’s official submission to the 2015 Academy Awards.

2016: “Shadows From My Past” is scheduled to be shown today as part of the Tisha B’av Film Series.

2016(10th of Av, 5776): Fast of Tisha B’Av observed since the 9th of Av fell on Shabbat.

2016(10th of Av, 5776): Ninety-three year old Obie award winning actor Fyvush Finkel passed away today. (As reported by Joseph Berger)


2017: “The Police National Fraud Unit today detained Israeli diamond mogul Beny Steinmetz and four others for questioning in a money-laundering investigation involving real estate deals abroad, police said in a statement.” (As reported by Stuart Winer)

2017(22nd of Av, 5777): Ninety-seven year old St. John Law School grad Milton Mollen, the navigator who spent part of WW II in a Nazi POW camp and who was the leader of the corruption fighting Mollen Commission passed away today. (As reported by Joseph P. Fried)


2017:  In New Orleans, Kenneth Hoffman is scheduled to his new position today as the executive director of the Museum of the Southern Jewish Experience.

2017: “The Legacy of the Hebrew Orphans’ Home” an exhibition that “highlights the oldest Georgia-based Jewish non-profit from inception to present through photography and stories” is scheduled to open today at the Breman Museum

2017: Israeli singer and actress Miri Mesika is scheduled to host Yehuda Poliker at the Jerusalem Arts and Crafts Fair today.


2018: In London, JW3 is scheduled to host a screening of “Through Lotte’s Lens” a documentary that tells the extraordinary story of the ‘Hitler Émigrés’, the refugees – mainly Jewish who escaped the Nazi regime in the 1930s and found refuge in the UK.”

2018: “The Israeli rock band ‘Tattoo’ is scheduled to open tonight’s performance by “English song-writer and singer Marc Almond” at the Caesarea Amphitheatre in the Israeli seaside resort city that dates back to Roman times.

2019: The Jerusalem Municipality, in cooperation with the Youth Division of the Football Association and the Referees Union” are scheduled to host the Jerusalem Football Cup Tournament for the second time at the Kraft Sports Center in the Jerusalem Valley.

2019: A reception is scheduled to be held today in Berlin marking a photo exhibition featuring the works of “Israeli photographer, videographer and visual storyteller Boaz Arad.

2019: Tel Aviv born drummer Daniel Dor is scheduled play with saxophonist Daniel Zamir and guitarist NItzan Bar in Jerusalem

2019: In London, JW3 is scheduled to host a screening of “As Dr. Ruth.”

2019: In New Orleans, the Uptown JCC is scheduled to host the Executive Committee Meeting of the Jewish Federation

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