Saturday, June 9, 2018

This Day, June 10, In Jewish History by Mitchell A. Levin


1190: During the Third Crusade Frederick I Barbarossa drowns in the Saleph River while leading an army to Jerusalem.  The German emperor was one of three monarchs leading the crusade.  The other two were Phillip Augustus of France and Richard the Lionhearted of England.  From the Jewish point of view, the untimely drowning was a great loss.  “For German Jewry, The Third Crusade could have raised havoc similar to the first.”  That it didn’t was a result of the foresight demonstrated by Frederick. “His timely order not to preach against the Jews, directed to monks and priests, helped, and his warnings to the Diet (Parliament) that anyone convicted of killing Jews would with his own life helped even more.  Local marshals dispersed surly mobs hovering around Jewish districts, and Frederick let it be known that anyone who inflicted injury on a Jew would have his hand chopped off.  At the emperor’s urging, bishops in his realm threatened people who attacked Jews with excommunication.  A Jewish chronicler, Ephraim ben-Jacob of Bonna, wrote, ‘Frederick defended us with all his might and enabled us to live among our enemies, so that no one harmed the Jews.’”

1376: Wenceslaus IV who as Emperor failed to continue the Imperial protection of the Jews of Luxembourg led to their expulsion in 1391 began his reign as King of the Germans.

1493: In Nuremberg, “George Fugger and Regina Imhof” gave birth to their “third and youngest son” Anton Fugger the German merchant who hired Hans Dernschwam the German traveler who described the condition of the Jews in the Ottoman Empire including those “in Constantinople” where “the Jews were thick ‘as ants’” and “there were forty-two or more synagogues divided by nationality” serving a community that numbered “over Jewish men alone.”

1539: Pope Paul III sends out letters to his Bishops calling for a delay in the start of the Council of Trent, which would turn out to be one of the major conclaves in the history of the Catholic Church.  Pope Paul III is the Pope who is credited with starting a series of tribunals that became known as the Roman Inquisition or, more simply, The Inquisition. While the Inquisition was aimed at a variety of non-believers, over the centuries Jews, Marranos and Conversos suffered disproportionately under this scourge.

1577: Pope Gregory XIII issued a warrant that “confirmed the statutes of the (Roman) Jewish community and permitted the collection of taxes.”

1624: During the Dutch War for Independence France and the Netherlands sign the Treaty of Compiegne which enabled France to supply the Dutch with financial aid in their fight to gain independence from Spain. Since Protestant Holland’s victory over Catholic Spain was in the best interest of the Jews since the former had provided a safe haven and the latter followed a ruinous policy of anti-Semitism.

1648: Start of the Cossacks ten year war with the Poles also known as the Chmielniki Uprising.  The Jews were caught between the Russian Orthodox Cossacks who hated the Roman Catholic Poles who had been occupying their land.  Jews had served as agents for the Polish nobles managing their lands and collecting the taxes.  For this, and the fact that they were Jews, the Cossack hated them.  At the same time, the Poles betrayed the Jews, in many instances turning them over to the Cossacks thinking that this would mollify the angry horde.  It didn't but from the Jews' point of view that really did not matter since they were killed regardless of what happened. In the ten tumultuous years that followed, over seven hundred Jewish communities were destroyed and between one hundred and five hundred thousand Jews lost their lives. The ensuing sense of helplessness contributed to the rise of the messianic movement which soon followed.

1729(13th of Sivan): Rabbi Abraham ben David Yizhaki, author of Zera Abraham passed away

1749 (7th Sivan 5509): Count Valentine Potocki is burned at the stake in Vilna. The count, along with his friend Zeremba, met an old Jew in a tavern and promised to convert if he could convince them of the preeminence of Judaism. Potoscki converted and eventually settled in Vilna. Zeremba hearing that his friend converted did likewise and moved to Eretz- Israel. His presence became known and he was put on trial for heresy when he refused to recant. His ashes were collected and buried in Vilna where the inscription on tomb read Abraham Ben Abraham Ger Zedek (a righteous proselyte). The Jews of Vilna would visit his grave and say Kaddish.

1759: At Frankfurt an der Oder, Brandenburg, Germany, Naphtali (Herz) Beer and Jente Enoch Beer gave birth to

Jacob (Jehuda) Herz Beer, the father of composer Giacomo Meyerbeer.

1760 (26th of Sivan 5520): On the secular calendar, of Israel ben Eliezer passed away. Also known as the Baal Shem Tov he was the "founder" of the Chassidic Movement.  Born in 1700 in Lokop, Podolia and orphaned at a young age, he was raised by the Jewish community and spent much of his time alone in the nearby forests. After he married, he moved to the Carpathian Mountains and then to a small town where his wife set up an inn. At age thirty-six, he revealed himself to the community as a healer and a comforter. He received the name 'Baal Shem Tov' (Master of the Good Name) and was simply called the 'Besht'. His major philosophy consisted of worshipping G-d with joy and believing that simple prayers when uttered in earnest were more important that extreme intellectualization. The Besht believed that Tzaddikim, or righteous ones, were sent by G-d to guide the people. Though he left no writings of his own, he was immortalized by the often miraculous and magnified stories of his life as told by his closest followers.

1768: Birthdate of Lyon Israel Samuel the native Heidelsheim, Germany who died in Paris in 1843.

1760: Canadian businessman and political leader, Aaron Hart, became a member of the St. Paul's Lodge of Freemasons today “making him one of the first Jews in North America to become a Mason”

1797: “The Treaty of Tripoli” which had been ratified unanimously by the U.S. Senate three days ago and which said that “the Government of the United States is not any sense founded on the Christian religion” took “effect as the law of the land” today.

1789 Birthdate of Eduard Israel Kley, the native of Wartenberg who was one of the “founders of Reform Judaism.”

1799(7th of Sivan, 5559): Last observance of Shavuot in the 18th century

1802: David Moses Dyte married Hannah Lazarus at the Great Synagogue in London today.

1805: Yusuf Karamanli signed a treaty today marking the end of the “First Barbary War” which was part of the United States early foray into the world of Islam and Middle East which is so well documented in Power, Faith and Fantasy by Michael B. Oren.

1810: In Mlecice, Marcus and Maria Lobl gave birth to Katherina Lobl

1812: Moses Haim Montefiore married Judith Cohen today in the United Kingdom.

1815: “Prince Karl von Hardenberg, the Prussian representative to the Congress of Vienna, wrote an urgent request to the Senate of Lubeck to grant civil rights to its Jewish population.”

1818(6th of Sivan 5578) Shavuot

1827: Birthdate of Thomas W. Ferry, U.S. Senator from Michigan who would be the first President Pro Tempore of the United States Senate to attend the consecration of an orthodox synagogue in Washington, D.C.

1829: Birthdate of Filosseno Luzzatto “an Italian Jewish scholar” who was the son of Samuel David Luzzatto.

1834: John Levy married Mary Lazarus at the Great Synagogue in London today.

1837(7th of Sivan, 5597): Second Day of Shavuot, Yizkor is recited for the second time during the Presidency of Martin Van Buren.

1837(7th of Sivan): Rabbi Chaim Isaac Mussafia of Jerusalm, author of Chaim va Chesed passed away

1846(16th of Sivan, 5606): Fifty-four year old Heimann Joseph Michael, the native of Hamburg who became a leading Hebrew bibliographer of the first half of the 19th century passed away. His impact outlived his death as can be seen by the fact that his seminal work Or ha-Hayyim which was edited by his son was published in Frankfort in 1891.

1849: Birthdate of David Lubin the Polish born American merchant and agriculturalist who became Director of the International Society for the Colonization of Russian Jews in 1891.

1852: In New York, a Jewish peddler was arrested today on charges of having stolen a watch valued at $30 from a resident of Newton.

1856(7th of Sivan, 5616): Yizkor is recited on the second day of Shavuot for the last time during the Presidency of Franklin Pierce.

1859(8th of Sivan, 5619): Samuel Russell died today aboard the HMS Colossus from injuries he suffered when he fell from the main deck.  A resident of Sheerness, Russell was married to Yitta Russell.  Sun Street was renamed Russell Street in his honor.

1859: In St. Louis, MO, Morris Rosenheim and Matilda Ottenheimer gave birth Alfred Faist Rosenheim the architect educated at Washington University, Hassell’s Institute and MIT whose projects included the Rosenberg Memorial Library in Galveston, TX.

1860: In New York, Congregation B’nai Israel purchased additional land on the corner of Stanton and Forsyth Streets on which they were building a sanctuary that was consecrated in August of the same year.

1863: James (Jacob) Seligman and Rosa Seligman gave birth to Francis (Fanny) Nathan.

1867(7th of Sivan, 5627): Second Day of Shavuot

1870: The New York Times reported that the fact that Sir Moses Montefiore has verified reports of the massacre of Jews in Romania has discredited claims that these attacks did not take place.

1872: “The Russian Jews” published today described a paper on the Jews of northwestern Russia that was presented at a recent meeting of the Russian Geographical Society held at St. Petersburg.  The author of the paper divides the Jews into a variety of groups and sub-groups.  According to him the Jews belong to two major groupings which differ in regard to “religion and language.”  One group believes in the Talmud and speaks a “corrupt German dialectic.”  The second group, called the Karaites, “rejects the Talmud, are not even absolute believers in the Bible… “have their own traditions which have collected into a book” that “has the same authority over them as the Talmud has over other Jews”  and speak a language that “is of Tartar Origin.  The author goes on to divide the first group into two subgroups – the Mitnagdim and the Chasidim who are called “Jumpers” by the Russians because they leap from the ground when praying – and describes the differences in their respective views and practices.  Finally, the Jews are broken down into Four Groups that include “the worldly Jews,” “the devout” Jews, “the Germans” who are followers of Moses Mendelsohn and the “Epicureans” who reject all forms of Jewish custom and ceremony as well as the Talmud.

1872: “The Romanian Jews and the Reichstag” published today reported that in May of this year  the German government has joined other European powers in responding to requests to help the Jews of Romania. The government announced that it could not interfere in the internal affairs of another country especially since none of those affected were German citizens. Germany reiterated the request of the other powers which had been made in February that persecution of the Jews stop.  The government also took credit for the release of some of the wrongfully convicted Jews. [Editor’s note- the issue of the treatment of Romania’s Jews is one that would agitate the European Powers and the United States during the last decades of the 19th century.]

1872: “The Israelites of Prussia” published today reported that “the Jewish questions” (the treatment of the Jews of Romania) is of special interest in Berlin because “trade and banking is mainly in the hands of the elect people.”  “The financial heads of the dispersed nation have joined to make their power felt to get the other nations to act against Romania. “A Committee of the Alliance Israelite Universelle has been formed” in Berlin “as a standing council of war” that would destroy the value of Romanian bonds. “That is a strong measure, but one for which the Jews have the power.” [Editor’s Note – The view of the Jew as “the other” who is part of an international financial concern would grow along with other European stereotypes: International Communist Conspirator and impoverished shiftless vermin.]

1872: “Jewish University” published today reported that a Jewish university was opened at Berlin in May.  The Jewish community has been working on this project for several years and its opening is another example of the great strides made them in the Kaiser’s Empire.  The ceremony was attended only by Jewish officials but this should not be of any concern since there are plenty of Jews to attend the school.

1873: Simon Cook began serving as a Cadet and Midshipman in the United States Navy.

1875(7th of Sivan, 5635): Second Day of Shavuot

1877: “A Jewish Suit For Divorce” published today described the adjudication of cause of action in Great Britain filed by an American Jew named Elias Isaacs naming his wife Deborah as respondent  and her lover, Bloc, as correspondent. The jury found that the respondent and co-respondent were guilty of damages but declined to assess damages because the petitioner had “conduced” (contributed to) his wife’s misconduct by separating from her for an extended period of time and not given her the protection one should expect in a marital relationship. [And  people think that Jews are dull and boring]

1877: “The Place of Wailing” published today reported that the picture which Jerusalem presents that longest haunts the memory is perhaps the spectacle of the Jews wailing before the ancient wall of their city.  There in full sunlight, bowed in every attitude of grief, their faces set against those gigantic blocks which reveal…their antiquity, a group of 30 to 40 Jews are seen, perhaps a little too much as in an opera, by a long line of cold-faced Europeans.  The two groups are in startling contrast. Everything in the one speaks of the orderly life, the suppression of feel, the formality of vesture, a colorless insipidity, the outcome of our modern conventional existence; the other shows us figures, for the most part, which might stepped froth from the pages of the Bible, some of the heads of such grandeur that they might be the descendants of prophets; maidens whose contrite aspect reminds one of Ruth and Esther, surrender themselves to a sorrow which reverberates through the ages and is the one true bond which connect the grand days of old with the present.

1879: Today, the U.S. House of Representatives passed the a resolution reported by the Committee on Foreign Affairs in relation to treaty negotiations with Russia as to American Israelites.

1880: Oliver Hazard Perry Belmont graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy.  Belmont was the son of August Belmont the Hessian Jew who came to the United States as a representative of the Rothschilds and built a fortune of his own.  The naval career might have seemed strange for the son of a Jews. But, his maternal grandfather Commodore Mathew Perry who commanded the naval expedition that opened trade with Japan and a maternal grand-uncle was Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry, the hero of the War of 1812.

1880(1st of Tammuz, 5640: Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

1882: Birthdate of John David Whiting, the native of Jerusalem who grew up in the American Colony and served as the U.S. Vice Counsul of Jerusalem from 1908 to 1910 and again from 1915 to 1917.

1883(5th of Sivan, 5643): Sixty-three year old Baron Simon von Winterstein, Austrian businessman and member of the Imperial Council who also served as President of the Viennese Jewish Community passed away today.

1883: It was reported today that soprano Sophia Neuberger will be accompanying violinist Camilla Urso on an extended concert tour.

1886(7th of Sivan, 5646): Second Day of Shavuot

1886: For the second day in a row, final exams are scheduled to be given on Shavuot at Philadelphia’s Central High School despite the requests of the city’s rabbis to make other arrangements.

1890: It was reported today that the upcoming sixth annual graduation exercises for the students at the Hebrew Technical Institute will take place at the school which is located on Stuyvesant Street.

1893: In Berkley, VA, founding of Congregation Mickroh Kades which holds services three times a day and hold religious school classes six days a week.

1894(6th of Sivan, 5654): Shavuot

1894: “No More New Plays To See” published today described the theatre season which has just come to the end including the fact that  Sidney Grundy has blamed the prejudice of the reviewers for the failure of his five act play, “An Old Jew.”  However, “anybody who reads the play will be likely to decide that it failed because it is a very bad play with a wildly-improbable plot and superabundance of talk.

1894: As part of the increasingly aggressive campaign to convert Jews living in the United States, Reverend John Wilkinson, the English minister who leads the mission to convert English Jews, address the meeting of the American Hebrew Christian Mission Society.

1894: Solomon Moses who has enjoyed a long association with the United Hebrew Charities is among those serving on the Tenement House Committee appointed the governor to examine conditions in this kind of dwelling in New York City.

1895: It was reported today that there 475 girls enrolled in the Louis Down Town Sabbath and Daily Technical Schools which were founded by Mrs. A. H. Louis.

1895(18th of Sivan, 5655): Forty-forty year old German born composer and conductor Martin Roder passed away in Boston where he had been serving as chairman of the vocal department in the New England Conservatory since 1892.

1897: Wisconsin native Louis C. Wolf was promoted to 2nd Lt. in the Engineers.

1898: Rabbi H.P. Mendes of New York’s Spanish and Portuguese has been elected of the newly formed Orthodox Jewish Congregational Union of America which is made up of congregations from the United States and Canada.

1898: “Minister Straus Honored” published today described “an informal reception” given by The Judeans Oscar S. Straus following his appointment as the U.S. Minister to Turkey.

1898: The Jewish Chronicle carried a vivid account of an anti-Jewish riot in Jassy, Romania — a place that the paper decided was no longer safe for Jews

1898(20th of Sivan, 5658): Seventy four year old Rabbi Samuel Mohilewer who was an early Zionist leader and proponent of the founding of the Jewish Colonial Bank passed away today leaving a legacy that included his Joseph who was also a Zionist and the rabbi at Bialystok.

1899: Louis Pearshall, Louis Stern, Isador Straus and Julia Richman are among the directors named to oversee the operations of the reconfigured Education Alliance.

1899: Captain Alfred Dreyfus left French Guiana today on board the French cruiser Sfax.

1899: As part of his ongoing “Jew-baiting crusade” Count Walter Puckler-Muskau gave a second lecture in Berlin today entitle “The Progressive Judaisation of Germany.

1899: At Rodoph Shalom, Rabbi Rudolph Grossman delivered a sermon about the plight of Captain Dreyfus entitled “Justice.”

1900: Anti-Semitic riots broke out at Tuchel, the West Prussian city that was the home of the famed pharmacologist and toxicologist Louis Lewin

1901:  In Berlin, Rosa Loewe and Edmond Loewe, “a noted Jewish operetta star who performed throughout Europe and in North and South America including starring as Count Danilo in the 1906 Berlin production of The Merry Widow” gave birth to composer, Frederic Lowe who teamed with Alan Jay Lerner to create such hits as Brigadoon, Paint Your Wagon and My Fair Lady. (As reported by Stephen Holden)

1901: In Lithuania “Morris and Sarah (Notes) Flom” gave birth to Lehigh University alum Samuel Louis Flom, the husband of Julia Mittle Tampa, FL, businessman who “served as chairman of the board of Florida Steel” from its founding in 1937 until his death in 1980 while serving as President of Schaarai Zedek.

1901: Birthdate of the multi-talented Englishman Eric Maschwitz.

1902(5th of Sivan, 5662): Erev Shavuot

1904: Theodor Kohn was forced to resign as an archbishop because he was born Jewish.  (Is this a reminder of the Inquisition or a harbinger of Nazi rules on race?)

1905(7th of Sivan, 5665): Second Day of Shavuot

1905: Hans Kelsen, the Bohemian born Jewish jurist was baptized as a Roman Catholic, the first of two religious conversions that he would undergo.

1906: Sixty-three year old Mary Carinna Putnam Jacobi, an American suffragette and physician who was the widow of Dr. Abraham Jacobi, the pioneering Jewish pedestrian passed away.

1907: The parents of Riva (Rebecca) Hillesum-Bernstein who would be the maternal grandparents of Riva (Rebecca) Hillesum-Bernstein arrived in Amsterdam where they were re-united with their daughter and son.

1908: Birthdate of Omaha native Elmer Greenberg who won All-American honors while playing “guard at the University of Nebraska from 1927-1930.”

1908: Oliver Hazard Perry Belmont, the son of August Belmont, who inherited a fortune large enough when his father died to marry a Vanderbilt.  In an era of matrilineal Judaism, Belmont was not Jewish and he certainly was not considered to be one as he moved through the high society of his time. But he was August’s son and the enemies of August never let anybody forget about his Jewish antecedents.

1909: First day of a two day conference held in New York that would create the youth organization known as Young Judaea.

1909: Sir Osmond d'Avigdor-Goldsmid, 1st Baronet and his wife gave birth to his oldest son Major-General Sir Henry Joseph "Harry" d'Avigdor-Goldsmid, 2nd Baronet

1910: Gustave Bauer, a banker from Madrid was elected, to the Spanish Parliament as the deputy for Corogna. He was the first Jew elected to public office since the expulsion in 1492.

1911: Birthdate of Hans Herzl, son of Theodor Herzl.

1911: After 104 performances at the Winter Garden Theatre, the curtain came down on Jerome Kern’s “La Belle Paree” the musical revue “that launched Al Jolson’s career.”

1913(5th of Sivan, 5673): Erev Shavuot

1915: In Lachine, Quebec, Lescha (née Gordin) and Abraham Bellows gave birth to Solomon Bellows who gained famed as author Sol Bellow whose famous works include Herzog and Humboldt’s Gift and who won both the Pulitzer and the Nobel prizes.

1915: The comments of Reverend S. Edward Young, the pastor of the Bedford Presbyterian Church following the yesterday’s decision by the Georgia Prison Board not to commute Leo Frank’s death sentence published today said that “The Georgia Prison Board evidently has been under the spell of Georgia prejudice against Frank” and that ‘Now is the time for the whole nation express itself to the governor” to have him grant Frank clemency.

1915: Maurice B. Kovnat, the Secretary of the Anti-Capital Punishment Society of America expressed his hope that Leo Frank’s life would be spared saying that “We trust that the fervent prayers of thousands of people outside as well as in Georgia will be heard and acted upon in like spirit.”

1915: “After a conference today with attorneys representing Leo M. Frank and Solicitor General Hugh M. Dorsey” scheduled the “hearing of arguments for and against Frank’s application for a commutation of death sentence to life for imprisonment” for June 15 at nine o’clock.

1915: The Actions Committee (Va'ad HaPoel HaZioni) convened in Copenhagen

1915: Mrs. Helen Rothschild, the wife of a clothing manufacturer, was taken to Flushing Hospital this morning after suffering what appeared to be an accidental drug overdose.

1916: In Chicago, Gilbert I. Stadeker, the son of Mr. and Mrs. Ralph Stadeker married “Nannette Rosenthal, the daughter of Sarah Rosenthal.”

1916: The National Republican Convention which nominated Supreme Court Justice Charles Evans Hughes, who would often vote with Brandeis and Cardozo during his second stint on the court, for President and which Samuel S. Koenig attended as a delegate from New York came to a close today.

1916: In Boston, “Nathan Rosenberg, a grocery owner, and Phoebe Rosenberg née Swart, Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe” gave birth to William Rosenberg, founder of Dunkin Donuts.  Rosenberg opened his first Dunkin Donut shop in his native New England in 1950.  Not only was he a pioneer in this particular food genre, he was a pioneer in the franchise industry.  Rosenberg was an equine enthusiast and philanthropist.  By the time he died at the age of 86 he had given millions to several causes including Harvard Medical School where a chair was endowed in his honor.

1916: “Degree of D.D., honoris causa” was conferred on Gotthard Deutsch by Hebrew Union College.

1917: A column styled "Latest Publication" published today reported that copies of “The Russian Revolution” by Isaac Don Levine and the “The Holy Scriptures,” a new English translation published by the Jewish Publication Society were available in New York City.

1917: The Confirmation Exercises at the Chicago Home for Jewish Orphans are scheduled to held today at 628 Drexel Avenue where fifteen boys and ten girls will be honored.

1917: Reverend Herbert S. Goldstein, the leader of “the new Institutional Synagogue” held “second Jewish religious revival meeting this morning in center of the Jewish district of Harlem.”

1917: The Executive Board of the Jewish Congress Association is scheduled to open a three day meeting today where it will discuss “all matters pertain to the upcoming election of delegates.”

1917: In the United States, three hundred and thirty-five thousand people chose representatives for the first American Jewish Congress. The Congress would meet for the first time in 1918 under the leadership of Rabbi Stephen Wise. Founded to ameliorate the suffering from WW I, the Congress became an advocate for civil rights and civil liberties as well as seeing to it that the Jewish point of view was taken into consideration on the national political scene.  The organization is a staunch defender of the doctrine of separation of church and state and an ardent advocate for the state of Israel.

1917: The Hebrew Institute on W. Taylor Street and the Hebrew Literary Society on South Ashland are two of the special polling places for the election sponsored by the Jewish Congress Association of Chicago.

1917: It was estimated that in New York, “about 150,000 Jewish men and women” voted today “for delegates to the American Jewish Congress” which is scheduled to meet in Washington on September 2 “to consider means of bringing political equality and relief to Jews in any part of the world where they may be burdened by oppression and suffering.

1918: “Jewish sentiment toward the meeting demanding recognition of the Soviet Government was expressed” today “by William Edlin, editor of The Day in an article in which he appealed to Russian Jews of the city to ‘boycott the mass meeting’ by remaining away, or, if they do attend, to ‘make it clearly known that their sympathies are not with the Bolsheviki, but clearly against them.’”

1919: British economist William Cunningham passed away. Cunningham was the author of The Growth of English Industry and Commerce in which he described the status of Jews in medieval England.  “The Jews had no rights or status of their own; they were the mere chattles of the King; all that they had was his.  In this lay their security from popular violence: but it was a security for which they had to pay dearly.  Their transactions were all registered in the Exchequer.”  This meant that the debts due to Jewish money lenders were really due to the king.  And since Christians could not lend money interest, the English king “had indirectly a monopoly on money-lending” in his realm.

1920: The Friends of Jewish Music are scheduled to sponsor a program at the Y.W.H.A. featuring the works of Solomon Golub who will perform his own compositions.

1921: Birthdate of Lower Saxony native Oskar Gröning the SS officer “known as the bookkeeper of Auschwitz.”

1921(3rd of Sivan, 5681): Fifty-two year old Julius Benjamin “Julie” Freeman a pitcher with the St. Louis Browns passed away today who may or may not have been Jewish

1923: In Slatinské Doly, Mechel Hoch and Hannah Slomowitz gave birth to Ján Ludvík Hyman Binyamin Hoch who gained fame as British media mogul Ian Robert Maxwell.

1923: Cornerstone laying ceremony for the New Hebrew Home for the aged at 1125 Spring Road, NW in Washington, DC.

1923: Birthdate of French actress Marie Madeleine Berthe Lebeau who gained fame as the female French guitar player in “Casablanca” who is real life had been forced to flee from the Nazis with her Jewish husband, actor Marcel Dalio.

1924: “Dangerous Clues” a crime film with a script co-authored by Adolf Lantz was released today in Germany.

1924: The Republican National Convention which Samuel S. Koenig attended as a delegate from New York opened in Cleveland, Ohio with President Calvin Coolidge a shoo-in to be nominated for the top spot.

1925: In Boston, MA, Lena (Katzenberg) and Simon Hentoff historian and author Nat Hentoff.

1925: In Passaic, NJ, Mildred Scheff and George Horowitz, a real estate broker and businessman gave birth to James Arnold Horowitz who gained fame as author James Salter.

1926: Rabbi Maurice Maser became Director of the Hebrew Home for the Aged in Washington, DC.

1926: Socialist Congressman and champion of the underdog Meyer London was buried today at Mt. Carmel Cemetery in Queens following a funeral that included a procession of 50,000 mourners and half a million on-lookers.  London may have the distinction of being the only Socialist who was condemned as an anti-American radical to have a United States naval vessel named in his honor. The U.S.S. Meyer London, one the famed fleet of Liberty ships, was launched in 1943 and was sunk by an enemy torpedo off the coast of Libya in 1944.

1927: It was reported today that “Rabbis of all synagogues were requested to speak on the 150th anniversary of the adoption of the flag, in a resolution passed by the Synagogue Council of America” this Shabbat which falls three days before the officially designated date (June 14) of a holiday championed by Ben Altheimer, a leader of the Jewish community from Arkansas.

1928: In Philadelphia, Betty and Rabbi Simon Greenberg, the future vice chancellor of JTS gave birth to Moshe Greenberg, “one of the most influential Jewish biblical scholars of the 20th century.”

1928: In Brooklyn, Polish Jewish immigrants Sadie (née Schindler) and Philip Sendak, a dressmaker gave birth to Maurice Sendak, author of Where the Wild Things Are.

1931(25th of Sivan, 5691): In Bobowa, Poland, Rabbi Shlomo Halberstam, the Grand Rebbe of Bobov and his wife (who died in the Holocaust along with two of her children gave birth to “Naftali Tzvi Halberstam, the husband of Rebbetzin Hesa” who succeeded his father as Grand Rebbe after the latter’s death in 2000.

1932: In Brooklyn, Morris and Evelyn (Bayer) Ginsburg gave birth to Martin David Ginsberg Georgetown University Law Professor and famed tax attorney.

1932(6th of Sivan, 5692): First Day of Shavuot

1933: President Roosevelt submitted the name of Dr. William E. Dodd to serve as Ambassador to Germany and the Senate voted to confirm the nomination.  Dodd served with distinction, but much to his dismay was unable to convince the State Department and others of the dangers presented by the rise of the Nazis.

1933: Joe T. Robinson of Arkansas, the Democratic majority leader, gave a speech on the floor the U.S. Senate strongly condemning the persecution of the Jews in Germany.  He described what was going on in Germany as “sickening and terrifying.”  As the Senate’s leading Democrat, Senator Robinson often serves as the unofficial spokesman for the administration.  Jesse Metcalf, the Republican Senator from Rhode Island joined in the condemnation saying that “a violation of religious freedom in any part of the world is a blow at” American ideals. Senator Robert Wagner of New York expressed his “horror at the resorts of intolerance, discrimination and violence.”  Wagner’s condemnation carried additional weight since he was born in Germany and grew up there. Senator Royal Copeland spoke approvingly of Jews as a group, endorsed the comments of Senator Robinson but expressed the view that the German people were not responsible but rather they were “under a power over which they have no control.” [An early version of “the Germans are not Nazis” argument]

1934(27th of Sivan, 5694): Eighty year old Samuel Lewis, the native of Maitland, New South Wales and husband of Annette Cohen passed away today in Kensington Middlesex England.

1934(27th of Sivan, 5694): Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky passed away. He “was a Soviet developmental psychologist whose work received widespread recognition in the Western world around the 1960s. According to Vygotsky, the intellectual development of children is a function of human communities, rather than of individuals.”

1936: “Robert Edward Edmondson, the anti-Semitic publisher failed to appear in the Tombs Court” this morning “to answer the summons issued by Mayor La Guardia charging him with criminal libel.”

1936: The Palestine Post reported that two Arabs died and 26 Arabs and Armenians were injured by a bomb which exploded inside the Jaffa Gate on June 8.

1936: The Palestine Post reported that Mr. Ormsby Gore, the colonial secretary, told the House of Commons in London that the Palestine government was taking all possible action to protect life, property and communications in the country. The Palestine government was granted further emergency powers under the Palestine (Defense) Order in Council of 1931.

1936: “Five Arabs were seriously wounded today in as part of a round of disorder such as have become typical of the Arab anti-Jewish campaign In Palestine.”  As the Arab uprising continued, “Jerusalem was again cut off from the rest of Palestine and the world in general when telephone and telegraph lines were severed” supposedly by Arab vandals.

1937: Birthdate of Italian actress Luciana Paluzzi, the third wife of Jewish businessman and philanthropist Michael Jay Solomon.

1937: “The Wesdeutsched Beobachter, the Nazi party organ for the Rhineland, declared today that German firms should be represented abroad by Jewish agents” which is rumored to be a prelude to an order being issued that would compel Germans businesses to dismiss their Jewish representatives working abroad.

1937: Dr. Julien Weil, Chief Rabbi of Paris, and Dr. Eisenstadt, former Chief Rabbi of St. Petersburg, Russia, officiated at the funeral services for Dr. Henry Siolosberg the 74 year old “former president of the Jewish Community of St. Petersburg and former President of the Russian Community in Paris.

1938: L'Osservatore Romano, the official Vatican newspaper, publishes an article by Jesuit priest Father Enrico Rosa on the violent anti-Semitism in Germany

1939: As of today, as a resulted of “emigration, legal or illegal and death, natural or unnatural” the number of Jews in “Great Germany” has been reduced from a pre-Nazi “population of 700,000” to 550,000”  not counting the additional number of Jews acquired by the annexation of Bohemia and Moravia.

1940: As the Nazi Blitz of the Low Countries and France was reaching a successful climax Italy under Mussolini, entered World War II on the side of the Germans. Italy's attack on France was described by Churchill as the hand that has held the dagger has now struck it in the back. This move by Mussolini would ultimately imperil the Italian Jewish Community, resulting in deportation and death later in the war.

1940: The French government departed Paris as the German armies swept forward.  Soon an Armistice would be signed dividing control of France between Nazi occupation and the pro-Nazi Vichy Government.  Jews would be at peril in both places.

1940: As two million Parisians flee the City of Light, Hans and Margaret Rey find themselves trapped in a city that the French government has declared “an open city.”  This declaration means that unlike Warsaw, London, etc. Paris will be the one major city not bombed by the Nazis. This marks the beginning of strangely cordial relationship between the Nazis and the French which bodes ill for the Jews trapped in France including Hans Rey, the creator of Curious George and his wife Margaret.

1942: Polish actor and director August Kowalczyk escaped from Auschwitz.

1942: Fifty year old Frantisek Klein was transported from Prague to Ujazdow where he was murdered.

1942: Today, during the siege of Bir Hakeim, part of the battle being fought against Rommel in North Africa, the British campaign headquarters of the British 8th Army issued an order to retreat. By then The Jewish Company, a volunteer unit that had consisted of 400 men at the start of the fight, had lost 75% of its men as they fought to delay Rommel's offensive for 10 days.

1942: Thousands of Jews were sent from Prague to ‘an unknown destination in the East' in cattle cars. The destination was Belzec, the site of their murder. The Jews of Biala Podlaska were sent to Sobibor.

1942: Jews gathered on the west bank of the Dniestr River before their deportation to Transnistria on the east bank of the river

1943: Birthdate of television news personality Jeff Greenfield.

1943(7th of Sivan, 5703): Second Day of Shavuot

1943: “The Life and Death of Colonel Blimp” a British romance with a script co-authored by Ermeric Pressburger who also co-directed and co-produced the film that co-starred Anton Walbrook was released today in the United Kingdom.

1943(7th of Sivan, 5703): Fifty-two year old Louis Bookman the native of Lithuania who gained fame as a cricketer and footballer for his adopted home – Ireland – passed away today.

1944(19th of Sivan, 5704): In the French village of Oradour-sur-Glane, Germans kill 642 residents as revenge for the killing of an SS officer by a Resistance sniper. Women and children are burned alive in a church and the men are machine-gunned. Of the 642 victims, seven are Jewish refugees who had escaped deportation to Auschwitz by living with sympathetic Oradour-sur-Glane villagers. Included among the dead is eight-year-old Serge Bergman.

1944: Violette Szabo, an agent with the British Special Operations Executive was captured in Normandy following a gun battle in which she provided covering fire her companion, a leader with the Maquis, could escape.

1944: Reszoe (Rudolf) Kasztner, head of the Aid and Rescue Committee known as Va’adah chose “388 members of his own extended family, as well as groups of family friends” to serve as a selected groups of Jews that will be allowed to leave Hungary as a token of German “good faith” during the negotiations with Eichmann and Himmler that are being conducted by Joel Brand.

1944: Joel Brand who was being held by the British was allowed to speak with Moshe Shertok the head of the Jewish Agency’s Political Department about the deal the Nazis were offering “trade Jews for trucks.”

1945: Today, on his 24th birthday Oskar Gröning the SS officer “known as the bookkeeper of Auschwitz” was captured by the British from whom he withheld the details of his service at the infamous deathcamp.

1945: In Italy, refugees in the Bericah Movement were photographed with soldiers from Palestine.

1947: Birthdate of Randy Edelman the New Jersey native who gained fame as composer of movie theme music.

1947: “Living in a Big Way,” a musical comedy produced by Pandro S. Berman and a script by Irving Ravetch was released in the United States today.

1948: Syrian forces over-ran Mishmar Ha-Yarden a Jewish settlement on the west bank of the Jordan River.  The Syrians had every advantage including control of the air, tanks and a full array of artillery.  Realizing the desperate nature of their situation, the Jewish settlers sent the women and children away.  The few surviving defenders were taken to Damascus.  The Syrians called the victory Faith-Allah (the Capture of God).  After the war, the Jews rebuilt Mishmar Ha-Yarden a mile from the original kibbutz.  The ruins of the original settlement were left as a memorial to those who fought and fell in the fight to create a Jewish home. This was one of the last military actions before the first truce between the Israelis and the Arabs which was slated to start on June 11.

1948: The Negev Brigade attacked the Egyptian-held police fort of Iraq Suwaydan but were driven off in defeat.

1951(6th of Sivan, 5711): Shavuot

1953” “Attackers infiltrating from Jordan destroyed a house in the farming village of Mishmar Ayalon.”

1955: Following its New York City premiere last month, “Love Me or Leave Me” directed by Charles Vidor and produced by Joe Pasternak was released in theatres across the United States today.

1959: In the Bronx Anne (née Goldhaber), an English literature professor, and Bernard Spitzer, a real estate mogul gave birth to Eliot Spitzer New York State’s Attorney General, Governor and talking television head for cable news.

1960(15th of Sivan, 5720): Charles Joseph Singer, distinguished “British historian of science, technology and medicine passed away.  He was the son of Simeon Singer, the Rabbi of London’s West End Synagogue who translated the Authorized Daily Prayer Book into English. He was the husband of Dorothea Waley Cohen, who in a manner unusual for her time was a leading historian of the Medieval Period.  There is no way that this blog can do justice to Singer’s long and distinguished career.

1960: The last episode of “You Bet Your Life” Groucho Marx’s signature quiz show “was aired in its radio broadcast format.”

1962: In Los Angeles, Mickey Gershon (née Koppel) an interior decorator, and importer/exporter Stan Gershon, gave birth to actress Gina Gershon, the younger sister of Dan Gershon and Tracy Gershon.

1964: “Bedtime Story,” a comedy produced and written by Stanley Shapiro was released today in the United States.

1966: Birthdate of Gina Bellman, “a New Zealand-born British actress.”

1967: As of today, Syria had lost approximately 100 combat aircraft.

1967: At 6:30 p.m. a cease-fire went into effect on the Golan Heights effectively ending the Six Day War. There was no Arab military force that could have kept the Israelis from taking Cairo, Damascus or Amman. But as Yitzchak Rabin pointed out, the Israelis had not gone to war to cease territory. They had gone to war only after all diplomatic efforts had failed and they were faced with the choice of fighting or facing extinction. In a week’s time they had changed the map of the Middle East. The forces facing them were not "tin men." Contrary to some of the comments made by the ill-informed, the Arabs had fought hard and the IDF had suffered the casualties to prove it. The fact was that in a week Israel had gone from a nation with a noose around its neck to being victors who had reclaimed Jerusalem, seized the Golan Heights from which the Syrians had shelled Israeli farmers for almost two decades and occupied a swath of land from the Jordan River to the Suez Canal. In the weeks prior to the war, Israel had been subjected to constant shelling from the Golan Heights and blockading by Egypt of the Straits of Tiran (Israel's only southern sea outlet). Once the UN observer forces left the Sinai at Egypt's behest the stage was set for war. Within a few days, the entire Sinai was in Israel's hands, and despite being warned not to interfere, Jordan shelled Jerusalem opening that front as well. This battle led to the capture of the West Bank and the unification of Jerusalem. On the Syrian front, Israel succeeded in pushing the Syrians back to Kunetra and taking part of the Hermon range. In fewer than six days, Israel had routed all three of its neighbors losing over 700 men and having over 2,500 wounded. More than 400 Arab planes and 500 tanks were destroyed. The UN Security Council rejected a Soviet call for an unconditional pullback to the "green line".

1968: ‘’  Petulia” a drama directed by Richard Lester with a story by Barbara Turner was released today.

1970(6th of Sivan, 5730): Shavuot

1974: Mark B. Cohen began representing District 202 in the Pennsylvania House of Representatives.

1976: The Jerusalem Post reported that the Knesset approved the Ben-Gurion Memorial Bill on its first reading. The memorial covered Ben-Gurion's home in Tel Aviv, the Institute for the Legacy of Ben-Gurion at Kibbutz Sde Boker and the Desert Institute in the Negev. There was a threat that Egged buses would grind to a halt as the cooperative was unable to pay its fuel suppliers to whom it owed IL 4m., in addition to millions it owed to suppliers of other equipment. The Ministry of Transport insisted that if the cooperative wished to obtain the IL 200m.government-guaranteed loan, it would have to deduct IL 300 per month from its members' salaries. But following the ministry's order to carry soldiers free, Egged reneged on this agreement.

1976(12th of Sivan, 5736): Adolph Zukor, founder of Paramount Studios and one Hollywood’s early movie moguls passed away at the age of 103.

1977: “Ford Honored” published today described President Gerald Ford’s speech condemning terrorism which he deliver at a dinner that was “raising funds for scholarships” for those attending Hebrew University.

1979: “Paul Newman, the blue-eyed movie star-turned-race car driver, accomplishes the greatest feat of his racing career today roaring into second place in the 47th 24 Hours of Le Mans, the famous endurance race held annually in Le Mans, France.”

1981(8th of Sivan, 5741): Eighty-two year old Harry Halpern who served as the Rabbi at the East Midwood Jewish Center for forty nine years and “professor of pastoral psychiatry at JTS” while fighting for Civil and Human Rights passed away today. (As reported by Walter Waggoner)

1982: “After eight previews the Broadway production of “The Torch Song Trilogy” by Harvey Fierstein opened “at the Little Theatre where it ran for 1,222 performances” and for which Fierstein won two Tony Awards.

1982: Units of the Golani Brigad and the Barak Armored Brigade finished the fighting that resulted in the capture of two villages on the outskirts of Beirut.

1983: In New York City, producer and screenwriter Elizabeth Sobieski (née Salomon) and French born painter Jean Sobieski gave birth to Liliane Rudabet Gloria Elsveta Sobieski, the actress known as Leelee Sobieski.

1985: “Flesh and Blood” starring Jennifer Jason Leigh “as Agnes, virgin daughter of an aristocrat” had its first public screening at the Seattle International Film Festival.

1985: A day after leaving the federal bench, Abraham David Sofaer began serving as Legal Adviser of the Department of State.

1986: Khaled Ahmed Nazal, Secretary-General of the PLO's DFLP faction, was gunned down outside a hotel in Athens, Greece

1987: The off-Broadway production of “Bar Mitzvah Boy,”  “a musical with a book by Jack Rosenthal, lyrics by Don Black, and music by Jule Styne” opened “at the American Jewish Theatre of the 92nd Street Y.

1988: U.S. premiere of “Big Business,” a comedy directed by Jim Abrahams, co-starring Bette Midler and featuring Seth Green as “Jason.”

1989(7th of Sivan, 5749): Second Day of Shavuot and Shabbat observed for the first time during the Presidency of George Bush.

1991(28th of Sivan, 5751): Ninety-two year old Lena Goldman Wilentz, the wife of David Wilentz who the Attorney General of New Jersey who prosecuted Bruno Haumptmann passed away today.

1994(1st of Tammuz, 5754): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

1996(23rd of Sivan, 5756): Eight7-nine year old Austrian born English painter Marie-Louise von Motesiczky passed away today.

1996: Publication of Tim Janof’s “Conversation with Janos Starker.”

1998: In “King of Simon Says Is Up to His Old Games,” Joyce Walder described the career of 77 year old tumbler Allan Tresser.

1999: In Baltimore, Maryland, Anshe-Emunah-Aitz Chaim-Tifereth Israel voted to merge with Moses Montifore Emunath Israel-Woodmoor Hebrew Congregation.

2000(7th of Sivan, 5760): Second Day of Shavuot and Shabbat observed together for the first time in the 21st century.

2001: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Skeptical Music: Essays on Modern Poetry by David Bromwich and Dance with Demons: The Life of Jerome Robbins by Greg Lawrence.

2002: President Bush welcomed Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon to the White House.

2003: “Wicked,” a Stephen Schwartz musical began its pre-Broadway run at the Curran Theatre in San Francisco.

2004(21st of Sivan, 5764): Ninety-two year old Margit Raizel Wolf, the wife of Franz Karl Wolf and, passed away today in Israel.

2004: Ambassador Earle I. Mack presented his credentials to the President of Finland, Tarja Halonen. Ambassador Mack has a long history associated with business, the arts, public service, and education. He received his Bachelor of Science from Drexel University and was honored being selected from 65,000 candidates as one of 100 outstanding alumni among the "Drexel 100", and he attended Fordham School of Law. He holds an honorary degree in Doctor of Humane Letters from Yeshiva University. From 1992-2004, he served as Chairman of the Board of the Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law where presently he is Chairman Emeritus.

2004: Javier Solana, High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), stated today, “I welcome the Israeli Prime Minister's proposals for disengagement from Gaza. This represents an opportunity to restart the implementation of the Road Map, as endorsed by the UN Security Council.”

2004: Effi Eitam and Yitzhak Levy quit the government to protest the plan to leave Gaza.

2004: Tzipi Livini succeeded Effit Eitam as Minister of Housing and Construction.

2005: Major General Yiftach Ron-Tal took command of Modash, the Field Intelligence Corps.

2005: In a letter to the editor of Haaretz published today, “Avraham Cykiert of Mulgrave, Australia claimed to have ghost written” Caged, the memoirs of Warsaw Ghetto warrior David Landau “and said that Landau's daughter had "doctored" his manuscript.

2006:  Bat Mitzvah of Gail Barnum, daughter of Amy and Joel Barnum.

2007: In “Adjusted Income” published today, Daniel Handler described what it is like to have lots of money made by writing children’s books.

2007: At Temple Judah, In Cedar Rapids, Iowa, Dr. Howard Lenhoff describes a real and modern exodus--the rescue of Ethiopian Jews and their deliverance to Israel. Dr. Lenhoff, a graduate of Coe College and a distinguished biologist at the University of California (Irvine), was instrumental in this rescue. He is the author of author of, Black Jews, Jews, and Other Heroes. How Grassroots Activism Led to the Rescue of the Ethiopian Jews

2007: Annual Temple Judah Congregational Meeting in Cedar Rapids, Iowa.

2007: The Sunday New York Times book section featured a review of Sylvia and The Collected Stories two works by the late Jewish author Leonard Michaels.

2007: Norman Finkelstein, who gained famed for his controversial comments about the Holocaust, has been denied tenure by De Paul University

2007: The Sunday Washington Post book section featured a review of 1967: Israel, the War and the Year That Transformed the Middle East by Tom Segev.

2007:  The Sunday Chicago Tribune featured “Facing a grim reality in Austrian Town” which tells of how beneath the quiet homes and neat hedges of Gusen, lie the remains of a Nazi concentration camp. Ironically, Mauthausen is only four miles away and it is preserved as a monument the victims of the Holocaust.  At Gusen, the citizens actually live in buildings left from the camp.  Christopher Mayer, a 32 year old artist has designed an audio tour for visitors to hear the recollections of survivors.

2007: Today, the Great Synagogue’s emeritus Rabbi, Raymond Apple, was confirmed as the keynote speaker for the International Council of Christians and Jews’ (ICCJ’s) 2007 conference in Sydney to be held in July.

2007: Ronald Lauder was elected President of the World Jewish Congress today defeating the South African businessman Mendel Kaplan and Einat Wilf of Israel

2008(7th of Sivan, 5768): Second Day Shavuot

2008(7th of Sivan, 5768): Eighty-eight year old Swarthmore grad, WW II Army veteran and minor league baseball player Eliot Asinof whose most famous book was Eight Men Out which told the story of the 1919 “Black Sox” passed away today.

2008: Ninety percent of the Israeli public thinks that the country is tainted with corruption and over half say that corruptibility is a necessary to prerequisite to success in the political sphere, according to the Israeli Democracy Institute’s (IDI) annual Democracy Index which was submitted to President Shimon Peres.

2008: Samuel Israel III’s GMC Envoy was found abandoned on the Bear Mountain Bridge today a day after he failed to report to prison.

2009: Release date for “Jaffa” the film whose Hebrew name is Kalat Hayam (The Bride of the Sea)

2009: Simon Schama, a professor of art history at Columbia University and a cultural critic for the New Yorker magazine, discusses and signs his new book, The American Future: A History at Politics and Prose in Washington, D.C.

2009: The Hebrew Book Fair opens at Rabin Square in Tel Aviv. As part of the Book Fair events, the Centennial Year Administration will launch 4 new books dedicated to Tel Aviv – Yafo. These four volumes, selected from 50 candidates include: A Crane Points to the Sea – A poetry book by Gilad Cahane, The Sarona Templar Colony at Times of Struggle by Nir Mann, A City with a Concept: 100 Years of Urban Planning in Tel Aviv by Natty Marom and The Lost Children: Mandatory Tel Aviv's Back Yard by Dr. Tami Razi

2009: The RSX European Open Windsurfing Championship begins at Tel Aviv’s Gordon Beach.

2009: Ken “Feinberg was appointed by the U.S. Treasury Department to oversee the compensation of top executives at companies which have received federal bailout assistance.”

2009: An American white supremacist opened fire at the US Holocaust Memorial Museum today killing a security guard before being shot himself, according to initial reports. The shooter was named as James Von Brunn by a law enforcement official, pending confirmation and speaking on condition of anonymity, who noted that his car had been found near the museum. Both Von Brunn and the unnamed security officer were rushed to hospital following the shootout, which took place at midday. Von Brunn was described by officials as in "grave condition." A Washington Fire Department spokesman said that a third person had been lightly wounded in the exchange, in which two officers fired back at the assailant. Following the attack, President Barack Obama reacted with shock, saying that the act demonstrated the need to fight anti-Semitism. "I am shocked and saddened by today's shooting at the US Holocaust Memorial Museum," he said in a statement. "This outrageous act reminds us that we must remain vigilant against anti-Semitism and prejudice in all its forms. No American institution is more important to this effort than the Holocaust Museum, and no act of violence will diminish our determination to honor those who were lost by building a more peaceful and tolerant world. "Today, we have lost a courageous security guard who stood watch at this place of solemn remembrance," the statement continued. "My thoughts and prayers are with his family and friends in this painful time." Bystanders described a scene of fear and chaos as they heard security officers yell at hundreds of students, tourists and museum staff to flee the premises. Public safety officers then secured the perimeter and cut off vehicles from the site. FBI agents are helping with the investigation, as authorities said they were checking for possible terror connections. Washington Police Chief Kathy Lanier said the police had received no information or threats that such an attack was in the offing. She refused to confirm that Von Brunn was the lead suspect during a press conference following the shooting. Von Brunn is a well-known white supremacist, Mark Potok of the Southern Poverty Law Center told CNN, referring to a Web site and publications he produced over several years in which he has "raged" against Jews and blacks. He noted that Von Brunn had been arrested in the past in connection to hate crimes. But some of the witnesses to today’s shooting said they didn't believe the shooter to be elderly, though Von Brunn is in his late 80s. However, they also noted that they found themselves amid chaos and confusion as museum-goers tried to figure out what to do. "People were running as fast as they could... People were on the floor," said 19-year-old Maria Hernandez, who heard the shots and saw blood covering the ground. "It was just chaos everywhere." She also heard this "very angry yell" coming from the perpetrator, while the guards were telling him to drop his weapon and get down on the floor. Karen Unruh, who was waiting in line with her two grandsons when the shooting started, heard a "bang, bang, bang" and worried that they would be the next victims, so "we just hit the floor." Standing among the throng of reporters and curious tourists outside the museum following the attack, she expressed shock at what happened. "I just can't believe this is happening to us in America." Ora Mois, who was visiting Washington from Kfar Saba, also couldn't believe that she found herself amid such violence in the US. "In Israel, we've gotten used to this, but here? It's the American dream, to come here, to travel, but not like this." But her brother Moti Shair said he wasn't surprised. "People are looking for Jews, wherever they are, to make a point," he said. "It's terrible. It reminds me of some sad memories from the past. They're still looking for Jewish targets." Several Jewish and Israel groups expressed alarm at the news. "We are shocked and saddened by today's shooting incident at the US Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington. The Embassy of Israel condemns this attack and is closely following the situation," the embassy said in a statement. Strategic Affairs Minister Moshe Ya'alon, who was concluding a two-day visit to Washington, was not believed to be in the area, as a visit to the museum was not on his itinerary. The Holocaust Museum also put out a statement emphasizing its concern for the injured security officer, before he passed away. "Our thoughts and prayers go out to the officer and his family," it read. The statement indicated the facility was expected to reopen Thursday. US President Barack Obama was saddened by the shooting at the museum, which is near the White House, a spokesman said. In Jerusalem, Diaspora Affairs Minister Yuli Edelstein said, "This evening's incident is, regrettably, yet another proof that anti-Semitism and Holocaust denial are still alive and well. Israel must fight these phenomena in the domestic arena, in the international arena, in the legal arena, in academia and in the media, and must demand that the rest of the world say 'No!' to incidents such as this." The Yad Vashem Holocaust Memorial expressed shock at the "appalling" shooting attack on the US Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington. Yad Vashem spokeswoman Iris Rosenberg said in a statement that "the museum, in addition to being a memorial to the victims of the Holocaust, is dedicated to educating against this kind of hate. His target makes this shooting that much more heinous." Yad Vashem Chairman Avner Shalev spoke to the Washington museum's Director Sara Bloomfield to express support, and deep empathy, to her and all the museum staff. The shooting was also condemned by the chief Nazi hunter of the Los Angeles-based Simon Wiesenthal Center. "On many levels it is a very symbolic target, and it is not surprising that someone who espouses White supremacy would want to attack an institution like that, since Holocaust museums are the antithesis of this person's racist ideology and anti-Semitism," said Dr. Efraim Zuroff, the organization's Israel director. He noted that the fact that the suspected shooter is 89 years old reinforces the organization's view that in terms of bringing Nazi war criminals to justice, age is not an issue. He added that the Wiesenthal Center in California has been the target of threats and violence, as well as actual property destruction.

2010: Grammy Award-winners Susan McKeown and Lorin Sklamberg are scheduled to present Saints & Tzadiks, a project celebrating Yiddish and Irish song at the Washington Jewish Music Festival.

2010: Inbal Pinto and Avshalom Pollak Dance Company is scheduled to perform “Oyster at Spoleto Festival USA in Charleston, South Carolina.

2010: Israeli writer and peace activist David Grossman has been named winner of the 2010 Peace Prize by the German association of publishers and booksellers. Grossman, 56, is author of The Yellow Wind, a non-fiction work that examined the lives of the Palestinians, and To the End of the Land, a novel that examines the cost of war. The association said it chose to honor Grossman because is "one of Israel's foremost authors and an active supporter of reconciliation between Israelis and Palestinians.""[His] books illustrate the extent to which we can only end the cycle of violence, hatred and displacement in the Middle East by means of listening, restraint and the power of words," it said in a statement today. Grossman will receive the prize, which includes 25,000 euros ($31,300 Cdn), on Oct. 10 during a ceremony at the Frankfurt Book Fair. Past winners include Orhan Pamuk, Susan Sontag, Amos Oz, Vaclav Havel and Octavio Paz. Grossman was born in Jerusalem and worked as a radio actor and correspondent for Israel's national broadcaster. His books, The Yellow Wind and Death as A Way of Life, were criticized within Israel and praised abroad for their portrait of Palestinian-Israeli relations. He also wrote See Under: Love about the children of Holocaust survivors.

2010: In More Money Than God” Hedge Funds and the Making of a New Elite, which was published today, the author “dedicated a chapter to Michael Steinhardt” whom “he described as a ‘lover of botany and a collector of exotic fauna,’ living in his retirement ‘on his country estate an hour's drive north of New York City.

2011: The CSI Milwaukee Directors Seminar sponsored by the Coalition for Jewish Learning is scheduled to take place at the CJL in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. “The Coalition for Jewish Learning (CJL), the education program of the Milwaukee Jewish Federation, promotes and advances Jewish education in the greater Milwaukee community, provides a support system for the community’s institutions of Jewish learning, and forges coalitions to ensure excellence in Jewish education.”

2011: An award winning solo piece by Israeli based Idan Cohen - "My Sweet Little Fur" is scheduled to be performed by Ran Ben-Dror on the third night of Contemporary Israeli Dance Week.

2011: Police entered a sensitive Jerusalem holy site to disperse Palestinian protesters who were hurling stones today. The scene of today's violence was the Old City compound known to Jews as the Temple Mount and to Muslims as the Noble Sanctuary. Police spokesman Micky Rosenfeld said police entered the compound after Palestinians began lobbing stones at security forces stationed outside one of the gates. He says police used stun grenades to disperse the crowd. Rosenfeld says no one was injured and that order was quickly restored.

2011(8th of Sivan, 5771): Eighty-five year old Norman Redlich, a leading member of the New York bar and the Dean of New York University Law School passed away.  (As reported by Paul Vitello)

2011(8th of Sivan, 5771): Adolph William ("Al") Schwimmer, founder of Israel Aircraft Industries and winner of the Israel Prize died today at Tel Hashomer hospital on his 94th birthday. Schwimmer, an American citizen born in New York, was convicted in 1950 of violating the Neutrality Act for smuggling planes to Israel during the 1948 War of Independence. He was stripped of his civil rights, but not imprisoned. The American Jew was able to covertly bring the aircrafts to Israel by establishing false companies, one of which was purportedly the official airline of Panama. Schwimmer was in the Air Transport Command in World War II, providing him with many contacts that were pilots and in the airplane industry. He was able to use his contacts to transport the planes to Israel. Schwimmer was pardoned in 2001 by then outgoing U.S. President Bill Clinton. The pardon was awarded without any formal request from Schwimmer. In an interview with the Jerusalem Report in 2001, Schwimmer said he never applied for a pardon, calling it is a "complicated process". The expatriate added that "you have to express regret for what you did, and I didn't feel that way." However, the eldest son of Hank Greenspun, a close friend of Schwimmer's who worked with him when he was smuggling arms into Israel during the Independence War, is an attorney and a friend of Clinton. The younger Greenspun sent all the paperwork to the Justice Department and told Schwimmer, "I'm not asking you. I'm telling you, I sent in your application for a pardon." After the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, Schwimmer joined the nascent Israel Air Force, after which he established an aircraft company that evolved to become the Israel Aircraft Industries during the 50's. Schwimmer ran the aircraft company for over 20 years, during which he became close with current President Shimon Peres. After disagreements with former Defense Ministers Moshe Dayan and Ezer Weizman, Schwimmer left Israel Aircradt Industries, becoming a "special adviser" for the Israeli government for which he was paid a symbolic one shekel a year. Schwimmer was awarded the Israel Prize for his contributions to Israeli society in 2006.

2011: Congressman Anthony Weiner acknowledged he had exchanged at least five private messages on Twitter with a 17-year-old Delaware girl, but indicated that the messages were “neither explicit nor indecent.” 

2012: 45th anniversary of the end of the “Six Days War.”  The Jews of the world gave a collective sigh of relief.  David had defeated a really big Goliath.  On June 5 when the war started the deck was stacked against Israel’s survival.  Not only were they facing an Arab alliance with a massive military, they were, in effect, facing the Soviets who were dedicated to the victory of their Moslem client states.  When the first reports of Arab claims about having inflicted heavy losses on the Israelis, people were really scared.  Remember, this was in the days before the internet, etc. so communication from the battlefield was a dicey thing at best.  By the time the war was over, there were plenty of American Jews who had been ambivalent about Israel who know took great pride in the Jewish state and became active supporters.  Despite what the revisionists might write today, that victory not only saved Israel, it created a whole new positive feeling that many Jews (and non-Jews) had about being Jewish. 

2012: As Temple Judah continues to celebrate the 90th anniversary of its founding the co-presidents of the congregation are scheduled to cook BBQ before tonight’s annual congregational meeting. 

2012: David Broza is scheduled to perform at Israeli-American Night part of the Music Under the Stars program at Eisenhower Park.

2012: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including A Difficult Woman: The Challenging Life and Times of Lillian Hellman by Alice Kessler-Harris

2012: Greater Chicago Jewish Festival is scheduled to take place at St. Paul Woods in Morton Grove, Il

2012: With his mind clearly on the dangers of a violent confrontation with settlers over the looming evacuation of the Ulpana outpost, Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu spoke at the annual Altalena memorial today about two principles enshrined by Menachem Begin: the supremacy of the rule of law and no civil war under any circumstance. (As reported by Herb Keinon)

2012(20th of Sivan, 5772): Eight-two year old beach volleyball player and pioneer Gene Sleznick passed away today. (As reported by Baxter Holmes)

2013: The Jewish Community Center of Northern Virginia is scheduled to host Yaacov Fisher who will speak on “The State of Israel’s Economy: Challenges Amidst Growth.”

2013: The U.S. government has recovered 400 pages from the long-lost diary of Alfred Rosenberg, a confidant of Adolf Hitler who played a central role in the extermination of millions of Jews and others during World War Two. (As reported by Haaretz and Reuters)

2013: As the fighting in Syria intensifies, the Lebanese newspaper Al-Akhbar President Bashar Assad has issued a strong warning to Israel saying that he is completely serious in opening up the Golan front against Israel (As reported by Ariel Ben Solomon)

2013: Today Knesset Economics Committee Chairman Avishai Braverman…threw his support behind Bank of Israel Deputy Governor Karnit Flug to replace her boss, outgoing governor Stanley Fishcher (As reported by Niv Elis)

2014: A “dialogue between Rabbi Adin Even-Israel Steinsaltz and the Honorable Antonin Scalia is scheduled to take place at the Museum of Jewish Heritage.”

2014: Adam Phillips, one of the world's foremost authorities on Freud, is scheduled to join novelist and critic Daphne Merkin for a discussion of Phillips’ new biography of the father of psychoanalysis at the 92nd Street Y.

2014: The Center for Jewish History is scheduled to host “My Father’s Paradise: A Son’s Search for His Family’s Past” by Ariel Sabar.

2014: Rabbi Marc Schneier, founder and president of the Foundation for Ethnic Understanding and founding rabbi of The Hampton Synagogue and Imam Shamsi Ali, the spiritual leader of two Muslim congregations, the Jamaica Muslim Center, New York City's largest Islamic center and Al-Hikmah Mosque are scheduled to participate in “Sons of Abraham: A candid conversation about the issues that divide and unite Jews and Muslims” at the Skirball Center.

2014: Today, the Knesset chose year 74 year old Reuven Rivlin, a sabra born in Jerusalem whose career included three years as speaker of the Knesset  to succeed Shimon Peres as President of Israel.

2014: Twenty-five year old Alexandre Stern who worked in the communication department of the Brussels Jewish Museum and who was murdered during a shooting at the Museum on May 24 will be buried in a Muslim cemetery in Morocco this afternoon per the agreement of his father who is Jewish and his mother who is a Muslim.

2014: A Jewish teen wearing a yarmulke and tzitzit is attacked with a Taser by group of teens at Paris’ Place de la République square. In Sarcelles, two Jewish teens wearing yarmulkes are sprayed with tear gas. (As reported by Stephanie Butnick)

2015: “Anderswo” (Anywhere Else) and “Next to Her” are scheduled to be shown at the Israel Film Center Festival hosted by the JCC Manhattan

2015:“The Taglit-Birthright Israel program, which sends young Jews on free trips to Israel, celebrated its milestone 500,000th participant this week” in a ceremony today “when 24-year-old Molly Dodd from New Jersey presented Birthright cofounders Michael Steinhardt and Charles Bronfman with framed letters from Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu from 1998, in which he gave his blessing for the program to begin.”

2015: “Madame Rosa, La Vie Devant Soi: which won the 1977 Oscar for Best Foreign Language Film is scheduled to be shown at the Cinema South Film Festival in Sderot.

2015: Art Garfunkel “is scheduled to play in Tel Aviv’s Bloomfield Stadium” (As reported by Stuart Winer)

2016: “Suddenly, A Knock at the Door” by Robin Goldfin which is based on the stories by Israeli author Etgar Keret is scheduled to be performed this evening at the Theatre for the New City.

2016: In Coralville, IA, Agudas Achim is scheduled to host a dinner and serving honoring Jerry Sorokin for his 17 years of service as Executive Director of the University of Iowa Hillel.

2016: The Edent-Tamir Music Center is scheduled to host “The Symphonic Piano Series” featuring Michael Zartsekel, Dror Semmel and Ron Trachtman.

2016: As Jews begin to observe Shabbat this evening they will mourn the victims of the Tel Aviv terror attack – 42 year old Ido Ben Ari from Ramat Gan, 39 year old Ilana Naveh from Tel Aviv, 58 year old Micahel Feige from Ramat Gan and 32 year old Mila Mishayev from Rishon Lezion.

2017(16th of Sivan, 5777: Parashat Beha’alotcha

2017: In Los Angeles “the University Synagogue in Brentwood, and both campuses of the Wilshire Boulevard Temple – the Erika J. Glazer Family Campus in Wilshire Center/Koreatown or the Audrey and Sydney Irmas Campus in West Los Angeles” “were temporarily closed after receiving bomb threats” today which is Shabbat.

2017: At Oxford, Rabbi Zvi Hirschfield from the Pardes Institute of Jewish Studies is scheduled to speak at the Seudah Shlisit on 'Maimonides and Rabbi Yehuda HaLevi: The Great debate about Jewish Particularism.'

2017: As part of Israel Festival, the Eden Tamir Music Center in Ein Kerem, is scheduled to host a classical musical concert this morning.

2018: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers includes How to Change Your Mind: What the New Science of Psychedelics Teaches Us About Consciousness, Dying, Addiction, Depression, and Transcendence by Michael Pollan, President Carter: The White House Years by Stuart E. Eizenstat and There Are No Grown-Ups: A Midlife Coming of Age Story by Pamela Druckerman

2018: The Illinois Holocaust Museum and Educational Center is scheduled to host a Pride Month event this afternoon.

2018: Doris Fogel is scheduled to speak on how she survived the Holocaust at the Illinois Holocaust Museum and Educational Center.

2018: The Center for Jewish History is scheduled to host “a day-long conference that will features academics, artists, writers, and diplomats in discussion about Israeli society and politics as well as relations between Israel, America, and the Jewish diaspora.”

2018: In a testament to the vitality of non-coastal American Judaism, The Jewish Federation of Greater Des Moines, IA, is scheduled to hold it “annual meeting.”

2018: IAC Cinematec in collaboration with New York Israel Film Center Film Festival is scheduled to host a screening of ‘The Testament' by Director Amichai Greenberg.




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