Sunday, July 23, 2017

This Day, July 24, In Jewish History by Mitchell A. Levin

July 24

1148:  Louis VII of France lays siege to Damascus during the Second Crusade. The Second Crusade gained nothing for the Christians.  The failure of the crusade may help explain “the long period of persecution that included French clergyman giving frequent anti-Semitic sermons. In some cities, such as Beziers, Jews were forced to pay a special tax every Palm Sunday. In Toulouse, Jewish representatives had to go to the cathedral on a weekly basis to have their ears boxed, as a reminder of their guilt. France’s first blood libel took place in Blois in 1171 and 31 Jews were burned on the stake.”

1298(14th of Av): During the Rindfleisch massacres, the Jewish community of Bischofsheim on the Tauber, Germany perished

1349(8th of Av): The Jews of Frankfort were killed in what would be called the Black Death Massacres

1518: Sefer ha-Harkavah, a Hebrew grammar written by Elijah Levita (Bahur) was published in Rome today.  249

1716: Anti-Jewish riots broke out in Posin

1793(15th of Av, 5553): Tu B’Av

1806: Henry Collins, the son of Hyman and Mary Collins was circumcised today in the UK.

1819: Eliezer Cohen the son of Elyakum Cohen, was circumcised today at Chelmsford, Essex today.

1825(9th of Av, 5585): Tish’a B’Av

1836(10th of Av, 5596): Tish’a B’Av

1836: Birthdate of Jan Gotlib Blich the Polish banker who converted to Calvinism to avoid the disabilities the Czar placed on Jews but who remained sympathetic to the plight of his people and who was an eaerly supporter of the Zionist Movement.

1840: Birthdate of Abraham Goldfaden, a Russian-born Jewish poet, playwright, stage director and actor in the languages Yiddish and Hebrew, author of some 40 plays who is considered the father of the Jewish modern theatre
1842: Henry Nathan married Sarah Costa at the Great Synagogue.

1848: The will of Mr. Isaac D ’Israeli was “proved” today by Benjamin D ’Israeli, his son and “sole executor.”

1855(9th of Av, 5615):  Tish'a B'Av

1858: In reporting on a case of alleged war profiteering in the boot business that took place at Weedon in England, the New York Times correspondent writes that “if the Jews are excluded from Parliament they are certainly compensated in some measure by the handsome share the Government allows them in the pretty pickings of such places as Weedon.”

1862: Martin Van Buren, 8th President of the United States passed away.  Martin Van Buren was the first President to order an American consul to intervene on behalf of Jews abroad. In 1840 he instructed the U.S. consul in Alexandria, Egypt to protect the Jews of Damascus who were under attack because of a false blood ritual accusation.”  Van Buren ordered his diplomats “to extend ‘the active sympathy and generous interposition of the Government of the United states’ on behalf of ‘an oppressed and persecuted race, among whose kindred are found some of the most worthy and patriotic of our citizens.’”

1864: Union General James A. Mulligan was mortally wounded as he led his troops Second Battle of Kernstown, near Winchester, Virginia. The last entry in his diary read, “The last thing in it, written that day, is: "Well, our cause is gloomy; we will conquer the South about the time the Jews all return to Jerusalem." (The general was not Jewish.  But his statement shows the depth of his despair and the universal symbolism that Jews had come to represent.)

1865: On this date, Baron Lionel de Rothschild signs his last will and testament.  The will is in his own handwriting.  Among the terms of the will is a request that “ ‘my good wife’ shall give 10,000 pounds to Jewish charities.”

1865(1st of Av, 5625): Rosh Chodesh Av

1865: In Vienna, Ignatz and Anna Rosenbaum Grossmann to Rudolph Grossman who would serve as associate Rabbi at Temple Beth El before becoming the spiritual leader of Rodef Sholom in New York City.

1867: In Vienna Ignatz and Anna Rosenbaum Grossman gave birth to Rudolph Grossman who became a Reform rabbi in the United States.

1871: Birthdate of Paul Epstein, the native of Frankfurt who followed in the footsteps of his professor father by becoming a professor in 1919 but who would lose his career when the Nazis came to power.

1873: Birthdate of Isador E. Philo, the native of Cardiff who earned a BA from CCNY and a doctorate from the University Illinois who went on to become a Rabbi in Akron, Ohio and Youngstown, Ohio.

1874: Today’s “Foreign Notes” column reported that “Jaffa is to be dismantled.  The walls and turrets are advertised for sale and the old fortifications will soon be utterly razed.”

1874(10th of Av, 5634): Seventy-one year old Baron Anselm Salomon von Rothschild, a member of the Vienna branch of the famous banking family who founded Creditanstalt passed away today.

1875: Gabriel Lippmann's PhD thesis, presented to the Sorbonne today, was on electro-capillarity

1875: In Odessa, Joseph Grubman and Flora Franckman gave birth to Adolph Joseph Grubman, the husband of Minnie Freid  who arrived in the United States in 1887 after which he worked as a jeweler and master machinist before attending NYU, passing the bar, serving in leadership roles at various Jewish organizations including assistant superintendent and had master of the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society Orphan Asylum in New York, assistant superintendent of the Educational Alliance in New York Vice President of B’nai B’rith’s Liberty lodge, Number 550.

1876: In New Haven, CT, Mark Fisher and his wife gave birth to Henry M. Fisher the graduate of Yale and HUC who became the Rabbi of Congregation Beth Israel in Atlantic City.

1877: Henry Ward Beecher, a friend of Joseph Seligman's, preached a sermon against anti-Semitism. Beecher was the father of Harriet Beecher Stowe, author of Uncle Tom's Cabin.  He was an ardent abolitionist and a champion of what today we would call civil rights. Despite this appeal to reason, the policy of social discrimination soon became widespread. Though the Grand Union Hotel was not the first incident in the U.S., it received a great amount of publicity. Seligman was a renowned philanthropist and helped the Union cause during the Civil War. In recognition, President Grant offered him the post of Secretary of Treasury.

1877: The New York Times published a letter from Edgar M. Johnson, a prominent Jewish lawyer from Cincinnati, Ohio.  He stated that he did not like to engage in a “newspaper controversy…especially one on such a disagreeable topic as the Seligman-Hilton imbroglio.”  However, he took issue with the false statements that he had tried to hide his religion when making reservations to stay at the Grand Union or that Judge Hilton’s employees did not know he was Jewish when they offered to let him stay at the hotel. He included the text of the communication in his letter and ended by saying that hotel owners in Saratoga Springs  had not had any problem accepting his “Jew money” when he had stayed there in the past.  But they need not concern themselves with the matter, since he had no intention of ever visiting again.

1880: Birthdate of Swiss-born American composer Ernest Bloch.

1880:  The Rochester (NY) Union reported that Rabbi Max Moll has officiated at the conversion ceremony of Mrs. Morse. Her husband is a member of Aitz Raanon.  The ceremony included a detailed examination on Jewish customs and laws which the young woman promised to obey.  The ceremony ended with the appropriate benedictions and the announcement that her name was now Sarah.

1881: “Notes of Foreign Life” reported that funds have been collected in Brussels to aid the persecuted Jews of Russia.

1882: Professor Felix Adler sent a check for one hundred dollars to the striking freight handler’s.

1883: “Burdened With an Insane Wife” published today described the attempts of David Holtz, a young Jewish immigrant to annul his marriage to Pauline Moses on grounds that he was misled as to the nature of the ceremony, that he has had to have her committed to an asylum and that he family concealed her history of mental illness from him prior to the marriage.

1883: In Munich artist Alfred Pringsheim and Hedwig Dohnm Pringsheim gave birth to musical marvel Kalus Pringsheim ,Sr.

1883 In Munich artist Alfred Pringsheim and Hedwig Dohnm Pringsheim gave birth to Katharina "Katia" Pringsheim, the twin sister of Klaus Pringsheim, Sr. who was the wife of author Thomas Mann.

1883: It was reported today Jews dominated a recent chess tournament.  Six of the fourteen players were Jewish and the Jews won first, second and fifth place.  This was should come as no surprise because since “the times of the Talmud, Jews have been pre-eminent at games similar to chess, while in modern time” Jews have been some of the best players for several generations.

1884: “A Queen Among Thieves” described the career and capture of Mrs. Fredericka Mandelbaum, a German born Jewess who is one of the most important and famous receiver of stolen goods.  Her reputation and criminal activities which have been going on for 25 years, are national in scope. The Pinkerton detectives have been tracking her for years and said that some of her confederates include her husband,, her brother-in-law Hirsh, “Mose” Erich and “Jew” Harris.  Don’t be deceived by the names; she dealt with crooks of a variety of ethnic origins.

1888: Mrs. Solomons, one of the Jews who had been on an excursion to Raritan Beach, went to the police to complain about a scheme by one of the organizers to force the patrons to buy beer and other drinks to slake their thirst.

1890: In Kippenheim, Germany, Dr. Julius and Emilie (Durlacher) Stern gave birth to historian and archivist Selma Stern-Taeubler.

1891: W.D. Owens, the Superintendent of Immigration arrived from Washington, DC and met for several hours with the Acting Superintendent of Immigration at the Barge Office to discuss policies related to the detention of Jewish immigrants from Russia and Poland.

1891: In New York, Coroner Ferdinand Levy succeeded in finding bondsman who would post $1,000 for the six Jewish families Russia being held at the Barge Office so that they could enter the United States.

1892: “Berkmann An Anarchist” published today provided a profile of Alexander Berkman, the Lithuanian born Jewish anarchist who attempted to assassinate  Henry Clay Frick whom he held responsible for the murder of nine striking steelworkers during the infamous Homestead Steel Strike.

1892: In commenting on the shooting of Henry Clay Frick by Alexander Berkman, one “workingman was heard to say, “Served him right to be shot by a Russian Jew!  He was a Pole and” Frick “has brought thousands of pauper Polish laborers in this country.” (Frick was one of the many industrialists who used the contract labor system to bring in workers from eastern and southern Europe with a view to driving down the pay for workers.)

1893(11th of Av, 5653): Sixty-one year old Priscilla J. Joachimsen, the widow of Judge Joachimsen passed away today.  Born in Plymouth, England, she married the Judge when she was eighteen. The marriage last forty seven years during which they founded the Hebrew Orphan Asylum and were active in the Hebrew Lying-In Asylum, the Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews and the Deborah Nursery.

1893: Simon Bernheimer, the senior partner of Bernheimer and Schmidt, is among those mourning the passing Isaac Burnheimer, the founder of the real estate and property management firm.

1894: “Meeting In Clarendon Hall” described the lecture delivered by Charles Wilfred Mowbray, “the English labor agitator and anarchist” to an audience that included a contingent of Jewish anarchists as can be seen by the fact that literature printed in Hebrew was distributed to throng.

1895: “While on vacation, Sigmund Freud carries out his first lengthy dream analysis”

1895(3rd of Av, 5655): Abram C. Bernheim of the firm of Shekan & Bernheim who was a member of Temple Emanu-El passed at Arverne, Long Island.

1897: The Special Board of Inquiry approved the entry of Adolf Bernstrom a Polish Jew who had arrived aboard the SS Lahn after his son, an east side tailor, had given “the necessary assurance that” he “would become a charge on the community.”

1897: It was reported today that the dispensary of the Brooklyn Hebrew Hospital, under the direction of Dr. Solo, which is open from 3 to 5 in the afternoon, provides free treatment to 40 or 50 patients each day.

1898: “The Persecution of Polish Jews Still Going On” published today described “the pillaging of Jews” and the burning of Jewish property which has been going on for the past three weeks.

1898: Following his funeral today, Benjamin Marks, who is survived by his widow Esther Cohen Marks and six children, will be buried in Cypress Hills Cemetery.

1898: In Atlantic City, NJ, the second Summer Assembly of the Jewish Chautauqua Society is scheduled to come to an end.

1899: According to a summary of the annual report of the Bureau of Immigration for the fiscal year ending last June, most of the 29,000 immigrants from Poland and the 2,000 immigrants from Russia were Jewish.

1899: “Mistakes Made in Philippines” published today described the challenges facing the Americans in this Pacific Island change including the fact that the many of the military units are composed of unqualified recruits including “a low class of Romanian, Russian and Polish Jews.”

1901: In Haverhill, MA, Flora Craft and Leopold Albertson gave birth to actress Mabel Ida Albertson, the sister of actor Jack Albertson.

1902: “Simon Sterne Fountain” published today included a description of Sterne’s affection for horses and his support for the Society of the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.”

1902: Claude Joseph Goldsmid Montefiore, the son of Nathaniel Montefiore, the great-nephew of Sir Moses Montefiore and “the founding president of the World Union for Progressive Judaism” – an outgrowth of his leadership of “Anglo-Liberal Judaism – married Florence Fyfe Bereton Ward at the West London Synagogue after his first wife – Therese Alice Schorstein – died in 1889.

1909: On the Saturday before his 60th birthday The New York Times reviews an anniversary volume of essays and speeches by the Zionist leader Max Nodeau. In the chapter on Zionism, the Hungarian born leader writes “Zionism is but a new name for a very old cause, in as much as it merely expresses the longing of the Jewish race toward Zion.”

1909: George Picquart, the French officer who risked everything to expose the falsehood of the Dreyfus Conviction completed his service as Minister of War in the cabinet of Georges Clemenceau.

1910: Birthdate of Harry Horner, the native of Holitz, the Austro-Hungarian city now part of the Czech Republic, the Academy Award winning art director who garnered Oscars for “The Heiress” in 1949 and “The Hustler” in 1961.

1911: Fire in Balata district of Constantinople destroys Boys' and Girls' Schools of the Alliance Israelite Universelle, four synagogues, and 1,000 houses, about 600, which belonged to Jews.  

1914: In Konstantynów Łódzki, Russian Empire, ”Tzvi Yitzchok Abramowicz, who had been the shochet for Rav Chanokh Heynekh HaKohen Levin, the Rebbe of Alexander, and had been a chosid of the Chidushei Harim of Ger” and his wife gave birth to Israeli rabbi Yehuda Meir Abrmowicz who made Aliyah in  1935 where “he served as general secretary of Agudat Yisrael, which he represented in the Knesset from 1972 until 1981, and as Deputy Speaker of the Knesset between 1977 and 1981.”

1914: Birthdate of Jan Kozielewski, who as Jan Karski, risked his life to infiltrate the Warsaw Ghetto and then escaped to the West bringing a first-hand account of the Holocaust.

1914: In Colonial Beach, Virginia, David and Anna Mirvish gave birth to Yehuda Mirvish, who gained fame as Canadian businessman and philanthropist Edwin “Honest Ed” Mirvish.

1915: Having arrived in Milledgegville, GA yesterday today Governor Harris and the state prison authorities began their investigation into the attack on Leo M. Frank.

1915:  This morning “William Creen told Governor Nat E. Harris that he tried to kill Leo M. Frank…because he believed that in doing so he would rid the Georgia State Prison of a man who presence would result in the attack by a mob on the prison and loss of live in a battle with the guards” – an opinion he said he had formed from reading newspapers.

1915: Warden Smith wants those investigating the recent attack on Leo M. Frank today to examine charges “George Johnson, a prisoner whose term has recently expired that Frank had been treated at the prisons as if he was on a social visit and the he had been provided with a roll-top desk.”

1916: “According to a message received” tonight in New York “from Boston” Justice Louis D. Brandeis has resigned from the Executive Committees of the American Jewish Relief Organization and the Jewish Congress Organization” saying that his “official duties would not permit him to give the organizations the time they demanded.”

1916: In New York City, Alfred and Georgina (Ballin) Braun gave birth to Susan Braun, “the founder and director of Dance Films Association” today.

1916: Today, “in the town of Lokachi, the Province of Volinski,” “the Cossacks and the Dragoons” order the Gentiles to put ikons in their windows” so that they would not suffer during today’s pogrom which began when a Jewish tobacconist could not fill a Cossack’s order for high priced tobacco and the angry Cossack killed the Jew with his lance.

1916: It was reported today that the most important bill drafted by the new Minister of Interior in Russia, Alexei Khvostoff, “related to the admission of Jews to the practice of law…”

1916: “The Joint Distribution Committee of Funds for Jewish War Suffers” today received from the State Department a report sent from Albert Haistead, the American Consul General at Vienna that “$130,000 had been received in June by the Israelitische Allianz in Vienna from the American Jewish Relief Funds” of which $70,000 is to be spent for the relief” of Jews in Galicia and $50,000 for Jews living in the part of Poland under Austrian occupation.

1917: As the Kerensky government contends with competing views of what the new regime should look like, the peasants who “are no friend of the Jews” are calling for a new monarchy while “it is possible that the Jewish question, especially n view of the attitude of the Jews in political organizations of Petrograd, will play an important part in deciding the future Constitution of Russia.” 

1917: “The Central Committee for the Relief of Jews Suffering Through the War announced” today “that a special nation-wide appeal in behalf of the $10,000,000 Jewish war relief campaign would be made this Sunday which is the 10th of Av but which will be observed as Tish’a B’av because the 9th of Av falls on Shabbat.

1917(5th of Av. 5677): Twenty-nine year old Captain Charles Lauff passed away today in Marin County, CA

1917(5th of Av, 5677:  Ninety-five year old Charles August Lauff, a native Strasbourg, the son of Jacob and Caroline (Ashelmann) Lauff and the husband of Maria J. Cibrian with whom he had nine children and who wrote a book of reminiscences in 1916 passed away today..

1918: The Paris Zionist Committee, led by its President, Baron Edmond de Rothschild greeted the American Zionist Medical Mission which is on its way to Palestine this afternoon “at the Synagogue on the Rue de la Victorie.”

1918: Colonel Harry Cutler, the Chairman of the Jewish Welfare Board “received a letter from the Third Assistant Secretary of War” Frederick Keppel stating that his suggestion for placing “a double triangle” above the graves of the Jewish soldiers killed in France instead of the cross has been adopted.

1918: Funeral services were held this afternoon for Henry Roth, the President of the Henry Roth Building Company and “one of the most influential Jews in Brooklyn.

1918: On Mt. Scopus in Jerusalem, Dr. Chaim Weizmann laid the cornerstone for Hebrew University. It would be several more years before construction began and the university would actually become a reality.

1919: Birthdate of Peter Zinner, Austrian born American Oscar winning film editor.

1920: In New York, “Alexander H. Cohen senior, a successful businessman, and Laura Tarantous Cohen” gave birth to theatrical producer Alexander H. Cohen, older brother of Gerry Cohen and the father of producer Christopher A. Cohen.

1920: About 16 miles west of Damascus, in what is known as the Battle of Maysalun, the French Army defeated forces of King Faisel putting an end to the reign of this Arab leader who was sympathetic to the Zionist cause over Syria and Lebanon with consequences that can be seen on the nightly news of the 21st century. 

1920: Birthdate of Bella Abzug. Born Bella Savitzky in the Bronx, she was the second daughter of Russian Jewish immigrants. Her father Emanuel Zavtizky was a butcher who ran the Live and Let Live Meat Market. Abzug became a lawyer and a politician. She was a feminist and anti-Viet Nam War Activist. While in Congress, she was a strident critic of the war and an unabashed supporter of liberal causes. She passed away in 1998 at the age of 77.

1921(18th of Tammuz, 5681): Since the 17th of Tammuz fell on Shabbat, observance of Tzom Tammuz

1922: The League of Nations confirmed Britain’s mandate over Palestine.

1923: In Switzerland, The Treaty of Lausanne was signed today officially ending the state of war between the Ottoman Empire and the Allies with the exception of the United States. The treaty marked the end of the Ottoman Empire, the reverberations of which are being felt in the 21st century. Albert Karasu covered the negotiations leading up to the signing of the treaty for the French-language Istanbul newspaper Le Journal d’Orient he founded in 1918. Born at Salonika in 1885, he passed away in 1982, five years after the newspaper closed down.

1923: Birthdate of Gerard Irwin Nierenberg, the Queens born lawyer who authored The Art of Negotiating and How To Read a Person Like a Book.

1924: Birthdate of Max Palevsky, a pioneer in the computer industry and a founder of the computer-chip giant Intel who used his fortune to back Democratic presidential candidates and to amass an important collection of American Arts and Crafts furniture.

1924: In London, Sir Herbert Samuel, High Commissioner of Palestine, told the Actions Committee of the World Zionist Organization that substantial progress in the building up of Palestine has been made in the past four years,

1924: The World Chess Federation FIDE is founded in Paris.  Approximately 47% of the world’s chess champions have been Jewish.)

1924: Matteo Mathieu Maurice Alfassa became (acting) Governors-general of French Equatorial Africa at Brazzaville. The community had a population of 4,500,000. Alfassa served till 16 Oct 1924. Today the country is called Republic of the Congo.

1926: Birthdate of Zvi Dinstein, the Tel Aviv native who served as member of the Knesset from 1965 to 1974.

1926: Premiere of “Mantrap,” a product of the Famous-Players-Lasky Corporation co-produced by B.P. Schulberg.

1927: “Tartuff” a screen version of the French play, with a script by Car Mayer and photographed by cinematographer Karl. W. Freund was released today in the U.S. 18 months after premiering in Germany.

1929: Nine days after celebrating his 86th birthday William W. Morrow, the Indiana native who as a Congressman from California championed the cause of Adolph Kutner, the Russian born American businessman who was afraid to return to his native land because of the Czar’s policies regarding Jews passed away today.

1930: Birthdate of Charlotte Pomerantz, the author of The Prince and the Admiral which “won a Jane Addams Children’s Book Award.

1932: In New York City, Clara and M.S. Bart gave birth to journalist Peter Benton Bart, the longtime editor in chief of Variety.

1932: Hope for improvement in the serious water situation in Jerusalem is seen in an announcement by the High Commissioner, Sir Arthur Wauchope, that the concession previously held by a British firm had been terminated and immediate steps were being taken to float a loan to meet the cost of a new water supply which will be undertaken by the government. The project will take at least year to complete which means water rationing will be enforced to deal with any shortage. 

1933: Birthdate of George Martin Rosenkoff the native of  West Philadelphia, who as George M. Ross, became a Goldman Sachs executive and a philanthropist and the driving force behind the establishment a major museum of Jewish history in Philadelphia for which he raised  $154 million.

1933: Sir Harry Lawson Webster Levy-Lawson, 1st Viscount Burnham was buried today at Beaconsfield, Buckinghamshire.

1934(12th of Av, 5694): Sixty-three year old Max James Kohler, the son of Reform Rabbi Kaufman Kohler and husband of Winifred Lichtenauer, the daughter of banker Joseph Lichtenauer, who was active in Jewish communal affairs and a partner in the firm Lewinson, Kohler, and Schattman passed away today.

1934 (12th of Av, 5694): Hans Hahn “an Austrian mathematician who made contributions to functional analysis, topology, set theory, the calculus of variations, real analysis, and order theory” passed away.

1936: The Palestine Post reported that Arab terrorists threw a bomb at a small religious school (Talmud Torah) in the Yemenite Quarter of Tel Aviv. Nine children were injured. One of the terrorists was later caught by a British constable and arrested. The British government had officially declared that there would be no change of policy in regard to the issue of Jewish immigration into Palestine until the Royal Commission was able to visit the country, study the subject and publish its findings. Britain expected that all Arab terrorist activities would stop before the commission's arrival in the country.

1936: The New York Committee of the People’s Delegation to Biro-Bidjan “announced today that Representative William I. Sirovich and James Waterman Wise, son of Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, have been elected along with seven others to membership in the New York delegation to Biro-Bidjan, the Jewish autonomous territory in Soviet Russia”

1936: In commenting about the Olympic Games, Richard Wingate wrote today, “The Olympic team has arrived in Germany.  Avery Brundage now can rest comfortably, happy in his victory over ‘un-American’ forces which attempted to prevent the United States from competing in the Olympic Games.  Mr. Brundage has reached his destination, the Utopia of sportsmanship and good-will where Nazi beer and Jewish blood flow freely…”

1937: Thanks to the efforts of two Jewish lawyers from New York with connection to the Communist Party, Samuel Leibowitz and Joseph Brodsky Alabama dropped rape charges against the so-called "Scottsboro Boys

1937: It was announced today that “an elaborate anti-Semantic exhibition” “sponsored by the local district of the National Socialist Party” “which will be officially designated ‘The Eternal Jew’” “will be held in Munich this fall.

1938: “The words ‘kill the Jews’ were carved in letter three feet high on Bowling Green at Tottenham, while Nazi swastikas were smeared on the main door and red paint and tar were daubed on the wall of the synagogue at Finchley” tonight in London.

1938: Near Athlit, Arab snipers fired on a large party of American tourists who were returning to the liner Roma docked at Haifa. The fifteen shots did not claim victims. 

1938: At Acre, a Jew was wounded when a sniper opened fire on a Jewish owned bus.

1941(29th of Tamuz, 5701): The entire Jewish male population of Grodz, Lithuania was killed by the Nazis.

1941 A ghetto is established in Kishinev, Ukraine.

1941: An Einsatzgruppe report stated that 4,435 Jews were liquidated in the town of Lachowicze.

1941: “The mass arrests of Jewish men in Liepāja continued for another day today while the The Arājs commando arrived from Riga to carry out the shootings of the Jewish prisoners.

1942: Opening of Treblinka II, which is a mile from Treblinka I.  The opening is part of Operation Reinhard, the Nazis’ plan for wiping out Polish Jewry.  

1942(10th of Av, 5702): Three thousand Jews were killed in the Dereczyn action

1942: Royal Canadian Air Force fighter pilot George Beurling, who would die while flying for the Israeli Air Force in 1948, was awarded the Distinguished Flying Medal today.

1942(10th of Av, 5702): Forty-two year old Erich Klibansky, a schoolmaster from Franfurt am Main and his family were murdered near Minks today after having been deported from Cologne.

1942: Martin Luther, undersecretary of state at the German Foreign Ministry, alerts Nazi Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop to the fact that the Italian authorities are resistant to the German plan to deport Jews from Italian-held regions of Croatia.

1943: The Spanish government saved 367 Sephardic Jews by diverting them in transport from the death camp of Birkenau to the camp at Bergen-Belsen. Six months later they were released back to Spain.

1943: During World War II, Operation Gomorrah begins. British and Canadian airplanes bomb Hamburg by night, those of the Americans by day. I do not know who was responsible for naming this round-the-clock bombing campaign. But it must have been somebody who had read the Book of Bereshit or Genesis. The name Gomorrah as in Sodom and Gomorrah conjures up the image of fiery destruction that the Allies sought to inflict on the Nazis.

1943: Twenty-one young Jewish partisans in Vilna, Lithuania, join forces with Soviet partisans fighting behind German lines. North of Vilna, nine Jews were killed in an ambush at the Mickun Bridge. Three days later, 32 relatives of the nine dead partisans are seized by the Gestapo at Vilna, taken to nearby gravel pits at Ponary, and executed. Bruno Kittel, head of the Gestapo in Vilna, announces that the entire family of any Jew who escapes the ghetto to the forest will be executed. If an escapee has no family or roommates, all residents of his building will be executed. Further, if any ten-man Jewish labor gang comes back short, the remaining gang laborers will be executed.

1944: The Russian army liberated the concentration camp at Lublin.

1944: The deportations continued from Sarvar, Hungary, despite the fact that the German Army was retreating. One thousand, five hundred were sent to Birkenau. The fact that a retreating army would take time and resources for this is just one more reminder that the War Against the Jews was an intrical part of the German military plan.  Contrary to what the Holocaust Deniers and their fellow-traveling Revisionist Historians say, the destruction of the Jews was a critical part of the Nazi program and not just a mere after-thought.

1944: Soviet forces entered Majdanek. For the first time, Allied soldiers saw the gas chambers, crematoria and the remains of thousands of charred human remains.

1944: The Nazis seize 258 Jewish orphans from Paris and the surrounding areas.  By now the Anglo-American armies have landed at Normandy, broken out of the hedgerow country and are sweeping across France.  If the war had only been about defeating the Allies, all German efforts would have been focused on stopping this advance.  This minor episode serves as a vivid reminder that the German war effort was indeed about wiping out the Jewish people. 

1944: At Bourges, France, Gestapo agents and militiamen massacre 28 Jewish men and eight Jewish women active in the Resistance. Some victims are thrown alive into a well.

1944: The German Army adopts the Nazi salute, abandoning the standard military salute.

1944: Time magazine reported that Louis “Waldman believes that the strength of Communism in the U.S. is now reaching a new peak in the C.I.O.'s Political Action Committee ‘the catch-all for the political activities of unions dominated by Communists, militant Socialists and others willing to cooperate with them… Unless the New Deal casts out the seeds of left-wing totalitarianism, which it fosters today, it may either lead to an American variety of Communism, or, what is more likely, provoke an American expression of unadorned fascism.’"

1944: “The Seventh Cross” the cinematic adaptation of a novel by Anna Seghers, with a script by Helen Deutsch, directed by Fred Zinnemann, produced by Pandro S. Berman and filmed by cinematographer Karl Fruend was released in the United States by MGM.

1945: A letter written today addressed to Nathan Shilkret indicated that “Béla Bartók had received a down payment for writing the ‘Prelude’” the opening movement of the “Genesis Suit”, “a musical interpretation of the first eleven chapters of the Book of Genesis.”

1946: “Son Dernier Rôle” (translated into English as “Her Final Part” or “Her Last Role”) co-starring Marcel Dailo was relased today in France.

1946: “The Strange Love of Martha Ives” directed by Lewis Milestone, produced by Hal B. Wallis, with a screenplay by Robert Rossen and Robert Riskin and co-starring Kirk Douglas was released in the United States today

1947: “The Bachelor and the Bobby-Soxer” a comedy directed by Irving Reis, produced by Dore Schary and a script by Sidney Sheldon premiered today in New York City.

1948: During War of Independence, Israeli forces launched an assault as part of Operation Shorter on an area south of Haifa called the "Little Triangle." With “six 65 mm Napoleonchik cannons…stationed about 3 km to the west of the village and mortars placed to the southeast, a Golani company left a farm near Mazar (north of Jaba') to attack the Arab positions. “They encountered an ambush and retreated after 6–9 soldiers were injured.”

1948: At a Mapai Center meeting held today during the War of Independence, Prime Minister Ben-Gurion accused Mapam of hypocrisy regarding its treatment of Arabs in the combat zone.
1949: In “Poet of Exiles” published today Alfred Werner reviewed The World of Emma Lazarus by H.E. Jacob.
1950: Seth Glickenhaus, the founder of Glickenhaus & Co. and his wife gave birth investment professional turned movie maker James Glickenhaus.

1950: The first World Congress for the Promotion of the Hebrew Language and Culture met in Jerusalem

1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that thousands of mourners led the black-draped gun carriage carrying the coffin of King Abdullah of Jordan to the royal cemetery in Amman. The Jordanian police rounded over 70 suspects in connection with the king's assassination, including two relatives of the former Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin el-Husseini. There were clashes in the Jordanian-occupied Old City of Jerusalem between Arab Legion Bedouins and the local Arabs. The first immigrant from Russia, 73-year-old Tova Lerner from Soviet Bessarabia, arrived together with 993 newcomers from Romania. The committee appointed to study the cost-of-living index found that it was not a true judge of Israeli living standards.

1952: Premiere of Western classic “High Noon” directed by Fred Zinnemann, produced by Stanley Kramer, with a screenplay by Carl Foreman and  a most memorable score by Dimitri Tiomkin that included “Do Not Forsake Me, Oh My Darlin’”

1952: In Jerusalem Zila née Segal and professor Benzion Netanyahu gave birth “physician and author Iddo Netanyahu” the younger brother of Benjamin and Yonatan Netanyahu.

1956 At New York City’s Copacabana Club, Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis perform their last comedy show together.

1957: Birthdate of Susan A. Gelman “a Heinz Werner Collegiate Professor of Psychology at the University of Michigan.”

1960: “The Gazebo” produced by Lawrence Weingarten, featuring Carl Reiner, Mabel Albertson, Martin Landau and Robert Ellenstein, was released today in the United Kingdom after having been released in the United States in December of 1959.

1961: The fifth and final convey of Jewish children left Morocco “under the guise of taking a vacation trip to Switzerland” which hid the reality that the children were being taken to leave in Israel as part of what is known as Operation Mural.

1963: Birthdate of Brooklyn native Alan Stuart Veingard, the NFL offensive lineman who played five seasons with the Green Bay Packers and two seasons with the Dallas Cowboys that included winning Super Bowl XXVII.

1964(15th of Av, 5724): Tu B’Av – Jewish Valentine’s Day – is celebrated for the first time during the Presidency of Lyndon Johnson.

1965: In New York City, “Ellen (née Fogelson), a painter and writer, and Arthur L. Liman, a lawyer well known for his public service, which included serving as chief counsel for the Senate Iran-Contra hearings” gave birth to movie producer and director Douglas Eric “Doug” Liman best known for his work with the “Bourne” family of movies.

1967: Zvi Dinstein was appointed Deputy Minister of Finance.

1969(9th of Av, 5729): Tish’a B’Av

1969: Operation Boxer continued with IAF attacking a radar station at Gebel Ataka and SAM sites.

1969: IAF pilots Shmuel Gordon, Michael Zuk and Ran Goren were responsible for shooting down three Egyptian aircraft today.

1971: “Drive, He Said” the movie version of Brandeis University grad Jeremy Larner’s novel by the same name with music by David Shire was released in Finland today.

1972:Marjoe,” a documentary film about an American evangelist co-produced and directed by Howard Smith was released in the United States today.

1976: As conditions between Uganda and Kenya continue to worsen President Idi Amin cut off supplies to its African neighbor.  The core of the dispute is based on reports that Israeli planes that had conducted the raid on Entebbe had refueled in Nairobi.

1979(29th of Tammuz, 5739): Eighty-three year old Dr. Jacob Furth a pioneering pathologist passed away today. (As reported by George Goodman, Jr.)

1981: “William Wyler gave an interview with his daughter, producer Catherine Wyler for Directed by William Wyler, a PBS documentary about his life and career. A mere three days later, Wyler died from a heart attack. Wyler's last words on film concern a vision of directing his "next picture...Going Home". Wyler is interred at Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery in Glendale, California.

1982: In Lakeland, FL, Adele and Scott Miller gave birth to FSU grad, screenwriter and actress Lauren Anne Miller, the sister of Danny Miller and the wife of Seth Rogen.

1982: “In Watt’s Warning to Jews” published today Dale Russakoff reported that “Interior Secretary James G. Watt cautioned in a letter” sent “last month to Israeli Ambassador Moshe Arens that American support for Israel could be jeopardized if ‘liberals of the Jewish community join with the other liberals of this nation’ in opposing the Reagan administration’s accelerated energy development policies.”

1983: A Broadway revival of Jerry Herman’s “Mame” opened at the George Gershwin Theatre where “it ran for only 41 performances.”

1984: Radio Luxembourg reported that Ya'acov Nimrodi, an intimate of leaders across the Israeli political spectrum, had met in Zurich with the deputy defense minister and the top intelligence officer of Iran and with Rif'at al-Assad, the brother of Syrian President Hafez al-Assad. Swiss government sources said that the meeting resulted in a deal to ship 40 truckloads of weapons a day from Israel to Iran, via Syria and Turkey.

1985: “The Black Cauldron” an animated feature film with music by Elmer Bernstein was released today in the United States.

1986(17th of Tammuz, 5746): Tzom Tammuz

1986(17th of Tammuz, 5746): Fritz Albert Lipmann, American biochemist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine passed away.

1991(12th of Av, 5751: Author Isaac Bashevis Singer passed away. Singer was born near Warsaw.  His father was a rabbi and his mother came from a family of rabbis.  He moved to the United States in 1935.  Singer’s genre of choice was the short story.  His language of choice was Yiddish.  Many of his works first appeared in the “Forwards,” the popular Yiddish language daily. Singer received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1978.  He was the first Yiddish writer to win the prestigious award

1992(23rd of Tammuz, 5752): Seventy-one year old Gavril Abramovich Ilizarov (a Soviet physician, known for inventing the Ilizarov apparatus for lengthening limb bones and for his eponymous surgery” passed away today.

1992(23rd of Tammuz, 5752):  Samuel “Sam” Berger passed away.  Berger was a driving force behind the Canadian Football League.  At different times he owed the Ottawa Rough Riders and the Montreal Alouettes. In 1986 he was made a Member of the Order of Canada, Canada's highest civilian honor, for "his commitments to the sport and to the City of Montreal".  In 1993 he was inducted into the Canadian Football Hall of Fame.

1992: “Mom and Dad Save The World” starring Jon Lovitz as “Emperor Tod Spengo” with music by Jerry Goldsmith was released in the United States by Warner Bros. today.

1993(6th of Av, 57530: On Shabbat Chazon, ninety-four year old “Dr. Abram Leon Sachar, a historian who led the Hillel Foundation for 22 years and was the founding president of Brandeis University” passed away. Sachar was a descendant of Gedaliah ibn Yahya ben Joseph the 16th century Italian Talmudist whose ‘chief work was the Sefer Shalshelet ha-Ḳabbalah, called also Sefer Yaḥya, on which he labored for more than forty years.’,(As reported by Richard D. Lyons)

1995(26th of Tammuz, 5755): Mordechai Tuvya, 38, Nehama Leibowitz, 61, Zehava Oren, 60, Rahel Tamari, 65, Moshe Shkedi, 75 and Zvia Hacohen, 62 were killed and 30 Israeli civilians were injured when a Hamas suicide bomber detonated 33 pounds of TNT aboard No. 20 commuter bus in Ramat Gan near the Diamond Exchange.

1996: “A Time to Kill,” the movie version of the novel of the same name directed by Joel Schumacher, with a screenplay by Akiva Goldsman and music by Eliot Goldenthal was released in the United States today.

1997: 15th Maccabiah comes to a close.

2000: Medieval Hebrew Poetry in its Religious and Secular Context, a colloquia sponsored by The European Association for Jewish Studies (EAJS) is scheduled to being today.

2000: Negotiations that had begun on July 11 at Camp David between Barak and Arafat under the auspices President Clinton came to end with a final announcement to be made tomorrow.

2001: Jewish American real estate mogul Larry A. Silverstein signs a $3.2 billion, 99-year lease on the entire World Trade Center complex, 7 weeks before the September 11, 2001 attacks.

2001: In Jerusalem, the body of seventeen year old Ronen Landau which was covered with stab and bullet wounds was found today.

2002: Hadassah’s 88th annual national convention comes to a close

2002(15th of Av, 5762): Aaron Albert “Al” Silvera, a journeyman outfielder who played for two seasons with the Cincinnati Reds in the mid-1950’s passed away. This meant he was a teammate of such talented players as Johnny Temple, Roy McMillan and Slugger Ted Kluszewski. He was also the nephew of former Major League pitcher "Subway Sam" Nahem.

2003: At the Lincoln Center Festival, Israel’s Gesher Theatre gives its opening performance of its adaptation of “Shosha.”

2004: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Spinning the Globe: The Rise, Fall, and Return to Greatness of the Harlem Globetrotters by Ben Green.

2005: In “Giving Hitler Hell,” Matthew Brzezinski recounted the travels of Arnold H. Weiss from youthful refugee from Nazi Germany to his return as an intelligence officer in the U.S. Army to his ultimate triumph as a successful businessman and philanthropist.

2005(17th of Tammuz, 5765): Shiva Asar Be-Tammuz (Fast of the Seventeenth of Tammuz).

2005: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Bernard Goldberg’s 100 People Who Are Screwing Up America which lists Jewish comedian Al Frankin as number 37.

2006: It was reported today that Randy Lerner, the son of the late Al Lerner intended to purchase Premier League club Aston Villa.

2006: During the 2006 Lebanon War, the IDF begins its attack on Bint Jbeil  

2006: "Army chief of staff Dan Halutz has given the order to the air force to destroy 10 multi-storey buildings in the Haret Hreik ("Dahiya") district (of Beirut) in response to every rocket fired on Haifa," a senior air force officer told army radio today.

2006:” The Association for Civil Rights in Israel appealed to Defense Minister Amir Peretz after IDF Chief of Staff Lt.-Gen. Dan Halutz apparently said that “for every Katyusha barrage on Haifa, 10 more buildings in the Dahiya neighborhood of south Beirut will be bombed.” “The group also condemned the "grave and illegal" attacks carried out on the Israeli civilian population by Hezbollah” (As reported by Aviram Zino)

2006: The following were among a total of 43 Israeli civilians (including four who died of heart attacks during rocket barrages) and 116 IDF soldiers were killed in the Israel-Hizbullah war: St.-Sgt. Koby Smileg, 20, of Rehovot; Col. Zvi Luft, 42, of Hogla; Sec.-Lt. Lotan Slavin, 21, of Hatzeva; Lt. Tom Farkash, 23, of Caesarea.

2007(9th of Av, 5767): Tish'a B'Av

2007(9th of Av, 5767): Psychoanalyst Albert Ellis “a founder of the now widely practiced cognitive behavioral therapy” whose “blunt advice to patients included “forget god-awful pasts, face fears and change actions”  passed away at the age of 93.

2007: Jacques Attali was entrusted “with the presidency of a commission dedicated to the study of the obstacles to economic growth, known as "The Commission for the Liberation of the French Economic Growth".

2008: The three day Karmiel Dance festival comes to an end.

2008: Begin reading the Ezekiel as part of the “Daf Yomi Program” on DownHomeDavar

2009 (3rd of Av, 5769): One hundred twenty-eight anniversary of the arrival of “the first shipload of Russian Jewish immigrants who arrived in New York City” on 3rd of Av, 1881. “This began the mass immigration of eastern European Jews to America, and in the next half-century over 2 million Jews would flee Russian pogroms for the safety of the U.S. This influx indelibly altered the demographics of American Jewry; according to the U.S. census of 1940, 1.75 million Jews spoke Yiddish at home.”

2009(3rd of Av, 5769: Ninety year old George Weissman, the businessman and patron of the arts, who revamped Philip Morris, passed away today. (As reported by Douglas Martin)

2009: The Junior Philharmonic gives its annual Jerusalem performance at the YMCA with a program that includes Beethoven’s Symphony #6 – Pastoral, Ravel’s Bolero and Prokofiev’s Romeo and Juliet.

2009: Scottish actress Ronni Ancona appeared on the BBC’s “The One Show”

2009: Amid another round of political scandals, New Jersey Governor Jon Corzine named state Sen. Loretta Weinberg (D-Teaneck), a self-described “Jewish grandmother from Bergen County” as his new pick for lieutenant governor.

2010: In Cedar Rapids, Jacob Sarasin, son Amanda Colehour and Dr. Dan Sarasin (President of Temple Judah) is scheduled to be called to the Torah as a Bar Mitzvah.

2010: Opening night of the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival.

2010: Palestinian Authority terrorists in Gaza launched a number of rocket attacks on southern Israel today.

2011: Bruce Sundlin, the second Jew to serve as Governor of Rhode Island “was buried at Sons of David and Israel Cemetery (Temple Beth El Cemetery) in Providence, Rhode Island”

2011: The Northern Virginia Hebrew Congregation is scheduled to host an Ice Cream Social For New and Prospective Members

2011: The Ritchie Boys Exhibit which will give visitors a chance to “witness how a small group of misfit intellectual Jewish boys formed a US Army intelligence unit and waged warfare against the Nazis during World War II” is scheduled to take place at the Holocaust Memorial Center in Farmington Hills, Michigan Guy Stern, one of those "Ritchie Boys” is scheduled to attend the event.

2011: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including An Anatomy of Addiction: Sigmund Freud, William Halsted, and the Miracle Drug Cocaine  by Howard Markel and the recently released paperback edition of Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg: The Letters, edited by Bill Morgan and David Stanford

2011: A group of university students interrupted a Knesset Finance Committee meeting in Ramat Gan today, as part of the current protests against housing prices.

2011: In New York, 85 year old Connie Kopelov married 76 year old  Phyllis Siegel “the same day that a state law took effect allowing same-sex couples to marry.”

2011(22nd of Tammuz, 5771):  Four days after Bella Freud’s father, Lucien died, her 68 year old mother Bernardine Coverley lost her battle with cancer and passed away today.

2011: At the International Math Olympiad that came to an end today, “Israeli whiz kids walk away from competition with 1 gold, 4 bronze medals, as Israel reaches 23rd spot out of 101 teams.”

2012(5th of Av, 5772): Eighty-eight year old Irvin Faust, the high school guidance counselor who found time to write novels and short stories that critics likened to the magic realist fiction of South America” passed away today (As reported by Douglas Martin)

2012: “God’s Fiddler,” a documentary about Jascha Heifitz and “The Moon is Jewish” are scheduled to have their west coast premieres at the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival.

2012: Marbin which first started in 2007 as an improvised music duo consisting of Israeli-American guitarist Dani Rabin and Israeli saxophonist Danny Markovitch, is scheduled to perform at the Bowery Electric in New York

2012: Today, Foreign Minister Avigdor Liberman said any attempt by Hezbollah to attain non-conventional weapons from Syria would prompt Israeli military intervention (As reported by Raphael Ahren)

2012: Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said today that the government will have to raise taxes by August 1. He said the move was necessary to head off economic crisis. His plan includes a hike in VAT, which is sure to cause friction with protesters already concerned at economic inequalities in Israel. (As reported by Michal Shmulovich)

2013: The Oregon Jewish Museum is scheduled to host a screening of “REFUSENIK,” the first retrospective documentary to chronicle the thirty-year movement to free Soviet Jews

2013: “Broadway Babes,” a musical revue that “is a tribute to the female voice on Broadway” is scheduled to open at 9 pm in Modi’in.

2013: The exquisite dancers of L-E-V, including Sharon Eyal herself, are scheduled to perform the provocative work HOUSE in its U.S. debut

2013(17th of Av): Yarhrzeit of Isidor Bush, publisher of Israel’s Herald, a German language publication that was the first Jewish weekly published in the United States.

2013(17th of Av): Seventy-eight year old Art Ginsburg the founder of Art’s Deli passed away today. (As reported by Steve Chawkins)

2013: Rabbis Yitzhak Yosef and David Lau defeated Shmuel Eliyahu and David Stav to win ten-year terms as chief rabbis of Israel today, in a victory for Shas and United Torah Judaism over religious Zionism and Bayit Yehudi (As reported by Gil Hoffman)

2013: A middle-aged Jewish man was stabbed in the upper torso and arm during an unprovoked attack in a public bathroom at Bloomfield Park in Jerusalem this afternoon, allegedly by an Arab assailant (As reported by Daniel K. Eisenbud)

2014: American-Israeli violist Gil Shaham is scheduled to perform at Tanglewood with the National Youth Orchestra of the United States.

2014: Today, visitors inspected “the destroyed Mosque of the Prophet Younis, or Jonah in Mosul” under which archeologist “found a previously undiscovered palace built in the seventh century BCE for the Biblical Assyrian King Sennacherib an renovated by his son Esarhaddon.”

2014: Poet Davi Walders and Dr. Jenna Weissman Joselit the Charles E. Smith Professor of Judaic Studies, The George Washington University  are scheduled to speak at the luncheon honoring Laura Cohen Apelbaum’s 20th anniversary as Executive Director of the Jewish Historical Society of Greater Washington.

2015: Israeli violinist Vadim Gluzman is scheduled to perform at the Koussevitzky Music Shed in Lenox, MA.

2015: Scheduled “Opening of the End of Year Exhibition of the Architecture Department at1 Bezalel Street.”

2015: “What European Studies owe to J. M. Cohen (1903-1989)” published today described the literary contribution of this little known translator.

2015: “Secretary of State John Kerry met today with the leaders of US Jewish organizations in New York, with the Iran nuclear agreement taking center stage, at the end of which the fears of the leaders which gripped them as Jews and as Americans were not allayed.

2016: “Aka Nadia” is scheduled to be shown at the 14th annual Hampton Synagogue Film Series.

2016: The first of the weeklong Great Jewish Books Summer Programs sponsored by the Yiddish Book Center is scheduled to begin today.

2016: “Tikkun” is scheduled to be shown for the last time at the Cleveland (Ohio) Cinematheque.

2016: “To Life!” a film about the reunion of two Holocaust survivors is scheduled to be shown for the last time at the Reel in Borehamwood sponsored by the UK Jewish Film.

2016: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Games: A Global History of the Olympics by David Goldblatt and the recently released paperback editions of The Seven Good Years: A Memoir by Etgar Keret and Days of Awe by Lauren Fox.

2017: The 9th International Conference on Borate Glasses, Crystals and Melts and The 2nd International Conference on Phosphate Materials where Dr. Steve Feller of Coe College in Cedar Rapids will honored is scheduled to begin at St. Anne’s College, Oxford University.

2017: Former Vice President Al Gore is scheduled to appear the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival today following a screening of “An Inconvenient Sequel: Truth to Power.”

2017(1st of Av, 5777): Rosh Chodesh Av; for more see




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