Sunday, July 8, 2018

This Day, July 9, In Jewish History by Mitchell A. Levin

July 9

118: Hadrian, Rome's new emperor, made his entry into the Imperial City. Regardless of how history remembers him, for Jews, Hadrian is the Emperor who helped to start the Third Rebellion against Rome. In this case it was the lead by Bar Kochba and supported by Rabbi Akiva. It lasted from 132 until 135. It was the last uprising against Rome and really marked the beginning of the end of a vital Jewish community in Palestine.

425: A decree of the emperors Theodosius II and Valentinian III, addressed to Amatius, prefect of Gaul prohibited Jews and pagans from practicing law and from holding public offices ("militandi"), in order that Christians should not be in subjection to them, and thus be incited to change their faith.

491: Anastasius I begins his reign as the Byzantine Emperor. The reign of Anastasius marked the renewal of warfare with the Sassanid Empire.  The Sassanid Empire was the name given to the Persian Empire of the day.  This renewal of warfare would have a negative impact on the Jews who ruled the island of Yotabe also known as Tiran, which is in the straits of Tiran.  The Jews of Yotabe played an instrumental role in the trade along the Red Sea and when the Byzantines sought to move East to take control of this trade and defeat the Sassanids, they would replace the Jewish leaders with their own people.

507: At Daphne (near Antioch in Syria), a sporting event was held in the form of a chariot race between two parties, the Greens and the Whites. For no apparent reason, the supporters of the greens attacked the local synagogue killing those Jews who were inside.

518: Byzantine Emperor Anastasius I, whose war with the Sassanid Empire doomed the Red Sea trading activities of the Jews of Yotabe, passed away today.

1228: Cardinal Stephen Langton, who in 1218, as the Archbishop Canterbury “made Jews wear an oblong white patch of two finger-lengths by four” which made them an easy to identify mark for the mobs, encouraged by the Barons to ransack Jewish homes and destroy the “records of the debts owed by the nobility, passed away today.

721: The Franks defeat the Muslims at the Battle of Toulouse.  This victory checks the spread of Islam in Western Europe which will be confined to Spain.  This will not be the last battle between these forces. That will be left to Charles Martel who led the Franks at the Battle of Tours eleven years later.

1391: Violence in Valencia, Spain that had begun a month earlier under the direction Ferrand Martinez continued unabated. Ferrand Martinez was the Archdeacon of Ecija in the fourteenth century, and one of the most inveterate enemies of the Jewish people. Among Christians he was highly respected for his piety and philanthropy. In his sermons and public discourses he continually fanned the hatred of the Christian population against the Jews, to whom he ascribed all sorts of vices. As vicar-general of Archbishop Barroso of Seville he arrogated to himself the right of jurisdiction over the Jews in his diocese, injuring them wherever he could, and demanding that the magistrates of Alcalá de Guadeyra, Ecija, and other places no longer suffer the Jews among them. The community of Valencia was destroyed and 250 Jews massacred. Many others including the king's physician converted to Christianity while still others found refuge in the houses of their Christian neighbors.

1391:  A rabbi's personal letter written in Saragossa, Spain on this date is one of the few firsthand accounts of the total chaos in Spain: "If I were to tell you here all the numerous sufferings we have endured you would be dumbfounded at the thought of them…On the day of the New Moon of the fateful month Tammuz in the year 5151, the Lord bent the bow of the enemies against the populous community of Seville where there were between 6,000-7,000 heads of families, and they destroyed the gates by fire and killed in that very place a great number of people; the majority, however, changed their faith.

1553: “The Elector Maurice of Saxony” who in 1542 “expelled the Jews from Zwickau” where they had lived since 1308 and who expelled them from Plauen in 1543 passed away today.

1667(17th of Tammuz, 5427): Joseph Athias’ father Abraham Athias, a Marrano Jew, was burnt at the stake together with the Marranos Jacob Rodríguez Cáceres and Raquel Nuñez Fernández in Córdoba by the Spanish Inquisition

1701: During the War of the Spanish Succession which began today, Samson Wertheimer, the Hungarian Rabbi turned Austrian financier and “court Jew” united with Samuel Oppenheimer to procure the money necessary for the equipment of the Austrian imperiall army and for the supply of provisions.

1713: Lourença Coutinho the mother of Portugese dramatist António José da Silva who was known as “O Judeu” or “The Jew” died today in today’s the auto-da-fé

1730(24h of Tammuz, 5490): Sixty-nine year old Issachar Berend Lehman, one of the leading court Jews of the 16th and 17th century who used the influence he gained with various German princes due to his business acumen to better the lot of his coreligionists.

1733: Abigaill Levy Franks, the most noted of American Jewish colonial letter writers, wrote her son Naphtali, admonishing him to eat nothing but "bread & butter" wherever food preparation was "not done after our Strict Juidacall [kosher] method."

1746: “In the middle of the night, two Jews of the Roman ghetto, Amadio Abbina and Sabato Isacco Ambron, left the city. (The description of their adventures and the places they visited during their long pilgrimage to the Holy Land have reached us for the first time in 2012 in manuscripts published by Paola Abbina and Asher Salah. By providing a biographical sketch of these two intrepid Jewish friends, this lecture by Asher Salah (Bezalel Academy) aims at understanding the reasons why they undertook such a perilous journey.)

1749(23rd of Tammuz, 5509): Ezekiel Katzenellenbogen ben Abraham passed away. Born in Lithuania was a Polish-German rabbi who served the communities at Kėdainiai (Keidani) and Altona.

1754: During the French and Indian War, the name of Michael Franks, a member of the Jewish family that supplied soldiers in this and the Revolutionary War, appeared as a private in a roster of created today by Captain van Braam.

1765: Samuel Israel, Alexander Solomon, and Joseph Depalacios, three Sephardim who were the first Jews in Alabama bought property today in Mobile County.

1791: Judah Cohen married Gracia Da Costa in Kingston, Jamaica.

1797: Edmund Burke, British philosopher and statesman, passed away.  Burke is the author of the quote “The only thing necessary for the triumph of evil is for good men to do nothing.”  This quote has often been used by commentators and historians in attempts to explain the Holocaust.

1797: Gompertz Alexander married Betsy Simon at the Great Synagouge.

1804: Birthdate of Jonas Bondi, the native of Dresden who was the rabbi at Anshe Chesed in New York before he began publishing The Hebrew Leader  and whose daughter Selma married the founder of the Reform Movement in the United States Isaac M. Wise.

1805: Levy Ephraim Green married Emilia Hyams at the Great Synagogue.

1816:  Argentina declares independence from Spain. The first Jews probably came to Argentina as conversos following the Spanish Inquisition.  Bernardino Rivadavia, Argentina’s first president gave support to policies that promoted freedom of immigration and respect for human rights, including the abolishing of the Inquisition. These changes in the social and political climate paved the way for a new wave of Jewish immigration.

1825: Birthdate of Hamburg native, Julius Oppert, who eventually settled in France where he gained fame as an Assyriologist.

1826: David Jonassohn married Charlotte Bauer in Hamburg, Germany
1833: In Mayence, Samuel and Sophie Bondi gave birth to Baruch-Bertram Bondi.

1835: The dedicatory date on the tombstone of Mrs. Shoshan Levi in The Penang Jewish Cemetery.

1841(20th of Tammuz, 5601): Joseph “Yosef” Friedlander, he son of Aharon Jehuda Friedlander and the husband of Gittel Rinkel who was a dealer in second hand close passed away today.

1842: Lt. Colonel Max-Théodore Cerfberr who served as president of the Consistoire Central Israelite de France “took his seat in the Chamber Deputies” today “as representative from Wissembourg.

1845: In London, Dr. Nathan Marcus Adler “was inaugurated as Chief Rabbi of the Great Synagogue.”

1845: Joseph Magnus married Emma Fileman.

1845: Lazarus Phillips married Bloomah Marks at the Great Synagogue.

1846: The chief rabbis of Baghdad announced a curse (Herem) on the Christian missionaries who had come to convert the Jews in their community.

1847: “The Jewish Chronicle” went from being published every two weeks to being published as a weekly.

1850:  President Zachary Taylor dies and Millard Fillmore becomes the 13th President of the United States.  Millard Fillmore is one the lesser known U.S. Presidents.  But he played a major role in furthering the acceptance of Jews as full citizens of the United States.  In 1851, the United States Senate considered a treaty with Switzerland.  The treaty included a clause that would the governments of the individual Swiss Cantons to treat U.S. citizens in the same way they treated their own citizens.  Some of the cantons had laws that discriminated against Jews.  Ratification of the treaty would have meant that American citizens could be treated differently based on their religion.   Fillmore declared that part of the treat to be “a decisive objection.  In leading the successful opposition to the treaty Fillmore declared that “neither by law, nor by treaty, nor by any other official proceeding is it competent for the Government of the United States to establish any distinction between its citizens founded on differences in religious beliefs.”

1850: A major fire struck Philadelphia in which “many Israelites shared in the same calamity, which overwhelmed their neighbors.” Among the dead were two or three members of the Marcus family including the eldest son and daughter. At least one other Israelite was reported as being “severely wounded.
1851: In London Caroline Antonine Geradine Louyet married Jacob Levi Montefiore, the son Isaac Levi and his wife Esther Hannah, née Montefiore.  “Esther was a first cousin of Sir Moses Montefiore and connected to the Rothschilds by marriage. Jacob and his brothers adopted the name of Montefiore.”

1856: In Philadelphia, Meyer Guggenheim and his wife gave birth industrialist and philanthropist Daniel Guggenheim.

1856: On Rikers Island, “Young Barney Aaron won a” the son of British bareknuckle boxer Barney Aaron won a bout that “lasted 80 rounds” or “2 hours and 20 minutes.

1856: Ellis Abraham Frankline married Adelaide Samuel at the Great Synagogue today.

1858:  Birthdate of Franz Boas, “the Father of American Anthropology.”

1860(19th of Tammuz, 5620): Forty nine year old Charleston, SC native Eleazer Levy Hyams passed away today in Natchitoches.

1860: Dr. Barnard Van Oven who in 1827 had been appointed physician to the poor of the Great Synagogue and who was one of the pioneers in the movement for the removal of the disabilities of the Jews in England as can be seen by his pamphlet "An Appeal to the British Nation on Behalf of the Jews “passed away today. Van Oven was following in the footsteps of his father Joshua Van Ovan the English surgeon who established the Jews’ Free School and the Jews’ Hospital in Mile End.

1861: Union forces that would come to include the Cameron Dragoons (officially the 65th Regiment led by Colonel Max Friedman and which contained a large segment of Philadelphia Jews) skirmished at Vienna, Virginia as they made their way to Manassas where they would fight the First Battle of Bull Run.

1862: The Jew's Hospital is reported to be one of the places to which those wounded on the battle fields of the Peninsula are being brought.

1866: Four days after he had passed away, forty-four year old Edmund Myer Tobias, “the youngest son of Myer Tobias and Hannah Wolf” was buried today at the Balls Pond Road Jewish Cemetery.

1871(20th of Tammuz, 5631): Sixty-six year old Lelio Hillel Della Torre, the Italian rabbi who was the son of Solomon Jehiel Raphael ha-Kohen passed away today in Padua.

1870: Jonathan Manly Emanual, the son of London born Dr. Manly Emanuel, who began serving in the U.S. Navy during the Civil War in 1862 began an eleven month stint on board the Dictator.

1873: In Cincinnati, Ohio, a conference of Jewish leaders formed the Union of American Hebrew Congregations and adopted a constitution for the organization.  The Union is committed to establishing a theological college.  Membership in the Union is open to all Jewish congregations in the United States.

1875: A lodge of B’nai B’rith was formed today in Austin, TX making it the first officially Jewish organization in the state’s capital city.

1875: In New York, Judge Richard Larremore denied the motion for a permanent injunction sought by Israel J. Solomon in which the plaintiff sought to enjoin the trustees of B’Nai Jeshrun from making “innovations in the mode of worship.”  Specifically, he sought to prevent the congregation from putting an end to separate seating for men and women which would mean that families could sit together.  He claimed that “the proposed mingling of the sexes” would in violation of the charter” of the synagogues “and the ancient custom of Polish and German Jews.”  He also claimed that the change violated “his rights as a pew owner” and was conducive to immorality. Essentially, the Judge ruled that the matter at hand was, as a matter of law, to be decided by the religious authorities and not the civil courts.

1877: Henry Hilton wrote a letter to a friend of his in Chicago defending his decision to ban Jews as guest at the Grand Union Hotel in Saratoga Springs, NY.  Hilton said that he had expected some “adverse criticism” when he made the decision.  The new hotel had been completed at great expense and if he did not ban Jews, he would lose “other and more valuable guests.” He did not fear a boycott of his businesses by the Jews and said that if the reverse were done the Jews would be the ultimate losers.  As far as Hilton knew, the law allowed an owner to ban whomsoever he wished notwithstanding all of the objections from “Moses and all his descendants.”

1879: Delegates to the Sixth Council of the Union of American and Hebrew Congregations enjoy an excursion to Manhattan Beach

1879: The Sixth Council of the Union of American and Hebrew Congregations met this morning at 9 for it second and final day.  After approving committee reports, the council voted to meet again on the second Tuesday of July 1881 in Chicago, Illinois.

1881: “Old Indigo and the New” published today provided a history of this ancient material which “the Jews first introduced into Europe as dye during the Middle Ages.”  The Jews “practiced the art of dyeing with” indigo “and other coloring matters on the shores of the Levant.”

1882: In Wheeling, West Virginia, General Morris Horkheimer, the Republican political leader and Cecilia Horkheimer gave birth Herbert Morris Horkehimer

1882: In “A Plea for the Egyptians” published today, Simon Wolf, the American Jew who has been serving as the United States Consul-General in Egypt summarizes his view of the current situation in Egypt.  After describing the divisions within the society and presenting a socio-economic snapshot of the country, he reports the desire of the local population to be free of the Ottomans but not at the expense of taking on a European yoke.  He sees the British as the greatest threat to progress and independence and expresses the view that America should support the Egyptians in their attempts to modernize their society. [Note – In tone and in some case in fact, one can see a prequel of descriptions and aspirations tied to the 21st century Arab Spring.]

1882: Birthdate of Samuel Lionel "Roxy" Rothafel, the native of Stillwater, MN, “a showman of the 1920s silent film era and the impresario for many of the great New York movie palaces that he managed such as the Strand, Rialto, Rivoli, Capitol, the eponymous Roxy Theatre in New York City and the Radio City Music Hall who passed away in 1936

1883: The funeral of Joseph Reckendorfer is scheduled to take place at his home in New York City. Reckendorfer was a prominent member of the Jewish community as can be seen by the notices requesting members of Temple Emanu-El, members of the Board of Relief of the United Hebrew Charities and the Directors of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum to attend the funeral.  His success in the world of commerce can be seen by a similar request to members and officers of the Stationer’s Board of Trade. Reckendorfer will be remembered by his associates as the man who bought Hyman Lipman’s patent for attaching an eraser to the end of pencil in 1862 for $100,000 only to have the Supreme Court declare the patent invalid in a case in 185 involving Faber Castell.

1883: In New York City, Samuel and Rosalie Abraham gave birth to Columbia University trained chemist, who became chairman of the board of Ruberoid Company and author of authoritative Asphalt and Allied Substances who was the husband of the former Dorothy Jacoby.

1884: Birthdate of Mikhail Gruzenberg, the Belarus native known as Comintern agent Mikhail Borodin.

1884: “Destruction of the Judengasse” published today informed those planning to visit Frankfort this summer that one of the sights described in their guide books – the Judengasse – will have disappeared by the time they arrive in the German city. The Judgengasse (Jew’s Alley) was the ghetto established for the Jews in the 15th century. In 1808 the gates that had locked the Jews in were removed and most of them have moved to other parts of the city.  Only houses on one side of the “alley” are left and they will soon be demolished.

1885: “In the village of Cabanas de Viriato in the scenic northern province of Beira Alta, Portugal, Jose de Sousa Mendes, a well-to-do high court judge, and Maria Angelina de Abranches gave birth to Aristides de Sousa Mendes the Portuguese diplomat who defied his government and saved thousands from the clutches of Hitler and the Gestapo.

1885: It was reported today that the first excursion for the poor children and their mothers sponsored by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children has been scheduled for next week.

1885: “Jews of the Northern Caucasus” published today provided an account of Dag Chufut or Mountain Jews who live in several communities “in the provinces of Daghestan, Terek and Kouban.  Numbering about 500 families they claim to be descendants of Persian families who came here in the 15th century because the local princes wished to exploit their commercial skills.  They speak the local dialects but write in Farsi, the language in which their Talmud is written.  Religion is the only thing that they have in common with Jews living in the eastern part of the Russian Empire and they look to their own rabbis for spiritual guidance.

1885: Josef Ahondorowsky, his wife and six children are scheduled to sail back to Russia on board the State of Indiana today.  This Jewish family arrived on July 2 claiming that their passage had been paid for by the Hebrew Aid Society of Paris while admitting that they had no money. 

1887: “Squelching Rabbi Browne” published today described some of the embarrassing antics of Rabbi E.B.M. Browne that included publicly proclaiming himself to be the “Modern Maccabee” and the “Jewish Beecher” and his role in defending convicted wife killer Adolf Reich. He earned further disdain for attempting to play a role in the funeral of the later President Grant.  He insisted that as an Orthodox Jew he would have to walk to the cemetery because the funeral was held on Shabbat.  Apparently he assumed everybody was ignorant of the fact that Jews do not attend funerals on the Sabbath.  The dwindling number of congregants at Gates of Hope was the final blow to his remaining as leader of the congregation.

1888(1st of Av, 5648) Rosh Chodesh Av

1888: It was reported today that a Bet Din consisting of 4 rabbis and led by Rabbi Jacob Charif will meet twice a week to render opinions related to Jewish law. However, Charif, the newly arrived Orthodox Rabbi who was brought to the United States to lead the primarily immigrant community of Jews living on the lower East Side has not made up his mind if he will remain in the United States or return to Vilna.

1889: The Council of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations assembled in Detroit today and continued in session for three days. Among the many prominent Jewish leaders attending, none will garner more attention than Rabbi Isaac Meyer Wise, the President of the Hebrew Union College whose recent 70th birthday was the cause for nationwide celebration among his Reform colleagues and other supporters.

1889: Thanks to “the efforts of the Reformed or Liberal branch of the Jewish teachers: the Central Conference of American rabbis was organized today in Detroit Michigan.

1889: Mr. Robert  Bongynge said today that regardless of what the Board of Trustees of the Harlem Club might do, he was sure that if a could be taken among the general membership could be taken Senator Jacob A. Cantor would be admitted as a member regardless of the fact that he was Jewish

1890: Daniel Froman, the manager of the Lyceum Theatre arrived in New York City today and went immediately to his country home in Stamford, CT.

1890)21st of Tammuz, 5650): Sixty-five year old German Rabbi Immanuel Heinrich Ritter passed away today in Bohemia.

1890: “Arthur Dale Chairman of the Joint Board of Cutters, tailors and contractors received a letter from the United Hebrew Charities signed by James H. Hoffman, Hyman Blum and M.W. Platzek, stating that it was their duty to assist in settling the difficulty, and that they would be pleased to meet Mr. Dale or other gentlemen who represent the interest of the working people that are affected and discuss the situation with the view of arriving at a satisfactory understanding.”

1891: “A Home For The Jews” published today described a meeting “held at Lemberg, the capital of Galicia between Arnold White representing Baron Hirsch, Herr Franzos representing the Jews of Berlin, and Dr. Karunda” representing the Jews of Vienna where the trio agreed that it would be best to direct Jews fleeing Europe to settlements in Argentina especially since no plans can be developed for settling Jews in Palestine.

1891: It was reported today that committees have been formed at Odessa and other ports throughout Europe to help Jews reach Argentina.

1891: “The compilation of immigration statistics for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1891 was completed today” showing “that during the period 405, 654 immigrants” landed at New York, 33,504 of whom were from Russia and “the majority of them were Jews.”

1891: Charles Stern, a New York peddler who went to Brazil claiming to be a farmer, wrote a letter complaining that the government had not given him farm but had put him to work on railroad construction “compelling him to work like a slave.”

1892: In New York all of the delegates attending the annual convention of American rabbis went to Sabbath services this morning at Temple Beth-El.

1892: Birthdate of Budapest native Sandor Harmati, the “American violinist and composer” who in 1921 was a founding member of the American Music Guild and is best known for his song "Bluebird of Happiness" written in 1934 for Jan Peerce”

1893: The SS Red Sea which is scheduled to arrive in New York today with 800 immigrants in steerage including 120 Russian Jews will be met by immigration officials to ensure the passengers meet the financial requirements for coming to the United States.  Officials are trying to discourage the trafficking in indigent immigrants that owners of tramp steamers have been engaging in.

1894: Twice as many mothers are expected to attend today’s lecture on the care and feeding of children during warm weather being held at the Hebrew Institute than attended the first such lecture.

1895: It was reported today that Dr. Max Landsberg is scheduled to deliver the welcoming address at the upcoming annual Central Conference of American Rabbis which will be held at Rochester, NY.

1895: Judge Stover has vacated the order he had issued to allow the District Attorney to exhume the body of the late Mrs. Wolf Silverman because the insurance company thought her death was suspicious.  The judge said that if the insurance company had any proof to back up their allegations about her husband they should submit them to the District Attorneyeb

1895: “Hebrews Want Representation” published today described efforts of the Jews to have one of their co-religionist appointed as a School Trustee of Tenth Ward where 95% of the students are Jews. Nathan Shevy, a New York lawyer, has proposed that Trustee position held by Charles B. Stover be declared vacant since he has not attended a meeting for seven months and that he be replaced by a Jew.  The only Jew who had been a Trustee was not reappointed and currently all of the Trustees are Christians.

1896: William Jennings Bryan gave his “Cross of Gold Speech” at the Democratic National Convention.

1896: It was reported today that Lord Rosebery’s marriage to “a wealthy Jewess at time when his finances were at the lowest ebb…was sufficient to spoil his chances with the working classes” which has sealed his political doom.

1896: Birthdate of Gershon Hadas, the husband of Anne Eisenberg Hadas and the Rabbi at Beth Shalom Synagogue.

1896: In the trial of Adolph Herschkopf for the murder of Lizzie Jaeger, the prosecution rested today.

1898: The month-long mustering in process for the 6th Virginia Volunteer Infantry whose members included Mathew N. Levy of Norfolk began today.

1899: Police made renewed efforts today in Worcester, MA, to enforce the blue laws related to Sunday closings following a demand by Jewish merchants who had been targeted by the police for selling merchandize on “the Sabbath.”

1897: On the day after he passed away David bar Abraham HaCohen was buried at the Plashet Jewish Cemetery in London.

1899: The list of bequests made by the late David Krakauer published today included $1,000 to the Montefiore Home and the Hebrew Sheltering Orphan Asylum; $2,000 for Mount Sinai Hospital; and $500 to the Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews and the United Hebrew Charities

1900: Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom gives royal assent to an act creating the Commonwealth of Australia thus uniting separate colonies on the continent under on891: e federal government. The first Jews arrived in Australia, in 1788 when European convicts settled in what was to become the city of Sydney.  Jews played an active role in the growth and development of the various colonies that would make up the CommonHealth of Australia.  Members of Montefiore family, which was part of the clan headed by Sir Moses Montefiore the famed philanthropist and businessman, developed several commercial ventures and held numerous public positions during this time. The township of Montefiore stands as a testament to the family’s active role in the development of Australia and its Jewish community.

1901: According to reports published in the New York Times, Montefiore Isaacs, the nephew of the late Sir Moses Montefiore, is one of the most popular bachelors who belong to the posh Metropolitan Club.  Among other things, Montefiore is famous for his skills as a magician; skills which he has used in “thousands of performances” given for a wide variety of charities.  He is also a well regarded for his knowledge of Shakespeare and his collection of very rare books.

1902: Another interview with Lord Rothschild takes place during which Herzl submits the details of Colonization Company for the development of Sinai, El Arish and Cyprus. Rothschild promises to discuss the plan with the British Minister for the Colonies, Joseph Chamberlain.

1904: The National Democratic Convention which Samuel Untermyer attended as a delegate from New York and nominated Alton B. Parker to run against Socialist Eugene Debs and Republican Theodore Roosevelt came to a close. In the fall, in New York’s 8th Assembly District on the Lower East Side which was dominated by Jewish voters, “Democrat Alton B. Parker crushed Socialist Debs by nearly 3 to 1, but the “all-American” Republican, Theodore Roosevelt, beat them both and easily swept the neighborhood.” (As reported by Michael Medved)

1905: “The sole memorial service” honoring the recently deceased Secretary of State John Hay “to be held in New York City” took place “in the synagogue of the First Romanian-American Congregation” where “recognition of the services of the United States in behalf of the Jews during Mr. Hay’s secretaryship” were a key part of the event.

1905: The Ninth Summer Assembly of the Jewish Chautauqua Society continued for a second day in Atlantic City, NJ.

1908: In Yampil, a town in the western Ukraine, Bluma and Moshe Mikardo gave birth to British Labor MP Ian Mikardo.

1909: The Jews of Persia take refuge inside the Turkish consulate during a revolt. They appeal to the Hahambashi of Turkey to help them become Ottoman subjects.

1909: In Daruvar, Rebekka (née Figel) Frankfurter and Rabbi Mavro Frankfurter gave birth to David Franfkfurter who assassinated German NSDAP leader Wilhelm Gustloff

1911: In Milwaukee, Wisconsin, the 15th annual summer assembly of the Jewish Chautauqua Society led by Chancellor Henry Berkowitz continued for a third day.

1912(24th of Tammuz, 5672): Seventy-eight year old George Stause passed away today in New York City.

1913: Birthdate of Rabbi Sándor Scheiber, the director of the Rabbinical Seminary in Budapest.

1915: Charles Edward Sebag-Montefiore and Muriel Alice Ruth de Pass gave birth to Lt.Col. Oliver Robert Marne Sebag-Montefiore who passed away in October, 1993.

1915: Birthdate of American composer David Leo Diamond who for more than five decades figured prominently among mainstream American composers. Born in Rochester, New York, to Yiddish-speaking immigrant parents from the area around Lemberg, Galicia (now Ukraine), he received a typical Jewish religious education in the local afternoon Hebrew school. At the age of seven he displayed musical gifts on the violin, which he learned to play initially on his own, and he began composing small pieces while still a child—also without formal instruction. There followed violin lessons at public grammar school and, briefly, while his family was in temporary residence in Cleveland, Ohio, during the 1920s, some studies at the Cleveland Institute of Music. Later, he was awarded a scholarship at the Eastman School of Music, in Rochester, where he studied with Bernard Rogers. The premiere of his first orchestral work, a one-movement symphony, was conducted by Eastman's resident composer and composition department chairman, Howard Hanson. As a student in Rochester, Diamond was fascinated by the cantorial art he heard in the local synagogue and at concerts given by visiting cantorial celebrities—especially, as he could still recall more than seven decades later, the famous Yossele Rosenblatt (1882–1933). Diamond also developed an intellectual interest in Jewish music history, acquainting himself with much of the available literature. During his studies with Rogers, he began writing short pieces that incorporated Jewish themes and modes. Before completing the course at Eastman, however, Diamond left for New York City, where he became a pupil of Roger Sessions and studied at the Dalcroze Institute. Sessions, like Rogers, had been a student of Ernest Bloch, and Diamond always felt that this provided him an indirect yet significant influence of that acknowledged 20th-century master. Shortly after arriving in New York, Diamond introduced himself to Lazare Saminsky then the music director at Temple Emanu-El, the city's flagship Reform congregation. Saminsky, an established and respected composer in the general music world who was also one of the major personalities on the American Jewish music scene, took an interest in the young composer's gifts and became something of a patron. He invited Diamond to write various liturgical settings for Emanu-El's services, and Diamond continued on his own to add to that repertoire. Saminsky's encouragement proved significant on several levels: "It was really Mr. Saminsky who got me writing more and more," Diamond later acknowledged. In those initial New York years Saminsky also introduced him to the highly regarded and well-established American born composer, the first composition professor at The Juilliard School, Frederick Jacobi (1891–1952), who, like Diamond, included Judaically related works among his overall opera. Jacobi quietly organized some private financial assistance for Diamond to help him continue his studies and pursue his artistic goals.

1915: Having just returned from a tour of the Western Front, Chief Rabbi Joseph Herman Hertz and Rabbi Michael Adler, Senior Chaplin for the Jewish soldiers serving in the field, reported on the conditions of the Jewish troops serving on activity duty.  Based on published figures, of the 200,000 Jews living in the British Isles, 20,000 are serving on active duty and another 5,000 are in training units. Actually, there may be more Jews serving than this tally indicates.  When many Jews were enlisting in the early days of the war, they neglected to indicate their religion, so they were automatically labeled as Church of England.  The two clerics quoted Field Marshall Sir John French as paying the highest possible tribute to the bravery and patriotism of the Jewish soldiers serving in his command. The enthusiastic response of the Jews is attributed to the treatment they have received as citizens of the British Empire.  Rabbis of fighting age are serving in the ranks and the sons of Rabbis who are of military age have almost all enlisted. The sons of the rich and powerful are well-represented as can be seen by the names of Montefiore, Rothschild and Henriques.  In addition to the males serving at the front, hundreds of Jewish women are serving as Red Cross nurses both on the Western Front and on the home front.

1915: As of today, “hundreds of Jewish women are serving as Red Cross nurses on the battlefields” in France and “the hospitals” in Great Britain.

1916: In Long Branch, NJ, ten year old Abraham Stollar greeted the delegates at the morning session of the Young Judea Convention with a talk in Hebrew which was replied to by Emanuel Neumann who also spoke in Hebrew.

1916: At their convention in Far Rockaway, the United Synagogues of America “adopted a resolution offered by Dr. Cyrus Adler calling on the organization to co-operate with the army and navy branch of the Young Men’s Hebrew Association in aiding dependents of the 5,000 Jews in the National Guard who have been ordered to the Mexican border.”

1916: As of today, the fund of the American Jewish Relief Committee of which Felix M. Warburg is Treasurer has collect approximately $4,400,000.

1916: It was reported today that among the contributions received by The Central Committee for the Relief of Jews Suffering Through the War of which Harr Fischel is the Treasurer was a $196 from the Jewish community of Sioux City, IA and $130 from Warheit Publishing Company in New York City.

1917: It was reported today that “at a regular meeting of the Board of Alderman of New York…a formal resolution of appreciation for the work carried on by Nathan Strauss with his milk stations whereby he has save the lives of at least a quarter of a million babies in the past twenty-five years was unanimously adopted.”

1917: “The Jewish Welfare Board was formed by a group of prominent Jewish Americans today as a response by the American Jewish Community to the United States’ entry into the First World War on April 6th.

1917: Jacob Schiff, Herbert Parsons, Dr. Henry Moskowitz, Morris Hillquit, and Abraham Cahan were among the throng that greeted the Russian Commission led by Boris Bakhmeteff at the Henry Street Settlement House.

1918 Bernard Baruch “was awarded the Army Distinguished Service Medal for services rendered to help in the war effort.

The President of the United States of America, authorized by Act of Congress, July 9, 1918, takes pleasure in presenting the Army Distinguished Service Medal to Mr. Bernard M. Baruch, a United States Civilian, for exceptionally meritorious and distinguished services to the Government of the United States, in a duty of great responsibility during World War I, in the organization and administration of the War Industries Board and in the coordination of allied purchases in the United States. By establishing a broad and comprehensive policy for the supervision and control of the raw materials, manufacturing facilities, and distribution of the products of industry, he stimulated the production of war supplies, coordinated the needs of the military service and the civilian population, and contributed alike to the completeness and speed of the mobilization and equipment of the military forces and the continuity of their supply. War Department, General Orders No. 15 (1921)

1918 Colonel Harry Cutler, Retired, “was awarded the Army Distinguished Service Medal for services rendered to help in the war effort.

The President of the United States of America, authorized by Act of Congress, July 9, 1918, takes pleasure in presenting the Army Distinguished Service Medal to Colonel (Retired) Harry Cutler, Rhode Island National Guard, a United States Civilian, for exceptionally meritorious and distinguished services to the Government of the United States, in a duty of great responsibility during World War I as Chairman, Executive Committee, of the Jewish Welfare Board.

1918: By direction of the President, under the provisions of the act of Congress approved today (Bul. No. 43, W.D., 1918), Private Lester Bergman (MCSN: 158340/117036), United States Marine Corps, is cited by the Commanding General, American Expeditionary Forces, for gallantry in action and a silver star may be placed upon the ribbon of the Victory Medals awarded him. Private Bergman distinguished himself by gallantry in action while serving with Company E, 5th Regiment (Marines), 2d Division, American Expeditionary Forces, in action in the Bois de Belleau, France, 13 June 1918, in attacking, with eight comrades, an enemy machine gun nest.

1919(11th of Tammuz, 5679): Alexander Benjamin “Broadway” Smith, the turn of the century major leaguer who played for the New York Giants, Boston Red Sox and Chicago Cubs passed away today.

1919: By a vote of 209 to 16 the German National Assembly ratified the Versailles Treaty which the Nazis would use as part of their drive to power.

1920: Birthdate of Zalman Lev Steinberg, the Moscow native who as Leo Steinberg became “one of the most brilliant, influential and controversial art historians of the last half of the 20th century.”

1922: The Philadelphia Inquirer described the career of Dr. M. H. Spare who had “directed the erection of a $35,000 building” to serve the needs of the Jewish community of Chester, PA.

1922: It was reported today that “in a recent campaign” the Young Men’s and Young Women’s Hebrew Association of Camden have “increased their membership to 1,000.”

1924(7th of Tammuz, 5684): Sixty-four year old Russian-born American labor statistician and Yiddish language intellectual passed away today.

1924: The Democratic National Convention, during which Doctor Stephen S. Wise, the Rabbi of the Free Synagogue had delivered the invocation” came to a close today.

1925(17th of Tammuz, 5685): Tzom Tammuz

1926: Birthdate of Dr. Mathilde Krim, scientist and AIDS activist. She recognized soon after the first cases of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) were reported in 1981 that this new disease raised grave scientific and medical questions and that it might have important socio-political consequences. She dedicated herself to increasing the public's awareness of AIDS and to a better understanding of its cause, its modes of transmission, and its epidemiologic pattern. . It was during her doctoral studies that Krim converted to Judaism, inspired in part by learning the truth about the Holocaust and in part by her association with Jews from Israel (then Palestine) who were studying at the University. In 1953, Krim moved with her husband and daughter to Israel, where she found a position at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot. At Weizmann, she contributed to studies that laid the foundation for amniocentesis, became one of the first experts in culturing cells, and studied the viruses thought to cause some forms of cancer. After moving to New York 1958, she joined the research faculty at Cornell Medical College and later at Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research. For many years, she was deeply involved in the study of interferons, natural substances that were considered promising for the treatment of cancer. Just as the study of interferons was falling out of favor, AIDS was becoming a major public health concern. Krim left full-time research and became involved in AIDS treatment and activism. In 1985, she founded the AIDS Medical Foundation (AMF), the first private organization concerned with fostering and supporting AIDS research. In August, 2000 she was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian honor in the United States.

1927: Birthdate of Boston native Harriet Shapiro who gained game as actress Susan Cabot

1928(21st of Tammuz, 5688): Talmudic scholar, Rabbi Shlomo Polachek passed away.  Born in Grodna in 1877 when Jews constituted almost half of the city’s population he served as rosh yeshiva in Lida and Bialystok before moving to the United States in 1922 to serve as Rosh Yeshiva at the Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary (RIETS) the Rabbinical School of Yeshiva University and its Yeshiva College, America's first yeshiva.

1929: Writer and sculptor Alfred Dreyfus who was committed to the Manhattan State Hospital in 1928 was transferred to Dr. McDonald’s house at Central Valley, NY.

1929:  Birthdate of King Hassan II of Morocco.  King Hassan served as a “back channel” during negotiations between Israeli and Arab officials.  He played a critical, if somewhat still undefined role, in the Camp David Negotiations that led to the peace agreement between Israel and Egypt in 1973.

1930: At Michael Reiss Hospital in Chicago, Robert B. Bregman of Cleveland, Ohio and his wife Claire Styne Bregman, the sister of songwriter Jule Styne gave birth to musical arranger and record producer Buddy Bregman who is the father of “Tracey Elizabeth Bregman, who plays Lauren Fenmore on Young & Restless and Bold & Beautiful.”

1931: In Gadsden, Alabama, “Alvin Rosenbaum Lowi, who founded a chemical company, and the former Janice Haas, a piano teacher and silent movie accompanist” gave birth to Theodore Jay Lowi, the Professor in the Government Department of Cornell University whose students included “Israel Serigo-Waismel-Manor, a lecturer at the University of Haifa.”

1932: Birthdate of Soviet refusenik Iosif “Yosef” Ziselovich Begun

1933: In North London, Dr. Samuel Sacks and Muriel Elsie Landau, one of the first female surgeons in England gave birth to Oliver Wolf Sacks the neurologist and author who was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) in 2008.

1934: Two days after he passed away in Saratoga Springs, NY, Melvin Beilis was buried at the Mount Carmel Cemetery in Queens which is also the final resting place of Sholem Aleichem and Leo Frank.

1936: The Palestine Post reported from London that Mr. Ormsby-Gore, the Colonial Secretary, admitted in the House of Commons that since the Palestine Government's expenditure on Moslem Religious Courts exceeded income, it was inevitable that the Jewish taxpayer had contributed approximately £9,000 to the maintenance of the Moslem Supreme Council, while Jewish religious courts and the Chief Rabbinate received no support from the government. More British troops were transferred from Egypt to Palestine. Ha'aretz and Haboker dailies were suspended for five days for the "publication of false news, likely to create alarm and despondency" (the comment on the failure of the British troops and of the Palestine Police to deal effectively with Arab disturbances).

1936: “The United States liner Manhattan arrived” at New York today “with 785 passengers” of whom 100 were “Jewish refugees from Germany.”

1936: At Tannersville, NY, the convention of the Rabbinical Assembly of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America “endorsed a special campaign for a national fund to plant 100,000 trees in Palestine to replace those destroyed during the current disturbances” and “recommended that the next annual convention be held in connection with the fiftieth anniversary of the Jewish Theological Seminary.”

1936: In Paris, Francois Pietri, the former Minister of Finance told the Chamber of Deputies that “the International Olympic Committee had received assurances from German sport authorities that there would be no discrimination against Jews and that the Jews would be represented among the German athletes.”

1936(19th of Tammuz, 5696): Zionist Morris Paul Tax passed away today in Milwaukee. Wisconsin.

1937: George Gershwin was rushed back to Cedars of Lebanon hospital after collapsing tonight at the home of lyricist Yip Harburg where they had been working on the score of the “Goldwyn Follies.”

1938(10th of Tammuz, 5698): Famed jurist Benjamin Cardozo passed away. Cardozo was part of Sephardic family that had deep roots in the American experience. One of his ancestors fought in the American Revolution. Born in 1870 in New York, Cardozo had a long, distinguished career as an author on legal matters and a jurist before being named an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court by Herbert Hoover in 1932. Cardozo was the second Jew to reach this height; the first being Louis D. Brandies. At one time, Cardozo was ranked as one of the "ten most foremost judges in American Judicial history." Cardozo was an active member of the Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue in New York. During the 1930’s, with the rise of European anti-Semitism and Hitler, Cardozo became a public supporter of Palestine as a homeland for the Jews.

1938(10th of Tammuz, 5698): Eighty-year old Calude Goldsmid Montefiore the son of Nathaniel Montefiore and the grandson of Sir I.L. Goldsmid passed away today who was one of the founders of Liberal (Reform) Judaism in the United Kingdom passed away today.

1938: Two seventeen year old Jewish hikers were stabbed and seriously wounded this morning “while passing through an Arab village, a mile from Tel Aviv on the main Jaffa-Jerusalem road.  They were stripped and left by the roadside until found by a passing motorist.” The attack marked the end of bloody week in which Arab attackers had killed 12 Jews and wounded another 24.

1939(22nd of Tammuz, 5699): Ukrainian born Boris Thomashefsky who came to the United States in 1881 where his singing and acting skills made him “one of the biggest stars in the Yiddish theatre” passed away today.

1940: With the end of the subscription series of the Palestine Symphony Orchestra the musical season has closed. Thirteen series have been presented this year in Tel Aviv, Haifa, and Jerusalem--compared to the ten series of former years. Special programs for the colonies

1940: Between today and the end of August, 2,139 Jewish and Gentile Poles received visas from the Japanese.

1941: Birthdate of Yosef Shiloach, the native of Iranian Kurdisan and Israeli actor who made Aliyah at the age of 9.

1941(14th of Tammuz, 5701): In Liepāja, Latvia, Erhard Grauel, a detachment of Einsatzkommando 2 under the command of Erhard Grauel,  murdered another 100 people today, most of whom were Jews.

1941: Birthdate of Bobby Frankel, one of the most successful American thoroughbred trainers, whose horses included the champions Bertrando, Ghostzapper and Empire Maker, the winner of the 2003 Belmont Stakes.

1941(14th of Tammuz, 5701): Seventy-three year old Zionist leader David Jochelman who opposed the offer of Uganda as a Jewish home and spent WW I in London where he founded the Jewish War Victims’ Fund and the Russo-Jewish War Fund passed away today.

1941: During the invasion of the Soviet Union, Zhitomir, a city in the Ukraine with pre-war Jewish population of 29,503 was seized by the Nazis.

1941: Hungary invaded the eastern Ukraine. Hungary was an ally of Nazi Germany during the war. Hungary's Jews suffered at the hand of homegrown anti-Semites.  But eventually Eichman arrived and the full weight of the Final Solution fell, first in the countryside in places like Sighet and later in the big cities, most notably Budapest.

1942(24th of Tammuz, 5702): Eighty-two year old German historian Ernst Bernheim who lost his career during the Nazi era because he was classified as a Jew died today.

1942: Anne Frank’s family went into hiding in an attic above her father’s office in an Amsterdam warehouse.

1942: Jewish partisan Vitka Kempner returns to the Vilna Ghetto, having successfully planted a land mine and blown up the engine and ammunition cars of a German military train.

1943(6th of Tammuz, 5703): Sixty year old Isidore Goudeket, the Amsterdam native who was part of the Dutch gymnastic at the 1908 Summer Olympics was murdered today at Sobibor.

1943: Operation Husky began tonight as Allied troops began landing in Sicily.  The Germans and Italians were not expecting the landings thanks, in large part, to Operation Mincemeat.  Operation Mincemeat was one of the most successful acts of subterfuge carried during World War II.  It was mastermind by Edwin Montagu, a Colonel in the British Army who belonged to of the UK’s most distinguished Jewish families.  Operation Mincemeat convinced the Germans that the invasion would come at Greece or Sardinia and not the island off the toe of the Italian Boot.  For more about this you might want to see “The Man Who Never Was” or read the recently published Operation Mincemeat by Ben Macintyre.

1944: Responding to Allied pressure, especially threats to hold Hungary’s leadership responsible for the shipment of Hungarian Jews to Auschwitz prompted Admiral Miklos Horthy, Hungary's regent, to stop deportations.
1944: Jack Simonowitz and the former Rose Cohen gave birth to Evelyn May Simonowitz who gained fame as Evelyn Lieberman who was “the first woman to serve as deputy chief of staff to a U.S. President” and “banished” Monica Lewinskey “to a job outside the White House.” (As reported by Sam Roberts)

1944: Raoul Wallenberg arrived in Budapest where he presented visas for 630 Hungarian Jews. Raoul Wallenberg was one of the greatest human beings in history. This Swedish national risked his life over and over again to save the Jews of Hungary. With only Chutzpah, Courage and a fair stash of cash, this man faced down the Nazi murder machine and made it give up some of its Jews. He is living proof that one person can make a difference. I have never been able to find any satisfactory reason why he risked his life for this thankless undertaking. In the end, the Soviets entered Budapest and took him away to a fate that is still unknown. That the world remained silent while Six Million perished is an oft-told tale. That the world (specifically the governments of the Allied powers) did not push for this man’s release is a permanent stain.

1944: Today the “Kasztner Rescue Train” which had left Budapest on June 30th was diverted to Bergen Belsen today. [For more see Gaylen Ross’  2 Disc Dvd of “Killing Kasztner” which is now available on  Amazon

1944: Ed Koch, the future Mayor of New York, who was fighting with U.S. Army in Europe wrote in his diary: “Patrolling today. Our object was to get out of a forest. We had to go from cover to cover. I hid behind a tree and assumed the prone position. Lt. Reed came over with the Lt. Col. and said, “Koch, on what side of a tree do you aim from,” I said, “On the right side.” He said, “So what the hell are you doing on the left side?”

1945; Birthdate of Donald Lee “Don” Novick, the native of Cheyenne, Wyoming whose culinary skill and generosity would make him an unsung hero of the Cedar Rapids Jewish community before his untimely death.

1945: Birthdate of Rabbi Gene Levy, the spiritual leader, in the truest sense of that term, of Temple B’Nai Israel in Little Rock, AR.

1945: Sixty-three year old Amalie ("Emma") Henriette Jessen the widow of German historian Ernst Bernheim who lost his career during the Nazi era because he was classified as a Jew passed away today.

1947: Today, the day on which Noah Klieger was supposed to lead of a group of DP’s across France to the port of Sete, plans were upset because “the French trucking union opened a nationwide strike for higher wages and built road blockades on all mainline roads.”

1948:  During the War of Independence, Egyptian artillery opened fire on Kfar Darom.  This was followed by an attack led by an armored column and infantry.  When the Egyptians entered the settlement they found that the Jews had already decamped. Goliath had beaten David, but it was a pyrrhic victory, since the defenders had upset the Egyptian timetable for taking Tel Aviv. This military action took place during what was supposed to be a four week cease fire between the Arabs and the Israelis.

1948: The four week cease fire between the Israelis and the invading Arab armies was set to end.  The Arabs rejected attempts by Count Bernadotte, the U.N. envoy, to extend the cease fire for another ten days.

1948: Israeli forces launched Operation Danny, an offensive designed “to capture territory east of Tel Aviv” and then open the road to Jerusalem in a bid to break the Arab stranglehold on the city. The offensive was named after Danny Mass, the commander of “Convoy 35” and was under the command of Yigal Allon and Yitzhak Rabin.  The undertrained and poorly armed Jewish forces were up against the Arab Legion, the elite British trained army of Jordan.  The ultimate key to victory would in the need to capture the seemingly impregnable Arab position at Latrun. “Convoy 35” refers to an attempt made by a detachment of Haganah troopers to bring supplies to the Gush Etzion kibbutzim in January of 1948.  Thirty-five died in the attempt and many of their bodies were mutilated beyond recognition.

1948: Israeli forces launched an all-night bombardment as part of an attempt to re-take the Old City.

1948(2nd of Tammuz): Twenty-six year old Robert “Bob” Vickman a WW II veteran of the USAAF who was a member of 101 Squadron died today while fighting against aircraft from the REAF.

1948: The fifth Israeli attack on the Egyptian-held police fort of Iraq Suwaydan came to an end with the installation still in the hands of the Arabs.

1948: Mordechai Weingarten “was chosen to meet Abdullah el Tell, now the Jordanian Military Commander of the Old City, to discuss the release of the prisoners taken in the Jewish Quarter, the burial of bodies left in the Quarter, and the rescue of any Scrolls of the Law that had survived.”

1950: In Israel, 100 orderlies joined 2,000 nurses who were already on strike.  Both groups are “demanding better working conditions.”

1951: Australia, South Africa and the United Kingdom ended their state of war with Germany today.

1951: Haifa native Ivry “Gitlis made his debut in Paris, playing a recital at the 'Salle Gaveau', sponsored by the music manager.”

1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that Jerusalem was assured of a regular supply of ice for domestic purposes from outside of the city and that the government granted a subsidy, due to the cost of the transport of ice from the coast. The Jerusalem Program for Zionism, replacing the Basel Program drawn up at the First Zionist Congress in 1897, was drawn up for the 23rd Zionist Congress to be held in Jerusalem on August 14.

1952: In Hollywood, CA, Nicholas M. Schenck of New York, president of Loew’s, Inc. outlined plans for the company’s first sweeping economy move since the Great Depression which included an immediate pay cut of 25 to 50 percent for any executive making more than $1,000 a week.

1955(19th of Tammuz, 5715): Parashat Pinchas

1955(19th of Tammuz, 5715): Eighty-six year old Chicago born Albert Pick, Sr. the founder of what has become the Pick Hotels Corporation which is now headed by his son Albert Pick, Jr and the father of Mrs. Gertrude Edmunds passed away today in Miami Beach, FL.

1955: Today “just two weeks before the Big Four…are scheduled to meet at Geneva” where nuclear disarmament will be an agenda item, pacifist Earl Russell is scheduled to released “a statement on nuclear weapons by Dr. Albert Einstein” which the Nobel Prize winner had given him shortly before his death.

1955: The Russell-Einstein Manifesto was released by Bertrand Russell in London.  The manifesto was an attempt by the “peace advocates” to deescalate the Cold War by calling attention to the dangers of nuclear weapons.  It contained a call for an international conference to deal with issues of nuclear disarmament.  The Einstein in the manifesto was Albert Einstein who died shortly after the manifesto was issued.

1956(1st of Av, 5716): Rosh Chodesh Av

1957(10th of Tammuz, 5717): Fifty-five year old Maxwell Abbell, the Polish born son of Morris and Freida Abell, husband of Fannie Abell with whom he had five children and Harvard graduate who worked as an accountant in Chicago until he passed the Illinois bar 1938 after which he became the “owner of hotels and buildings throughout the United States” and a leader in the Jewish community as can be seen by his service as “vice president of the  American-Palestine Trading Corporation,” President of the United Synagogues of America and trustee of the JNF passed away today.

1957: “Loving You” the first of Elvis Presley’s musicals directed Hal Kanter who co-wrote the screenplay and produced by Hal B. Wallis and with music by Walter Scharf was released today in the United States (Editor’s Note – Elvis was not Jewish but all of the others were.

1958: Shayetet 13 operatives infiltrated Beirut harbor in Operation Yovel. They were discovered, and a gunfight and chase ensued. The commandos were able to retreat without any casualties

1961: Israel officially recognized South Korea

1962: “Yossele Schumacher, who was reunited with both his parents last night for the first time in more than two years,” is scheduled to take the stand today “in Jerusalem District Court in the trial of a couple charged with hiding him before he was spirited out of Israel.”

1962: Birthdate of New York native and Ivy League educated (Penn and Harvard Law) investor Steve Eisman who gained fame after appearing The Big Short by Michael Lewis which provided the fodder for the film of the same name that exposed the sub-prime market and who is a vocal opponent of “for profit colleges” – the educational equivalent of the sub-prime cesspool.

1963(17th of Tammuz, 5723): Unbeknownst to anybody, last observance of Tzom Tammuz during the Presidency of John Kennedy.

1963(17th of Tammuz, 5723): Eighty-eight year old Lawrence A. Tanzer, the Ivy League educated lawyer (Harvard and Columbia University Law School) the son of Arnold and Ida Tanzer and husband of Florence Keller Tanzer with whom he had two daughters who was a civic reformer and a driving force behind creation of the city charter that was in effect until January of this year, passed away today.

1964: Mr. and Mrs. Zeev Jabotinsky are scheduled to be reinterred in a Jerusalem cemetery today.

1967:Mezzo-soprano Jennie Tourel joined Leonard Bernstein for a concert on Jerusalem's Mount Scopus to celebrate the end of the Six-Day War. It was a moment that brought together several of the themes of her life: music, dedication to Israel, and work with prominent composers and conductors. Born in Vitebsk, Belorussia (now Belarus) in 1900, she trained as a singer in Paris, where she debuted at the Opéra Comique in 1933. She won acclaim for her performance of the title role in Bizet's Carmen. For nearly a decade, she was the star of the Opéra Comique, singing the roles of Charlotte in Massenet's Werther and the title role in Thomas's Mignon. Fleeing Paris just a week before the Nazi invasion, Tourel made her way to New York via Portugal, Cuba, and Canada. Though at first she had trouble finding work, she eventually impressed a musical agent who arranged an audition with the conductor Arturo Toscanini. Toscanini, in turn, hired her to sing with the New York Philharmonic, and she soon appeared with the Boston Symphony Orchestra and the Philadelphia Orchestra as well. Later, Leonard Bernstein wrote the Jeremiah Symphony especially for her voice, and Tourel performed it all over the world. In her late forties, Tourel became well-known as a song recitalist. Though she had received critical and popular acclaim for her work in opera, her performances of French, German, and Russian songs, including Ravel's Shéhérazade, Mussorgsky's Songs and Dances of Death, and works by Schubert and Schumann, gained her an even wider circle of fans. At an age when many singers retire, Tourel continued to give acclaimed performances to eager audiences. She continued to perform until past the age of seventy. In addition to performing all over the world, Tourel taught at New York's Juilliard School, and annually at the Samuel Rubin Academy of Music in Jerusalem. In 1949, she became one of the first internationally-known artists to visit the infant Jewish state. Following that first visit, she remained involved in the musical life of Israel, with frequent visits and master classes. Tourel died on November 23, 1973. Leonard Bernstein paid her tribute in a eulogy at her funeral, saying, ‘when Jennie opened her mouth, God spoke.’”

1967: INS Eilat, a Z Class destroyer commanded by Yitzhak Shushan, set sail due west toward the Sinai coast.

1967: Ninety-three year old Dr. Eugene Fisher the member of the Nazi Party who was appointed rector of the Frederick William University of Berlin by Adolf Hitler, who provided the basis for many of Nazi policies on eugenics and who escaped prosecution by whitewashing his record, passed away today.

1969:  Egyptian commandos raid an Israeli tank depot, killing 8, wounding nine and taking one prisoner.

1969: Twenty-two year old Israeli singer/song writer Mike Brant, who had changed his name from Moshe in an attempt to increase his appeal, arrived in Paris today where he was told he could meet a producer who would further his music career.

1970:  “Where’s Poppa?” a comedy starring George Segal and Ron Leibman directed by Carl Reiner who cast his son Rob as “Roger” was released in the United States today.

1970: A London revival production of a musical “with a book by Moss Hart” and lyrics co-written by Oscar Hammerstein II opened today at the Drury Lane Theatre.

1973: The Ninth Maccabiah games open in Tel Aviv, Israel.

1974(19th of Tammuz, 5734): Seventy year old Lithuanian born “choreographer and dance teacher” Sonia Gaskell who in 1939 move to her husband’s home in the Netherlands where she survived the war  and continued teaching until she passed away today in Paris.

1975: “Smile” a satirical comedy with a screenplay by Jerry Belson that Marvin Hamlisch would convert into a 1986 Broadway musical was released today in the United States.

1976: The Jerusalem Post reported on the tragic fate of Dora Bloch, who held both British and Israeli citizenship, and who remained at a Ugandan hospital after all the other hijacked Israelis were freed by the Entebbe IDF operation. She ominously disappeared from the hospital after having been visited by a British official, one day after the Israeli raid, and was suspected of having been later murdered. Israel cited this case at the UN as an apparent example of Ugandan complicity in the high jacking of the Air France plane.

1976: In response to the demands of African governments, the UN Security Council is met today “to take up their charge that Israel’s recuse of hijacked hostages at Entebbe airport in Uganda was a case of ‘wanton aggression.’”

1976: In Highland Park, Illinois, Joanne and Lewis Savage gave birth to actor Frederick Aaron “Fred” Savage the older brother of actor Ben Savage and actress Kala Savage.

1978: After 147 performances a revival of David Merrick’s “Hello Dolly starring Carol Channing came to a close at the Lunt-Fontanne Theatre.

1979: A car bomb destroys a Renault owned by famed "Nazi hunters" Serge and Beate Klarsfeld at their home in France. A note purportedly from ODESSA claims responsibility.

1986(2nd of Tammuz, 5746): Seventy-five year old journalist, author and political science professor Harold Isaacs passed away today. (As reported by Jane Perlez)

1991: Playwright Ariel Dorfman’s “Death and the Maiden” premiered at the Royal Court Theatre today.

1993(20th of Tammuz, 5753): Sixty-seven year old television producer and director Steve Previn, the brother Andre Previn passed away today.

1997: Michael Eitan succeeded Benjamin Netanyahu as Minister of Science and Technology

1998: ABC broadcast the final episode of “Prey” a sci-fi television series starring Debra Messing.

1999: U.S. premier of “American Pie,” the first in a series of coming-of-age teen movies produced and directed Paul Weitz and Chris Weitz, featuring Eugene Levy as Noah Levenstein and Eli Marienthal as Matt Stifler

2000: The New York Times features reviews books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Oberammergau: The Troubling Story of the World's Most Famous Passion Play by James Shapiro and Freud’s Megalomania by Israel Rosenfield.

2001: President George Bush awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom to 11 people including A.M. Rosenthal of the New York Times and Katherine Graham of the Washington Post.

2001: Hamas took credit for today’s bombing at the Kussufim border crossing.

2001(18th of Tammuz, 5761)(Capt. Shai Shalom Cohen, 22, of Pardes Hanna, was killed and another soldier was wounded when an explosive charge detonated beneath their jeep after leaving the Aduraim IDF base south of Hebron.

2001(18th of Tammuz, 5761): Eighty-three year old “Morris H. Bergreen, a lawyer, businessman and administrator who as president of the Skirball Foundation oversaw the donation of millions of dollars to New York University, the Skirball Cultural Center in Los Angeles” passed away today. (As reported by Eric Pace)

2001: “Playing a Bit of Wagner Sets Off an Uproar in Israel” published today described the reaction to Daniel Barenboim’s decision to use a piece by the German composer at a Jerusalem concert.

2002: A production of “Pacific Overtures,” “a musical written by Stephen Sondheim and John Weidman” set in Japan when the Americans were arriving in 1853 opened at Avery Fisher Hall at Lincoln Center.

2002: Moshe "Bogie" Ya'alon was appointed IDF Chief of Staff.

2002: “Zig Zag,” a movie treatment of the novel directed by David S. Goyer was released in the United States today.

2004: After premiering in Los Angeles, “Anchorman: The Legend of Ron Burgundy” a comedy produced by Judd Apatow and co-starring Paull Rudd was released throughout the United States.

2004(20th of Tammuz, 5764: Sixty-six year old Rudy “Roughhouse Rudy” LaRusso the Dartmouth grad who went on career in the NBA passed away today.

2006(13th of Tammuz, 5766): Alan Senitt, a 27 year old political activist from north London who was being prepped for a glittering career, was stabbed to death in Georgetown.  Police said he was trying to protect his female companion when they were targeted by armed robbers as they walked home in Washington DC. The former chairman of the Union of Jewish Students (UJS), Senitt had moved to the US to work on Democrat Mark Warner's presidential campaign.

2007: Ryan Kalish was named New York Penn – League Player for the week starting today.

2007: “Spielberg on Spielberg’ – a 90 minute documentary about the celebrated film maker – appears on TCM, The Turner Classic Movies Channel.

2007: In a story entitled “Bishop mourns Latin decree, Jews ask for clarity,” The Washington Post reported that “a decree by Pope Benedict allowing priests to say the old Latin Mass more frequently has sparked criticism within both Catholic and Jewish ranks… Some Jewish leaders have sharply criticized the decree, which revives a passage from the old Latin prayer book for Good Friday calling for Jews to be converted. Others, however, took a more measured tone and called for clarification. “I think there are those who have interpreted it in an extremely alarmist fashion,’ Rabbi David Rosen of the American Jewish Committee (AJC) told Reuters.’ That doesn't mean that there aren't things that need clarification but there is no question of Pope Benedict's commitment to respectful relations with the Jewish people.’ The AJC's Rome representative, Lisa Palmieri-Billig, said the text of the decree was ambiguous on the issue. Church officials however had no doubt the prayer could now be said in certain circumstances, even if its use would probably be rare. ‘I find it difficult to believe that the Pope would permit the Good Friday prayer, it could be a communication mistake,’ Palmieri-Billig said. ‘Conversion is a very sensitive issue for Jews and if the prayer is allowed, it would be a step backwards for dialogue.’ French Cardinal Jean-Pierre Ricard, who warned last year against meeting traditionalists' demands for the Latin mass, said on Saturday the prayer could be changed if it caused difficulties with Jews.”

2007: In a night time gathering, some 30,000 people including about 5,000 Negev residents attended the "We are all Sderot" solidarity concert at Rabin Square in Tel Aviv, to show support for the residents of Sderot and other communities bordering the Gaza Strip, who live under the constant threat of Qassam rocket fire.

2007: French-Israeli writer Andre Chouraqui, known for his French-language translation of the Bible and his work in government in Israel, passed away at the age of 89 at his home in Jerusalem.

2008:  In Washington, D.C., Robert Wexler a six-term U.S. congressman from Florida, discusses and signs Fire-Breathing Liberal: How I Learned to Survive (and Thrive) in the Contact Sport of Congress (written with David Fisher) at Borders Books.

2008: Ted Koppel’s four-part Discovery Channel series, “The People’s Republic of Capitalism,” which illustrates how dramatically China has changed begins with three other installments at the same time on successive nights.

2008: At Temple Sinai in Roslyn, NY, funeral services were held for Brenda “Bunny” Koppelman the wife of Charles Koppelman.

2008: Professor Sarah Stroumsa of the departments of Arabic Language and Literature and of Jewish Thought has been elected by the Senate of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem as the institution’s new rector.

2009: “The House Homeland Security Committee today will consider the Transportation Security Workforce Enhancement Act of 2009, introduced earlier this year by Rep. Nita Lowey (D-N.Y.). The bill gives workers the option to join a union, codifies veterans preference in hiring and whistleblower protections.” (As reported by Ed O’Keefe)

2009: The Jerusalem Film Festival features a screening of “A Matter of Size,” a film about a group of disillusioned dieting Jews from Ramla who, through the efforts of one of their cohorts named Herzl and his Japanese employer, learn about the wonders of Sumo wrestling which liberates them physically and spiritually.

2009(17th of Tammuz, 5769): Tzom Tammuz:

2010: Chief of General Staff Lt.-Gen. Gabi Ashkenazi and Defense Minister Ehud Barak announced a round of new appointments within the General Staff. The IDF military attaché in Washington, DC, Maj.-Gen Benny Gantz, will be next deputy chief of general staff, in place of Maj.-Gen Dan Harel. Two other contenders for the top post were OC Northern Command Maj.-Gen. Gadi Eizenkot and OC Southern Command Maj.-Gen. Yoav Galant. They will remain in their positions for another year, although there is a possibility that Galant will be appointed head of Ground Forces Command. Barak and Ashkenazi also decided that Maj.-Gen. Amos Yadlin, head of Military Intelligence, will remain in his post for a fifth year. Defense officials have said that disagreements between Ashkenazi and Barak have been holding up a final decision on the new appointments. Ashkenazi was said to have favored Eizenkot as his deputy. Barak was said to have preferred Gantz.

2010: The 7th AICE Australian Film Festival is scheduled to show “Samson and Delilah” in Tel Aviv.

2010: The Schalits expressed their disappointment when they left their meeting with Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu today. "We did not receive any news today, that can calm us," said Noam. He continued, "the prime minister did not tell use anything new. We will not leave the protest tent [outside the prime minister's official residence] without Gilad."
2010(27th of Tammuz, 5770) RabbYehuda Amital, the Rosh Yeshiva of Yeshivat Har Etzion and a former member of the Israeli cabinet passed away today
2011: Jennifer Chadick is scheduled to be called to the Torah as a Bat Mitzvah at Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, IA.

2011: William “Bill” Gasway, a pillar of the Cedar Rapids Jewish community and an all around “good guy” and his grandsons Adam & Sam, are each scheduled to be called to the Torah in Door County, Wisconsin as part of a Triple Header Bar Mitzvah. Bill joins the comedian Henny Youngman in proving age is no bar to celebrating a Bar Mitzvah.
2011(7th of Tammuz): Yahrzeit of Rabbi Pinchas Horowitz
2011: In Detroit, Michigan, Isaac Agree Downtown Synagogue is scheduled to combine religious observance with popular culture in an evening of Havdalah and The Difference, a music revue.
2011: A senior Hamas official hinted today that captured IDF soldier Gilad Shalit is still alive, Channel 10 reported.
2012: If Dani Dayan, the head of the settlers’ Yesha Council has his way a vote of confidence will be held today to decide if there is popular support for “his pragmatic strategy.”
2012: A day-long Golf Classic sponsored by B'nai B'rith Great Lakes Region is scheduled to take place at the Wabeek Country Club.
2012: “The Sephardic Divas” and the band Ofir are scheduled to perform at the Inaugural Gibraltar World Music Festival. (As reported by Mordechai Shinefield)

2012: The Israel Air Force fire on two Hamas targets in the Gaza Strip late tonight, according to Ynet. The outlet first quoted Palestinian sources, then noted that the IDF Spokesman’s Office had confirmed the air strikes. One target was in Rafiah and the other was Khan Younis, according to Palestinian rescue services.
2012: Non-Orthodox US Jews below the age of 35 are more attached to Israel than those aged 35-44, but are skeptical about Israeli policies concerning the Palestinians, according to a recent survey.
2012: “The Levy Report, officially called Report on the Legal Status of Building in Judea and Samaria  an 89-page report on West Bank settlements authored by a three member committee headed by former Israeli Supreme Court justice Edmund Levy was published today.

2013: Paula “Abdul was a guest judge on So You Think You Can Dance.”
 2013: “Sukkah City” is among the films scheduled to be shown today at the 30th Annual Jerusalem Film Festival.
2013: “Claims Conference board members Natan Sharansky, chairman of the Jewish Agency for Israel, and Ronald Lauder, president of the World Jewish Congress, demanded today that, to maintain independence, any such future investigation must be composed mainly of representatives of the State of Israel and of Jewish groups that do not sit on the Claims Conference board.” (As reported by Paul Berger)
2013: The British Association for Jewish Studies Annual Conference is scheduled to come to an end today.
2013: Ravid Kahalani, an Israeli born Yemenite Jew, is scheduled to perform at City Winery in New York City.
2013 Hezbollah blamed Israel for a powerful car bomb blasted the illusive quiet in a Hezbollah area of Beirut t0day, wounding at least 50 people.  No deaths have been reported, despite initial accounts that “one to several” people died in the explosion. (As reported by Tzvi Ben-Gedalyahu)

2013: IDF troops found the remains today of the first rocket to be fired from Egypt since the July 3 overthrow of the Islamist government there, a military official said.

2013: A haredi soldier was attacked by dozens of haredi men tonight in the ultra- Orthodox Jerusalem neighborhood of Mea She’arim.

2014: In Portland, Oregon, Congregation Ahavath Achim is scheduled to show “The Longest Journey,” a cinematic tribute to the lost Jewish community of Rhodes.

2014: According to reports today, filming of “Woman in Gold” was underway in Los Angeles.

2014: The Agudas Achim Sisterhood is scheduled to “provide signs, pompoms and cheers” as part of “Sisterhood Night at the Ball Park.

2014: “President-elect Reuven Rivlin, Chief Rabbi Lau, and an assembly of interfaith leader called today for an end to violence which has engulfed southern Israel and Gaza in recent days.”Stop the cycle of violence, and prevent further harm to innocent lives." (As reported by Kobi Nachshoni)

2014: “Barring any unusual developments, three of the six suspects arrested for the murder of Mohammed Abu Khdeir will be released on a seven-day house arrest tomorrow, the Petah Tikva Magistrate's Court decided today.” (As reported by Aviel Magnezi)

2014(11th of Tammuz, 5774): Ninety-two year old Holocaust survivor, successful businessman and generous philanthropist David Azrieli passed away today.

2014: “Code Red sirens blared across southern and central Israel tonight, from Ashkelon to Gan Yavne, as Gaza militants resumed their rocket-launching activities.”

2014(11th of Tammuz, 5774): Ninety-year old “Robert Stein, who helped expand the scope of women’s magazines as editor in chief of McCall’s and Redbook in the early stages of the modern women’s movement, publishing articles about race and politics and introducing readers to the nascent writings of feminist leaders like Betty Friedan and Gloria Steinem,” passed away today.

2015: “Following a lawsuit from Haaretz and Yedioth Ahronoth a gag was lifted that made it possible for an Israeli security source to tell reports that twenty-eight year old “Ethiopian-born Israeli Mengistu” from Ashkelon who crossed the border into Gaza for unknown reasons in September “is alive and being kept by Hamas in Gaza. (As reported by Ave Lewis, Judah Ari Gorss and Raphael Ahren)

2015: The Center for Jewish History is scheduled to host Shelly Oria, a “New York based Israeli author, who will read from her best-selling debut New York 1, Tel Aviv 0, and talk about writing between the here and there of spaces and languages, about the amalgamating Israeli and American literary influences on her work, and more.”

2015: “The opening of the Jerusalem International Film Festival was punctuated tonight by booing for Culture and Sports Minister Miri Regev (Likud) and remembrances for Lia Van Leer, the doyenne of the country’s film scene who died earlier this year.”

2015(22nd of Tammuz, 5775): Seventy- four year old “stockbroker-turned-composer Michael Masser” passed away today. (As reported by Sam Roberts)

2015: Center for Jewish History, American Jewish Historical Society and Leo Baeck Institute are scheduled to host the event marking the opening the exhibition “Allied in the Fight: Jews, Blacks and the Struggle for Civil Rights.

2015: Settlement Over Anti-Semitic Bullying at Pine Bush Central Schools Is Approved published today.

2015: An exhibition of the works of Haifa born artist Guy Yanai who now works and lives in Tel Aviv is scheduled to open in New York.

2016(3rd of Tammuz, 5776): Parshat Korach

2016(3rd of Tammuz, 5776): Twenty-second Yahrtzeit of The Rebbe, Rabbi Menachem M. Schneerson of Righteous Memory.

2016(3rd of Tammuz, 5776): Eighty-two year old “Sydney H. Schanberg, a correspondent for The New York Times who won a Pulitzer Prize for covering Cambodia’s fall to the Khmer Rouge in 1975 and inspired the film “The Killing Fields” with the story of his Cambodian colleague’s survival during the genocide of millions” passed away today. (As reported by Robert D. McFadden)

2016: In Memphis, at Temple Israel, Rabbi Kamin, son of Dawn Butler and Dr. Ehud Kamin is scheduled to be called to the Torah as a Bar Mitzvah.

2016: “Indignation” a film based on the Philip Roth’s novel is scheduled to be shown at the Jerusalem Film Festival.

2016: “Opposition members raised the possibility today of Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu being forced to step down in light of various investigations into his financial conduct.”

2017: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Doorpost of Your House and On Your Gates by Jacob Bacharach, Behave: The Biology of Humans at Our Best and Worst by Robert M. Sapolsky and the recently released paperback edition of Mischling by Affinity Konar as well as an interview with A. Scott Berg, “The biographer and consulting producer of Amazon’s “The Last Tycoon”

2017: Today, “a few remaining survivors and France’s Grand Rabbi Haim Korisa” gathered in the city of Sete which was marking the 70th anniversary of attempt by approximately 4,500 Jews to escape aboard “a rickety steamer” and run the British blockade in an attempt to reach Palestine.

2017: In a testament to the vitality of “small town Jewry,” in Coralville, IA, the Sisterhood is scheduled to host a Challah Baking Demonstration.

2017: The HUB is scheduled to host “an Israeli event featuring the best of Israeli food, music and entertainment” “at the Maccabiah version of an Olympic Village.”

2017: The final performance of “Parade,” which is based on the lynching of Leo Frank is scheduled to take place today at the Writer’s Theater in Glencoe, a suburb of Chicago.

2017: The YIVO Institute for Jewish Research is scheduled to present the “annual Mordkhe Schaecter Memorial Program.”

2018: JW3 is scheduled to host a screening of Episodes 1-3 of “Your Honor” “binge-worthy thriller” from Israel.

2018: Based on reports last night from “Arab media outlets” that the IAF had struck at Iranian forces stationed in Syria, Israeli’s are bracing for an attack from forces in Gaza, north of the Golan, Lebanon or Judea-Samaria.

2018: “Ben Gurion, Epilogue” is scheduled to be shown at the 9th Annual Axelrod Israel Jewish Film Festival.

2018: “The Museum Teacher Fellowship Program” sponsored by the US Holocaust Memorial Museum that “seeks to train leaders in the field of Holocaust education” is scheduled to being today.



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