Friday, April 6, 2018

This Day, April 7, In Jewish History by Mitchell A. Levin

April 7

451: Attila the Hun sacked Metz in what is now Germany as he pillaged his across Europe.  Based on the Thirteenth Tribe, there are those who contend that a large proportion of Europe’s Jews were descended from the Khazars a warrior people connected to Attila.

529: The Roman Emperor Justinian issued the first draft of the Corpus Juris Civilis. Justinian codified the ant-Jewish imperial view of the world that began under Constantine. The code made “anyone who was not connected to the Christian church a non-citizen.” More specifically, the principle of "Servitude of the Jews" (Servitus Judaeorum) was established by the new laws, and determined the status of Jews throughout the Empire for hundreds of years. The Jews were disadvantaged in a number of ways. Jews could not testify against Christians and were disqualified from holding a public office. Jewish civil and religious rights were restricted: ‘they shall enjoy no honors’. The use of the Hebrew language in worship was forbidden. Shema Yisrael sometimes considered the most important prayer in Judaism ("Hear, O Israel, YHWH our God, YHWH is one") was banned, as a denial of the Trinity. A Jew who converted to Christianity was entitled to inherit his or her father's estate, to the exclusion of the still-Jewish brothers and sisters. The Emperor became an arbiter in internal Jewish affairs. Similar laws applied to the Samaritans.”

1285: After a journey of almost two years “German Talmudist Judah ben Asher” arrived in Toledo, Spain today.

1348:  In the first year of the reign of Charles IV, Charles University is founded in Prague. Charles was an enlightened ruler whose years on the throne were good ones for the Jews of Prague. “The long reign of Emperor Charles IV brought the Prague Jews new privileges and relative calm even. The king ensured protection and, among others, offered a chance for them to settle inside the walls of the arising New Town. A sign of the status of the Jewish community is a banner that has survived, given to the Jews of Prague by Charles IV in 1375. From that year on the Jews would, over the centuries, come to the gates of the ghetto to welcome the kings of Bohemia in Prague. The banner was a shield and legacy of the favors of the ruler’s predecessor, a symbol of ambition and sign of hope.” Today Charles University is the home base for a Jewish Studies program offered to American college students that examines the history of Central European Jewry

1486:  The first prayer book (Siddur) was printed in Italy by Soncino. This was the only time that the Siddur was published during the 15th century. For the most part hand copied manuscripts (of which there were plenty) continued to be used.

1498: Louis XII who ordered the expulsion of the Jews from Provence began his reign today.

1506: In Portugal, a group of New Christians was arrested when they were caught conducting a Seder.  Although they were released two Dominican firiars “who paraded through the streets with an uplifted crucifix crying Heresia so inflamed the citizenry that 500 hundred New Christians were murdered on the first day of a multi-day massacre

1615: In Worms, members of the Guilds riot as part of an attempt to force the Jews to leave.

1645: Michael Cardozo became the 1st Jewish lawyer in Brazil. The Dutch West India Company granted Michael Cardoso the right to practice law in Brazil a privilege no other Jew enjoyed at that time anywhere else.  The Dutch would shortly lose control of Brazil to the Portuguese.  And in 1654, it would be a group of Jewish refugee from Recife (part of formerly Dutch Brazil) who would land in New Amsterdam to begin the modern American Jewish Community.

1720: At one of the last large auto-de-fe's in Madrid, was burned five suspected Jews who were found to have committed the crime of praying in a "secret synagogue" which had been found after the Spanish war of Succession.

1754(15th of Nisan, 5514): Pesach

1767: Christian Old Testament scholar, Johann Gottlob Carpzov, a member of the Carpzov family who specialized in the study of Hebrew and the Old Testament passed away. Carpzov authored Apparatus Historico-Criticus Antiquitatum et Codicis Sacri et Gentis Hebrææ in 1748. “According to the Jewish Encyclopedia, Carpzov represents both an advance and a retrogression in Biblical science — an advance in fullness of material and clearness of arrangement (his Introductio is the first work that deserves the name), and a retrogression in critical analysis, for he held fast to the literal inspiration of the Hebrew text of the Old Testament and bitterly opposed the freer positions of Simon, Spinoza, and Clericus. His antiquarian writings are still interesting and useful.”

1781: Birthdate of Berlin philanthropist Abraham Muhr

1788: American settlers establish Marietta, Ohio, the first new American settlement in the Northwest Territory.   Apparently a thriving Jewish community existed in Marietta during the last part of the 19th century and the first part of the 20th century as can be seen by the existence of two Jewish cemeteries, a Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society, the Jewish War Suffers’ Society and a synagogue called B’nai Israel.

1792(15th of Nisan, 5552): First Day of Pesach and Shabbat

1807: Birthdate of Ridley Haim Herschell, the Polish born Jew who converted and founded the British Society Propagating the Gospel Among the Jews in 1842.

1810: Twenty-one year old George Hartog, “a surgeon in the King’s German Legion” who was “one of the un-sung heroes of the Battle of Waterloo” got “his medical doctorate” today.

1814(17th of Nisan, 5574): Third Day of Pesach

1814(17th of Nisan, 5574): Bernard Mordechi Kornfeld passed away today in Czechoslovakia

1818: In Ḳin'at ha-Emet (Zeal for Truth), a paper written today, and published in the collection “Nogah ha-Ẓedeḳ” (Light of Righteousness), Aron Chorin a Hungarian rabbi and advocated for religious reform, declared himself in favor of reforms, such as German prayers, the use of the organ, and other liturgical modifications. The principal prayers, the Shema', and the eighteen benedictions, however, should be said in Hebrew, he declared, as this language keeps alive the belief in the restoration of Israel. He also pleaded for opening the temple for daily service.

1822(16th of Nisan, 5582): Second Day of Pesach; first day of the Omer

1826: Birthdate of Frederick C. Salomon, the Prussian native came to the United States where he worked as a surveyor and Register of Deeds in Wisconsin before joining the Union Army where he served with distinction and was mustered out as Major General of Volunteers.

1834: A version of Giacomo Meyerbeer’s “The Fiend-Father” was presented today in New York.

1848: Baron Jozsef Eotvos, Hungarian statesman and who supported the emancipation of the Jews became Minister of Education.

1849(15th of Nisan, 5609): Pesach

1849: The Pennsylvania legislature granted a charter today to the Hebrew Education Society of Philadelphia that “authorized the establishment of schools for general education, combined with instruction in the Hebrew language and literature; the charter also authorized the establishment of a "superior seminary of learning," with power to grant the usual degrees given by other colleges.”

1851: The first school created under the jurisdiction of the Hebrew Education Society held its first class today in Philadelphia, PA.

1851: Birthdate of “German composer and conductor” Martin Roder.

1852: This morning at the Herkimer-street Synagogue in Albany a new Sefer Torah was read for the first time and then placed in the Holy Ark.  Following the reading Rabbi Raphall gave what was called “an appropriate address.”

1855: Marcus Samuel gave birth to Samuel Samuel founder of Samuel Samuel & Co who served as an MP for almost twenty years.  He was the brother of Marcus Samuel, 1st Viscount of Bearsted.

1855: At the behest of Samuel K. Labatt, The Los Angeles Star published “the lengthy and effective denunciation” William Stow written by his brilliant lawyer brother, Henry J. Labatt of San Francisco.”  Stow is William Stow who had launched an anti-Semitic attack on the Jewish people from the sanctuary of the California State Assembly. Samuel K. Labatt was the first President of the Hebrew Benevolent Society of Los Angeles. He saw part of his role as being the defender of Jews against anti-Semites.

1860(15th of Nisan, 5620): As the war clouds that will bring the Civil War begin to form in earnest during the U.S. Presidential elections, Jews observe Pesach.

1860:  A review of The History of Herodotus by George Rawlinson published today compared the writings of the ancient Greek Historian with information found in the Bible. The reviewer gives credence to the progression of history as presented in the Scripture. “The Hezekiahs, the Isaiahs, the Jacobs, the Zerubbabels, the Maccabees, the Gamaliels,…could never have appeared as the later records describe them, had there been no Samuel, no Joshua, no Moses, no Exodus from Egypt, no law-giving on Sinai, as represented to us in the marvelous yet truthful pictures of the more ancient books.”

1861: Sinai Congregation which was led by Rabbi Felsenthal and President Schoeneman was established in Chicago

1861: Forty year old Prussian born tobacconist Samuel Gluckstein the son of Lehman Meyer Gluckstein and Helena Horn who had come to Britain ten years ago was now living at  37, High Street, Whitechapel, London

1862: The Battle of Shiloh ends with a Union Victory. Among the many Jews serving at the battle was Corporal David Orbansky of the 58th Ohio Volunteer Infantry who won the Medal of Honor for his “gallantry in action against the enemy.”

1863(18th of Nisan, 5623): Fourth Day of Pesach

1863: In England, David Cohen and his wife gave birth to Henry Cohen, the graduate of Jews’ College, who served as rabbi at several congregations included, the Amalgamated Congregation of Israelites in Kingston, Jamaica, Congregation Beth Israel in Woodville, Mississippi and Congregation B’nai Israel in Galveston, Texas as well as being the Librarian of the Texas Historical Society, an executive board member of the Jewish Publication Society of America and the American Jewish Historical Society and following the historic hurricane, the Central Relief Committee of the Galveston Storm Sufferers.

1865: Birthdate of Gustav Freund who was deported from Prague in June of 1942 to Terezin where he was murdered on in August.

1866(22nd of Nisan, 5626): Eight day of Pesach and Shabbat

1867: Sir George Faudel-Phillips, the “second son of Sir Benjamin Samuel Phillips” and the future Lord Mayor of London married Helen Levy, the “daughter of Joseph Moses Levy, the owner of the London Daily Telgraph.

1868(15th of Nisan, 5628): Pesach

1868(15th of Nisan, 5628): Rabbi Carl Heinemann passed away.  He was hired as the first rabbi in Goteborg, Sweden in 1837 but was forced to resign in 1851 after he opposed the introduction of “radical reform measures.”

1870(16th of Nisan, 5631): Second Day of Pesach; 1st day of the Omer

1870: Birthdate of German anarchist Gustav Landauer.

1870: According to the review of the Art Academy, on this date, Russian –Jewish sculptor Mark Arntokolski “was granted personal name of honorary citizen ‘for wonderful knowledge of art’”.

1872: Seventy year old, W.L. Mitchell, a Professor at the Georgia State University Law School, has begun to study Hebrew. [Ed. Note – I have not been able to find out anything about Professor Mitchell i.e. whether he was Jewish or a Christian who was following what had become a popular pastime among 18th & 19th century Protestants.]

1875: In Ukraine, Michael Pofcher and Rose Nizel Pofcher gave birth to Louis Pofcher, the brother of David, Abram, Elias and Simon Pofcher.

1880: Birthdate of multi-talented performer Fritz Grünbaum who gave his last performance to fellow inmates at Dachau just days before his death.

1880: In Leadville, CO, Jewish businessman Jacob Schloss was elected treasurer of the Turnverin Society

1880: Rabbi H.P. Mendez officiated at the wedding of Frederick Nathan, the son of the late Benjamin Nathan and Maud Nathan, daughter of Robert W. Nathan, which was held at Shearith Israel in New York City.

1883: In “A Movement to Unite Three Congregations” published today, the Brooklyn Eagle described attempts by Brooklyn's three leading synagogues, Baith Israel, Beth Elohim, and Temple Israel to merge.

1883: Birthdate of Maksymilian Apolinary Hartglas, the Hungarian born Zionist activist who was one of the main political leaders of Polish Jews during the interwar period, a lawyer, a publicist, and a Sejm deputy from 1919 to 1930.

1885: Birthdate of Ukrainian native Edward Dato who came to the United States in 1914 where he attended Northwestern and became an engineer and realtor in Chicago.

1888(25th of Nisan, 5648): Fifty-year old Russian businessman and philanthropist Samuel Polyakov the brother of  Lazar Polyakov and Yakov Polyakov, known as the “railroad king” and founder of “World ORT” passed away today in St. Petersburg.

1891: In Leadville, CO, Lotta Schloss married Moses L Stern who became secretary and treasurer of Schloss Bros.

1891: Birthdate of British born, New Zealand cartoonist, Sir David Low.  Low was not Jewish but he was an early and constant critic of Hitler and Mussolini.  Throughout the 1930’s his cartoons skewered the fascist dictators with such skill that no a less a personage than Sigmund Freud wrote, “"A Jewish refugee from Vienna, a very old man personally unknown to you, cannot resist the impulse to tell you how much he admires your glorious art and your inexorable, unfailing criticism."

1891: The cornerstone of the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society’s new building was laid this afternoon at 3 o’clock.

1891: Twenty-eight year old German Jewish immigrant Siegfried Lewisohn shot himself twice in the left breast today at 29 Sutton Place in New York.

1892: John L. Stoddard delivered an illustrated lecture designed as “an excursion to Jerusalem and the Holy Land.”

1893(21st of Nisan, 5653): Seventh day of Pesach

1893(21st of Nisan, 5653): Joel Joe, the son of Isaac Joel and Rebecca Solomon, husband of Catherine Isaacs and he son-in-law of Isaac Isaacs and Leah Harris passed away today.

1895: It is expected that several liquor dealers who bought “bootleg” Kosher wine from a Russian Jew known as “Gordon” will be arraigned today for failure to pay the appropriate revenue taxes.

1895: “Free Sons of Israel” published today traces the history of  Independent Order of Free Sons of Israel” which was founded in 1849 by German Jews and has grown to be one of the leading Jewish organizations of its kind throughout the United States.

1895: It was reported today that during his service as Chairman of the Committee on Endowment for the Free Sons of Israel, William A. Gans has written checks totaling $2,300,000 to provide aid for widows and orphans.

1896: Congressman Amos J. Cummings will deliver an address about Horace Greely, as the last lecture “of the regular season’s course under the auspices of the Young Men’s Hebrew Association.

1896: The Union Veteran Hebrew Association met today in New York City.

1896: Birthdate Benjamin Leiner, the son of Orthodox Jews, who as Benny Leonard learned his boxing trade on the streets of New York.  Leonard was Light Heavyweight Champion for seven and half years.  He was one of several Jewish boxing champs during the early decades of the twentieth century. Leonard was proud of being Jewish and was quoted that Jews were suited by nature to boxing because it was the highest form of self-defense. 

1896: Hermann Ahlwardt, the German anti-Semitic agitator and his two American sponsors are expected to be arraigned for their part in provoking a riot in Hoboken, NJ during which Ahlwardt reportedly drew a pistol and threatened the mob protesting his appearance.

1897: It was reported today that Oscar S. Straus, Isaac Wallack, Emanuel Lehman, Isaac Eppinger and Samuel M. Schafer were among the dignitaries who had attended the funeral services of the late Julius Ehrmann.

1897: Orthodox Jews through the world celebrated the “festival of the new sun” which “comes once every 28 years on the fourth day of the first week of Nisan.”

1897: While most services for The Blessing of the New Sun, Birkat Hachama, were held without any problems in New York City, including one held on the banks of the East River, an observance at Tompkins Park was marred by the arrest of the officiating Rabbis.  Rabbi Wechsler and Rabbi Klein had told their congregants to gather at the square.  Since the service had to be completed by nine o’clock, a large group had already gathered by eight when local police appeared on the scene.  They were concerned about the threat posed to the public safety by such a large gathering.  Nobody had thought to get a permit and the two Rabbis were taken away since their English was not effective enough to convey the purpose of the gathering.  A magistrate later released them with a warning.  In the mean time, the Jews in the square conducted the service without the benefit of clergy.

1897: Birthdate of Walter Winchell.  The son of Jewish immigrants, Winchell left school at the age of 13 to go into vaudeville.  He appeared with other such Jewish beginners as Eddie Cantor.  Winchell's career took a different turn.  He entered the world of journalism where he invented the gossip column.  Winchell's column appeared in 2,000 papers every day and his 1930's radio show was heard by 50 million listeners.  Winchell had his friends and his foes.  Both agreed that Winchell outlived himself and he died a much diminished figure in 1972.  However, he is another example of a Jew inventing something that was considered to uniquely American.

1898(15th of Nisan, 5658): Pesach

1899: “Dramatic and Musical” published today described Herr Adolf Sonnenthal’s recent portrayal of the lead character in “Nathan the Wise” which was described as “his greatest success.”  The audience burst into spontaneous, uncontrolled applause when uttered the monologue during the third act in which “Nathan commenting on Saladin’s desire for money asks, ‘Who is here the Jew?’”

1899: “In Aid of the Hebrew Infant Asylum” published today described the plans for the upcoming fundraiser sponsored by the Young Folks’ League of Hebrew Infant Asylum that has 500 members and has raised over $6,000 in the last two years to support the institution.

1899:”Musicale in Aid of Hebrew Institute” published today described the successful fund raiser held at Sherry’s which raised $4,000 for the Hebrew Technical Institute.

1900(8th of Nissan, 5660): Shabbat HaGadol

1900(8th of Nissan, 5660): Zionist poet Isaac Rabinowitz passed away.

1901(18th of Nisan): Hillel Kahane, teacher and worker for the "Enlightenment," passed away at Bottuschan.

1902: Birthdate of Leo “Red” Klauber. “the captain of the 1923 CCNY team, which had a 12-1 record. Considered one of the best teams in the country that year, their only loss was to Syracuse 31-30

1903: Second and final day of the First Kishinev Pogrom

1904(22nd of Nisan, 5664): Jews observe the 8th day of Pesach in a year when T.R. seeks to be elected to the Presidency having been serving in office because of the death of President McKinley.

1906: The Algeciras Conference, which had been convened to settle the dispute between France and Germany over Morocco, came to an end. During the conference, the United States raised the issue of the mistreatment of the Jews in the North African kingdom.  U.S. Ambassador White said, “the American government has always considered it duty…to assure due respect to all religious beliefs…My government has charged me to invoke the cooperation of the Conference…regarding the wishes for the welfare of the Israelites of Morocco.” According to Abraham Bloch, the European powers attending the conference supported the American position.  This included Russia whose anti-Semitic policies had forced untold numbers Jews to live in misery or leave the country, France which had been dealing with Dreyfus wave of anti-Semitism and Spain which had expelled it Jews en masse in 1492.

1907(old style): Second and final day of the Kishinev pogrom.

1908: H. H. Asquith of the Liberal Party takes office as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Herbert Henry Asquith served as Prime Minister until 1916 when he was replaced by Lloyd George.  In a private letter written before he became Prime Minister, Asquith described the Jews as “a scattered and unattractive tribe.”  He did enjoy the friendship of Jews including Edwin Montagu who would become the new P.M.’s private secretary. Montagu and Asquith would have a falling out over the affections of Venetia Stanley a friend of Asquith's daughter.  Montagu gained fame as one of the British Jews who opposed the Balfour Declaration. During the 1930’s, Asquith’s daughter befriended Vladimir Jabotinsky. She is the one who introduced him to Winston Churchill.  One of Asquith’s sons served with the British Army in Palestine during WW II.

1911(9th of Nisan, 5671): Fifty-nine year old French banker and art collector Comte Isaac de Camondo who was a member of the House of Camondo passed away today.

1912: Fifty-eight year old physician and journalist Mark J. Lehman passed away today in New Orleans.

1912: In Brooklyn, Barney (Beryl) Schwartz and Fanny (Fruma) Goldman Schwartz first cousins who had run away from their home in Belaya Tserkov (Bila Tserkva, Ukraine) to come to America in 1904 gave birth to Jacob Louis Schwartz who gained fame as songwriter and composer Jack Lawrence

1915: Birthdate of Eleanora Fagan, better known as “legendary songstress Billie Holiday” who “recorded a gorgeous, impromptu cover of the Jewish classic “My Yiddishe Mamme,” which was composed by Jack Yellen and Lew Pollack

1915: Birthdate of economist Albert Hirschman, “who in his youth helped rescue thousands of artists and intellectuals from Nazi-occupied France and went on to become an influential economist known for his optimism” and was the author of Exit, Voice and Loyalty. (As reported by William Yardley)

1915: New York's Governor Charles S. Whitman signed the Widowed Mothers Pension Act into law. The new statute, which provided state-funded pensions to qualifying women so that they could care for their children at home, was largely the result of the efforts of communal activist and reformer Hannah Bachman Einstein.

1916(4th of Nisan, 5676): Eighty-two year old Joseph Shields, “a collector of internal revenue,” passed away today.

1916: Reverend Charles A. Campbell, the “pastor of the Third Street Presbyterian Church” was reported today to have been among those attending a meeting in Dayton, Ohio where he contributed $50 towards a fund being raised “for the relief of the Jews” in war torn Europe.

1916: In Manhattan, David and Anne Valentine Tishman gave birth to Robert V. Tishman, “a real estate developer whose companies — bearing the family name since the 19th century — etched their mark on the skylines of cities around the nation, including construction of the World Trade Center.”

1917(15th of Nisan, 5677): First Day of Pesach and Shabbat

1917: Services for the first day of Pesach were held at the South Side Hebrew Congregation on Michigan Avenue in Chicago.

1917: “Austrian Jews Would Aid” published today described the efforts of Rabbi Samuel Buchler of Brooklyn and a group of Austro-Hungarian Jews to encourage “citizens of foreign birth who are loyal to the American flag” to enlist “in the army and navy.”

1917: In response to yesterday’s declaration of war on Germany “loyalty and patriotic support of American arms and democracy were urged in Passover sermons in many synagogues” today.

1917: At Temple Beth-El, Rabbi Samuel Schulman spoke on “Man’s Freedom, the Work of God in History” saying that “whatever differences of opinion may have existed before the decision” to go to war “was made they exist no longer.  We are today one people.”

1917: While delivering “a sermon on ‘Emancipation, Old and New’ Rabbi Maurice H. Harris of Temple Israel in Harlem predicted the coming of the democracy of the nations.”

1917: As part of their on-going correspondence President Wilson wrote to Simon Wolfe that he had “been particularly interest in the work” “of the Order of B’nai B’rith and the Hebrew Congregations of the United States” in the effort to destroy so as they can the provincialism of prejudice as between races.”

1918: “A proposal” “made by Samuel Goldstein, the President of the Jewish Federation of America” “that all Jewish organizations in the United States should be united into a national body with Nathan Starus at the head was received with enthusiasm at a convention of Romanian Jews” meeting today at the Hebrew Girls’ Technical School

1919: It was reported today that “The Institutional Synagogue has acquired a large factory building…near its present home” which will be converted into “an edifice suitable for its own uses.

1919: In Cincinnati, Ohio, Rabbi Mendel Silber of New Orleans delivered the opening prayer on the final day of the 30th convention of the Central Conference of American Rabbis which included a presentation on “Religious Education and the Future of American Judaism” by Rabbi David Lefkowitz of Dayton, Ohio

1920(19th of Nisan, 5680): Fifth Day of Pesach.

1920: The Arab Riots in Jerusalem which had begun on the second day of Pesach came to an end today.

1923(21st of Nisan, 5683): Seventh Day of Pesach

1923:  The 1st brain tumor operation under local anesthetic was performed at Beth Israel Hospital in New York City by Dr. K Winfield Ney.

1926: “Miss Irma May, a former New York relief work” who returned to New York today aboard the French liner Paris after having spent three months in Europe said  that “more than one million Jews in Poland and millions in other countries are starving as a result of the economic breakdown of the countries in which they live” and that “their only hope of being saved from extinction is in the early arrival of relief from America.”


1927: “The libel suit for $100,000 brought by Dr. A. Coralnick, editorial writer of “The Day” against the “Freiheit”, Communist Yiddish daily, was settled out of court today. Under the terms of the settlement, the “Freiheit” is to pay the amount of $250 to Dr. Coralnick and to publish a statement withdrawing its charges against him. Jonah J. Goldstein and Leon Savage acted as attorneys for Dr. Coralnick. The $250 will be given to the Ort, Mr. Goldstein announced. (As reported by JTA)


1928: After 494 performances the curtain came down on “Rio Rita” a musical orchestrated and conducted by Max Steiner which had played at the Ziegfeld, Lyric and Majectic theatres.

1928: Birthdate of producer Alan J. Paluka, who was nominated for an Oscar for his work on the cinema classic “To Kill A Mockingbird.”

1929: The New York Times reports that Warner Brother’s recently released Biblical epic, “Noah’s Ark” was panned by critics in London while proving to be a box-office smash success with English audiences.  The criticism seemed to be more an expression of anti-Americanism than related to the quality of the film itself.

1930: Birthdate of Berlin native Andreas Siegfried Sachs the son of a Roman Catholic mother and Jewish father who gained fame as British actor Andrew Sachs.

1930: It was reported today that Palestine Mandatory Authority is preparing a plan for dividing Palestine into cantons, like Switzerland which it will then submit to the government in London. “The first experiment with such cantons will be the establishment of special Jewish district comprising Tel Aviv…with 47,000 inhabitants” and 40 nearby settlements including Petach Tikvah, Rishon Lexion and Rehoboth that would form a contiguous entity with 70,000 Jewish inhabitants.  The aim is to ultimate create 15 or 16 such cantons, seven of which be Moslem, three would be Christian and five or six which would be Jewish.

1931: In Chicago, Harry and Adele (Charsky) Ellsberg, Ashkenazi Jews who had converted to Christian Science gave birth to Daniel Ellsberg who became American history’s most famous whistleblower with the release of The Pentagon Papers.

1932: The first radio station in Palestine was opened today in Tel Aviv under a license from the British Mandatory Government. Mendel Abranovitch operated Radio Tel Aviv.

1933(11th of Nisan, 5693): Fifty-three year old Ukrainian born Jewish intellectual who wrote under the pen-name “Baal Dimion” passed away in Kiev.

1933: French premiere of “Zero for Conduct” a featurette filmed by cinematographer Boris Kaufman.

1933:  Hitler approved decrees banning Jews and other non-Aryans from the practice of law and from jobs in the civil service (Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service). Jewish government workers in Germany are ordered to retire. The term Nichtarier ("non-Aryan") became a legal classification in Germany. This made it "legal" to discharge Jews from their position in the universities, hospitals, and legal professions.  The law was called the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service.  The non-Aryan clause would be extended over the next year to include everything i.e. all professional occupations, athletic competition and military service.

1934(22nd of Nisan, 5694): Shabbat and Eighth Day of Pesach

1934(22nd of Nisan, 5694): Sixty-nine year old Charlotte Béatrice de Rothschild, the daughter of banker Alphonse James de Rothschild and the wife of Russian-born banker Maurice Ephrussi, best known for her art collecting passed away today in Davos, Switzerland.

1934: Several thousand Americans attended a pro-Nazi rally in Queens, New York

1934: “The House of Rothschild” a biopic about the famous banking family produced by William Goetz with music with Alfred Newman was released today in the United States.


1935: As the 2nd Maccabiah games came to a close before 50,000 spectators the team from the United States had scored 254 giving it a wide lead over second place German (183).  The team representing the Jews of Palestine scored 139.5 points edging out Austria, Czechoslovakia and South Africa.

1935: “The importance of the work done by private philanthropic agencies was stressed” today “at an all-day conference of representatives of more than 500 Jewish fraternal and benevolent societies at the Hotel McAlpin” which had been organized under the auspices of Paul Felix Warburg.

1936(15th of Nisan, 5696): First Day of Pesach

1936: “Special prayers were for offered for German Jewry and an appeal for the fund to aid Jewish emigration from Germany was made in every synagogue in Britain today.”

 1936: “In a special address from the pulpit of the new West End Synagogue in Bayswater, Sir Herbert Samuel declared, ‘there is no alternative for the Jews of Germany but to leave the country’” and “he called on the Jewish communities of the world to cope with the emergency and rescue the ‘victims of cruel and relentless persecution.’”

1936: “At Congregation B’nai Jershurun Rabbi Israel Goldstein, president of the Jewish National Fund, “declared the exodus had been ‘a recurrent episode in the life of Israel.’”

1936: At Congregation Rodeph Shalom, in his sermon Rabbi Louis I Newman discussed “the need for great moral as well as political and economic personalities in a time of a time of stress” saying “the world today needs the ministration of men like Moses…”

1936: Rabbi Herbert S. Goldstein, the honorary president of the Union of Orthodox Congregations said today “that the treatment of the Jew ‘was the barometer of civilization.’”

1936: Mr. and Mrs. Joseph L Buttenweiser opened their home to the public where they viewed a collections of the “important works of the Dutch masters of the seventeenth century” as part of the fundraising activities of the women’s division of the United Palestine Appeal.” Although the admission fee was only one dollar, an anonymous female visitor insisted on leaving a check for one thousand dollars.

1937: The Palestine Post reported from London that according to British political circles, the Royal (Peel) Commission on Palestine might propose the setting up of two separate Jewish and Arab states, leaving Jerusalem, Bethlehem and other holy places under British Mandate. Haifa was to be a common seaport for all.

1937: The Palestine Post reported that Jewish students were attacked and beaten at the Warsaw Polytechnic Institute, which closed for a number of days.

1937: The Palestine Post reported that the Polish airline, Lot, initiated a regular three-flights-a-week schedule from Warsaw to Lod Airport.

1937: The Palestine Post reported that Jewish laborers complained that they were excluded from various development projects carried out by the government at Lod Airport.

1937: It was reported today that “the name of Heinrich Heine, the German poet, has been banished from Viennese municipal buildings by order of the Burgomaster Richard Schmitz” in response to “agitation against Heine in anti-Semitic circles.”

1938: “Mr. Moto's Gamble, the third film in the Mr. Moto series starring Peter Lorre as the title character” was released in the United States today.

1939: “Broadway Serenade” a musical featuring Al Shean was released today in the United States.

1939: Italy invaded and annexed Albania. Jews were exiled from the coastal port cities and moved to Albania’s interior. Several Austrian and German families took refuge in Tirana and Durazzo in 1939 in hope of making it eventually to the United States or South America. Many Jewish refugees also passed through Albania on their way to Palestine. These refugees were well treated by the Italian forces and by the local population. Jewish refugee families began to scatter throughout Albania and assimilate into society. Jewish children continued to attend school, but under false names and religions. Italians rejected the Final Solution and therefore did not implement anti-Jewish laws. Nevertheless, many Albanians joined the SS Division “Skanderbeg.” Some Jewish refugees were eventually placed in a transit camp in Kavaje, and from there sent to Italy. At one point, nearly 200 Jews were placed in the Kavaje camp. Some Albanian officials tried to rescue these Jews of Kavaje, by issuing identity papers to hide them in the capital Tirana.


1939: In a prelude to World War II, Mussolini invades Albania as he tries to create a modern day Roman Empire. “Approximately, 600 Jews were living in Albania prior to World War II, 400 of whom were refugees. At the beginning of World War II, hundreds of Jews arrived in Albania seeking refuge from Nazi persecution in other regions of Europe. There was little history of anti-Semitism in Albania between the local Christians, Muslims, and Jews. Most of the Albanian population was not hostile toward the Jews and helped to hide them during the war, especially when Italy and Germany occupied the country. When Italy invaded and annexed Albania. Jews were exiled from the coastal port cities and moved to Albania’s interior. Several Austrian and German families took refuge in Tirana and Durazzo in 1939 in hope of making it eventually to the United States or South America. Many Jewish refugees also passed through Albania on their way to Palestine. These refugees were well treated by the Italian forces and by the local population. Jewish refugee families began to scatter throughout Albania and assimilate into society. Jewish children continued to attend school, but under false names and religions. Italians rejected the Final Solution and therefore did not implement anti-Jewish laws. Nevertheless, many Albanians joined the SS Division “Skanderbeg” and committed atrocities against the Serbian and Jewish populations of Kosovar. Some refugees were eventually placed in a transit camp in Kavaje, and from there sent to Italy. At one point, nearly 200 Jews were placed in the Kavaje camp. Some Albanian officials tried to rescue these Jews of Kavaje, by issuing identity papers to hide them in the capital Tirana.”  For more see \

1940: Cyrus Adler, the national Jewish leader from, of all places, Van Buren, Arkansas, passed away today.



1941: Two separate ghettos were established in Radom, Poland. At Kielce, Poland, 16,000 local Jews and about a thousand Jewish deportees from Vienna are herded into a ghetto area.

1943: The Spanish Ambassador has lunch with Winston Churchill at which time the Prime Minister protested in the strongest possible language to the closure of the border between France and Spain to Jewish refugees trying to escape across the Pyrenees. Churchill’s threatening tone had its effect when a “few days later the Spanish authorities had re-opened the border to Jewish refugees.”

1943: Jewish resistance led by Michael Glanz took place at Skalat, Ukraine.

1943(2nd of Nisan, 5703): During the Holocaust in the western Ukraine, the Germans order 1,100 Jews to undress to their underwear and march through the city of Terebovlia to the nearby village of Plebanivka. They were then shot dead and buried in ditches.

1944: Birthdate of Julia Miller who gained fame as Julia Philips co-producer of “The Sting,” “Taxi Driver” and “Close Encounters of the Third Kind.”

1944:  Rudolf Vrba and Alfred Wetzler escaped from Auschwitz with the expressed the intention of telling the world what was going on. With the help of the resistance movement inside the camp, these two made it out and after two weeks found their way to Slovakia. They met with Adre Steiner and Oscar Krasnansky and described in detail what was happening including plans to murder 800,000 Hungarian Jews. Krasnansky turned their report into the thirty-page long "Auschwitz Protocols" which were then sent to contacts in the West. To say the Holocaust happened because nobody knew was not quite the case; more like people did not want to know or knew but did not care.

1944(14th of Nisan, 5704): In the evening, with the world at war, Jews sit down for the first Seder of the year including American service men and woman.  The different branches of the United States armed forces have made great effort to make it possible for Jews serving in the military to observe the holiday.  “With the cooperation of the Army and Navy, 400,000 boxes Matzah, 7,000 gallons of wine and 190,000 Haggadot have been shipped by the Jewish Welfare Board for distribution” to those serving “in every war sector as well as England, North Africa and Australia.” Holiday supplies have already been parachuted to troops serving in the upper reaches of the Rockies and dogsleds were used to get Passover goodies to those serving in outposts in Alaska.  The South African Army provided a special train so Jewish soldiers in Egypt could enjoy home hospitality in Tel Aviv and Jerusalem.

1945: In Italy, the Jewish Brigade received an order to cross the Senio River “and establish a bridgehead on the other side – a move that would force the Germans to retreat in the wake of the advancing British Army.

1945: Birthdate of Robert S. Wistrich, the son of Polish Jews who had fled from Lviv to the Soviet Union to escape the Nazis, “who devoted his four-decade scholarly career to dissecting anti-Semitism, from the biblical Haman, who warned King Ahasuerus of Persia against strangers whose “laws are diverse from all people,” to modern Islamist extremists who deny Israel’s right to exist.”

1945: “Brewster’s Millions” the movie version of the novel produced by Edward Small released today in the United States.

1946: “An authoritative Jewish source in Geneva charged tonight that British authorities had used diplomatic pressure to seal the borders of eastern European countries against escaping Jews to halt illegal immigration to Palestine.”

1946: Syria's independence from France is officially recognized. The Syrian Jewish community which traced its origins back to the reign of King David and had once been thriving and prosperous had, by now, fallen on hard times. As anti-Jewish sentiment increased in the 20th century, many Syrian Jews moved to New York.  In the years just prior to Syrian independence, thousands of Syrian Jews found refuge in Palestine. A year after Syria gained independence, the ancient Jewish community of Aleppo was the victim of a Pogrom. [Reading the works of Haim Sabato, a Syrian Jew whose family moved to Egypt before settling in Israel, will give you some sense of this ancient Jewish Community.]

1947: In Jerusalem, following the High Court’s rejection today of an appeal filed by Israel Rokach on behalf of Dov Bela Gruner, it was “understood” that the Mayor of Tel Aviv would file an appeal with the Privy Council in London.

1948: In Paris, Herbert Katzki, the acting director of the emigration service of the American Joint Distribution Committee reported “that 45,000 Jewish had been helped since 1946” and that 80,000 Jews, not counting those in the DP camps, “were waiting to go to Palestine.

1949: Rogers & Hammerstein's "South Pacific" opened at Majestic Theater for the first of 1,928 performances.

1950: In one of the ironies of history, a commercial vessel now called the Tsfonit which flew the Swastki when first launched in 1937 will fly Israel’s Blue and White flag complete with the Star of David.  The ship has been purchased by the American-Israeli Shipping Company for Zim, Israel’s shipping line, according to reports published in the New York Times.  As part of Israel’s growing commitment to maritime commerce, a freighter now named the Akko will leave for Haifa next week to join three other war surplus shipping vessles that are already plying the waters between Israeli and U.S. ports.

1952: The Jerusalem Post reported from The Hague that at the reparations talks held there, Israel was waiting for a definite commitment and a specific sum to be offered as compensation, by the authoritative German delegation.

1952: The Jerusalem Post reported that the UN Technical Assistance Department proposed to set up in Israel a center for modern adobe (sun-dried earth) housing development scheme.

1952: The Jerusalem Post reported that The Jerusalem Municipal Council voted for a new entertainment tax and fixed salaries of town councilors and deputy mayors.

1955(15th of Nisan, 5715): Pesach

1955(15th of Nisan, 5715): Sixty-nine year old silent film star Theda Bara passed away today.

1956(26th of Nisan, 5716): A resident of Ashkelon was killed in her home, when attackers threw three hand grenades into her house. Two members of kibbutz Givat Haim were killed, when terrorists opened fire on their car, on the road from Plugot Junction to Mishmar HaNegev

1956(26th of Nisan, 5716): One person was killed and three others were wounded when terrorists attacked areas around Nitzanim and Ketziot tossing hand grenades and firing guns into homes and cars.

1956(26th of Nisan, 5716): Two members of kibbutz Givat Haim were killed, when terrorists opened fire on their car, on the road from Plugot Junction to Mishmar HaNegev.

1958: Writer Arch Oboler's six-year-old son, Peter, drowned in rainwater collected in excavations at Oboler's Malibu home. The house was designed by architect Frank Lloyd Wright; the Wright-designed Oboler residential complex is named Eaglefeather. The house is featured in Oboler's film “Five.”

1960: "Everybody's Somebody's Fool" is a song written by Jack Keller and Howard Greenfield” was released today.

1961(21st of Nisan, 5721): Seventh Day of Pesach

1961: In Mexico City, soap opera star Abraham Stavchansky and his wife gave birth to Ilan Stavchansky who gained famed as Ilan Stavans, “Mexican-American, essayist, lexicographer, cultural commentator, translator, short-story author, publisher, TV personality, and teacher known for his insights into American, Hispanic, and Jewish cultures.”

1963: The New York Times published a review of The Femine Mystique by Betty Friedan

1965: Robert Louis Rogers began serving as Canada’s Ambassador to Israel.

1965: “Bus Riley's Back in Town” produced by Elliot Kastner and co-starring Janet Margolin and Larry Storch was released in the United States today.

1966: Birthdate of Beersheba native Zvika Hadar who gained fame as a television game show host.

1967: Israeli fighters shot down seven Syrian MIG-21s.  This episode turned out to be one of the many flashpoints on the road to the war that would be fought in June of 1967.  The Syrians were embarrassed and infuriated by the ease with which the Israelis swept their advanced MIG’s from the sky.  So they took action to encourage Nasser to follow an aggressive policy towards Israel that would ultimately lead to a clash of arms from which the region still has not recovered at the start of the 21st century.

1970: Birthdate of Rabbi Aaron Sherman

1974: “The Conversation” with music by David Shire and featuring Allen Garfield as William P. "Bernie" Moran was released in the United States today

1974: “Cinderella Liberty” produced and direct by Mark Rydell and co-starring James Caan and Eli Wallach and featuring Allan Arbus was released in Sweden today.

1975: Forty-five year old Beverly Sills debuted at the Metropolitan Opera

1975: Birthdate of Ilias Miroslva, “the Slovakian professor who walked bare into Gaza to ‘save’ 3 kids he never met.

1976: U.S. Premiere of “Sparkle” produced by Howard Rosenman who co-authored the script with Joel Schumacher.

1976: U.S. premiere of “The Bad News Bears” co-starring Walter Matthau and Vic Morrow with music by Jerry Fielding.

1977: The Jerusalem Post reported that in Washington Egyptian President Anwar Sadat announced that a "normalization" of relations with Israel would be possible only after the signing of a peace agreement at the reconvened Geneva Peace Conference and the establishment of a Palestinian state. A Soviet diplomat called unexpectedly at the Israeli Embassy in Washington to deliver a note from his leader, Leonid Brezhnev.

1977: The Jerusalem Post reported that Taiwan was reported to have purchased Israeli missiles.

1977: The Jerusalem Post reported that Senior Israeli pilots expressed criticism of the current safety measures at Ben-Gurion Airport and warned that unless these were taken care of, an eventual disaster was inevitable.

1981: Eighty-two year old Oscar Award winning director Norman Taurog whose forty-year carrier went from the Roaring Twenties to the Elvis Presley version of the 1960’s passed away today.

1984(5th of Nisan, 5774): Parashat Metzora

1984(5th of Nisan, 5744): Seventy-year old WW II Veteran, screenwriter and producer Samuel G. Engel, the President of the Screen Producers Guild and President of the Brandeis Institute of California passed away today.

1986: Nobel Prize winning author Elias Canetti wrote a profile of Israeli poet Avraham Ben-Yitzhak born Avraham Sonne for today’s edition of The New Yorker.

1985(16th of Nisan, 5745): Second Day of Pesach

1990: Michael Milken pleaded innocent to security law violations.

1992(4th of Nisan, 5752): Eighty year old Chess Grandmaster Samuel Reshevsky passed away today.

1993(16th of Nisan, 5753): Second Day of Pesach

1994(26th of Nisan, 5754): Yishai Gadassi, age 32, of Kvutzat Yavne, was shot and killed at a hitchhiking post at the Ashdod junction by a member of HAMAS. The terrorist was killed by bystanders at the scene. 1994(26th of Nisan, 5754): Based on information it attributed to Israel Radio, The Associated Press in Jerusalem, reported that Palestinian shot and wounded at least two Israelis at a bus stop in the southern Israel port of Ashod early today before he was shot dead by a bystander.

1994(26th of Nisan, 5754): Author Golo Mann, son of Thomas Mann and Katia Mann who was Jewish passed away today.

1994: ElioToaff who had been served as Chief Rabbi of Rome since 1951 co-officiated at the Papal Concert to Commemorate the Shoah at the Sala Nervi in Vatican City, along with Pope John Paul II, and the President of Italy Oscar Luigi Scalfaro.

1994:  For the first time the Vatican acknowledged Holocaust i.e. the Nazi's killing of Jews.

1998: Under the leadership of Sandy Weill, Citicorp and Travelers Group announce plans to merge creating the largest financial-services conglomerate in the world, Citigroup.

2002: During Operation Defensive Shield, the Vatican “warned Israel to respect religious sites in line with its international obligations ignoring the fact that the Church of Nativity was at risk only because Palestinian terrorist had seized control of the venerable shrine.

2001(14th of Nisan, 5761): Parashat Tzav; Shabbat Hagadol; in the evening first Seder during the Presidency of George Bush.

2002: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including ''Gershom Scholem: A Life in Letters.''

2002: In a column entitled “A Jewish Avenger, A Timely Legend,” Alisa Solomon reviews the upcoming revival English language production of H. Leivick's Yiddish classic, ''The Golem,''

2002: MEMRI (The Middle East Media Research Institute) Special Dispatch  363 quotes Al-Azhar Mosque’s Sheikh Muhammad Sayed Tantawi as announcing “every martyrdom operation against any Israeli, including children, women, and teenagers are legitimate acts according to religious law, and Islamic commandment until the people of Palestine regain their land and cause the cruel Israeli aggression to retreat.”

2005: The Prince of Wales attended a memorial service for the Hon Dame Miriam Louisa Rothschild held today at the Liberal Jewish Synagogue in London. Rabbi Alexandra Wright, officiated, assisted by Rabbi Baroness Julia Neuberger. Rabbi Mark Solomon sang and Ms Andrea Hess, cello, played during the service. Attendees included Sir Evelyn de Rothschild, the Hon Emma Rothschild, Professor Sir John Gurdon and Lord Lester of Herne Hill, QC.

2006: David Bromberg appears at the Library of Congress to speak on the historic significance of that ever-under-appreciated musical instrument, the American-made violin. The sixty year-old musical legend owns nearly 250, some dating back more than 100 years. It is the largest such collection, and they are displayed in cabinets from one end of his living room to the other.

2007: The UJA-Federation of New York’s Music for Youth initiative holds a fund raising concert at New York’s Carnegie Hall.

2007: “Be” an “Israeli show that blends music, dance and sex appeal” was performed “Off Broadway” at the Union Square Theatre.

2007: The three day festival known as Boombamela comes to an end. The festival is described by its organizers as "a place for meeting, experiencing, crossing borders and transcending social limitations through music, creation, and connection with nature." It is held on the sandy beach of Hof Nitzanim, between Ashdod and Ashkelon.

2008(2nd of Nisan, 5768): Eighty-three year old “atomic spy” Ruth Greenglass, the wife of David Greenglass, died today.

2008: RSA Conference opens in San Francisco.  RSA was developed by Ronald Rivest (R), Adi Shamir (S) and Leonard Adelman (A) in 1977.

2008: Following the latest attack targeting Yemen’s few remaining Jews during which rebel Houthi militiamen destroyed several homes that had belonged to the now-absent Jewish community in the northwestern Saada province The Jerusalem Post reported on the conditions of Jews living in Yemen.

"The Houthis destroyed part of my house and looted it," Rabbi Yehia Youssuf told Reuters in the capital, San'a. All 67 members of Saada's Jewish community fled following threats from the Houthis, the rabbi says. Some locals say the Jews were threatened because they had been selling wine to Muslims - an accusation the Jews deny, according to Reuters. A local said the Shi'ite rebels attacked the houses of other Jews after looting the rabbi's. Around 400 Jews remain in the majority Sunni state, the remnant of an ancient, close-knit community that, while remaining connected to Jewish intellectual and legal developments outside Yemen, managed to insulate itself culturally until the 20th century. According to Dr. Dov Levitan, a scholar of Yemenite Jewry at Bar-Ilan University and the Academic College of Ashkelon, the Houthi clan targets Jews to embarrass the government internationally. Apparently unrelated intertribal fighting in the province killed at least 15 people in recent days as the Houthi tribe continued its intermittent violence, begun in June 2004, against the central government and its allies. Since the early 1990s, the Yemeni government "has been very conscious of its international image," explains Levitan. "So important is the country's image to its government that the Jews have excellent government protection." When their situation in Saada became precarious about a year ago, "they were flown out in a government plane to San'a. They receive a small stipend and live in a compound protected by state security forces. This kind of concern would have been unimaginable just 15 years ago," he says. The government's concern for its image, together with pressure from American Jewish groups and US legislators, led Yemen in the early 1990s to permit most of the remaining 2,000 Jews to emigrate to Israel and elsewhere, continuing a centuries-long trickle of aliya from the country. At the founding of the Jewish state in 1948, around 35,000 Yemenite Jews lived in Israel. Another 50,000 came in the immediate aftermath of the War of Independence. Most of the 1,600 Jews who left Yemen during the 1990s now live in Rehovot. The question of why Jews remain in Yemen remains. "We have contact with these Jews. They're not the Jews who came 60 years ago," the large wave of poor refugees who fled pogroms in Operation Magic Carpet, Levitan says. "They're more educated, they're better dressed, they wear watches and drive cars. Some of them have traveled overseas. They have property there, and they are connected historically. They don't want to leave a place that has been their natural environment for generations." The Yemenite Jewish community claims to have existed since the time of the First Temple, 2,600 years ago. While this claim has not been verified, "we know with certainty that they were there for at least 1,500 years," says Levitan. Despite its unique customs and liturgy, Yemenite Jewry was never disconnected from the broader Jewish world. "For example, we know that the letters of the [medieval Jewish philosopher and legalist] Maimonides arrived in Yemen. We know from the 14th to the 16th centuries they were connected enough to receive the Shulchan Aruch [halachic codex]. And in the 18th and 19th centuries they received printed Jewish prayer books and Talmuds from abroad when there was no Jewish press in Yemen," he said. Other pressures also affect the decision of Jews to remain. The anti-Zionist Satmar hassidim work to persuade the community not to move to Israel. "They give the remaining Jews money and holy books, take them to New York and London - anything to keep them from going to Israel," says Levitan. Also, the government's concern and protection are seen as complete and genuine by the community, he says.

2008: David Grossman's latest novel, Isha Borahat Mibesora (English title: "Until the end of the land") is released by Hasifria Hahadasha, Kibbutz Hameuchad and Siman Kriah books.

2008: The Years of Extermination: Nazi Germany and the Jews, 1939-1945 by Saul Friedlander won the 2008 Pulitzer Prize for General Nonfiction. “In his second volume of a history of the Holocaust, Mr. Friedländer, 75, interwove segments from contemporary journals and letters into the more general description of the atrocities. “Usually the history of the Holocaust is written from the viewpoint of German documents and archives,” said Mr. Friedländer, who was born in Prague, escaped to France in 1939 and emigrated to Israel in 1948. He teaches history at the University of California, Los Angeles.”

2009: The Zionist Organization of America renewed its call today for a boycott of Coca-Cola products during Pesach on behalf of an Egyptian Jewish family that is suing the company over a property dispute. “Members of the Bigio family, now living in the US, are demanding compensation from the soft-drink giant, based in Atlanta, for bottling plants they say were expropriated by the Egyptian government in 1965 and illegitimately bought by the Coca-Cola Company in 1994.  The family, which sued in 1997 in US federal court, failed to reach a settlement with Coca-Cola in mediation talks that ended in March, according to its attorney, Nathan Lewin, who claimed the company had not offered a cash settlement to the Bigios.  "The Jewish public should boycott Coca-Cola products until Coca-Cola acts fairly and ethically and rights the wrong against the Bigios," Lewin, a ZOA board member, said in a statement.  Coca-Cola did not respond to phone and e-mail requests from The Jerusalem Post seeking comment on the case.  ZOA specifically called for a boycott of the company's kosher-for-Pesach drinks, which are also popular with connoisseurs because they are sweetened with real sugar instead of high-fructose corn syrup. "Coca-Cola may have a rabbinic hechsher for Passover, but it cannot get a hechsher for its immoral and unethical behavior," said ZOA president Morton Klein.  ZOA previously called for a boycott in 2007, and also protested outside the Coca-Cola Company's annual shareholders' meeting in 2008.”

2009: Today, two days before Passover, a University of Haifa archaeologist has unearthed foot-shaped structures he believes were constructed by the Israelites at the time of the Exodus from Egypt and move into the Promised Land.  The large structures were found in the Jordan Valley by Prof. Adam Zertal, who describes them as "the first structures the Israelites built on entering Canaan, and [which] testify to the biblical idea of ownership of the land."  

2009: “Picturing the Shoah,” a film festival sponsored by YIVO that explores  how movies have represented the Holocaust from radical, provocative, and unexpected angles continues with exhibitions of “Black Book” and “Sobibor, Oct. 14, 1943.

2010: Savyon Liebrecht, who was born in Munich to Holocaust survivors and is the author of The Women My Father Knew is scheduled to discuss growing up in a home of survivors, the psychological and social phenomena of the "second generation," and how these subjects manifest themselves in her stories and play at Museum of Jewish Heritage in New York.

 2010: The Tel Aviv municipality unveiled the city's new large-scale public bomb shelter today, built under the new Habima Theater. The advanced shelter, at 3,740 square meters, can hold as many as 1,600 people over four floors. There are five doors leading in, leading to five stairwells spanning through the four floors of the shelter. Next to the official bomb shelter an underground garage will provide a further 35,000 square meters. Although the garage will not be fortified, it will still prove a better option than the outdoors in case of an attack. Deputy Defense Minister Matan Vilnai, who inspected the site, said the model was an impressive one and it should be copied in other cities.

2011: The Miracle Worker is scheduled to have its final performance today in Talpiot, Jerusalem, in the Way Off Theater.

2011: Yeshiva University Museum, American Jewish Historical Society, Center for Jewish History and Bob Bullock Texas State History Museum  are scheduled to present a panel discussion entitled: "Give us Your Tired, Your Poor, Your Huddled Masses....or Not: A New Model for Civic Dialogue Within and Beyond the Gallery Walls.

2011: In Rockville, MD, Magen David Sephardic Congregation is scheduled to present a lecture by David W. Jourdan, President & Founder of Nauticos entitled “Never Forgotten: The Search for Israel’s Lost Submarine Dakar.

2011: Philo Bregstein is scheduled deliver a lecture at London’s Wiener Library in which he re-evaluates Ashes in the Wind: The Destruction of Dutch Jewry” by Jacob Presser. When it was first published in 1965, the book triggered a fierce debate on the Holocaust in the Netherlands.”

2011: A number of terrorist cells are operating in the Sinai Peninsula with the goal of kidnapping Israeli nationals, security officials warned today ahead of the upcoming Pesach holiday. According to the official, the threat to Israelis was based on concrete and firm intelligence information obtained by Israel indicating that Hamas and other terrorist groups were trying to abduct Israelis, transfer them to the Gaza Strip and use them as bargaining chips in potential prisoner swaps with the country.

2011: Two people were wounded today after an anti-tank missile exploded into a bus traveling in one of the communities surrounding the Gaza Strip.  Following the attack, 16 additional mortar shells were fired at Israeli towns in the western Negev, most of them hitting open areas. Following the attack on the bus, in which a 16-year-old boy was seriously wounded and the bus driver was hurt moderately, a barrage of 15 rockets and mortars were fired at southern Israel, most of them hitting open areas. Defense authorities instructed residents in Israeli towns 4.5 kilometers from the Gaza Strip to stay in their protected areas. Several roads in the area were also blocked.

2011: Today, the Iron Dome missile defense system successfully intercepted for the first time a Grad rocket that was fired at the Israeli city of Ashkelon from the Gaza Strip. Iron Dome's success y marks the first time in history a short-range rocket was ever intercepted. According to reports from the area, the interception could be seen in Israeli towns near northern Gaza. The second Iron Dome battery was positioned in the area of Ashkelon over the weekend, in addition to a battery already placed north of Be'er Sheva.

2011: “In Washington, D.C., the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars of the United States’ Smithsonian Institution presented the Woodrow Wilson Award for Public Service to Jacques Attali, founder and president of PlaNet Finance.”

2011:  Today, Les editions CNRS will publish the philosopher and translator Nicolas Cavaillès’s “Cioran in Spite of HImself: Writing Against Oneself.” It appears one day before the 100th anniversary of the birth of Emil Cioran

2011: The local government of the Balearic Islands in Spain will, for the first time, officially acknowledge the suffering of a local community, whose ancestors were Jewish, at a ceremony in Palma de Majorca today. Balearic Island President, Francesc Antich Oliver, will attend the commemorative event held on the 320th anniversary of the killing of 33 locals who belonged to the Cheuta minority, and were executed by the Spanish Inquisition for secretly practicing Judaism in 1691. The Cheuta (also spelled Xeuta), is a community of about 20,000 people living on the Mediterranean islands whose ancestors were forcibly converted from Judaism to Christianity in the 15th century.

2012(15th of Nisan, 5772): First Day of Pesach

2012(15th of Nisan, 5772): Ninety-three year old television broadcast journalist Mike Wallace passed away today. (Tim Weiner)

2012(15th of Nisan): According to Chabad Lubavitch, “on the 15th of Nissan of the year 2447 from creation (1314 BCE) -- exactly one year before the Exodus -- Moses was shepherding the flocks of his father-in-law, Jethro, at the foot of Mount Sinai, when G-d appeared to him in a "thornbush that burned with fire, but was not consumed" and instructed him to return to Egypt, come before Pharaoh, and demand in the name of G-d: "Let My people go, so that they may serve Me." For seven days and seven nights Moses argued with G-d, pleading that he is the wrong person for the job, before accepting the mission to redeem the people of Israel and bring them to Sinai.

2013(27th of Nisan, 5773): Seventy-three year old “American comedy writer and screenwriter” and “lifelong friend of Woody Allen” Mickey Rose passed away today.

2013(27th of Nisan, 5773): Seventy-four year old “Peter Workman, the founder of Workman Publishing, whose knack for landing best-selling trade books like “What to Expect When You’re Expecting,” and “The Silver Palate Cookbook” built his company into one of the few remaining independent book publishers in the country” passed away today.

2013: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Fear Itself by Ira Katzneson and FDR and the Jews by Richard Breitman and Allan J. Lichtman

2013: The Arab-Israeli ensemble of the IPO is scheduled to perform in Los Angeles.

2013: The YIVO Institute for Jewish Research is scheduled to present a screening of “Chronicle of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising According to Marek Edelman.”

2013: Start of “National Days of Remembrance” sponsored by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.”

2013: Hamas terrorists, who declare openly their wish to commit genocide against the Jewish people, marked Holocaust Remembrance Day their way today – with a salvo of rockets fired at Jewish civilians. Three rockets were fired, the action timed to coincide with the official Holocaust Remembrance Day ceremony taking place in Jerusalem at the same time. One rocket exploded in an open space within the Shaar Hanegev Regional Authority's jurisdiction, causing no injuries or damage. The embedded video shows a Holocaust Remembrance Day ceremony being interrupted by a "Color Red" warning, giving residents a few seconds to reach shelter from an incoming rocket (As reported by Gil Ronen)

2013: Anti-Israel hackers failed in their declared plan to wipe the Jewish state from the internet on Yom HaShoah.

2013: Second season of “House of Lies” co-starring Ben Schwartz came to an end.

2014: The Tulane University Jewish Studies Department under the chairmanship of Dr. Brian J. Horowitz is scheduled to host “Nazi Film- Melodrama” a lecture by Visiting Professor Laura Heins author of Nazi Film Melodrama.

2014: In Cannes, the MIPTV event that will include a “Focus On Israel” series “that will include lectures and screenings featuring the hottest content out of the Holy Land” is scheduled to open today.

2014: The anti-Semitic “hacker group known as Anonymous” is scheduled to launch OpIsrael, its second annual attack on the cyber infrastructure of Israel.

2014: Jael Silliman author of The Man With Many Hats and a former Professor at the University of Iowa is scheduled to deliver a talk that “will present a rich visual tour of the Calcutta Jewish community

2014: In Cedar Rapids, Iowa, the Thaler Holocaust Memorial Fund chaired by Dr. Bob Silber is scheduled to co-host “A Service of Remembrance for the Victims of the Holocuast” featuring Holocaust Survivor Cesare Frustaci.

2015: “Shall We Dance,” “the award winning Israeli theatre show” is scheduled to be performed at the Kraine Theatre tonight.

2015: Mayor Rahm Emanuel was re-elected mayor of Chicago today.

2015: In a new book, Silence No More, published today the nephew of Nelly Voskuijl posited she was a Nazi collaborator who revealed the Amsterdam hideout of the family of Anne Frank.

2016: “Dough” is scheduled to be shown at the opening night of the Northern Virginia Jewish Film Festival.

2016: “The American Sephardi Federation, The Aristides Sousa Mendes Virtual Museum, the American Jewish Historical Society, Centro de Portugal Office of Tourism, the Leo Baeck Institute, Luso-Americain Foundation, International Raoul Wallenberg Foundation, Sousa Mendes Foundation, and the YIVO Institute for Jewish History are scheduled to host the reception marking the opening of “Portugal, The Last Hope: Sousa Mendes’ Visas for Freedom.”

2016: The Skirball Center is scheduled to host an evening with architect Daniel Libeskind whose designs include the Jewish Museum in Berlin, the Danish Jewish Museum and the Contemporary Jewish Museum in San Francisco.

2016: In Memphis, TN, Temple Israel is scheduled to host a musical evening presented by Cantorial Soloist Abbie Strauss and Friends.

2016: “The American Jewish Historical Society, Museum at Eldridge Street, Anne Frank Center USA, Multifaith Alliance for Syrian Refugees” are scheduled to host a roundtable discussion on “Yearning to Breathe Free: The Jewish Response to the Global Refugee Crisis.”

2016: “Presenting Princess Shaw” is scheduled to be shown at the Westchester Jewish Film Festival today.

2016(28th of Adar II, 5776): Eighty-eight year old furniture designer Vladimir Kagan passed away today.

2016: David Feldman, Director of the Pears Institute for the study of Antisemitism, is scheduled to deliver a lecture the Cecil Roth Lecture - Living with Others: Jews and Other Minorities in England since the Seventeenth Century.

2017:  In the early hours of this day Prime Minister Netanyahu praised the United States missile attacks on a Syrian base after the Assad regime had launched a gas attack against its own citizens,

2017: As Jews “eat down their chametz in preparation for Pesach” in Memphis, TN, Temple Israel is scheduled to host a family-themed Preneg followed by a Musical Shabbat led by Abbie Strauss.

2018: The Lysander Piano Trio and clarinetist Charles Neidich are scheduled to present a program that showcases works by composers Paul Ben-Haim, Béla Bartók, Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco and Paul Hindemith, who were forced from their homelands during the rise of Nazism and fascism” at Drake University in Des Moines, IA.

2018: Chabad in Iowa City under the leadership of Rabbi Avrohom Belsofsky is scheduled to host Seudat Moshiach (Moshiach’s Meal) this evening.

2018(22nd of Nisan, 5778: Eighth Day of Pesach; last day of the holiday.






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