Thursday, July 5, 2018

This Day, July 6, In Jewish History by Mitchell A. Levin

July 6

1189: Henry II, King of England, passed away.  Compared to those who followed him to the throne, Henry’s treatment of his Jewish subjects was comparatively benign. (The emphasis is on “comparatively.”)  Henry levied two special taxes on the Jewish community designed to finance the next Crusade to the Holy Land.  The tax of 1188 included 60,000 pounds on the Jews of London, one fourth the community’s wealth.  All the Christians of England were required to cough up a mere 10,000 pounds. Much to the consternation of some Church leaders, Henry discouraged Jews from converting to Christianity.  The wealth of dead Jews became the property of the crown.  These Jewish estates could be of such value that when Aaron of Lincoln passed away, “Henry found it necessary to set up a special branch of his Exchequer, named the Scaccarium Aaronis, with no function other than processing his immense estate.”

1189:  Richard the Lionheart becomes King of England following the death of his father.  His coronation would not take place until September at which time a delegation of Jews bringing gifts for the monarch would be denied access and be beaten by English officials.  Richard did take action to protect his Jewish subjects when they were threatened.  Unfortunately, Richard spent only the equivalent of one year of his ten year reign in England.  During his absence, the Jews would suffer at the hands of English leaders including Richard’s brother and successor Prince, and later King, John

1253:  Mindaugas is crowned king of Lithuania, reportedly the first ruler to hold this title. There was a Jewish presence in Lithuania at this time, since small numbers of Jewish merchants probably began arriving in Lithuania during the 12th century. They were followed by others of their co-religionists who were fleeing persecution brought on by the Crusades and the Black Death. Large number of Jews would not begin arriving in Lithuania until the frist decades of the 13th centuries when they were invited to settle there by Gediminas.

1348:  Pope Clement VI issued a Papal Bull protecting Jews during the Black Plague. “Clement VI reigned during the Black Death. This pandemic swept through Europe (as well as Asia and the Middle East) between 1347 and 1350. It is believed to have killed between a third and two thirds of Europe's population…Popular opinion blamed the Jews for the plague, and pogroms erupted throughout Europe. Clement issued two papal bulls in 1348 which condemned the violence and said those who blamed the plague on the Jews had been ‘seduced by that liar, the Devil.’ He urged clergy to take action to protect Jews, but the orders appeared to have little effect, and the destruction of whole Jewish communities continued until 1349.”  These events are described in  A Distant Mirror: The Calamitous 14th Century by the Jewish historian Barbara Tuchman.

1476: Abraham ben Solomon Conat a Jewish printer, Talmudist, and physician, printed Tur Orah Hayyim by Jacob b. Asher at Mantua, Italy. Jacob ben Asher, also known as Ba'al ha-Turim, was born in Cologne, Germany around 1269 and probably died in Toledo, Spain in 1343. He was an influential Medieval rabbinic authority who is often referred to as the Baal ha-Turim' ("Master of the Rows"), after his main work in halachah the Arba'ah Turim ("Four Rows"). The work was divided into 4 sections, each called a "tur," alluding to the rows of jewels on the High Priest's breastplate. He was the third son of Asher ben Jehiel (known as the "Rosh"), a German-born Rabbi who moved to Spain.”

1609: Bohemia is granted freedom of religion in the same year as that in which Rabbi Judah Loew ben Bezalel also known as the Maharal, one of the most famous Jewish scholars and educators from Prague passed away. “Rabbi Loew published more than 50 religious and philosophical books and became the center of legends, as the mystical miracle worker who created the Golem. The Golem is an artificial man made of clay that was brought to life through magic and acted as a guardian over the Jews. The Maharal had positive relations with Rudolph II and was even invited to his castle.

1625: Rabbi Yom-Tov Lipman Heller is placed in prison along with common criminals in a Vienna jail after having been wrongfully convicted of abusing his authority as Chief Rabbi of Prague.

1707(6th of Tammuz, 5467): Rabbi Samuel ben Alexander “a resident of Frankfort-on-the-Oder who wrote Peri Megadim passed away today.

1758: Clement XIII was elected Pope.  During his reign, Clement “proclaimed that the Holy See had examined the grounds on which rested the belief in the use of human blood for the feast of Passover and murder of Christians by Jews, and the Jews must be condemned as criminals in respect of the charge, but that in the case of such occurrences legal forms of proof must be used.” (As reported by Graetz)

1794: In Berlin Stadt, Brandenburg, Preussen, Amalie and Jacob (Yehuda) Herz Beer gave birth to Heinrich (Henoch) Hans Beer.

1795(19th of Tammuz, 5555): Judith Gompertz, the daughter of Barent Gompertz and Rachel Benjamin Isaac passed away after which she was buried in the Lauriston Road Jewish Cemetery.

1796: Birthdate of Nicholas I, Czar of Russia from 1825 until his death in 1855.  In the case of the Nicholas there was consistency in his behavior as Czar and his treatment of the Jews.  In both instances he was a narrow-minded, reactionary, despot who was so incompetent that he led Russia to disaster in the Crimean War. As a totalitarian dictator, Nicholas was fully responsible for all of his action aimed at his Jewish subjects.  These included but were not limited to  expulsion from a variety of cities including Kiev; the drafting of under-age Jewish boys for twenty-five years of military service; the banning of beards and a sidelocks for men and banning of women shaving their heads at the time of marriage; the banning of Yiddish; censorship and destruction of Jewish books.  And this list does not include the mistreatment of the general populace with such measures as the establishment of a secret police system designed to stamp out any manifestation of democracy or Western values.

1798: As the French Army moved to supplant the English in the eastern Mediterranean in fighting that would take them to Biblical cites in Palestine, General Desaix marched his division to within fifteen miles of Alexandria while Bonaparte left the city heading for Cairo.

1797(12th of Tammuz, 5557): Sixty-one year old Mordecai Sheftall the husband of Frances Hart whom he married in Charleston, SC, passed away today after which he was buried in the Savannah (GA) Jewish Cemetery.

1806: The Assembly of Jewish Leaders was scheduled to meet in Paris.

1821: Birthdate of Leone Levi, the Italian born British barrister and author whose works included Work and Pay; Wages and Earnings of the Working Classes; and International Law, with Materials for a Code

1840: Jesse Seligman was one of the steerage passages who arrived  at Castle Garden

1847(22nd of Tammuz, 5607: Baltimore community leader David Israel Cohen passed away at the age of 48.

1849: Birthdate of Julius Sachs, the native of Baltimore who founded Sachs Collegiate Institute in 1872 (now the Dwight School) which he served until 1902 when he became a Professor of Education at Columbia University’s Teachers College.

1851: Two days after he passed away, 20 year old Morris Joseph was buried today at the Balls Pond Road Jewish Cemetery.

1853: Bertha Phillips, a 20 year old German Jewess was tried on charges of having stolen two $20 gold pieces from Mrs. Schufeldt, a co-religionist with whom she had been living before the the theft. An additional testimony as to the defendant’s guilt was provided by another Jew. Before the case went to the jury, one of the jurors who was Jewish asked if both of the witnesses were Jewish.  At first the judge refused to provide the information since he said that the court had no right to pry into their creed or beliefs.  At which point another juror, who was also Jewish, said that he would not believe a word the Jewish witnesses had to say unless they were sworn in again using a copy the Hebrew Bible. The judge accepted the request; rewswore the witnesses who testified again.  The jury found the defendant of guilty of grand larceny without even having to leave the jury box.  Miss Phillips was senteneced to two years in the state penitentiary and was led away in tears.

1853: In Franfurt am Main, Jakob Gustav Adam Flesch and Florentine Flesch gave birth to Karl Flesch.

1853 Moss Defries married Flora Lyons today.

1854: The Republican Party is officially created in Jackson, Michigan.  Several Jews would play an active an active part in the early days of the Republican Party, including the uncle of Supreme Court Justice Louis Dembitz Brandeis, who placed Lincoln’s name in nomination for President in 1860.  By July of 2009, thanks to the defeat of Senator Norm Coleman and the party switch of Senator Arlen Spector, there are no Jewish Republican U.S. Senators.

1857: The New York Times reported that The House of Commons voted to amend the Oaths Bill so as to prevent from holding any office belonging to the Ecclesiastical Courts or any other office that “wield influence in the affairs of the church.”

1859: In Warsaw, “Benjamin Jacob and Rica (Cantor) Planko” gave birth to Mendel Planko, the husband of Sarah Ravich who came to the United States in 1880, “settling in Chicago” where he worked in the leather trade eventually becoming “Superintendent of Neilson Brothers, manufacturers of fancy leather.”

1859: In Bavaria, Seligman Sonn and Bella Heineman gave birth to R.A. Sonn, the husband of Dora Fried and author of a Hebrew primer, Or Chodesh who settled in Atlanta, GA.

1860: Michael Samuel Schlesinger, who with his wife Annie had seven children was buried today at the Balls Pond Road Jewish Cemetery.

1861: English archivist and historian Sir Francis Palgrave, the son Jewish stockbroker Meyer Cohen and his wife Rachel Levien Cohen who changed his name from Francis Ephraim and became an Anglican, apparently as a condition of his marriage to Elizabeth Turner in 1823.

1861: In response to an order issued today by the U.S. Secretary of War, Colonel Max Friedman organized the 65th Regiment of the Fifth Cavalry, known as “Cameron Dragoons made up of ten companies from Philadelphia and two companies from Pittsburgh which included a large number of Jewish volunteers.

1862: In Portland, Oregon, “the first Hebrew benevolent association” which had been organized by the leaders of Congregation Beth Israel was reorganized today.

1863: In issuing orders about the status of the recently conquered city of Vicksburg, General Logan states that the city will be a military outpost and not a trading center.  He complained that when Memphis had been captured and turned into a trading center “the Jews and the rebel citizens of that pestilent city” had turned into “a grand depot of smugglers.” [Editor’s note – This is not the first or the last derogatory comment that Union generals serving in the West made about Jews.  This is strange when one consider the number of Jews who were there comrades in arm including Major General Frederick Knefler and General Edward S. Salomon whom Sherman called “one of the most deserving officers.”

1864(2nd of Tammuz, 5624): Forty-three year old Viennese chemist Theodor Wertheim who “was the father of gynecologist Ernst Wertheim passed away today.

1866: Benjamin Disraeli begins his third term as Chancellor of the Exchequer replacing his nemesis, William Gladstone.

1870: Simon Henry Russell married Catherine Levy in London today.

1872(30th of Sivan, 5632): Sixty-six year old Ludwig F. Frankel the native of Berlin who became a physician in 1830 and who  served as chief physician of the water-cure hospital in Berlin from 1848 until he resigned in 1867 to devote himself to his private practice passed away today.

1873: Two days after he passed away, 32 year old Amsterdam native James de Jongh was buried today at the Balls Pond Road Jewish Cemetery.

1875: Sir Julius Vogel, the first Jewish Prime Minister of New Zealand completed his first term in office.

1875: Birthdate of Julius I. Peyeser, a graduate of Georgetown University a WW I veteran who was a successful lawyer, banker and active member of the Jewish Community.

1877: James Grady and William Henry were tried today at the Tombs Police Court today on charges that they had assaulted “Jacob Herman, a German Jew who a runs a peanut and fruit stand.”  The two were members of the Battle Alley Gang and Herman had testified against them in a case heard three days ago.  When the two attacked Herman, they referred to him as that swearing Jew.  At the end of the trial, Henry was sentenced to a month in the County Prison while Henry was “acquitted for lack of evidence.”

1879: It was reported today that the Jews of Romania had petitioned the Romanian government for a revisions to the Constitution that would guarantee them their rights as citizens on the same footing as all other Romanians.

1882: The first 14 members of BILU arrived from Russia at the port of Yaffa in what is now the land of Israel. The letters BILU are the initials for the Hebrew expression, "House of Jacob Let Us Rise and Go." BILU was formed by Russian students at the University of Khrakov who called for the active colonization of the land. The students hired themselves out as agricultural laborers at Mikve Yisrael. They believed it was possible to start a worldwide movement to encourage settlement in Eretz Israel.

1882: Several Russian Jews who arrived at Castle Garden aboard the SS Newnham today will apparently not be staying in New York since they have tickets for destinations in the American West.

1882: “Outrages On Jews In Manitoba” published today reported that a group of Jews who had gone to work at Whitemouth were ferociously beaten by a band of men who previously been doing the work.

1883(1st of Tammuz, 5643): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

1883: “Murder of a Hebrew Merchant” published today reported that a reward of $1,500 has been offered for the man who killed H. Mias, a Jewish merchant living in Benivides.

1884: It was reported today that the police in Vienna had difficulty restoring after a fight broke out between the Social Democrats and a party of anti-Semites.

1884: It was reported today that the anti-Semitic rioters who were arrested at Nijni Novgorod will have to be tried by court-martial because the civil courts refused to convict due to the anti-Semitic feelings prevalent among the Russian peasants.

1885: In Louisville, KY, Alfred S. Brandeis, the son of Adolph and Fredericka Brandeis  gave birth to Adele Brandeis, the niece of Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis.

1886: In Lyons, France, Gustave Bloch and his wife gave fame to Marc Bloch who gained fame as an historian and educator.  He held chairs at both Strasbourg University and the Sorbonne.  His works on French rural and feudal society became classics.  In 1939, despite the fact that he was “overage” he enlisted in the French Army and fought the invading Germans. After the French surrendered to the Germans, he joined the Resistance where his specialty was in working with secret codes.  He was captured by the Nazis and tortured before being shot on June 16, 1944.

1887: The funeral of Jonas Heller, a Trustee of the Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews is scheduled to be held today.

1887: Albert Weinschenk a young German who his Christian wife had defied her family by marrying him appears to have shot himself this evening after his mother-in-law had accused him of being a bigamist.

1888: A reception committee met at Meyer’s Hotel in Hoboken, NJ, in anticipation of the arrival of Rabbi Jacob Charif whose ship was due to dock on Saturday morning. Charif has been brought from Wilna by members of the United Society to provide leadership based on halachah for the ever growing population of immigrant Jews populating the Lower East Side.

1889: Birthdate of George Berthold Samuelson, the native of Southport, England who was on the early creators of the British movie industry who created G.B. Samuelson Productions.

1890: “An Empire’s Young Chief” published today provided a snapshot of conditions in Germany under the new Kaiser, Wilhelm II with a special emphasis on the role of the Jews who “in the New Berlin…occupy a more commanding and dominant position than they ever have had in any other important city the fall of a Jerusalem” – a situation that has given an excuse for the anti-Semites to preach their increasingly popular doctrine.

1891: The fifty doctors assigned by the Board Health “to visit the tenement houses and look after the sick children during the hot weather” met today Sanitary Headquarters where they were given pamphlets written in several languages including Hebrew as tickets “for the free excursions” sponsored by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children.

1891: It was reported today that “a sizable tract of land” In Marlborough, Connecticut has been purchased by the Baron de Hirsch Fund. Baron de Hirsch “has established…a very large fund that is to be used…for poor Jews who are being driven out of …Europe.”

1891: “The Jewish Immigrants” published today described the organization of efforts to provide a civic education for the Russians arriving in St. Louis.  The effort drew support from non-Jews as well as Jews as can be seen by the fact that Dr. Ingraham of the spiritual leader of Grace Episcopal Church was among those who attended the meeting and contributed the three dollars which the annual dues of the nascent organization.

1892: “The opening session of the third annual Central Conference of American Rabbis was held” tonight at Temple Beth-El in New York City.

1892: Birthdate of Polish native Jacob Selig Yellen who was raised in Buffalo NY and gained fame as lyricist and screenwriter Jack Yellen who wrote “Happy Days Are Here Again,” the 1920’s ditty that became the snappy theme song for FDR’s presidential campaigns during the depth of the Great Depression.

1893: Birthdate of John Charles Walker the agricultural scientist who won the Wolf Foundation Prize in Agriculture in 1978.

1893: Clothing contractors Solomon Wallach and Jacob Seidman were accused of today of trying to break the United Garment Workers of American by firing union members and replaced them with apprentices from the United Hebrew Charities.

1894: Birthdate of German native Siegfried Ullman, who came to the United States in 1923 where he became a successful businessman and philanthropist who was of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine and the Weizmann Institute In Israel

1894: Two days after he passed away, 74 year old Jacob Lazarus was buried today at the West Ham Jewish Cemetery.

1895: In New York, on Shabbat, The Empire Life Insurance company obtained an order from Justice Stover directing the officials of Washington Cemetery to permit the exhumation” of the body Annie Silverman, the widow of Wolf Silverman, as part of their legal campaign to avoid paying the death benefit to the beneficiary.

1895: Theodor Herzl wrote in his diary the following entry describing his conversation with Max Nordeau who would become one of the leaders of the Zionist movement.  “Yesterday with Nordau, over a glass of beer. Also discussed the Jewish question, of course. Never before I had been in such perfect tune with Nordau. Each took the words right out of the other's mouth. I never had such a strong feeling that we belonged together. This has nothing to do with religion. He even said that there was no such thing as a Jewish dogma. But we are of one race. ...
Nordau said: "What is the tragedy of Jewry?" That this most conservative of peoples, which yearns to be rooted in some soil, has had no home for the last two thousand years.
We agreed on every point, so that I already thought that the same ideas had led him to the same plan. But he comes to a different conclusion: "The Jews", he says, "will be compelled by antisemitism to destroy among all peoples the idea of a fatherland." Or, I secretly thought to myself, to create a fatherland of their own.”

1896: In a speech at "The Maccabaeans," Herzl formulates the program of the "Society of Jews": According to Herzl, “The task of the Society of Jews is the acquisition according to international law of a territory for those Jews who cannot assimilate."

1896: The funeral of Jules s. Abecasis will begin at 11 o’clock at Shearith Israel in New York.

1897: After it was confirmed that Theodor Herzl wanted to hold a Zionist Congress in Munich, the Board of the Munich Jewish Community wrote to the General Rabbinical Association protesting against the Zionist movement.

1898: It was reported today that Dr. Richard J.H. Gottheil, Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, Dr. William Cowen, K.H. Sarsohn, Leon Zolollkoff and Dr. I.J. Bluestone have been named to serve as delegates at the upcoming Zionist Congress in Basel.

1898: In Leipzig, Professor of Philosophy Rudolf Eister who was Jewish and his wife Marie Ida Eisler (née Fischer) who was gave birth to composer Hanns Eisler. Eisler moved to Berlin after World War I where his art flourished as did his involvement in left-wing politics.  He left Germany for the United States in 1933 where he became a leader of anti-Nazi artists and where he pursued his composing career which included two Oscar nominations.  After World War II he was placed on the Black List and ended up returning to East Germany.  Eisler fell afoul of the commissars in Germany.  Five year after being deported from the United States because of his leftist political views, he was hauled before a German Communist tribunal where he was accused of not being loyal to Socialism, a charge from which his career and health did not recover.

1898(16th of Tammuz, 5658): Fifty-two year old Cornelius Herz who was involved in the infamous Panama Scandal passed away today.

1899(28th of Tammuz, 5659): Forty-seven year old Moravian born Rabbi David Kaufman passed away today while serving as the chair “of history, philosophy of religion, and homiletics at the newly founded rabbinical school at Budapest.”

1898: With the completion of the mustering of the 3rd Regiment Connecticut Volunteer Infantry into U.S. Service, Corporal Charles Lowenthal and Private Frederick Edward Cahn, both of New Haven were part of the Army that was fighting Spain.

1899: Benjamin Kossman completed three years of serving with the 6th Cavalry of the United States Army.

1899: As the dispute grew over how to honor the French officer who had been a cruel victim of anti-Semitism, a group of Jews sent a cable to Emile Zola looking for advice: “American Jewish wish to present Captain Drefyus with a golden sword. [Send] answer [to[ Jewish  Forward whether it will not help anti-Semitism.”

1899: Benjamin Blumental, the President of Rodoph Sholem  and the father of Assistant District Attodrney Maruice B. Blumental was sworn in today as a school inspector in the 24th District after having served as School Inspector in the Fourth District for fifteen years.

1899(28th of Tammuz, 5659): David Kaufmann a Jewish-Austrian scholar born at Kojetín, Moravia (now in the Czech Republic) in 1852 passed away. A university professor and librarian, he was a prolific author whose works included studies in Jewish history, studies of synagogue art and polemics in defense of Judaism.

1900(9th of Tammuz, 5660): Gustav Born, the father of Max Born passed away today.

1901: The annual Conference of American Rabbis was scheduled to end today in Philadelphia. Rabbi Harry H. Mayer had presented a paper to the meeting on “Sabbath School Problem.”  The conference will reconvene at New Orleans in April of 1902

1904: Samuel Untermeyer was among the delegates attending the Democratic Party National Convention which opened today in St. Louis, MO.

1905: Alfred Deakin becomes Prime Minister of Australia for the second time. As can be seen from his relationship with the Sir Isaac Alfred Isaacs Deakin had no problem with working with Jews

1905: In Australia, Sir Isaac Alfred Isaacs was appointed attorney-general. The son of Russian-Polish immigrants, Isaacs’ successful political and legal career would eventually lead to him being named Governor-General.

1905: Birthdate of Brussels native Augstine Lorge who married dramatist Claude Spaak and became Suzanne Spaak, the lady of luxury who joined the joined Leopold Trepper’s “Red Orchestra and saved 163 Jewish children from sent to the death camps before being captured, tortured and murdered by the Nazis – actions for which she recognized by Yad Vashem as a Righteous Among the Nations.

1905: Simon Wolf, the Chairman of the Board of Delegates on Civil and Religious Rights of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations sent a communication to President Roosevelt expressing the members sorrow “at the death of the late Secretary of State John Hay.”

1906: It was reported today that Rabbi Morris Goldberg has been chosen to head the Brothers of Israel Congregation replaced Rabbi Elitzer who is moving to Troy, NY.

1907: Birthdate of Mexican painter, feminist and social rebel, Frida Kahlo.

1907: At the 18th annual convention of the Central Conference of American Rabbis services were led by Rabbis Leo Mannheimer and Mayer Messing, with a sermon delivered by Rabbi Marcus Salzman followed by the Rabbi Martin Zielonka’s closing prayer and benediction.

1907: This evening, at the 18th annual convention of the Central Conference of American Rabbis, Rabbi Samuel Schulman led a Round Table Discussion on “Our Attitude Toward Liberal Independent and Other Modern Religious Movements” and Rabbi Abram Simon led a Round Table Discussion on “The Most Suggestive Book Read During the Year.”

1909(17th of Tammuz, 5669): Tzom Tammuz

1909: The Trenton Evening Times reported that Rabbi Morris Goldberg of Camden New Jersey was chosen to succeed Rabbi Elitzer as head of the Brothers of Israel Congregation.

1911: Birthdate of Berlin native Rudolf “Rudi” Fehr whose film editing credits included at least two Hollywood classic – “Key Largo” and “Dial M For Murder.

1912: Birthdate of “American movie producer and screenwriter Milton Speriling.”

1913(1st of Tammuz, 5673): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

1913: On Chicago’s south side, Congregation Beth Jacob is scheduled to dedicate their new Temple “at the corner of 44th Street and St Lawrence Avenue.”

1913: After attending services at Beth Israel Temple which were led by Rabbi William Lowenburg as part of yesterday’s observance of Shabbat, the Conference of American Rabbis was scheduled to resume its regular meetings this morning at Atlantic City, NJ.

1915: “Alfred A Wilson, an American engineer who arrived in” New York City today “from Egypt and Palestine sad that…the Turkish Governor of Jerusalem had treated the Jews very harshly” and that “they had either to become Turkish subjects or leave the country” while “Americans and other foreigners in Jerusalem…were not bothered in any way by the German or Turkish officials.”

1915: In London, Madge (Mitchell) and Bertie Joseph gave birth to Yvonne Frances Joseph, who gained fame as actress Yvonne Mitchell who also had a career as a playwright whose most famous work was “The Same Sky.”

1916: The list of the newly elected officers of the Federation of American Zionists published today included “Dr. Harry F. Friendenwald, Baltimore, President; Louis Lipsky, New York, Chairman of the Executive Committee; Louis Robinson, New York, Treasurer; and Bernard A. Rosenblatt, New York, Honorary Secretary.”

1917(17th of Tammuz, 5677): Parshat Balak; Tzom Tammuz not observed because of Shabbat

1917(17th of Tammuz, 5677): Forty-two year old Ben S. Sandfelder, the son of Hannah Sandler of St. Louis passed away “suddenly” today.

1917(17th of Tammuz, 5677): Rabbi Samuel Margolies, who had been injured in an automobile accident along with his eleven year old son, passed away today after developing pneumonia while being treated from the effects of two broken ribs.

1917: Birthdate of Albert Abramson, the Bronx born Washingtonian who became a successful real estate promoter and “a principal force in the creation of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington.”  (As reported by Douglas Martin)

1917: At Onezki, near Kiev, “a conspiracy by the Black Hundreds to fabricate accusations of ritual murder” were exposed.

1917: In Russia, at Homel, the militia discovered lists of those “marked for immediate attack” in the houses of members of the Black Hundreds.

1918: Thirty-eight year old John P. Mitchell passed away today.  At age 34, the Roman Catholic Mitchell who courted the Jewish vote and attended numerous Jewish functions was elected Mayor of New York.  He was part of a Fusion Ticket made up of reformers fighting the Tammany Machine. The reformers were an amalgam of Protestants, Republicans and uptown Republicans.

1918: “A drive for recruits for the Jewish legion that is to garrison Palestine” under the leadership of Dr. Hyman Morrison “was started in New England today as part of the national campaign conducted under the direction of the Jewish Palestine Legion Committee.”

1919: “Mme L.C. de Gozdawa-Turezynowicz, the National Commissioner of Charities for Lithuania arrived in New York aboard the SS Baltic today and said that “Lithuania has truly a democratic cabinet including a Catholic, a free thinker, a Socialist and a Jew” which indicates that conditions for Jews in the newly independent country was an improvement over their status when Lithuania was a province of the Russian Empire.

1920:  In the UK, dedication of the London Jewish Hospital

1920: The London County Council adopted a policy of not employing aliens, which was aimed, in part at Jews who had immigrated from Russia by a vote of 50 to 38 with four of the positive votes coming “Jewish Municipal Reformers – David Davis, Major H.B. Lewis-Barned, Percy Simmons and Oscar Warburg.

1921(30th of Sivan, 5681): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

1921: Dr. Joseph H. Hertz, the Chief Rabbi of the British Empire arrived in Vancouver where he would have visited Schara Tzedeck and the Hadassah chapter founded in 1920.

1923: Grigori Yakovlovich Sokolnikov ended his terms as People’s Commissar for Finance of the RSFSR and began serving as People’s Commissar for Finance of the USSR.

1929: Franz Werfel, the Prague born author marred Alma Mahler, the widow of Gustav Mahler, today.

1925: Werner “Heisenberg gave Max Born a paper entitled Über quantentheoretische Umdeutung kinematischer und mechanischer Beziehungen ("Quantum-Theoretical Re-interpretation of Kinematic and Mechanical Relations") to review, and submit for publication. In the paper, Heisenberg formulated quantum theory, avoiding the concrete, but unobservable, representations of electron orbits by using parameters such as transition probabilities for quantum jumps, which necessitated using two indexes corresponding to the initial and final states´ (I have no idea what this means)

1934: The Turkish government stated the expulsion of the Jews from the Dardanelles had been due to a misinterpretation of a law. The government declared it would punish the officials found to be responsible, and that the Jews would be given redress.

1935:U.S. premiere of “Escapade” a romantic comedy co-starring Luise Rainer with a script by Herman J. Mankiewicz.

1936: In Switzerland, in the Jewish cemetery at Veyrier, the President of the International Association of Journalists accredited to the League of Nations spoke at the funeral of “Stephen Lux, the Czech journalist who killed himself in the League of Nations Assembly to call attention to the misery of Jews.”

1936: It was reported today that “for the duration of the Olympic Games, the German people” are ordered by the Nazis to adopt “a special regimen” including giving “up reading Herr Streicher’s newspaper stories about how Jews kill little children for Passover…”

1936: Major Henry A. Proctor, a Member of Parliament, told delegates attending the meeting of Zionist Organization of America in Providence, RI that “the great danger to Zionism…was not in Britain’s possible stand in the Arab difficulty” because “the Arabs will not succeed in London or in Palestine but there is a danger that they will succeed in weakening the morale of American Zonists.”

1936: “Dr. Stephen S. Wise expressed gratification tonight at his election to the presidency of the Zionist Organization of America” saying “he viewed ‘the unanimity of the summons as a promise of genuine support by all groups with the Zionist movement’”

1936: The Palestine Post reported that there were 314 cases of ptomaine poisoning in numerous bomb-throwing and shooting incidents throughout the country. Three Jewish laborers were wounded near Nablus, and a watchman was hurt near Kiryat Anavim. An Arab was killed and three wounded in an encounter with British troops in Hebron.

1937: In Gorky, Jewish pianist and composer David Ashkenazi and his non-Jewish wife gave birth to pianist and conductor Vladimir Ashkenazy.

1937: In an interview given today on the day before his 77th birthday, Abraham Cahan “talked of how the world looks to him fifty-five years after he came” to the United States “and concluded that England, France and the United States were rapidly putting into operation today the very measures he advocated as a socialist a long time ago.”

1938: President Roosevelt called for an international conference to consider the "displaced persons" problem. The negligible results highlight the passive role the Western world in the face of the Nazis. . Roosevelt's aims, some say, are to deflect American Jewish appeals to help the German Jews. Aside from Costa Rica and the Dominican Republic, which want enormous sums of money to allow a small number of Jews to immigrate, the 32 nations attending the conference decide that they will not permit large numbers of Jews to enter their countries.

1938(7th of Tammuz, 5698): Austrian born German producer Heinrich Nebenzahl, the father of Seymour Neenzahl and founder of Nero Film production company who fled to Paris after the Nazis came to power passed away in France today.

1938(7th of Tammuz, 5698): Tuvia Dounia, the brother-in-law of Chaim Weizmann is one of the victims of today’s outbreak of Arab violence in Haifa. Police found him slumped over the wheel of the car he was driving with a bullet through his heart. Of the four passengers in the vehicle three escaped harm but one was seriously wounded.

1938: “Bombs riots, and police action in various parts of Palestine today resulted in at least twenty-three deaths and nearly a hundred less serious casualties.

1938: “The immediate problem of the great intergovernmental conference which opened” today “at Evian…is to find asylum for the political refugees forced out Germany and Austria by the policies of the National Socialist regime”

1939: The last remaining Jewish enterprises in Germany were closed.

1940: Today,in Rumania, “Iron Guard leader Horia Sima, Minister of Culture…forbade Jewish actors and musicians to perform in public and prohibited the playing of Jewish songs and music.”

1941(11th of Tammuz, 5701): Seventy-one year old German born oncologist Ferdinand Blumenthal died in an air raid.  After fleeing Nazi Germany in 1933 Blumenthal went from Austria to Yugoslavia to a variety of other locations before ending up in the Soviet Union where he taught before be interred by the Communists.

1941(11th of Tammuz, 5701): Lithuanian militiamen murdered 2,514 Jews in Kovno.

1941(11th of Tammuz, 5701): Forty-eight year old Sol Ullman, the son of Samuel and Kate Ulman and NYU Law School graduate and husband of “the former Esther Blau” with whom he had two sons who served as a State Assemblyman and New York State Assistant Attorney General passed away today.

1941: In Liepāja, Latvia, which had been conquered by the Nazis and where Jews were already being massacred, “Werner Hartman, a German war correspondent, saw the Women's Prison crammed so full of prisoners that there was no room for them to lie down.”

1941(11th of Tammuz, 5701): Elchonon Wasserman “a prominent rabbi and rosh yeshiva in pre-World War II Europe was murdered today by Lithuanians who were collaborators of the Nazis. Born in 1874, he was one of the Chofetz Chaim's closest disciples and a noted Torah scholar.Before he was taken” by his Lithuanian killers, “he gave this statement: ‘In Heaven it appears that they deem us to be righteous because our bodies have been chosen to atone for the Jewish people. Therefore, we must repent now, immediately. There is not much time. We must keep in mind that we will be better offerings if we repent. In this way we will save the lives of our brethren overseas. Let no thought enter our minds, God forbid, which is abominable and which renders an offering unfit. We are now fulfilling the greatest mitzvah. With fire she (Jerusalem) was destroyed and with fire she will be rebuilt. The very fire which consumes our bodies will one day rebuild the Jewish people.’”

1942: The first issue of Eynikeyt (Unity), a Yiddish-language journal of the Soviet Jewish Antifascist Committee, is published.

1942: One day after her sister Margot received her orders to report to a labor camp, Anne Frank and her families go into hiding in Amsterdam

1942: Bendin (Poland) ghetto uprising. "The warning cry issued from Jews in Vilna spurred initial thoughts of ghetto revolts for thousands of young Jews, particularly members of the clandestine Zionist-pioneer youth movements. In ghettos such as Bialystok, Krakow, Bendin, Czestochowa, and Tarnow, rebellions and confrontations broke out during the final deportations. These desperate acts of resistance testified to the triumph of the Jewish and human spirit and constituted both a cry for life and a banner of hope for future generations."

1942: In New York, “Jewish American real estate developer Aaron Gural and Harriet Feil” gave birth Rensselaer Polytechnic alum and “New York real estate developer” Jeffrey Gural, the brother of Jane and Barbara Gural and husband of “geologist Paula Gurel” with whom had three children

1944: In the Ural Mountains, Czarna (née Zielinski) and Reuven “Ruwek” (Lewin) Levy gave birth to their son Moshe with whom “they returned to Poznan, in Poland” before moving to Lodz in 1948.

1944: Twenty-four year old Andrée Borrel a member of the French Resistance who later fought the Nazis as a member of the British SOE and her three compatriots were given lethal injections at the Natzweiler-Struthof concentration camp in the Vosges Mountains of Alsace and then were burned alive in the camp’s incinerator.

1944: Birthdate of songwriter Claude-Michel Schönberg, the native of Vannes, who created the music for the hit Broadway shows “Les Misérables” and “Miss Saigon.”

1945: Adolf Cardinal Bertram, the archbishop of Breslau whose refusal to speak out against the Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses, whose issuance of statement calling the war with Poland “a holy war and whose sending of birthday greetings to Adolf Hitler while the Germans were winning hardly squares with Time magazine’s description of him as an anti-Nazi, passed away today.

1946: U.S. premiere of “A Stolen Life” an American remake of an English film directed by Curtis Bernhardt with music by Max Steiner.

1946: Jews fled Kiecle, Poland after being the victim of a pogrom

1948: A convoy arrives at Zion Square in Jerusalem carrying food for the starving city.  The arrival seems to validate reports that a new road has been completed by the Jews fighting there from the coastal plain to the Judean hills.

1948(29th of Sivan, 5708): Fifty-five year old Bernard D. Rubin, the man behind the Tootsie Roll who was also active in raising money for Jewish causes passed away today.

1948: “The UN observers had their first casualty with the death of the French Observer Commandant Rene Labarriere, who had been wounded near the Afula area and later died in the Jewish Hospital at Afula.

1948: Lucy Mandelstam, who had been born in Vienna in 1926 and survived Theresienstadt and Auschwitz, makes Aliyah arriving in Haifa.

1950: Just after the North attacked the South, Yaacov Shimoni, deputy director of Far Eastern affairs in the Foreign Ministry, wrote a letter to Foreign Minister Moshe Sharett asserting that the South Korean government was corrupt and oppressive whereas the North Korean one seemed cleaner and was more efficient and popular.7 In August 1960, however, the Foreign Ministry decided to make every effort to establish full diplomatic ties with South Korea. This was after the fall of the dictatorial regime of Syngman Rhee, who resigned his post and went into exile in April 1961.

1950: In Israel, hospital nurses went on strike demanding a 42-hour work week during the summer months at government run hospitals.  Private hospitals and those administered by trade unions have already agreed to the demand and are not affected by the strike.  Skeleton staffs had been left on duty to ensure the health of patients

1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that after all final registration demands were met, 16 political parties became entitled to compete in the Second Knesset elections. Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion was cheered wildly on his pre-election tour by more than 5,000 Migdal Ashkelon residents. He advised all persons between 20 and 40 years of age to learn to bear arms and assured the gathered crowds that their town would become the second port city in the south of the country, after Eilat. Following the discovery of major irregularities in the shoe industry, the authorities froze all stocks held by shoe manufacturers and ordered a strict shoe sales control throughout the country. Three persons were wounded in the Musrara Quarter of Jerusalem by Arab snipers, aiming at Israeli passersby from the walls of the Old City.

1955: Sandy Koufax gave up eight walks and lasted “only  4 and 2⁄3 innings” in his first start as a member of the Brooklyn Dodgers.

1957: Birthdate of Detroit native Dr. Charlie Pruchno, a pillar of the Cedar Rapids Jewish community

1958: Birthdate of Lena Gilbert, the go-to gal when you want something done professionally or in the Jewish Community at Cedar Rapids, Iowa.

1962: Eugene Ferkauf, the founder of the E. J. Korvette chain of discount department stores appeared on the cover of Time magazine.,16641,19620706,00.html

1962: Orville Prescott’s review of The Slave by Isaac Bashevis Singer was published today.

1964: “The Killers” a film based on the novel of the same name directed and produced by Don Siegel and featuring Norm Fell was released in the United States today.

1966: Birthdate of Jacques Berlinerblau, the native of Portland, Maine, NYU alum and author of scholarly work on “Jewish-American literature and biblical literature” who became “Professor and Director of the Program for Jewish Civilization at the Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University.”

1969: Pitcher Dave Roberts, whose father is Jewish, made his major league debut with the San Diego Padres.

1973(6th of Tammuz, 5733): Conductor and composer Otto Klemperer passed away

1973: “Live and Let Die,” the eighth spy film in the James Bond series co-produced by Harry Saltzman, with a screenplay by Tom Mankiewicz and co-starring Yaphet Kotto was released today in the United Kingdom two weeks after having been released in the United States.

1976: The Jerusalem Post reported that under a new bill presented to the Knesset by Transport Minister Gad Ya'acobi Israel could take "unspecified sanctions" against any airline found negligent in security precautions which could endanger its citizens. The Ministry of Labor announced that universal sick-pay benefits for every worker in Israel would become the law of the land on October 1, 1976.

1976: In Israel, the President, Prime Minister, and most of the cabinet ministers were among the thousands of mourners who attended the funeral of Lt. Col. Yoni Natanyahu, the 30 year old military officer who gave his life to insure the successful rescue at Entebbe.

1976: By order of President Idi Amin, Uganda today marks the first of two days of mourning for the seven Palestinian terrorists killed during the Israeli raid on Entebbe as well the Ugandan soldiers reported to have lost their lives.

1976: U.S. premiere of “Shivers,” the Canadian horror film produced by Ivan Reitman and directed by David Cronenberg who also wrote the script.

1976: Final broadcast of a syndicated version of “I’ve Got a Secret” – a game show produced by Mark Goodson and Bill Todman, created by Allan Sherman

1976: While French President Valery Giscard d’Estaing and Prime Minister Jacques Chirac have not made any comment on the raid on Entebbe, Mordechai Ghazith, Israel’s ambassador to France congratulated the French for their “role in the ordeal.”

1976: “Michael Cojot gave a written account of his experience at Entebbe to a young French official who was collecting testimonies ‘for the sole benefit of the archives’” While IDF Motta Gur said that “had it not been for the information that Cojot” supplied “many more hostages and soldiers would have died” the French never acknowledged his role.

1977(20th of Tammuz, 5737): One person was killed and twenty-two were wounded when terrorists bombed a market in Petah Tikvah.

1979: Birthdate of Mark Moshe Kasher, the New York born, Los Anageles trained “stand-up comedian, author and actor known professionally as Moshe Kasher.

1979: Three French citizens were injured by a terrorist bomb near the UN offices in east Jerusalem.

1984(6th of Tammuz, 5775): Eighty-five year old Ukraine native and alum of the University of Georgia and Johns Hopkins School of Medicine Max Cutler, a “pioneer in the fight against cancer” and the husband of “the former Bertie Berger” passed away today in California.

1985(17th of Tammuz, 5745): Parashat Balak

1985(17th of Tammuz. 5745): Eighty-eight year old Joseph Willen, who served as executive vice president of the Federation of Jewish Philanthropies of New York from 1941 to 1967 passed away today.

1986: Eighty-seven year old Lotah Kreyssig, whose efforts to stop the Nazi euthanasia program almost earned him a trip to the concentration camps but did cost him his job, passed away today.

1987: 'World of Yesterday: Jews in England 1870-1920'' which opens today at St. Paul's Cathedral Crypt, is among the many exhibitions included in this summer's Jewish East End Celebration.

1988(21st of Tammuz, 5748): In Israel 14 bus passengers were killed as an Arab terrorist assaulted the bus driver as the bus was driving by the edge of a cliff.

1988(21st of Tammuz, 5748): Ninety-three year old David Theodore Wilentz, the Attorney General of the state of New Jersey from 1934 to 1944 who prosecuted Bruno Hauptmann for kidnapping the Lindbergh Baby passed away today.

1989(3rd of Tammuz, 5749:  A terrorist seized a bus traveling between Tel Aviv and Jerusalem.  He forced the bus to crash into a ravine where it burst into flames killing sixteen passengers many of whom burned in their seats.  The attack took place at Telshe Stone, the place where Mickey Marcus was shot during the War for Independence.

1989:  At a concert in Jerusalem, the conductor Zubin Metah asked the audience to stand for two minutes of silence in memory of those killed that day in Telshe Stone.  Metah also asked the audience to refrain from any applause.

1993(17th of Tammuz, 5753): Tzom Tammuz

1993: One person was wounded in a stabbing attack in west Jerusalem.

1994: After having premiered in Los Angeles, “Forest Gump” produced by Wendy Finerman and Steve Tisch and a screenplay by Eric Roth was released in the rest of the United States today.

1995: Pitcher Brian Bark made his major league debut with the Boston Red Sox.

1997(1st of Tammuz, 5757): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

1997: The New York Times book section features a review of Passion and Reason Edited by E. Joshua Rosenkranz, a former honoree of the Cornell University Jewish Life Fund and Bernard Schwartz and Ben-Gurion and the Holocaust by Shabtai Teveth in which the historian contradicts contentions that Ben-Gurion was insensitive to the plight of the Jews of Europe and/or that he uncaringly exploited their situation for the benefit of the Yishuv

1999(22nd of Tammuz, 5959): Seventy-seven year old British businessman Joe Hyman who made and lost a fortune passed away today.

1999(22nd of Tammuz, 5959): Ninety-three year old singer and composer Benny Bell passed away today.

1999: Natan Sharansky succeeds Eli Suissa as Minister of Internal Affairs.

1999: Ehud Barak succeeds Silvan Shaom as Minister of Science, Culture and Sport

1999: Shlomo Ben-Ami succeeds Avigdor Kahalani was Minister of Public Security.

1999: Eli Suissa succeeds Ariel Sharon as Minister of National Infrastructure.

1999: David Levy succeeds Ariel Sharon as Israel’s Foreign Minister

1999: Binyamin Ben-Eliezer succeeds Limor Livant as Minister of Communications.

1999: Ehud Barak began serving as the 10th Prime Minister of Israel

2000: “Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon” a film nominated for 10 Oscars with a script co-authored by James Schamus was released today in Hong Kong.

2000(3rd of Tammuz, 5760):Eighty-eight year old Władysław "Wladek" Szpilman a pianist and classical composer, who is widely known as the protagonist of the 2002 Roman Polanski film The Pianist, which is based on the book "The Pianist" recounting his survival of the German occupation of Warsaw and the Holocaust passed away today.

2001: U.S. premiere of “Black River” a FOX made for television movie starring Lisa Edelstein as “Laura Crosby.”

2001: “Kosher À La Cart” published today described the uniquely patented cart that is being used to sell kosher food at the World Trade Center

2002(26th of Tammuz, 5762): Kenneth Koch, Ameircan poet and winner of the 1994 Bollingen Prize, passed away at the age of 77.

2003(6th of Tammuz, 5763): Spc. Jeffrey M. Wershow was killed today when he was shot in Baghdad during military operations. He was 22 years old. “Attending law school and running for president of the United States were Jeffrey Wershow’s plans after finishing his time in the National Guard. He consumed history books, particularly those about the Vietnam War, and developed an interest in politics, even working in the election offices of local politicians in Gainesville, Fla. After spending three years in the Army Reserve, Wershow attended Santa Fe Community College, in New Mexico, prior to enlisting in the National Guard. His father, Jonathan Wershow, said that before being deployed to Iraq, his son attended Sabbath services near Fort Stewart in Georgia and would later celebrate Passover in the desert in Iraq. His father maintains that “the military was very good for Jeffrey. He really grew up; [the military] really helped him a lot. If my son had to die, he felt that he was giving his life for a cause worth dying for.” (As reported by The Forwards)

2003: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Benjamin Franklin: An American Life by Walter Isaacson, After Jihad by Noah Feldman and the recently released paperback edition of Beyond the Last Village: A Journey of Discovery in Asia's Forbidden Wilderness by Alan Rabinowitz

2004(17th of Tammuz, 5764): Tzom Tammuz

2004(17th of Tammuz, 5764): Captain Moran Vardi, 25, was killed by terrorists in Israel.

2006(10th of Tammuz, 5766): First Lieutenant Yehuda Bassel, 21, was killed this afternoon during an IDF operation in the northern Gaza Strip designed to destroy the launching sites for Kassam missiles. The 21 year old from Moshav Yinon was scheduled to be laid to rest tomorrow afternoon in the Kfar Warburg military cemetery in southern Israel.

2006: Judith Kaye, the Chief Judge of the New York Court of appeals “authored a dissent in an omnibus appeal of four same-sex marriage disputes (including Hernandez v. Robles) in which the majority ruled that the state constitution "does not compel recognition of marriages between members of the same sex". Kaye's dissent admonished that while New York State has a tradition of upholding equal rights, "the court today retreats from that proud tradition".

2007: “When Nietzsche Wept” based on the novel of the same name by Irvin D. Yalom co-starring Michal Yannai and Jamie Elman was released today.

2007: In Jerusalem, "Performances in Nature" presents famous Israeli singer, David Broza, in an acoustic performance at Ein Chemed.

2007(20th of Tammuz, 5767): Advertising executive, author and columnist Lois Wayse, who coined the memorable catchphrase “With a name like Smucker’s it has to be good” passed away at the age of 80.

2007: The Israeli premiere of "We Are Together" (Thina Simunye) will take place at the Jerusalem Film Festival at 10:15 P.M.

2008:  An international conference on Dead Sea Scrolls research opens in Israel.

2008 (3 Tammuz, 5768): On the Hebrew calendar, the fourteenth anniversary of the passing of the Rebbe, Rabbi Menachem M. Schneerson, of righteous memory.

2008: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including America America by Ethan Canin and City of Thieves by David Benioff, a novel “which follows a character named Lev Beniov, the son of a revered Soviet Jewish poet who was “disappeared” in the Stalinist purges, as Lev and an accomplice carry out an impossible assignment during the Nazi blockade of Leningrad.”

2008: The Washington Post features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including A Choice of Enemies: America Confronts the Middle East by Lawrence Freedman

2008: The San Francisco Giants shipped Brian Horowitz down to Fresno for more playing time.

2008: The chief Nazi hunter of the Los Angeles-based Simon Wiesenthal Center, Dr. Efraim Zuroff, headed to South America in a final public campaign to locate the most wanted Nazi in,the world and bring him to justice. The search for Dr. Aribert Heim, 94, the former Austrian doctor also known as "Dr. Death" who tops the Wiesenthal Center's list of "most wanted Nazis," has spanned nearly half a century since his 1962 disappearance in Germany ahead of a planned prosecution for his war crimes.

2009: A newly formed Iranian Jewish Federation made up of emigrants from the Iranian city of Mashad is scheduled to meet today in Jerusalem in an effort to promote and preserve their heritage. 2009: Rabbi Levi Yitzchok Horowitz was hospitalized in the Sharei Tzedek hospital in Jerusalem after suffering a cardiac arrest.

2009: Capt. Ben Sklaver shipped out for Afghanistan after setting a wedding date with his fiancée Beth Segaloff

2009: Ben Horowitz and his partner launched Andreessen Horowitz, “to invest in and advise both early-stage startups and more established growth companies in high technology.”

2010: The U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum is scheduled to present “First Person With Al Moritz” which is part of the First Person program which is designed provide the general public to hold conversations with Holocaust survivors.

2010: Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu and US President Barack Obama met in the White House today and discussed direct talks, Gaza, Iran and other issues

2010: Simon Wolfson, who was created Baron Wolfson of Aspley Guise, of Aspley Guise in the County of Bedfordshire was introduced in the House of Lords today. Wolfson is the founder of the £250,000 Wolfson Economic Prize.

2010: Sir Malcolm Rifkind became Chairman of the Intelligence and Security Committee.

2011(4th of Tammuz): Yahrzeit of Rabbi Yaakov ben Meir of Romereau known as "Rabbeinu Tam

2011: “Israeli Culture through Hebrew Conversation” an eight week course offered at the Historic 6th & I Synagogue is scheduled to have its opening session this evening.

2011: Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu met with his Romanian counterpart Emil Boc in Bucharest, who said that he opposes a Palestinian unilateral declaration of statehood. "Romania believes in a two-state solution reached through negotiations, not through unilateral Palestinian actions," Boc said following his meeting with Netanyahu. Netanyahu left for Romania earlier this morning as part of a rare visit to the country and Bulgaria, and was scheduled to meet with Romanian Prime Minister Traian Basescu this evening. Netanyahu, meeting with the Romanian prime minister in Bucharest, invited his counterpart to come visit Israel soon.

2011: President Shimon Peres and Sephardi Chief Rabbi Shlomo Amar have issued a call to the public to desist from all forms of extremism and incitement.  Against the backdrop of the raging controversy and unrest surrounding the apprehension and interrogation of Rabbis Dov Lior and Yaakov Yosef on suspicion of incitement, Peres today  invited Amar to Beit Hanassi to see if they could find a way to calm hot tempers and to create a more moderate and reasonable atmosphere.

2011: The Schalit family traversed the Knesset's hallways today to request that MKs sign a letter calling on the government to release Hamas terrorists in exchange for captive soldier Gilad Schalit. Opposition leader MK Tzipi Livni (Kadima) refused to sign the letter, on the grounds that she does not join petitions or protests. "Livni refrains from publicly commenting on a Schalit deal, in order to avoid turning it into a political matter," a Kadima spokesman explained. "She told the Schalit family that, as a high-ranking minister at the time Gilad was kidnapped, she sees herself as responsible for his captivity."

2011: Oscar Goodman completed his services as the 21st Mayor of Las Vegas.

2011: “The Judy Gold Show: My Life as a Sitcom” which the New York Times called “highly entertaining” officially opened today in NYC.

2011: Carolyn Goldmark Goodman, the wife of former Mayor Oscar Goodman became the 22nd Mayor of Las Vegas after having received 60 per cent of the vote.

2011: As a sign of social and cultural change in Israel Ethan Bronner describes the debate in Israel over a two day weekend.

2012: “Israel: A Home Movie” is scheduled to be shown today the Jerusalem Film Festival

2012: Indonesia is to open a consulate in Ramallah, headed by a diplomat with the rank of ambassador, who will also unofficially serve as his country’s point man for contacts with Israel, The Times of Israel learned on today. The move represents a de facto upgrading of relations between Israel and the world’s most populous Muslim country, and was agreed upon after sensitive deliberations that continued for five years, a source who was involved in the process said. He said Australian politicians, from more than one party, were also “in the picture” as the deliberations continued.

2012: U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton told Palestinian President Mahmoud toiday that the Israel-Palestinian conflict should not be forgotten amid wider upheaval in the Middle East.

2012: Israel reiterated today that it would refuse cooperation with a a UN Human Rights Council fact finding mission to probe Israeli West Bank settlement activity and Jewish building in east Jerusalem. The Geneva-based council appointed three international jurists to the mission today, eliciting a rebuke from Foreign Ministry spokesman Yigal Palmor

2013: Due to lack of a repayment, there will be no “free” bus from the Kotel on Motzei Shabbat; a service that Egged has been operating on the honor system to accommodate the needs of “observant” riders.

2013: In Cedar Rapids, Iowa, the traditional minyan celebrates Independence Shabbat, honoring Jewish American heroes of the revolution, followed by a beat the summer heat Kiddush featuring Sundaes on Saturday.

2013: “Caught In The Web” is among the films scheduled to be screened at the 30th International Jerusalem Film Festival. 

2013(28th of Tammuz, 5773): Ninety-three year old publisher Arthur Rosenthal passed away toay.  (As reported by Paul Vitello)

2013(28th of Tammuz, 5773): Eighty-nine year old Nixon adviser Leonard Garment passed away today.(As reported by Eric Lichtblau)

2013: US Secretary of State John Kerry’s plan to resume peace talks between Israel and the Palestinian Authority calls for a cessation of settlement construction outside settlement blocs in the West Bank and the release of 103 Palestinian prisoners, the London-based Al-Hayat newspaper reported today (As reported by Khaled Abu Tomeh and Tovah Lazaroff)

2013: Omri Casspi, the only Israeli hoopster to ever play in the NBA, will sign a two-year, $2 million (NIS 7.3 million) deal with the Houston Rockets, Yahoo! Sports reported today (As reported by Raphael Gellar)

2014: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors -- A Most Imperfect Union: A Contrarian History of the United States by Ilan Stavans -- and of special interest to Jewish readers – The Arsenal of Democracy: FDR, Detroit and an Epic Quest to Arm an America at War by A.J. Baime which tells of the role played by infamous ant-Semite Henry Ford in the creation of the Arsenal of Democracy that defeated the Nazis.

2014: A tour of Jewish Poland led by Gratz College scholar Dr. Michael Steinlauf is scheduled to come to an end.

2014: Jerusalem-born conductor Asher Fisch is scheduled to lead “a Romantic program fitting for a mid-summer Berkshires' evening.”

2014: The Shin Bet Security announced that “several Jewish suspects have been arrested in connection with murder of a Palestinian teen” on July 2. (JTA)

2014: Lynn Chaney, the wife of the former Vice President tells the New York Times that “the last book to make her cry was Shel Silverstein’s The Giving Tree (“I have to steel myself before I read it to my grandchildren.”)

2014: After 25 rockets were fired into Israel from Gaza today, the IAD killed two members of the Islamic Jihad this evening.

2014: “Israel Police said today that 19-year-old Shelley Dadon, whose body was found in a car park in Migdal Ha'emek in early May, was murdered by her taxi driver, 34-year-old Hussein Yousef Khalifa, who confessed and reenacted her killing.” (As reported by Ahiya Raved and Yoav Zitun)

2014: Palestinian security forces used tear gas to prevent rioters from burning Joseph’s Tomb in Nablus tonight.

2015: In Tel Aviv, the first annual Blues Festival is scheduled to come to an end.

2015: In Leeds, UK, Frank Virgon is scheduled to lecture on “Isaac Bashevis Singer: How his Works have been Lost in Translation in the US.”

2015(19th of Tammuz, 5775): Seventy-seven year old Jerry Weintraub who combined the worlds of Hollywood and politics passed away today.

2015(19th of Tammuz, 5775):  Ninety-three year old Vilnus native Rachel Margolis, the WW II partisan, turned biology professor and Holocaust preservationist passed away today.

2016: David J. Shulkin began serving as Under Secretary of Veterans Affairs for Health.

2016: The Mission to Israel sponsored by the Jewish Federation of North America is scheduled to begin today.

2016: Three months after Israel’s Chief Rabbnate reject the author of Rabbi Haskel Lookstein to perform conversions, Natan Sharansky today “spoke at a 200-person protest on Lookstein’s behalf in front of the Chief Rabbinical Court in Jerusalem.” (As reported by Ben Sales)

2016: Judy Margles, the executive director of the Oregon Jewish Museum and Center for Holocaust Education and board chair Elaine Coughlin “announced today the purchase of a $5 million space in Oldtown to serve as the institution’s permanent home.

2016: Dr. Suzanne Schneider of the Brooklyn Institute for Jewish Research is scheduled to teach the first session of “Primo Levi: Memory, Meaning and the Holocaust.”

2016: The Consulate General of Israel is scheduled to host a luncheon where “Israeli Hi-Tech entrepreneur and philanthropist, Rony Zarom and Batsheva Moshe, CEO of Unistream talk about the impact of economic gaps on Israeli society and their efforts to empower Jewish and Arab youth from Israel's disadvantaged localities through entrepreneurship.”

2016: The Jerusalem Film Festival is scheduled to open with its celebratory first evening tongiht in Sultan’s Pool with a screening of Pedro Almodovar’s latest film, “Julieta,” based loosely on three short stories in Alice Munro’s book “Runaway.” Emma Suarez, who stars in Almodovar’s latest film (see trailer at top of story), will also attend the festival’s opening night festivities. (As reported by Jessica Steinberg)

2017: The International Festival of Light exhibition in Jerusalem is scheduled to come to an end today.

2017: This evening “30,000 Jews from all across the globe are scheduled to join together at the Teddy stadium in Jerusalem to bring in the 20th Maccabiah Games.”

2017: Daniel Polisar is scheduled to present the second session “The Zionist Vision: A New Look at Theodor Herzl.”

2018: As a reminder of the vitality of “small town Judaism” Lily Zukin is scheduled to begin her Bat Mitzvah weekend tonight at Agudas Achim in Coralville, IA.

2018: “As the Syrian army continues its offensive on rebel-held areas near the Golan border,” Israel has signaled its expectation that the Assad government honor the “1974 Separation of Forces Agreement.




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