Saturday, July 22, 2017

This Day, July 23, In Jewish History by Mitchell A. Levin

July 23

501: A violent earth quake hit Eretz Yisrael. The town of Akko was totally destroyed.

636: Following the Battle of Yarmuk Arabs took control of most of Eretz Yisrael from the Byzantine Empire.

1253: The Jews were expelled from Vienne, France by order of Pope Innocent III

1298(13th of Av): Massacre of the Jews of Wurzburg, Germany.

1312: King Frederick II ordered today that in Palermo Jews must live outside the city wall in a ghetto; and although they were soon afterward allowed to come into the city, they were still compelled to live in one quarter.

1588: The English fleet foiled the attempt of the Armada to establish a base off the Isle Wight from which the Spanish could invade the British Isles.

1626: Birthdate (on the secular calendar) of Sabbatai Zevi, the most famous of the Jewish false messiahs. He died in 1676 after converting to Islam and becoming a low-level official in the Turkish government.

1649: Birthdate of Giovanni Francesco Albani, the future Clement XI who in1704 issued a bull that “dealt with the education of potential converts, encouraged forced preaching to Jews, and emphasized the importance of providing financial assistance to Jews who converted” and “asserted that new converts were to be fully accepted into the Catholic community.”

1713: Rabbi Tzvi Hirsch ben Yaakov Ashkenazi placed Nehemiah Chiya Chayun under the ban, because the investigating committee appointed by the Sephardic directorate had not yet made its report. In consequence of this measure, both Ashkenazi and Moses Chagiz were subjected to street attacks, more particularly at the hands of the Portuguese, who threatened to kill them. In the midst of the constantly increasing bitterness and animosity, the report of the committee, which had been prepared by Solomon Ayllon, Chacham of the Portuguese congregation, alone, was publicly announced. It was to the effect that the writings of Chayun contained nothing which could be construed as offensive to Judaism. It was publicly announced in the synagogue that Chayun was to be exonerated from every suspicion of heresy.

1768(9th of Av): Rabbi Isaac Spitz, author of Birkat Yizhak passed away.

1787: The Jews of Austria were required to take family names.

1803: Birthdate of Benzion Judah Ben Eliahu Berkowitz, the Russian author whose texts dealt with the “Targum Onkelos’ (the Aramaic translation of the TaNaCh)

1806: Following the issuance of a decree i by Napoleon, a special assembly of Jewish leaders and Rabbis from all of the different French departments, today met in Paris to discuss all outstanding matters including answering questions dealing with accusations against the Jews made by the anti-Semites and  which would fulfill the Emperor’s desire “to make Jews equal citizens in France, have a conciliation between their religion and their responsibilities in becoming French, and to answer all the accusations made against them” since he wanted  “all people living in France to be equal citizens and benefit from our laws."

1811(2nd of Av, 5571): Abraham Abrahamson, medalist and “the master of the Prussian mint” whose medals included one he created commemorating the Enfranchisement of the Jews in Westphalia passed away today.

1825: Birthdate of Daniel Osiris, the Bordeaux native known as a philanthropist and patron of the arts who “has had reproduced in bronze the colossal statue of "Moses" by Michelangelo; and he is the possessor of the original drawing for the well-known etching "Jews at the Wailing Place," by Alphonse Masson.”

1832: Birthdate of violinist Adolph Pollitzer the native of Budapest who “became leader at Her Majesty's Theatre under Sir Michael Costa and also led the new Philharmonic Orchestra and the Royal Choral Society.”

1833(7th of Av, 5593): Rechli Lwow the wife of David ha-Levi Spitz passed away today.

1834: Frederick David Goldsmid married Caroline Samuel in the Great Synagogue today.

1837(20th of Tammuz, 5597): Eighty-three year old Acher Ascher, a native of Minsk who was the husband of Gitlé Loëw passed away in Karlsruhe.

1839: Birthdate of Simon Sterne, the Philadelphia born New York lawyer whose clients included the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railroad Company and whose civic endeavors included taking a leading role in overthrowing the “Tweed Ring.”

1846: “The Montefiore Baronetcy, of East Cliff Lodge in the Isle of Thanet and County of Kent, was created in the Baronetage of the United Kingdom today for the banker and philosopher Moses Montefiore in recognition of his services to humanitarian causes on behalf of the Jewish people. He was childless and the title became extinct on his death in 1885.”

1846: Rabbi Isaac Meyer Wise arrives in New York from Europe.

1847: Prussian Jews were granted equality.

1854(27th of Tammuz, 5614): Engraver and artist Leopold Dick who was “appointed professor of the art of engraving at the Royal District Industrial School of Kaiserslautern in the Palatinate” in 1848 passed away today.

1857: The resignation of Baron Rothschild was announced today and new writ was published in London calling for an election to choose his successor. In London, the electors responded by holding a public meeting in which they pledged to return Rothschild to Parliament as their representative.  They also passed a resolution calling the government to do everything in its power to immediately settle the Jewish question

1858: Passage of the Oaths and Jewish Relief Acts in Great Britain. The act allowed each House to decide the wording for the oath of office.  It allowed Jewish office holders not to have recited the words, “I make this declaration upon the true Faith of a Christian. For the full text of the oath see:

1860: A review of Life in the Desert; or Recollections of Travel in Asia and Africa by Colonel L. Du Couret, entitled “Asiatic Exploration.; The Journey of Du Couret through the Arabian Desert” reports that “in the heart of Arabia, our traveler found a considerable number of Jews, whose social condition seems to have been even worse than their political state, which, in itself, is bad enough. More Jews are found at Doan, a populous place, some leagues further on the route to the eastward. "Many of these Jews," says Du Couret,, "are brokers, and some of them make a living by the manufacture of buskins and palm leaf mats. They also lend out money at usurious interest to merchants trading to Sana, the Indian Ocean and the Persian Gulf; but they carefully avoid any display of wealth, to save themselves from the extortion of the Mussulmans, who exact tribute from them. Such, under the rod of the Islam, are the modern descendants of the prophet Isaiah and of King Solomon." There is something unpleasantly suggestive in the following passage from our author's narrative: "Doan, which is, in all probability, the Dan spoken of by Ezekiel, is, at the present day, one of the largest and most important towns in Hadramaut, ranking next after Schibam and Terim.”

1861: Louis Manly Emanuel, the London born son of Manly and Hannah Emanuel who graduated from the University of Pennsylvania as a Medical Doctor in 1860 began serving as the Eighty-Second Regiment of the Union Army during the Civil War.

1862: Jacob and Amalia Nathansohn Freud gave birth to Pauline Regine (Pauli), a sister of Sigmund Freud who was deported to Treblinka in 1942.

1862: "Escape of Mr. W.H. Hurlbert from Richmond" published today described the year-long Southern sojourn of Charleston born author William Hurlbert, a Union sympathizer who claimed that he visited the Richmond at the invitation of Judah P. Benjamin, “the eminent Jew” with whom he found himself in total disagreement.   Hurlbert then visited Charleston where he was seized by a mob that refused Secretary Benjamin’s order to set him free.  Hurlbert was then imprisoned in Richmond over the objections of Secretary Benjamin where he languished for almost a year before escaping.  [Editor’s note - For those trying to figure how much credence to give Hurlbert’s account consider the following.  He was in Richmond  during the Peninsula Campaign and later reported that the  Confederate  forces  numbered between 80,000 and 90,000 (wildly exaggerated) most of whom were facing  Union General Fitz Jon Porter (accurate) which means that had General McClellan pushed forward  he would have  Richmond virtually unoccupied (accurate)]

1872: W.P. Wood and a Jew from Baltimore named Blumenberg are scheduled to arrive in Raleigh, North Carolina tonight.  The two men have reportedly been sent to North Carolina by the Liberal Republican Committee in an attempt to carry out a Tammany style ballot box stuffing.  Wood has been given $9,000 for his part in the scheme.  Blumenberg, who has served two years in the State Prison for Perjury was given $7,000.

1872: E.A. Rosenbluth wrote a letter to the New York Times in which he declared that he “and all my Jewish acquaintances” “will vote for” General Grant.

1873: Australian native Martha May (Levy) Cohen and Louis Samuel Cohen gave birth to Harold Leopold Wolfe Cohen

1873: Birthdate of Alice Petluck, the native of Russia and wife of Joseph Petluck who became a “pioneer female lawyer” in the United States and an officer of the Bronx Women’s Bar Association.

1874: It was reported today that as soon as $160,000 can be raised for a new Hebrew Theological College will be built in Cincinnati.  The late Emanuel Deutsch was the leading candidate to head the school but since his demise, Dr. Wise has renewed his efforts to obtain the services of the best available scholar to lead the effort.  The school is to be so amply endowed that students will not have to pay tuition or fees.  Henry Mack has been elected to serve as President of the Board of Governors. 

1874: Melissa Rogers Pinner and Moritz Pinner gave birth to Rogers Adolphe Pinner, a senior partner of the Mutual Electric Company

1874(9th of Av, 5634):Tish'a B'Av

1876: A reported published today described the scene witnessed by a group of “Cook pilgrims” when they visited the “The Wailing Place of the Jews on the west side of the Temple enclosure” in Jerusalem. The Jews come to the Wall where they can touch the stones (which the writer erroneously believed were from the times of King Solomon) and read from Lamentations and Psalms “in a wailing voice.” The Jews “occasionally cry aloud in a chorus of lamentation, weeping. Blowing their longs notes with blue cotton handkerchiefs” while “kissing the stones” worn smooth “owing to centuries of osculation.”

1879: In Vitebsk, which was then part of Russia, Israel Mordecai Strunsky and Pearl Schweistein gave birth to Simeon Strunsky, the graduate of Horace Mann High School and Columbia College who served as a contributor in history to the Encyclopedia Americana and “editor on the staff of the New International Encyclopedia before joining the New York Times where his most notable contributions were his editorial-page essays titled "Topics of the Times."

1879: Mr. Austin Corbin told a TIMES reporter today that he had received numerous letters from "nice people" approving the course he had taken in relation to the Jews, and urging him to persevere. He refused to permit copies to be taken for publication, on the plea that the matter had had enough notoriety, and he wished to let it die out.

1879: Birthdate of German archaeologist Ernest Herzfeld who contended that structure currently identified as Queen Esther’s tomb “may actually belong to Shushan Dokht, the Jewish queen of King Yazdagerd I (ca. 399-420 CE), who is credited with securing permission for Jews to live in Hamadan.

1879: It was reported today that “A Berlin dispatch to the Pall Mall Gazette says: ‘Germany has declined to entertain any proposals from the Roumania for the modification of the provisions of the treaty of Berlin relative to the emancipation of the Jews.’”

1879: In Vitebsk, Israel Mordecai Strunsky and Pearly Schweistein gave birth to Simeon Strunsky who came to the United States in 1887 and graduated from Columbia in 1900 after which he became an instructor in history and English for the Educational League and the contributor to and/or editor of several publications including the New International Encyclopedia and the Encyclopedia Americana.

1882: “The Jews and Wagner” published today expressed bewilderment at the German composer’s expression of disdain for Jews.  According to the author, it was an un-named Jew who gave him his first piano.  And Giacomo Meyerbeer, the German-Jewish composer, was the “first men who helped him.” Wagner claims that the Jews of Vienna have conspired to harm his career, but his three most noted critics –Hanslick, Scheel and Speidl- are Viennese Catholics.

 1884(1st of Ave, 5644): Rosh Chodesh Av

1884: Robert Pinkerton, whose detectives had arrested Mrs. Fredericka Mandelbaum yesterday, described what he said was  her 25 year career as the “most successful…receiver of stolen goods – silks, diamonds” and other “swag” from burglars” that had brought her to the attention of law enforcement officers throughout the United States. (Mandelbaum was Jewish; Pinkerton was not)

1885: Sixty-three year old President U.S. Grant and the General who saved the Union passed away today. While some brand his an anti-Semite for issuing General Order 11, such was not the case.  Grant had many prominent Jewish supporters including the Seligmans. The vast majority of Jews voted for Grant when he ran for President and while President he contributed to Adas Israel and attended the dedication of the congregation’s new sanctuary.  For a complete, highly readable description of Grant’s relationship with the Jewish people see When General Grant Expelled the Jews by Jonathan Sarna

1889(24th of Tammuz, 5649): Miss Openheimer, an 18 year old Jewess who was the daughter of well-known Pittsburgh clothing merchant, died today at Harmony, PA when a horse-drawn wagon in which she was riding collided with a train.  Miss Oppenheimer was vacationing in Butler Country.  Her brothers and father who were in Atlantic City have not heard about the tragedy.

1890: Plans for the upcoming festival intended to raise funds for the Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews sponsored by the B’nai Brith were published today.

1890:  In memory of Mrs. Stern, Isaac Stern is paying all of the expenses related to today’s excursion sponsored by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children for enjoyment of impoverished Jewish youngsters and their mothers.

1890: “The Cloakmakers’ Strike” published today described the violent labor confrontation between manufacturers and the workers who were led by Joseph Barondess

1891: Birthdate of movie mogul Harry Cohn, The son of Russian Jewish tailor, Cohn quit school and found work in vaudeville. He began working in the infant motion picture industry in 1913. He founded Columbia Pictures where, as a producer he won an Academy Award in 1934 for It Happened One Night. Cohn was noted for his vulgarism and bizarre quotes. One of his most famous was, "Give me two years and I will make her an overnight success." Cohn was one of several Jews who dominated the film industry in its early years. The interesting thing is that they did not make Jewish movies or movies about Jews. They gained success by giving the audiences slices of Americana. The created, or at least nurtured a vision of America that Middle America wanted to see. He passed away in 1958.

1891: In Philadelphia, PA, the Jewish Alliance of American presented its plan of action for dealing with the immigration of Russian Jews.

1892: “Reacting to claims that Jews don't really murder Christians to get their blood, L'Osservatore Romano, the Vatican's official newspaper, carries an article stating: ‘Unfortunately, although they tried to deny that the Talmud's followers commit such an atrocious act, one cannot reasonably deny its existence.’"

1892: During the Homestead Steel Strike anarchist Alexander Berkman failed in his attempt to assassinate steel magnate Henry Clay Frick.


1892: The “first terrorist act in America,” as its perpetrator described it, occurred today when Alexander Berkman, known as Sasha, a 20-year-old Russian immigrant outraged at the brutal suppression of the strike at Carnegie Steel’s Homestead plant, burst into the office of Henry Clay Frick, the plant’s manager, shot him twice, then tried to stab him. (As reported by Elsa Dixler)

1893(10th of Av, 5653): Tish’a B’Av observed the 9th of Av fell on Shabbat

1893(10th of Av, 5653): Issac Burnheimer, a retired millionaire who was over the age of 80 and suffering from ill health passed away today at the Grand Union Hotel in Saratoga Springs.

1893: “Victims of the Czar’s Ukase” published today described the plight of Jewish refugees as seen through the eyes of one family who arrived in the United States with only seventeen dollars, eight of which they had to spend on rent and the rest was spent on purchasing the necessities of life which have left them broke.

1894: Young men “went among the audience selling copies…of The Arbeiter Freund, an anarchist paper printed in Hebrew and published in London” before tonight’s meeting of anarchists at Clarendon Hall.

1894: “What Shall Royalties Do?” published today speculates on how Europe’s impecunious nobility will support themselves and includes the possibility that someday, we may see “a Hapsburg taken into partnership with a Rothschild.”

1894: Lizzie Berus, a 17 year old Russian Jewish immigrant from Paterson, NJ is to go on trial in New York today on charges of having “procured diamonds by bogus check from several jewelry firms in Upper Broadway.

1894: Police are currently looking for George Patterson, the nephew of a prominent Presbyterian minister, who is the husband of Lizzie Berus and thought to be the mastermind behind a series of jewel robberies.

1895: As Wolf Silverman sits in jail facings charges of fraud related to an insurance policy purchased for his wife, the district attorney has also brought charges against the woman known as “Jane Doe” who impersonated his wife when he bought the policy and the insurance agent known as “Richard Roe” who sold the policy. It is believed that Silverman is involved in a wider fraud ring that involves several insurance companies and their employees.

1897: Mr. and Mrs. Jacob Black, Russian Jews from Kiev who are 104 and 100 respectively were awakened early this morning by a barking dog which is what saved them from dying as their apartment at 184 Clinton Street went up in smoke.

1899: In Haverhill, MA, founding of Beth Jacob which owns a cemetery on Merrimack Road.

1899: The United Hebrew Charities acknowledged that it had collected $148.50 (with contributions ranging from 50 cents to $25) to help settle a poor family that had become chronic invalids from overwork in rural location where they can work and take care of their children.

1899: The United Hebrew Charities acknowledged that it had collected $148.50

1901: Seventy-seven year old Isaac Mautner, who passed away yesterday was buried today in Bohemia

1902:Mrs. John M. Gitterman was the first to drink from the bronze fountain that was presented today to the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals in memory of her father, the late Simon Sterne.

1902(18th of Tammuz, 5662): Twenty-year old Elsa Neumann, “the first woman to receive a PhD in Physics from the University of Berlin passed away today.

1903 (28th of Tammuz, 5663): Sixty-five year old British born author Benjamin Farjeon passed away today.

1906(1st of Av, 5666): Rosh Chodesh Av marked the day when Pietro Pietro Lucchesi Palli and Princess Beatrice of Bourbon Parma, half-sister of Empress Zita of Austria-Hungary whose crown was lost as result of the defeat her country at the end of WW I.

1910: Premiere of “Arsène Lupin contra Sherlock Holmes” “a German drama film serial” starring Paul Otto as” Arsène Lupin”

1911: Arthur Welsh set one of his many records today when he was joined by a passenger “to establish a new American two-man altitude record of 1,860 feet.”

1912(9th of Av, 5672): Tish’a B’av

1912: In the town of Moineşti, in the district of Bacău, the rav gaon Avraham Arie Leib Rosen and his wife gave birth to Moses Rosen (David Moshe Rosen) the Rabbi (Rav Kolel) of Romanian Jewry between 1948–1994 and president of the Federation of Jewish Communities of Romania between 1964-1994 who led the community in his country through the entire Communist era in Romania and continued in that role after the restoration of the democracy by the Romanian Revolution of 1989.

1912: Birthdate of Meyer Howard “Mike” Abrams, the son of Jewish immigrants, who became a leading American literary critic.

1913: Arabs attacked the Jewish settlement of Rehovot.

1913: Birthdate of “surrealist theorist and poet” Ghersaim Luca.

1914: In Chicago, Fanny (Rozin) and Isidore Foreman gave birth screen writer and producer Carl Foreman whose most famous work maybe “High Noon” the Gary Cooper classic western that featured Grace Kelly in her first major film role.

1915: “Governor Harris and members of the Georgia Prison Commission left” Atlanta “tonight for Milledgeville where an inquiry will be begun tomorrow into the attack made on Leo M. Frank at the State Prison Farm.”

1915: It was reported today that Leo Ditrichstein has terminated his relationship with director David Belasco.

1915: In Chicago, Illinois, a Summer Course sponsored by Hebrew Union College came to an end.

1915: In Milledgeville, GA, the warden at the prison reportedly believes that J.W. Creen, the convict who tried to kill Leo Frank, “is insane.”

1916: “An announcement made at the Aeolian Building” tonight” stated that “the General Fund Day collection conducted by the Provisional Executive Committee for General Zionist Affairs” raised about $20,000 today which “will be used to help build new settlements for Jews in Palestine.”

1917: During WW I, “The special commission representing national Hebrew organizations, which was selected to co-operate with the Food Administration” sent a letter “to the proprietors of Jewish Summer hotels and boarding houses asking them carry out instructions to be issued from time to time” concerning the “campaign for food conversation.”

1917: “Jewish Socialists for Free Palestine” published today described an appeal members of Poale Zion who had been expelled from Palestine by the Turks to the “Socialist brethren in the United States and Russia” that put them “firmly on the side of the Allies and against” the Central Powers because they believe that “the dream of Zionism for an independent Palestine an come true” only if the Allies are victorious.

1917: It was reported today that Colonel Theodore President, the former President of the United States, has sent a letter to Jacob de Haas, the Executive Secretary of the Zionist Organization of America, expressing his support for a Jewish Legion, saying that he wished them “all luck in the movement to enlist that Jewish Legion for the war against Turkey, one of the features of which is the recovery of Palestine for the Jews..”

1918: Birthdate of Abraham ('Appie') Bueno de Mesquita, the Amsterdam born comedian who survived the Holocaust.

1920: The Zionist Conference here, probably the most important gathering of Jews ever held, concluded today with the election of United States Supreme Court Justice Louis D. Brandeis as honorary President of the Zionist organization; Professor Chaim Weizmann, President, and Nahum Sokolow, Chairman of the Executive Committee.

1923: The New York Times reviews volume 4 of The Life of Benjamin Disraeli; Earl of Beaconsfield by George Earle Buckle which covers the years 1855 to 1868.

1926:  Fox Film buys the patents of the Movietone sound system for recording sound onto film.  Sol M. Wurtzel was the producer responsible for Fox moving its operations to California and for making this purches.  Following the Stock Market Crash of 1929, Fox would be purchased and become part of production giant 20th Century Fox. 

1926: In Ellenville, NY, “Morris Heller and the former Yetta Shapiro, Russian Jewish immigrants who had been settled there by the Jewish Agricultural (and Industrial Aid) Society” gave birth to Isaac “Ike” Heller the toymaker and co-founder of Remco. (As reported by Margalit Fox)

1928: In Philadelphia, PA, “Philip Cooper, an electrical engineer, born in Vilnius, Lithuania as Pesach Kobchefski” and Rose Applebaum, a native of Bessarabia who worked for Bell Telephone Company gave birth to Vera Cooper who married Robert Cooper in 1948 and who as Vera Rubin became a pioneer in the field of Astronomy for which she has won numerous awards and is the Rubin in “the Rubin-Ford Effect” and the Rubin in “Asteroid 5726 Rubin.

1928: Birthdate of famed pianist, teacher and conductor, Leon Fleisher who is doubly famous.  When at the height of his successful career as a pianist, he lost the ability to use his right hand.  Fleisher then discovered a body of music written for the left-hand and gained greater fame for this accomplishment.

1929: Thirty-four year old Philip Sendak, the son of Israel and Bluma (Buszlyn) Sendak and the husband Sadie (Schindler) Sendak who came to America from Poland in 1914 “became a naturalized U.S. citizen” today.

1930: Birthdate of French historian Pierre Emmanuel Vidal-Naquet whose interest included Jewish history and who was an active opponent of Holocaust denier Robert Faurisson.

1931(9th of Av, 5691):Tish'a B'Av

1932(19th of Tammuz, 5692): Parashat Pinchas

1932: While living in Berlin, 18 year old Hermann Pressman wrote in his diary today, “This evening my dear father has telephoned us from Nordenei (sp). He told us that he and my sister Sonia are doing just fine. My mother and I then went to a beer restaurant which was pretty nice. There was dance and music. The ladies were nothing much to write home about.” (His father Zysia and his sister Sonia were staying at Nordeneie, a German resort near the North Sea.)

1933: More than twenty leaders of the extreme wing of the Zionist Revisionist party were arrested today in various parts of the country, including Jerusalem, Tel Aviv and two Jewish villages, Kfarsaba and Kalmania, when the police simultaneously raided houses in connection with the murder of Dr. Chaim Arlosoroff, member of the Jewish Agency Executive of Palestine. Dr Arslosoroff was killed while walking on beach at Tel Aviv with his on June 16.  This was no random killing since Arslosoroff’s killer held a flashlight into his face, asked “Are you Dr. Arslosoroff” and only fired the three fatal shots after the doctor had answered in the affirmative.

1936: The Palestine Post reported that a British soldier was killed in an Arab ambush near Tulkarm. Arab attacks were reported from Ein Harod and Kfar Yehezkel. Arabs celebrated the 100th day of their insurrection with demonstrations, calls for prayer and donations. But the Arab Nashashibi Party proposed that the Arab Higher Committee should resign as a protest against the non-fulfillment of their promises and leave the people to decide the fate of their prolonged general strike by themselves.

1936: Arab terrorists threw a bomb at a small religious school (Talmud Torah) in the Yemenite Quarter of Tel Aviv. Nine children were injured. One of the terrorists was later caught by a British constable and arrested.

1936: Dr. Joseph Tannenbaum of the American Jewish Congress addressed 600 delegates at the Hotel New York telling them “that the anti-Nazi boycott has proven a relentless grinding machine in which Hitlerism must turn to dust” and that the American Jewish labor movement has aligned itself with the boycott”

1936: “The Jewish newspaper Danziger Echo was suspended for ten months today.

1936: The British government officially declared that there would be no change of policy in regard to the issue of Jewish immigration into Palestine until the Royal Commission was able to visit the country, study the subject and publish its findings. Britain expected that all Arab terrorist activities would stop before the commission's arrival in the country. The British were wrong. The violence did not stop.

1937: “The German Government today imposed a special tax on eligible males who fail to serve in the military forces” which “will fall heavily on the Jews who are disqualified from service.”

1938:  Jews in Germany are ordered to apply for identity cards to be shown to police on demand.

1938: “The Nazi purge of Jews in annexed Austria eliminated Herr Reinhardt, Salzburg’s impreressario and conductors Walter and Toscanini from participating in the Salzburg Festival which opened tonight for the first time under Nazi control.

1938: Birthdate of Leon H. Charney, the Bayonne, NJ native and graduate of Yeshiva University and Brooklyn Law School whose accomplishments included everything from writing The Mystery of Kaddish to serving as “a back-channel peace broker between Egypt and Israel.”

1940(17th of Tammuz, 5700): Tzom Tammuz

1940: Birthdate of Daniel Saul Goldin who was appointed as the 9th Administrator of NASA by President Bush in 1992 and served under three different Presidents.

1940: Hans Frank issues order revoking the autonomy of all Jewish, Ukrainian and Jewish independent aid organizations in the General Government.

1941: In White Russia an Einsatzkommando unit commander reported that some Jews were able to ‘escape into the surrounding forests and swamps’ because they “had managed to organize a ‘signal service’ between villages” that warned of the approach of the Nazi killing squads.

1942 (9th of Av, 5702): Tisha B’Av

1942 (9th of Av, 5702): Adam Czerniakow took his own life. Born in 1880, Czerniakow was the leader of the Jewish council of Warsaw, the Judenrat. Czerniakow had held the position for 3 years and kept a diary of over 1000 pages chronicling the formation of the ghetto up to the beginning of the forced transports. The Germans had ordered him to provide them with a list of names for deportation. His response was a list of his own name written hundreds of times. The day before his suicide, the Nazi officer in charge of the deportation procedure threatened to shoot his wife if he didn’t cooperate. In his suicide note he wrote "I am powerless, my heart trembles in sorrow and compassion. I can no longer bear all this."

1942 SS Senior Colonel General Viktor Brack advises Heinrich Himmler that all healthy Jews should be castrated or sterilized, and the remainder annihilated.

1942: The German Foreign Minister, Von Ribbentrop, warned the Italian Chief of Staff, that Italy should not resist efforts to deport the Jews of Croatia.

1942: The Nazis opened the Treblinka Extermination Camp.

1942: Deportation of Jews from Dobsina, Slovakia, to Auschwitz

1943(20th of Tammuz, 5703): Forty-year old Salomon Sachs was murdered at Sobibor today.

1943(20th of Tammuz, 5703): Forty-year-old Mandel Langer, a Jewish French partisan who was active as an anti-Nazi saboteur since the end of 1942, is captured and executed in Toulouse, France.
1943: Colonel Josiah Clement Wedgwood, 1st Baron Wedgwood, passed away.  Swimming against the establishment stream, he opposed the British decision to create an Arab state east of the Jordan River, seeing it as a betrayal of promises to the Zionists.  He opposed the 1939 White Paper on the same grounds.

1943: An urn containing the ashes of the recently deceased German historian Bernheim who had lost his right to lecture after losing his German citizenship due to the Nuremberg Laws was secretly buried today by his “former colleagues” in the cemetery at Greifswald.
1944: Otto Armster, “a German military intelligence-officer” who played a role in the July 20th plot to kill Hitler was arrested by the Gestapo today, taken to Berlin and placed in solitary confinement.
1944:  Soviet troops liberate the abandoned death camp at Majdanek, where about 500 inmates are alive.
1944:  The Nazis deport 1700 Jews from Rhodes to Auschwitz “while the Italian authorities who had governed the island from 1912 until 1943 idly stood by.”

1945: In what was their first joint operation after having “resolved to against British rule” a joint unit of Irgun and Lehi fighters, under the command of Yehoshua Weinstein (Benyamin) blew up a railway bridge near the village of Yibne.” (Jewish Virtual Library)

1947: This morning as “The Empire Lifeguard sat in the heavily guarded port of Haifa” a bomb which the American crew had left aboard the ship “exploded below the water” causing the ship to sink in the harbor.

1948(16th of Tamuz, 5708): In Jerusalem, two more Israeli soldiers were killed by Arab firing from Abu Tor.

1948: Arab shelling from the village of Silwan damages the King David Hotel in Jerusalem.

1948: The possibility loomed today that the Israeli Government might conduct negotiations with Soviet Russia for a supply of crude oil to be refined at Haifa.

1949: The Turkish government authorized an Israeli, Victor Elyachar, to open an office in Istanbul to answer questions about the new state of Israel. In October of the same year, Elyachar was appointed Consul General of Israel at Turkey. 

1951: After premiering in the United Kingdom at the beginning of the month, “Sirocco” a film based on Coup de Grace by Joseph Kessel, directed by Curtis Bernhardt and co-starring Lee J. Cobb was released in the United States today.

1951: Thousands of mourners led the black-draped gun carriage carrying the coffin of King Abdullah of Jordan to the royal cemetery in Amman. The Jordanian police rounded over 70 suspects in connection with the king's assassination, including two relatives of the former Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin el-Husseini. There were clashes in the Jordanian-occupied Old City of Jerusalem between Arab Legion Bedouin and the local Arabs.

1951: The first immigrant from the U.S.S.R., 73-year-old Tova Lerner from Soviet Bessarabia, arrived in Israel together with 993 newcomers from Romania.

1952: General Neguib overthrew the monarchy and seized power. Some Israelis thought this change presaged a possible improvement in relations with the Egyptians. The last King of Egypt, Farouk, was man known for his personal and political corruption. The Israelis thought the revolutionaries would bring Western style reforms and that they would be more accepting of the Jewish State. Obviously this did not happen. One of the men behind what was known as "The Colonels’ Revolt" was Nasser. Nasser would soon seize the reins of power and make the destruction of Israel a cornerstone of his Pan-Arab policy. In a lesson that has still not been learned, Nasser said that he did not hate the West because of Israel but hated Israel because it was Western. In other words, anti-Western philosophy has been a staple of the Arab/Moslem world long before the appearance of Bin Laden.

1950: Based on the wording of the Official Citations, today marked the beginning of a series of heroic acts on the part of Corporal Tibor Ruman during the darkest days of the Korean War that would lead to him being awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor.

1955: Cordell Hull, Tennessee political leader and U.S. Secretary of State passed away.  Appointed by FDR, he served in the post until 1944 which made him the longest serving Secretary of State.  He won the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1945 for his role in creating the United Nations, which at its inception, played a positive role in the creation of Israel.  Hull blocked the admission of Jews fleeing Hitler as can be seen in his role with the SS St. Louis and the SS Quanza. Hull’s wife was reportedly Jewish, a fact they worked to keep from public knowledge lest it impede his public career.

1956(15th of Av, 5716): Tu B’Av

1958: A week after opening in New York “Rock-A-By Baby” a comedy produced by and starring Jerry Lewis, featuring Gary Lewis and with songs by Sammy Cahn and Walter Scharf was released in New York today.

1960: In New York City, Edie and Ely A. Laundau gave birth to Jon Landau, the producer of Titanic and co-producer of science fiction blockbuster Avatar.

1961(10th of Av, 5721): Tish’a B’av is observed for the first time during the Presidency of John Kennedy.

1967: Herb Gray, Canada's first Jewish federal cabinet minister, Gray married lawyer Sharon Sholzberg, with whom he had two children: Jonathan David and Elizabeth Anne.

1967: Birthdate of Mariane Pearl, the wife and widow of Danny Pearl.

1967: Denise Scott Brown, the daughter of Jewish Rhodesian parents married fellow architect Robert Venturi.

1968: For the first time, the PLO hijacked an El Al plane. El Al was the first airline to put sky marshals on its flights and the first airline to introduce the security measures that many tried to emulate after 9/11.

1969(8th of Av, 5729): Erev Tish’a B’Av

1969(8th of Av, 5729): Seventy-seven year old “Sidney J. Weinberg, whose financial acumen earned him the sobriquet ‘Mr. Wall Street’” passed away today.  (As reported by Alden Whitman)

1969: Birthdate of Rachel Goslins, the director of “God’s House,” a documentary about Albanian Muslims who save Jews during World War II based on Besa: Muslims Who Save Jews in World War II by Norman Gershman.  A member of Adas Israel, she has served as the Executive Director of the President’s Committee on the Arts and Humanities.

1969: “Hannibal Brooks” a comedy based on a story by Michael Winner who also produced and directed the film was released today in the United Kingdom

1971: Paula Robison “premièred the first of Leon Kirchner's compositions commissioned for her, Flutings for Paula, in Sanders Theater at Harvard University.”

1971: Birthdate of journalist Joel Stein.

1973:  Birthdate of White House Intern, Monica Lewinsky.

1974(29th of Tevet, 5734): Seventy-eight year old Dr. Frank Pearcy, the Kelso, West Virginia native and graduate of Rush Medical College who served on the faculty of the University of W. Va., and the U of Texas passed away today.

1976: The Jerusalem Post reported that the visiting governor of the Bank of Spain, Luis Coronel del Palma, expressed hope of "a considerable improvement of relations between Spain and Israel." According to American experts the recent events in Lebanon and the Syrian intervention there threatened the total dismemberment of the PLO and the demise of Yasser Arafat who had lost control of all his forces. Mossad hit teams were reported to have been waging a concerted assassination program against all Palestinian terrorists who murdered 11 Israeli athletes at the 1972 Munich Olympiad.

1978: The Israeli cabinet rejected Sadat's call for return of 2 Sinai areas.

1978: In “Sex, Torah, Revolution,” Alan Lelchuk reviewed Shosha by Isaac Bashevis Singer.

1979(28th of Tammuz, 5739): Eighty-one year old Argentine native Joseph Kessel who gained fame in his adopted France as a journalist and novelist after having serviced with the Free French in WW II passed away today.

1980(10th of Av, 5740): Eighty-four year old Dr. Max Kadushin, a leading Conservative Rabbi, passed away today.

1982(3rd of Av, 5742): Fifty-three year old actor Vic Morrow died today in a tragic accident while filming a movie.

1982: “Jewish leaders said today that they have long shared Interior Secretary James G. Watt’s view that the United States should speedily reduce its reliance on imported oil and that such an approach will benefit Israel as well as other American Allies” but they took issue with comments made in a letter sent to Israeli Ambassador Moshe Arens staying that “the American support for Israel could jeopardized if “liberals of the Jewish community join with other liberals of this nation in opposing the Regan administration’s accelerated energy development policies.”

1984: Convicted financier Shmuel Flatto-Sharon is attempting a comeback in the Israeli elections being held today.

1987: Fifty American volunteers pulled out of an archeological excavation site here today after a group of rigorously Orthodox Jews mobilized international pressure to halt digging in the area, which they say is an ancient burial ground. While 100 Israeli policemen, armed with riot sticks and tear gas, separated them from three busloads of angry Orthodox protesters, the American archeological volunteers spent the morning clearing dust off a fifth-century mosaic sidewalk in Caesarea, a historic coastal city 25 miles north of Tel Aviv

1994(15th of Av, 5754): Triple Header: Parashat Vaetchanan; Shabbat Nachamu; Tu B’av

1994(15th of Av, 5754): Ninety eight year old Viennese born, American film composer Hans J. Salter passed away today.

1996(7th of Av, 5756): Sixty-nine year old New Jersey State Chief Justice Robert Wilentz passed away today. (As reported by David Stout)

1997: According to a report released today the July 14 collapse of a pedestrian bridge at the Maccabiah Games was caused by a chain of failures involving the bridge's planning and construction.

1998: In Toledo, the sixth congress of the European Association for Jewish Studies (EAJS) under the presidency of Professor Angel Sáenz Badillos came to a close today.

1999: After having undergone “tests regarding her heart condition at the Akron City Hospital in Akron, Ohio,” Janet Rosenberg Jagan “was discharged” today and returned to Guyana where she would later resign her position as the country’s president.

1999(10th of Ave, 5759): Seventy-seven year old photographer Stanley Tretick passed away today. (As reported by Nick Ravo

2000: In “Jerseyana: A Fading Jewish Haven,” published today Robert Strauss describes a disappearing slice of Jewish life unknown to most Jews, that centered around rural and small-town New Jersey

2001: 16th Maccabiah comes to a close.

2001: Haim “Saban announced that he and News Corporation would sell Fox Family Worldwide Inc for $5.3 billion to The Walt Disney Company.”

2001: Matt Bloom lost the WWF Intercontinental Championship to Alliance member Lance Storm in Buffalo, New York

2001: “Issues in Jewish Philosophy,” a colloquia sponsored by The European Association for Jewish Studies (EAJS) opened today.

2002:The Knesset approved the Tal Law as an attempt to reach a compromise to the public demand that the Israeli ultra-Orthodox citizens would share an equal extent of obligations which other Israeli citizens are required to fulfill, specifically requiring them to serve in the Israel Defense Forces. The coalition upheavals delayed the initial adoption of the Tal law.

2002: The IDF bombed the building in which Hamas leader Salah Shehade was sleeping.  He was the mastermind behind a series of suicide attacks that claimed the lives of hundreds of Israeli civilians.

2003: Best-selling author Peggy Orenstein and Academy Award winning filmmaker Steven Okazaki gave birth to their daughter Daisy Tomoko.

2003: President Bush presents Edward Teller with the Medal of Freedom, six weeks before Teller’s death.

2004: “The Bourne Supremacy” on which Doug Liman who had directed the first of the “Bourne films” served as executive producer was rleased today.

2005: Pitcher Craig Breslow made his major league debut with the San Diego Padres.

2005:  Several explosions rocked the Egyptian resort of Sharm el-Shiek in the early morning hours.  The attacks were aimed at a number of resort hotels catering to tourists from Egypt, Europe and Israel.  Preliminary reports indicate that at least forty five were killed and untold hundreds were wounded. 

2005:  The Jerusalem Post reported that Ariel Sharon will not change the date of the evacuation from Gaza.  The evacuation date is August 17.  Sharon fought attempts in the Knesset by the anti-disengagement forces to postpone the evacuation.  He has also dismissed suggestions from those favoring the evacuation, including the Vice Premier and Shimon Peres to advance the date of the evacuation.  The evacuation date is a matter of law, having been enacted in legislation passed by the Knesset.  It would take three votes to change the law, something Sharon does not care to attempt.  At the same time, he will not act unilaterally to move the date because it is critical that Israel maintain itself as society that accepts and respect the rule of law.

2006: The San Francisco Chronicle reviewed How This Night Is Different by Elisa Albert

2006:  The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers Fear: Anti-Semitism in Poland After Auschwitz - An Essay in Historical Interpretation by Jan T. Gross and  the recently released paperback edition of Freud's Requiem: Mourning, Memory, and the Invisible History of a Summer Walk by Matthew Von Unwerth an “elegantly meandering look at Sigmund Freud's life and the intellectual world he moved in that examines an obscure 1915 essay, ‘On Transience,’ in which Freud records a conversation with the poet Rainer Maria Rilke and the psychoanalyst Lou Andreas-Salomé.”

2006(27th of Tammuz, 5766): Ursula Merkin, the widow of Hermann Merkin, the Vice Chairman of the Board of Trustees of Yeshiva University passed away today.

2006: The following were among a total of 43 Israeli civilians (including four who died of heart attacks during rocket barrages) and 116 IDF soldiers were killed in the Israel-Hizbullah war: Shimon Glickblich, 60, of Haifa; Habib Awad, 48, of Ibellin.

2007: In Krakow, Poland, the Cinema Pod Baranami / Festival of Jewish Culture presents a screening of “Hungry Hearts,” which is “based on the short stories of Anzia Yezierska, the first writer to bring stories of American Jewish women to a mainstream audience.”

2007(8th of Av, 5767): Ninety-three year old Hungarian born writer George Tabori. (As reported by Margalit Fox)

2007(8th of Av, 5767): Seventy-four year old Ronald Norman Miller the songwriter who created the lyrics to the Grammy Award winning hit “For Once in My Life” passed away today in California.

2007: The New Republic features reviews of 1967: Israel, the War, and the Year That Transformed The Middle East by Tom Segev and Foxbats over Dimona: The Soviets’ Nuclear Gamble in the Six-Day War by Isabella Ginor and Gideon Remez by Israeli historian and author Benny Morris as well Nathan Glazer’s review of Robert Moses and the Modern City: The Transformation of New York.

2008: At the Karmiel amphitheater Let Us Grow showcases 3,000 children from all over the country in a mosaic of dances choreographed especially for them featuring such singers as Tal Mosseri and Yoav Yitzhak.

2008: Dina Gottliebova-Babbitt an artist and Holocaust survivor had surgery today after having been “diagnosed with an aggressive form of abdominal cancer.”\

2008: Mark Zuckerberg announced Facebook Connect, a version of Facebook Platform for users.

2008: In an example of interfaith at its best, members of Temple Judah loaded their cars with clothing items shipped to Cedar Rapids by Chabad of Des Moines and take them to Community of Christ Church for distribution to victims of the Cedar Rapids Flood of 2008.

2008(25th of Tammuz, 5768: Officer David Chriqui of Rishon Lezion, 19-year-old border policeman who was shot near the Lions' Gate in the Old City of Jerusalem on July 11 died of his wounds today. Officer David Chriqui of Rishon Lezion was shot in the head at close range by a man thought to be a Palestinian. Jerusalem police officer Imad Gadir from Kafr Zarzir in the Western Galilee has recovered from his wounds.

2008: Senator Barack Obama opened a day of talks with Israeli and Palestinian leaders sharing breakfast with Ehud Barak before traveling to the West Bank to meet ith Mahmoud Abbas.

2009: Closing ceremony of the 18th Maccabiah takes place at Latrun

2009: Chicago’s Millennium Park celebrated its fifth anniversary with a blockbuster event of song and spoken word called SHELebration: A Tribute to Shel Silverstein. This night of song and performance honoring the legendary Chicago poet, author, illustrator and Grammy Award-winning songwriter took place at the Jay Pritzker Pavilion.

2009: In New York City, rooftop premiere of Keren Cytter's feature length film, "The Great Tale." The Tel Aviv native “creates films that appropriate and transform different cinematic genres, such as film noir, melodrama, documentary, and soap opera. Often set in cheap domestic interiors, Cytter's films depict dysfunctional families and alienated friends on the verge of nervous breakdown.”

2009: Several rabbis were arrested as part of a public corruption and international money-laundering investigation in New Jersey. According to reports, among the 44 people arrested this morning by the FBI along with the rabbis were the mayors of three New Jersey towns, a deputy mayor and a state assemblyman.

2010: As part of “Downtown Shabbat”Robyn Helzner, one of the leading interpreters of world Jewish music, and Cantor Larry Paul are scheduled to lead a Carlebach-inspired service at the Historic Sixth & I Synagogue in Washington, D.C.

2010: An Israeli government decision to shelve a controversial bill on Jewish conversions drew praise today from liberal Jewish groups in Israel and the U.S. who opposed the legislation and waged a vocal campaign to get it thrown out.

2010: From L.A. to Cedar Rapids and points unknown, family and many friends celebrate the birthday of Charlene Wolfe, a “balabus” par excellence.

2010((12th of Av, 5770):  Daniel Schorr, whose aggressive reporting over 70 years as a respected broadcast and print journalist brought him into conflict with censors, the Nixon administration and network superiors, died today at the age of 93. (As reported by Robert D. Hershey, Jr)

2010: In “At War With Itself” Leo Damrosch provides a detailed reviews of Dreyfus: Politics, Emotion and the Scandal of the Century by Ruth Harris.

2011: In Iowa City, Agudas Achim Sisterhood's annual Mitzvah Fund Event will include this evening’s University Repertory Theater production of Neil Simon's "Lost in Yonkers."

2011: The Daniel Ori Trio is scheduled to perform three sets of originals and new arrangements from the upcoming album Emuna at the Barn Next Door in NYC.

2011: Ten of thousands gathered in central Tel Aviv tonight for a mass rally against soaring housing prices and Israel's high cost of living.2011: The first-ever reunion of the Ritchie Boys began today at the Holocaust Memorial Center in Farmington Hills, Michigan.

2011(21st of Tammuz, 5771): Jewish-British singer Amy Winehouse, whose hit single "Rehab" became the anthem for troubled celebrity culture, has been found dead at her home in north London, Sky News reported today.
2011(21st of Tammuz, 5771): Ninety-two year old Robert C.W. Ettinger, the “founding father” of the cryonics movement, passed away today. (As reported by Paul Vitello)

2012: Shiva services for Lauren Becker, of blessed memory, are scheduled to be held at the home of her father Harold in Cedar Rapids, Iowa.
2012: “One Day After Peace” is scheduled to have its American premiere at the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival.
2012: The Knesset Control Committee is scheduled to discuss the aspects of the annual State Comptroller’s Report that deal with the Temple Mount, including security and unsupervised building. (As reported by Melanie Lidman)

2012: As it prepares to move to its new location, members of Agudas Achim under the leadership of Rabbi Jeff Portman gather at the Agudas Achim Cemetery to bury old prayersbooks, bibles, talisim and other religious artifacts in the time honored manner of the Jewish people.

2012: Today President Shimon Peres condemned Syrian government statements that it would deploy chemical weapons in the event of a foreign invasion, and said Israel would do whatever it takes to eliminate the threat these weapons pose to the Jewish state.(As reported by Ilan Ben Zion)

2012: DNA evidence believed to belong to the culprit and his female accomplice in last week’s bombing at the Burgas Airport was reportedly found at the Hotel Perfekt in Varna, Bulgaria, Bulgarian TV station BTV reported today (As reported by Aaron Kalman and Ilan Ben Zion)

2013: The 17th annual Jerusalem 3x3 Streetball tournament sponsored by the Jerusalem Municipality is scheduled to open at Safra Square.

2013: From Cedar Rapids to California and lots of other places, people celebrate the birthday of Charlene Wolff, a culinary wizard and pillar of the Jewi

2013: Coalition and Labor MKs praised the passing of the government's haredi enlistment plan in its first reading today, after a long debate in which haredi MKs used creative means to demonstrate their opposition. (As reported by Lahav Harkov)

2013: Prince William and Kate Middleton, the Duchess of Cambridge walked out St. Mary’s Hospital with their infant who was born in the Lindo Wing which was named for Frank Charles Lindo, a member of a famous British Sephardi family who paid for the wing in 1937.

2014: The Historic Sixth & I Synagogue is scheduled to host “The Great Walk of Chinatown” which explores the history of this unique Washington neighborhood.

2014: “The US Federal Aviation Administration barred flights to Israel this evening for 24 hours, citing security concerns” but El Al continues with its full flight schedule. (As reported by Raphael Ahren)

2014: Oren Shaul who was identified today as the seventh of the soldiers “caught in in a deadly ambush in Gaza City’s Shejaiya area” was reported missing in action and presumed dead despite claims from Hamas that he is there prisoner. (As reported by Mitch Ginsburg)

2014: “French Prime Minister Manuel Valls denounced anti-Zionism as anti-Semitism. “Anti-Semitism, this old European disease,” he said in a speech, has taken “a new form. It spreads on the Internet, in our popular neighborhoods, with a youth that has lost its points of reference, has no conscience of history, and who hides itself behind a fake anti-Zionism.”

2014: The 97th National Convention of Hadassah is scheduled to come to an end in Las Vegas.

2015: Dr. Ori Z. Soltes is scheduled to lead a private tour for those wishing to “learn more about Sy Gresser's sculptures while viewing the exhibition ‘Stone, Silence, and Speech.’”

2015: The Museum of Jewish Heritage is scheduled to host two performances of “My Report to the World” The Story of Jan Karski.”

2015(7th of Av, 5775): Eighty-eight year old obesity specialist, Dr. Jules Hirsch passed away in Englewood, NJ.

2015: The Naomi Prawer Kadar International Yiddish Summer Program at Tel Aviv University is scheduled to come to an end today.

2015: The Friends and family of Charlene Wolfe are excited to share in what she calls “a milestone” birthday as she turns 75.

2015: In “Why Is It So Hard to Get a Great Bagel in California?” published today Elizabeth Weil wonders why bakers in San Francisco have so much trouble replicating the product produced in New York City.

2016: Under the leadership of Israeli-born choreographer Zvi Gotheiner, ZviDance is scheduled to perform at the Doris Duke Theatre.

2016: PININA featuring the choreography is scheduled to open Sally-Anne Friedland at Peridance Capezio Center.

2017: The New York Times featured reviews books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Great Nadar: The Man Behind the Camera by Adam Begley, Young Radicals: In the War for American Ideals by Jeremy McCarter which includes a portrait of Walter Lippmann and We Crossed a Bridge and it Trembled: Voices from Syria by Wendy Pearlman as well as an interview with Calvin Trillin.

2017: The San Francisco Jewish Film Festival is scheduled to host a screening of “Keep the Change” and “a live performance from the Marcus Shelby Quartet” today.

2017: “West pf the Jordan River” and “In Her Footsteps” are scheduled to be shown on the last day of the Jerusalem Film Festival.

2017: “Menorah: Worship, History, Legend” that featured “roughly 130 artifacts, including menorahs from different periods and depictions of them in paintings, sarcophagi, sculptures and medieval and Renaissance drawings and manuscripts” and has been on displayed “simultaneously at both the Jewish Museum as well as the Braccio di Carlo Magno Museum in the Vatican” is scheduled to come to a close today.






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