Monday, July 10, 2017

This Day, July 11, In Jewish History by Mitchell A. Levin

July 11

1174: Amalric I who had been King of Jerusalem since 1162 passed away.  During his reign most of the Jews were expelled from Jerusalem; a ban that would last until 1175.

1244:Khorezmian Turkish horsemen launch an attack on Jerusalem, sacking the city and killing most of the Christians and driving out the Jews. The Khorezmian Turks then move on to Egypt. Khwarezmia is at this time a state located around the Aral Salt Flats near the Caspian Sea. It has allied itself with the Ayyub sultan of Egypt against the Muslims in Damascus.”

1346: Charles IV of Luxembourg is elected emperor of the Holy Roman Empire which included the Bohemian city of Prague. According to the descendant of Moses ben Israel Naphtaly Hirsch Porges, “The long reign of Emperor Charles IV brought the Prague Jews new privileges and relative calm even though the Luxembourg rulers - the reigning local dynasty - treated Jewish property as though it were their own. They put it in pawn, sold it, or used it as backing for guarantees. But the king ensured protection and, among others, offered a chance for them to settle inside the walls of the arising New Town. A sign of the status of the Jewish community is a banner that has survived, given to the Jews of Prague by Charles IV in 1375.From that year on the Jews would, over the centuries, come to the gates of the ghetto to welcome the kings of Bohemia in Prague.”

1533: Clement VII excommunicated Henry VIII for divorcing Catherine of Aragon, and afterward marrying Anne Boleyn. Henry VIII had relied on the Book of Leviticus when he sought to marry Catherine, the widow of his brother.  Nobody was going to hit him with a sandal.  When it came time to shed Mary, Henry sought support from Rabbis, hoping that their interpretation of Biblical law would somehow sway the Pope.  The Rabbis, who were living in Italy, stayed out of the conflict. They had no reason to trust Henry, who had promised to keep the Jews out of England, when he got married. 

1578: In Emden, Moses Uri (Philip Joosten) Halevie, the “founder and first ḥakam (Rabbi) of the Spanish-Portuguese congregation in Amsterdam in 1596/97” and Bele Halevi gave birth to Aaron Halevie

1657:  Birthdate of King Frederick I of Prussia whose greatest claim to fame is the fact that he was the father of King Frederick II also known as Frederick the Great.  Father and son quarreled about many things but they did agree on at least one thing.  They both abhorred their Jewish subjects, viewing them as aliens in their Germanic kingdom.

1715: During the War of the Spanish Succession which came to an end today, Samson Wertheimer, “the chief rabbi of Hungary and Moravia” who was “also an Austrian financier, court Jew and Shtadlan to Austrian Emperor Leopold I” and Samuel Oppenheimer procured “the money necessary” to equip and supply the victorious Austrian imperial army

1720(5th of Tammuz, 5480): Ahron Lwow passed away in Vienna.

1733: A month after the founding of the colony of Georgia by James Oglethorpe, Jewish settlers arrived in Savannah. The group of forty Sephardic Jews was joined within a year by a group of Ashkenazi Jews. The Sephardic Jews had brought a Torah and other religious items with them and quickly founded a congregation called Mikveh Israel (Hope of Israel). One of the reasons given for the lack of European-styled anti-Semitism in America was that the Jews arrived in the New World at the same time everybody else did.

1734: Birthdate of Philip (Uri) Minis, the Jewish infant who was also the first male white child born in Georgia.

1740: Czarina Anne ordered the Jews expelled from Little Russia. Little Russia is another term for an area that includes the Ukraine.

1767:  Birthdate John Quincy Adams, Sixth President of the United States. Like his father, John Quincy had a positive attitude towards the Jewish people.  In a letter to Major Mordecai Manuel Noah, he wrote, “[I believe in the] rebuilding of Judea as an independent nation.”  Of course this could have been one the earliest attempt to secure Jewish political support by espousing the cause of the Jewish homeland. More than likely, it was an expression of popular Protestant belief of the time that Jews returning to the Promised Land was a necessary precursor for the ultimate Second Coming.  While many Jews know Noah as the founder of the utopian Jewish community of Ararat, he was a major diplomatic and political figure who was the leader of the Tammany Hall political machine during the 1820’s.

1775(13th of Tammuz, 5535): Abraham Seligman, the patriarch of the family that included American financiers Joseph and Jacob Seligman passed away today.

1797: Charles Macklin, the famous Anglo-Irish actor whose greatest claim to fame was his portrayal of Shylock in a completely new manner, passed away.

1797: The gates of the Jewish ghetto in Venice were torn down. This was a direct result of the victories of the French armies led by Napoleon.

1798(27th of Tammuz, 5558): Breina Jaffe the daughter of Mordechai Jaffe passed away today.

1804:  Vice President Aaron Burr and Secretary of the Treasury, Alexander Hamilton fought a duel.  Hamilton fell mortally wounded. Hamilton had been born on the British controlled island of Nevis in the West Indies in 1755.  His mother was Jewish.  His father was a prominent citizen.  Hamilton’s mother was married, but not to Hamilton’s father. Hamilton attended a Jewish school which was housed in a synagogue in the island’s capital city.  After finishing his school he made his way to North America where he would eventually become a favorite of George Washington and was one of the authors of the famous Federalist Papers.  Hamilton never identified himself as a Jew and lived the life of a prominent Protestant political and financial leader.

1817: Eight year old Ralph Disraeli, the son of Maria and Isaac Disraeli, and the brother of Benjamin Disraeli was christened today at St. Andrew’s in a ceremony that would change the history of the United Kingdom.

1821: Issachar Ber ben Eliezer Jacob married Yetta bat Aaron at the Western Synagogue today.

1821: James Samuel married Elizabeth Davis at the Great Synagogue today.

1824: In Frankfurt, Germany, James de Rothschild married his niece Betty Salomon von Rothschild the daughter of his brother, Salomon Mayer von Rothschild

1827: Rabbi S.C. Peixotto officiated at the wedding of Nathan A. Cohen and Clara Harris, the third daughter of Jacob Harris, Jr. of Charleston, SC.

1827: Lewis Lyon married Mary Phillips at the Western Synagogue today.

1827: Solomon Worms married Henrietta Samuel at the Great Synagogue today.

1831: Birthdate of Mark Blumenthal, the Bavarian born American graduate of College of Physicians and Surgeons at Columbia University who “was president of and physician to the Institution for the Improved Instruction of Deaf Mutes, founded and supported by Jews for the benefit of Jewish and other children” from 1862 to 1894.

1832: Reuben Salomons married Sarah Hurwitz today.

1858: Birthdate of Cyrus L. Sulzberger: A native of Philadelphia, he “went to New York in 1877 as bookkeeper for the firm of Erlanger, Blumgart & Co., of which he later became the head. An active participant in movement’s to reform New York City’s corrupt political environment, he was a candidate on the Fusion ticket for president of the borough of Manhattan, New York in 1904. Sulzberger was also active in Jewish communal affairs serving for many years as treasurer of the United Hebrew, vice president of the American Zionist Federation and, in 1905, as president of the Jewish Agricultural and Industrial Aid Society.

1859: Birthdate of John Grenfell Maxwell, who as a Lt. Col in his majesty’s army served as commander of the Zion Mule Corps which is considered to be the first “Jewish fighting force” since the end of the Bar Kochba Revolt.

1860: “A meeting of residents in the new suburb of Bayswater was held, and an agreement reached as to the desirability of establishing a new congregation in the neighborhood.”

1861: Jules Mires, the Franco-Jewish banker, was condemned to five years in prison and order to pay a fine of 3,000 francs by the Correctional Tribunal of Paris.

1861 In London Assur Henry Moses and Henrietta Moses gave birth to Marianna Floretta Raphael the wife of Arthur Lewis Raphael.

1865(17th of Tammuz, 5625):Tzom Tammuz

1865(17th of Tammuz, 5625): Author and historian Elias Chaim Lindo, the native of St. Thomas who settled in London in 1832 where he published several works including History of the Jews of Spain and Portugal passed away today.

1866: Upon recurrence of blood libel accusations, Sultan Aziz issued a firman taking the Jews under his protection. Thanks to this firman the Greek Orthodox patriarchate had to issue encyclicals to all churches, forbidding such practices.

1869: Birthdate of Elyakum Heinrich or in German Heinrich Loewe, the German intellectual who attended the first Zionist Congress in Basel and as an orientalist was appointed to a professorship at the University of Berlin in 1915.

1870: Birthdate of Brooklyn native Mitchell May, the graduate of Brooklyn Polytechnic and Columbia University Law school whose political career including serving one term as a member of the U.S. House Representatives and 18 years as justice of the New York State Supreme Court.

1877(1st of Av, 5637): Rosh Chodesh Av

1877: Reports published today described conditions in Eastern Europe as the Russian Army continues its advance against the forces of Romania including the execution of two spies by the Russians.  According to the reporter, one stood tall and faced his executioners with a sneer before being shot.  The other, a Jew, groveled in front of his captors invoking his forefathers and expressing a willingness to convert if they would spare his life.  He was shot where he lay.  The reporter also included a description of Galician Jews whom he said were “so disgusting that even their co-religionists in Europe and America would refuse them all sympathy if they could see them.”

1877: In Philadelphia, PA, Simon Benjamin Fleisher and Cecilia Hofheimer Fleisher gave birth to Dr. Edwin Adler Fleischer, “one of the most influential and important musical philanthropists of the 20th century” who established the Symphony Club in 1909.

1877: The Fourth Council of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations met for a second day in Philadelphia, PA.

1879: Delegates to the Sixth Council of the Union of American and Hebrew Congregations visited various public institutions controlled by the Commissioner of Charities and Corrections followed by visits to various institutions supported by Jewish charities.

1879; In Cincinnati, Ohio, “Louis and Rose (Winkler) Amerberg gave birth to Constance Amberg, the University of Cincinnati graduate who worked as a volunteer in New York settlement houses before marrying attorney William Dick Sporborg and becoming Constance Amberg Sporborg, the mother of Elizabeth and William Dick Sporborg, Jr.

1879: Delegates to the Sixth Council of the Union of American and Hebrew attended a banquet at Delmonico’s

1879: Rabbi Isaac Meyer Wise of Cincinnati delivered a lecture at Temple Emanu-el based on the renewal of the covenant at Gilgal in the days of the prophet Samuel

1881: “The Bible and Science” published today provides a detailed review of Hours With the Bible: Volume II by Cunningham Geikie.  In this second of what will become a multi-volume work, Geike provides an in depth study of the period from Moses to the Judges.

1881: Arnold Bogumil Ehrlich, the native of Wlodawa, Poland who came to New York from Hamburg in 1874 to teach at the Emanu-El Theological School became a naturalized U.S. citizen today, listing as “his occupation ‘Teacher of Languages.’”

1881: In Chicago, Dr. Ellinger read a paper tonight on “Ancient and Modern Rabbis” at a meeting of the Rabbinical Literary Society.  The society is a national organization that draws it membership from Jewish theologians throughout the United States.

1882: As the Freight Handlers’ strike turned violent, Levi Cossowtich, a Russian-Jewish peddler was assaulted this morning at Henderson and 11th Streets by person or persons unknown. At noon, as he went to dinner, Louise Marble, one of the Jewish freight handlers working at the Erie depot, was assaulted and robbed.

1882: Birthdate of German mathematician Leonard Nelson who was the co-founder of The Internationaler Sozialistischer Kampfbund ("International Socialist Militant League")

1883: “Current Foreign Topics” published today described events at the trial in Hungary where Jews who were charged with murdering a Christian girl lost an important witness when a local coachman committed suicide.

1883:  The Hebrew Union Council met for a second day in Cincinnati, Ohio. The Committee on Circuit Preaching reported favorably on a proposal of engaging circuit rabbis to service those areas where the Jewish population is too scattered to support full-time ministers.  The Rabbinical Association asked that the Union provided a fund for “the support of enfeebled ministers in their old age.”

1883: Today’s commencement exercises of the Hebrew Union College are scheduled to be held at the Plum Street Temple in Cincinnati, Ohio followed by a banquet at the Highland House and a reception at the Zoological Garden.  The high point of the event will be the consecration of seven new rabbis, the first such class to be produced by the school and the first rabbis to be trained solely in the United States.[Note HUC would become the flagship institution for the Reform Movement.  While there is a popular misconception of American Jewry being a New York centric culture, in this a city in eastern Ohio, at the entry to the American heartland was the focal point of this significant segment of American Jewry.]

1883: County Coroner A.F Park came to the Oakdale, Connecticut to examine the body of a 24 year old Russian Jew, Moses Sadock.  Sadock’s body was found in the woods, lying on his back “with his throat cut from ear to ear.” Sadock was the center of a developing scandal involving accusations that he was a bigamist.

1884: As word reached Albany, New York that Governor Grover Cleveland had been selected as the Presidential nominee of the Democrat Party, the Jewish “banking firm of Wormser & Co in New York sent hearty congratulations…”

1884: It was reported today that in Brooklyn, Beth Elohim has hired William Sparger to serve as its rabbi.  The 26 year old Sparger was born in Hungary graduated from Prince Rudolph University of Vienna.  A member of the reforming movement, Sparger replaces Rabbi Mosher who left the pulpit 6 months ago due to illness.

1885: In an attempt to put an end to the disputes with Rabbi Kauffman Kohler of Temple Beth-El, Rabbi Alexander of Kohut of Ahavath Chesed said today, “I desire that it should be understood that as far as I am concerned the pulpit controversy that has been carried out between myself and Dr. Kohler… is declared at end.  I will make no more responses to any of Dr. Kohler’s sermons and expect a reciprocation from in this matter…In the interest of my religion and for the sake of harmony…I wish to avoid controversy in the pulpit.”  This was an attempt to bring an end to the public dispute between these leaders of traditional and liberal Judaism.

1885: In Baltimore, MD, Judge Phelps rendered a decision in the case of the District Grand Lodge of B’nai B’rith v the Jedijah Lodge.  The District had revoked the chapter’s charter and was seeking to recover funds that the lodge had collected.  The judge decided that under the rules of equity, the District Grand Lodge had no right to the funds.

1886: It was reported today that the lady managers of the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society have accepted the offer of boats from the New York Towing Company to be used for upcoming summer-time excursions.

1889: It was reported today that the Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati, Ohio is in desperate need of funds.  The school is $9,000 in debt and needs an additional $15,500 to maintain operations. (More to added next year)

1889: The Trustees of the Harlem Club met this evening to consider the application for membership of New York State Senator Jacob A. Cantor.  Robert Bonynge nominated him and David F. Porter seconded the nomination.  However, there was enough opposition that it was obvious that the Senator would be “blackballed.”  At the end of the meeting the Trustees refused to announce their decision saying that they would send a letter with the information to Cantor within the next ten days

1889: The cornerstone for a new synagogue to be used by New York’s Sephardic Jews was laid today at the corner of 160 East One Hundred and Sixteenth Street.  This is the second synagogue in New York designed to meet the needs of the Spanish-Portuguese Community.

1889: Joseph Davis, “a junior member of…S&J Davis” a catering firm serving Orange and Newark, NJ, rented a summer cottage for his wife and their children at Ocean Beach after they had been forced to leave the Brunswick Hotel because the proprietor found out that they were Jewish.

1890: Birthdate of Captain Koreshige Inuzuka the native of Tokyo who “was the head of the Japanese Imperial Navy's Advisory Bureau on Jewish Affairs from March 1939 until April 1942” and who in 1941 was granted a silver cigarette case by the Union of Orthodox Rabbis of the United States” for his role in rescuing Jews from Nazi Germany. (Yes history can be convoluted and complicated)

1890: Theatrical manager Daniel Frohman described some of the plays he acquired on his recent trip to London and Paris that will be produced in the coming season. Among them are two French comedies – “Fen Toupinel” and La Femme Nervevie” – and two English comedies – “The Idler” and “The Solicitor”

1891: “The Expatriated Jews” published today described a letter the Assistant Secretary sent to the Acting Superintendent of Immigration at New York to question Russian Jews arriving at his port to see if any of them “had been diverted from their original destination to this country by foreign officials”, to record any such incidents in detail and send the report to Washington.

1891: Birthdate of Otto Armster a German intelligence officer who was one of the few participants in the July 20 plot to assassinate Hitler who survived WW II.

1891: Israel Pimkus a sixty year old Russian Jew was among the passengers who arrived at New York’s Barge Office aboard the SS Fürst Bismarck. When asked if he would become a public charge he opened a satchel containing $17,500 which he said he was planning on using to buy land in the “West” before sending for his brothers.

1892: “Close of the Rabbis’ Convention” published today described the final session of “the annual convention of American rabbis that ended last night at a well-attended meeting at Temple Israel on 125th Street and Fifth Avenue.

1892: In Little Rock AR, eighty-two year old Samuel Bloch, a well-known writer who had lived in Cincinnati and Chicago passed away today.

1893(27th of Tammuz, 5653): Israel Joshua Trunk, the rabbi at Kutno, passed away today.

1894: In San Francisco, Stella (Stettheimer) and Sigmund Feuchtwanger gave birth to Walter Feuchtwanger who gained fame as movie producer Walter Wagner.

1894: “Aid For The Workingman” published today describes the success of the Order of Round Robins a fraternal and welfare organization designed to benefits workers and employers originally conceived by Colonel Jacob Bloom, the manager of the Baron de Hirsch Trade School located in New York City.

1894: The representatives of the United Hebrew Trades Union, the Socialist Party and the Knights of Labor met tonight at the Labor Lyceum to finalize plans for the upcoming mass meeting in Union Square.

1894: A list of the amount of annual appropriations of state moneys to be paid to different New York institutions and the year the appropriation was first approved included the Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum $110 per head by law of 1874, Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society $104 per head by law of 1889 and the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children $5,000 a year by law of

1894: In Albany, during the Constitutional Convention’s Committees on Legislate Powers, Education, Taxation and Charities hearing “on the question of abolishing sectarian appropriations Elbridge T. Gerry expressed his fear that adoption “would cripple the great Hebrew Guardian Society.”

1894: Samuel Gompers will chair the meeting of the Executive Council of the American Federation of Labor in Chicago where they will discuss the possibility of a general strike if the current strike against Pullman fails.

1895: In Rochester, NY, the annual Central Conference of American Rabbis continues to meet for a second day.

1895: A list of the bequests of the late Moses Heidelbach published today included $500 to Mount Sinai Hospital; a one thousand dollar bond to the Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum of New York City; $500 to Abraham Friedlander which he is to contribute charities in Cincinnati, Ohio.

1895: According to figures published today during the month of June, the Employment Bureau of the United Hebrew Charities of New York found employment for 667 of its 748 applicants

1896: Herzl achieves the agreement of Sir Samuel Montagu and Colonel Goldsmid to work with him for a vassal Jewish state under Turkish rule. Goldsmid promises to write a letter to Baron Rothschild.

1897: Forty Jewish families from Poland who had arrived in New York aboard the steamships Veendam and Scilia were turned over to the Immigration Bureau on the suspicion that they were destitute and therefore not eligible to enter the United States.

1897: It was reported today that “Yemen’s Arabian Jews have Negus Menelek for permission to settle in the towns of Abyssinia on the ground that Menelek is one of the chosen people being descendedfrom King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba”

1898: “Restlessness Among Children: Its Causes; Its Effects; Its Treatment” a presentation by Miss Carrie W. Kearns of New York City will be the feature of today’s session of the Teachers’ Institute

1898: The Hebrew Bath House Society, whose members include S.D. Solomon, Charles Serling and Israel Kaplan was founded today in Syracuse, NY.

1898: During the Spanish-American War, Sergeant Philips S. Golderman began serving as the Color Sergeant in Company I, of the 203rd New York Infantry.

1899: Nathan Israel, the founder of Israel’s Department Store which was “one of the largest and oldest stores in pre-World War II Germany” and his wife gave birth to Wilfrid Israel “an Anglo-German businessman who was active in the rescue of Jews from Nazi Germany.

1899: In Poughkeepsie, NY, the leaders of the Y.M.C.A. who have been conducting a crusade to enforce the Sunday closing laws, have asked that the fines of the merchants convicted of violating the law, including Louis Grossman and Aaron Friedman be remitted because they only wished to have their stores closed on Sunday and not to have the merchants punished.

1899: The American Jews wishing to present a jeweled sword to Captain Dreyfus to mark his successfully overcoming the charges of treason received a telegram from Emile Zola stating “Dreyfus family consulted.  Thank you, but impossible to accept.”

1901: Grossherzog Friedrich of Baden informs Herzl that the Czar will not receive him.

1902: In The Hague, Isaac Goudsmit, a manufacturer of water-closets, and Marianne Goudsmit-Gompers who ran a millinery shop who were murdered by the Nazis in 1943 gave birth to Dutch-American physicist Samuel Goudsmit.,+Samuel+

1903: Birthdate of Sidney Franklin.  Born Sidney Frumkin, Franklin was the first famous bullfighter from north of the Rio Grande.

1904: The Eight Annual meeting of the Board of Governors of The Education League for Higher Education led by its President, Rabbi Moses J. Gries was held today in Cleveland, Ohio.

1905: The Ninth Summer Assembly of the Jewish Chautauqua Society continued for a fourth day in Atlantic City, NJ.

1911: In Milwaukee, Wisconsin, the 15th annual summer assembly of the Jewish Chautauqua Society led by Chancellor Henry Berkowitz continued for a fifth day.

1911: A strong protest was provided by Moses Gaster when the London Times published an article from Vienna stating that Jews are influencing the Salonica Committee which is bringing harsh measures to bear against the Albanians.

1912: Sarah Sophia Bensaude Abecassis “married her cousin Salomão Abecassis Seruya in the Great Synagogue, Cape Town, South Africa. He was the son of Mark (Mojluf) Seruya and Esther Conquy Abecassis. Born in Lisbon 1883, she was the daughter of Isaac Conquy Abecassis and Helena Nathan Bensaude

1914(17th of Tammuz, 5674): Fast not observed because it is Shabbat

1914(17th of Tammuz,5674): Seventy-three year old Julius Rodenberg, (born Julius Levy) who “wrote the libretto to Anton Rubinstein's opera, “Feramors” and who founded the political journal Deutsche Rundschau in 1874 passed away today.,_1889,_von_C.W.Allers.jpg

1915: Dr. Cyrus Adler addressed the opening session of the convention of the United Synagogue of America today.

1915: As of today, The Red Cross European Fund in New York City of which Jacob H. Schiff is the treasurer has raised $511,185.56

1916: Birthdate of Mortimer Caplan the New York attorney who was a founding member of Caplin & Drysdale and who was appointed IRS Commissioner by President Kennedy

1916: British businessman and cricket enthusiast Sir Julien Cahn married Phyllis Muriel Wolfe with whom he had three children – Patience, Albert Jonas who assumed the baronetcy when his father passed away and Albert Jonas Cahn.

1918: “At the semi-annual convention of the Orthodox Rabbis of America” led by its President, Rabbi Margolies of New York, being held at the Broadway Central Hotel, “resolutions were adopted thanks Great Britain and the Allies for their formal declarations favoring the establishment of a national Jewish homeland in Palestine.”

1919: Birthdate of Russian born Israeli artist and author Benjamin Tammuz.

1920: At the first Zionist conference held after World War I, Olga Ginsburg initiated the founding of the Women’s International Zionist Organization (WIZO), together with representatives from organizations in Palestine, England, Germany, Poland, The Netherlands, Russia and South Africa. It was decided to establish the central office in Palestine and to divide the work between the world center and London. (As reported by Esther Carmel-Hakim)

1921: Former US President William Howard Taft was sworn in as 10th Chief Justice of the US Supreme Court, becoming the only person to ever be both President and Chief Justice.  Unlike the Associate Justices, the Chief Justice has major administrative responsibility for both the High Court and the Federal judiciary system.  It was in this latter arena that both Louis Brandies and Felix Frankfurter reported that Taft excelled.

1921: The Irish War of Independence in which Robert “Bob” Briscoe, the second Jewish Lord Mayor of Dublin, served in the Irish Republican Army and Sinn Fein, came to an end. 

1923: Birthdate of Helen Wasser, the native of the Lower East Side who gained fame as the “matriarch” of Kutsher’s Country Club, the last of great borscht belt hostelries. (As reported by Joseph Berger)

1923: Albert Einstein delivers his Nobel Lecture in Gothenburg, Sweden

1923: Birthdate of Richard Pipes, the Polish born American historian who specialized in Russian affairs.

1924: It was reported today that the Counsel for Fanny Brice’s husband Nicky Arnstein, who had entered Leavenworth in May, “sought before General Sessions Judge Koenig to have the charges against him relating to having received $5,000,000 of securities stolen by messengers of Wall Street brokers five years ago dismissed.

1926: The first international conference of representatives of Liberal Judaism will open in London today. Delegates from the reform congregations of the United States and several European countries, ministers and laymen, are expected to participate. The majority of the papers to be read at the conference will deal with the fundamental aspects of Liberal Judaism today.

1927: Birthdate of Holocaust survivor Vera Lindeblit, the Berlin native  whose father was murdered at Auschwitz and who gained fame as Vera Stern, the one-time wife of Isaac Stern with whom she helped to save Carnegie Hall from the wrecking ball.

1927: The Hadassah offices in New York City received a cable from Dr. E.M. Bluestone, director of the Hadassah Medical Organization in Palestine stating that “the earthquake situation ‘is well in hand.’” (As reported by William Grimes)

1927: In Los Angeles, CA, electrical engineer Abraham “Abe” Maiman and inventor Rose Abramson gave birth to Theodore Harold "Ted" Maiman the “American engineer and physicist credited with the invention of the first working laser.”

1928 In Cardiff, Wales, Litvaks “Barnett Janner and Elsie Sybil, née Cohen” gave birth to Granville Janner, the Member of Parliament and future Baron Janner of Braunstone whose sister Ruth became Lady Morris of Kenwood.

1929: Critic and producer Mark Helleinger and Gladys Glad got married today.

1929: Birthdate of Juergen Corleis whose mother was Jewish which did not keep him from hiding as a student in an elite SS training school. A 1985 film produced by Corleis is a permanent feature at the Bergen-Belsen memorial, where it has been seen by millions of visitors.

1930: Birthdate of literary critic Harold Bloom. Bloom is the Sterling Professor of Humanities at Yale.  The Bronx born Bloom is reputed to have learned Yiddish and literary Hebrew before he learned English.

1931: “Smart Money” a gangster movie starring Edward G. Robinson (Emanuel Goldenberg) was released in the United States today.

1931: Birthdate of 1950’s teenage heartthrob Tab Hunter.  Born Arthur Klein in New York, Hunter’s parents divorced and he moved to California with his mother and two brothers.  The blond haired, blue eyed Hunter played in a number of B films.  Teen age girls swooned over him, not knowing about his Jewish origins and sexual orientation. 

1933: Birthdate of George R Whyte, a British national who had been born in Budapest and whose greatest claim to fame is his recognition as a “world authority on the Dreyfus Affair.”

1933: In Floral Park, NY, Dr. Abraham and Mrs. Phyllis Neuwirth gave birth to Robert Samuels Neuwirth, “a prominent gynecologist who developed minimally invasive techniques that helped many women avoid hysterectomies.” (As reported by William Yardley.)

1936: A review of What I Left Unsaid by Daisy, Princess of Pless (yes that is the name of a real person) included her observation that “in Soviet Russia Jews ‘are crucifying the Russian peoples as their ancestors crucified Christ.”  Furthermore “for twenty-five years the ‘low, base Jewish profiteers’ who run the moving picture industry have ‘mentally posed the people of the British Empire and have ‘almost destroyed the immense prestige England once enjoyed’ throughout the world” and her solution is that “Great Britain and Germany must unite for the good of mankind.”

1937: Composer George Gershwin passed away. Born in 1898, Gershwin made musical history during his very short lifetime. Among his most famous productions was "Porgy and Bess" a classic whose music is still sung today.

1937: “In Jerusalem, the Arab National Defense issued a manifesto severely condemn the recommendation of the British Royal Commission for splitting Palestine into separate Arab and Jewish states and the creation of a new British mandate controlling the holy cities of Jerusalem, Bethlehem and Nazareth.”

1938: During an appearance in the House of Commons, Colonial Secretary Malcolm MacDonald refused to respond to an inquiry about whether he would ask the French to expel the Grand Mufti from Syria, the base from which he is directing the on-going campaign of violence gripping Palestine.

1941In Liepāja, Latvia, SS-Untersturmführer (Second Lieutenant) Wolfgang Kügler replaced Erhard Grauel, as commander of Einsatzkommando 2 today and continued shooting “small groups of Jews’ every evening.

1941(16th of Tammuz, 5701): Forty-four year old  bond broker, Monroe Mayhoff, who had risen to the rank of Captain while serving in the New York National Guard passed away today. He was the son of Charles Mayhoff and Ameilia Levy Mayhoff who survived both her husband and son.

1941:  Following the murder of most of the Jews at Jedwabne, Poland by the Polish population on the previous days, the Germans reasserted their authority and forbade the Poles from killing any more Jews on their own.

1941: The Gestapo officially took control of the prisons in Riga where “Latvian gangs had already killed a number of Jewish inmates.”

1942: Sixty-four year old artist and designer Friedrich Adler, the native of Laupeheim whose”birthplace is now the Café Hermes, was shipped to Auschwitz today and was killed soon after because he was “judged too old to work.”

1942: This day was called the "Black Sabbath" in Salonica, Greece. Ten thousand men were assembled for forced labor registration by the Germans. Surrounded by machine gun carrying Germans, 7,000 Jews had to stand erect, and sometimes in a squatting position in the 100 degree sun under threat of death nearly all day. An untold number of Jews died because they were beaten, tortured, and deprived of both food and water. Nine thousand of them are assigned to the Organisation Todt labor battalions.

1943: In the early morning hours, airborne troops drop onto Sicily followed by a seaborne assault by troops under the command of Patton and Montgomery in what was known as Operation Husky.  At that time Operation Husky was the largest amphibious assault ever attempted and its success depended on fooling the enemy as to where the landings would take place.  Thanks to Operation Mincemeat, which has been described as the Allies’ most successful act of deception during the war, the Axis forces were taken by surprise.  Operation Mincemeat was masterminded by Captain Ewen Montagu, a member of a prominent British Jewish family who would serve as President of the United Synagogue and Vice President of the Anglo-Jewish Association.  [For more about this fascinating act of deception see a movie called The Man Who Never Was or read Operation Mincemeat.]

1943: Martin Bormann, head of the Nazi Party secretariat, issued a circular on the instructions of Hitler. "Whenever the Jewish question was brought up in public, there may be no discussion of a future overall solution. It may however be mentioned that the Jews are taken in groups for appropriate labor purposes."

1944: “Prime Minister Winston Churchill put an end to the proposal to swap Jews for trucks and other goods with a memo that there should be ‘no negotiations of any kind on this subject.’”

1944: Birthdate of Michael Abraham Levy, “a Labour member of the House of Lords, President of Jewish Care and the Jewish Free School, and formerly the chief fundraiser for the Labour Party and several charities.”

1944: The Nazis liquidated the Kovno Ghetto.

1945: The British High Commissioner caves in to Arab pressure and issues a decree ending the Jerusalem municipality.  He imposed a system of six British officials to administer the city, a system that ended the democratically elected government of Jerusalem.

1946: A Polish primate, Cardinal August Hlond, blames the Jews of Kielce, Poland, for the murderous pogrom that had taken place on July 4.

1947: The SS Exodus, a dilapidated American coastal steamer, left France filled with Jewish refugees who planning on defying the British ban on Jewish immigration to Palestine.  The events surrounding the real SS Exodus would form the nucleus of Exodus by Leon Uris, a novel (and later movie) that provided a sympathetic description of events surrounding the birth of the modern state of Israel.

1948: During “Operation Danny,” Israeli forces captured Lydda.

1948: Birthdate of Norman Lebrecht the native of London known as a controversial music and cultural affairs critic

1950: The New York Times reports that Crown Publishers will distribute “an American edition of Ari Ibn-Zahav’s second novel, David and Bathsheba in 1951.  “The book, on which the author worked nearly seven years covering those places in Israel where the incidents took place was published in Hebrew in Jerusalem in 1929.”  Jessica My Daughter was the name of Ibn-Zahav’s first novel.

1950: Two British planes which had landed at Lydda Airport without permission last week have been released by Israeli and are scheduled to leave Lydda Airport today. The two planes had landed in Israel on July 9 carrying more than 100 Iraqi Jews who had fled to Teheran where they had chartered these two British aircraft.  The planes had been detained because landing rights had been obtained for only one plane.

1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that Israel had been allocated $23.5m. grant-in-aid under the economic part of the US Mutual Security Program for the Middle East. The size of the no-man's-land in Jerusalem had been reduced by marking of the border houses by the joint Israel-Jordan Mixed Armistice Commission. Syria asked Iraq to withdraw all its troops which had been sent to reinforce the Syrian forces during the Hula conflict with Israel.

1952: In New York, Theresa (née Volmer) Lang and Eugene Lang, a prominent entrepreneur and philanthropist gave birth to actor and playwright Stephen Lang, the youngest brother of Jane and David Lang.

1952: “Speaking at a reception given by Labour MPs in honour of a Histadrut delegation of 62 American and Canadian Jews en route to Israel,” “Labour Party leaders praised the courage and enthusiasm of the new State of Israel and said that it would overcome the great odds which it faces.

1955: Susan Strasberg, who was nominated for a Tony for her portrayal of Anne Frank, appeared on the cover of Life Magazine.

1956: Seventy-four year old Vienna born banker Felix Somary who before the Anschluss repeatedly tried to get Baron Louis Nathaniel de Rothschild to leave Austria passed away today.

1958: In Tunisia, one of the last vestiges of this venerable community, The Jewish Community Council in Tunisia was dissolved. The Jewish Community Council was one of the last vestiges of the venerable Tunisian Jewish Community. The Jewish Community in Tunisia traced its roots to the days of the Second Temple. The community began in Carthage, the rival to Rome that you may remember as the homeland of the great general, Hannibal. Soon after the council was dissolved, the Hara, (Jewish quarter) together with the oldest synagogue was destroyed as part of a slum-clearance project.

1958(23rd of Tammuz, 5718): Seventy-six year old Sir Eric Miller the Chairman of the Board of Harrisons and Crosfield who was lifelong champion of the rubber industry passed away today.

1963: Arthur Goldreich, a South African Jew, who helped lead the armed struggle against apartheid in South Africa was among the top 16 ANC leaders who were arrested today at Liliesleaf.  This was the farm where Goldreich posed as the manager while Nelson Mandel masqueraded as his houseboy in their fight against the apartheid government of South Africa.

1961: Birthdate of Ophir Pines-Paz, the native of Rishon LeZion who served as an MK and filled several ministerial posts.

1962(9th of Tammuz, 5722): Fifty-seven year old “Rabbi Maurice B. Perkarsky, the dean of the B’nai B’rith Hillel Foundations staff and director of the Hillel at the University of Chicago passed away today.

1966(23rd of Tammuz, 5726): Poet Delmore Schwartz, the son of Jewish immigrants from Romania passed away.

1966: In Los Angeles, Sandy (née Klein) and Gerry Grunberg gave birth to American television actor Gregory Phillip Grunberg,

1967: The Battle of Rumani a naval engagement that took place tonight between Israeli and Egyptian naval forces, near the vicinity of Rumani. Two Egyptian torpedo boats were sunk in the action for no Israeli losses.

1971(18th of Tammuz, 5731): Tzom Tammuz is observed because the 17th fell on Shabbat.

1972: Second day of The Democratic National Convention which Robert Abrams, the 9th Borough President of the Bronx attended as a delegate from New York.

1972:  Birthdate of actor Michael Rosenbaum whose current claim to fame is his portrayal of Superman’s evil opponent - Lex Luthor.

1973(11th of Tammuz, 5733): Seventy-eight year old jurist Simon Sobeloff who served as Solicitor General passed away today.

1975: “Cleopatra Jones and the Casino of Gold,” a sequel to “Cleopatra Jones” starring Norman Fell was released today in the United States.

1976: The Jerusalem Post reported that Israel told the UN Security Council that the entire Entebbe hijack affair was one of collusion, from beginning to end, on the part of the Ugandan government and Palestinian terrorists. Israeli envoy Chaim Herzog challenged Uganda to produce Mrs. Dora Bloch, who was both a British and Israeli national and was hospitalized in Entebbe the day before the raid. The British official who visited her a day after the raid reported that she was guarded by two plainclothes men and that he was denied access after he returned to meet her again an hour later. The British Foreign Office recalled its high commissioner from Kampala after he received a "totally unacceptable" reply from Idi Amin on the fate of Mrs. Bloch.

1976: In a pre-recorded interview broadcast today on the CBS news program Face the Nation, “Prime Minister Rabin denounced President Amin. ‘For years he has given refuge, assistance, training, support of all kinds to Palestinian terror organizations that worked against Israel.’” He went on to say “that President Amin was a full partner to the hijacking, if not when it began, then certainly in the later stage.” [Note – Rabin’s comments came in the wake of attacks by Uganda, and other nations of sub-Saharan Africa on Israel and implied, if not stated, support for the hijackers. Thirty years later, some of these same states would get a taste of what Israel was dealing with when they began to deal with Al Qaeda and other Moslem terrorists operating in their countries.]

1976: “An all-black cast staged the first Broadway review” of “Guys and Dolls a musical with music and lyrics by Frank Loesser and book by Jo Swerling and Abe Burrows” which  opened with a preview performance today at the Broadway Theatre.

1978: The trial of Anatoly Sharansky continued to a second day.

1983(1st of Av, 5743): Rosh Chodesh Av

1986: In Los Angles “Lee Schwartz, a business consultant to manufacturing companies, and Olivia Goodkin, an attorney” gave birth to Offensive Tackle Geoff Schwartz

1986: As part of the celebrations of the centennial of the Statue of Liberty, Liz Lerman's Still Crossing was performed in Manhattan. The performance, part of a series of dance performances in a show called "Liberty Dances," brought together dancers from both of Lerman's companies: Dancers of the Third Age, a company of elderly dancers, and the younger Dance Exchange. The professional dancers were joined by members of the 92nd Street Y and a YWCA in Brooklyn in a piece that the New York Times reviewer described as simple but moving, with "dignity and eloquence." Choreographer Liz Lerman was educated at the University of Maryland and at George Washington University, where she earned an M.A. in dance. She established the Dance Exchange in Washington, DC, in 1976, as a school that included classes for senior adults and "special populations." After three years, she also launched a touring Dance Exchange company; the school was later closed so that Lerman and the company could focus on creating new works. From the beginning, Lerman's work has been deeply involved in issues of community building and community-based art. Like Dancers of the Third Age, many of her projects have incorporated performers outside of the mainstream dance world. In addition, she has created site-specific projects, including dances celebrating the 200th anniversary of the Portsmouth, NH, naval shipyard. Similarly, many of her dances take on themes of political or social importance. A 1987 program called "Atomic Priests and Other Dances" included a dance based on an official Department of Energy Report about how people 10,000 years from now might deal with nuclear waste. She has also produced what she calls a docudance entitled "Nine Short Dances About the Defense Budget and Other Military Matters." A reviewer has called Lerman "one of the most articulate and compassionate of social commentators in the arts today." Lerman's work has been widely recognized for excellence. Lincoln Center, the American Dance Festival, BalletMet, and the Kennedy Center have all commissioned works. In 1988, Lerman was named Washingtonian of the Year by Washingtonian magazine. She has also received an American Choreographer Award, an American Jewish Congress "Golda" Award, and, in 2002, a MacArthur Fellowship. Today, the Liz Lerman Dance Exchange operates out of Takoma Park, MD, and performs all over the United States and the world. Dancers of the Third Age, which also performs widely, operates as an adjunct company to the Dance Exchange. Current projects include "Prayer as a Radical Act/Radical Action as Prayer," which will be a dance/theatre piece that draws from ancient and contemporary prayer practices to explore unity and division, and "Ferocious Beauty: Genome," which will be a multi-media work exploring the impact of genetic research on our lives.

1987(14th of Tamuz, 5747): Avi Ran, Israeli goalkeeper for Maccabia Haifa died in a boating accident.

1987(14th of Tammuz, 5747): Rabbi Yaakov Yitzchok Ruderman passed away. Born in 1901 at Daŭhinava he “was a prominent Talmudic scholar… who founded and served as Rosh Yeshiva of Yeshiva Ner Yisroel in Baltimore.

1988: Today, Economics Minister Gad Yaacobi said the 7-month Arab uprising has cost Israel more than $600 million, including losses in tourism, exports and production revenues. Defense Minister Yitzhak Rabin said Israel has spent about $160 million to quell the unrest.

1994: The second round of family tours of Israel sponsored by the American Jewish Congress are scheduled to begin today.

1997(6th of Tammuz, 5757): Eighty-five year old Edward Lasker, the son of Albert Davis Lasker, who was a movie producer, thoroughbred racehorse owner and businessman passed away today.

1999: Roman Bronfman and Alexander Tzinker left Yisrael BaAliyah and formed the Democratic Choice faction.

1999(27th of Tammuz, 5759): Seventy-nine year old Everett Greenbaum, the native of Buffalo, NY, who wrote scripts for several movies starring Don Knotts and who wrote script for numerous popular television shows including “Mr. Peepers” and “MASH” passed away today.

1999: The New York Times reviews books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including recently release paperback editions of Explaining Hitler: The Search for the Origins of His Evil” by Ron Rosenbaum and “Between Dignity and Despair: Jewish Life in Nazi Germany”, by Marion A. Kaplan.

2000; Talks opened at Camp David between Yasser Arafat and Ehud Barak under the auspices of Bill Clinton. “Israeli Prime Minsiter, Ehud Barak, tells US President, Bill Clinton, his starting position: Jerusalem would never be shared. Palestinian Chairman, Yasser Arafat, demands half Jerusalem as his capital and Palestinian sovereignty over what the Muslims know as the Haram al-Sharif, which is the Jews' Temple Mount.”


2002: An exhibition entitled “Michael Rovner: The Space Between” opened at the Whitney Museum in New York City.

2000: Yithak Vankin ended his service as Deputy Minister of Communications when Shas resigned from the government today.

2000: Haim Ramon succeeded Natan Sharansky as Internal Affairs Minister.

2000: Eli Suissa completed his service as Minister of Energy and Water Resources

2000: Starting today, President Clinton hosted negotiations between Prime Minister Ehud Barak and Chairman Yassar Arafat aimed at creating “an agreement on permanent status.”

2002: In Helena, Montana, the building that housed Temple Emanu-El which had been dedicated in 1891 “was placed on the National Register of Historic Places” today.,_Montana)#/media/File:Temple_Emanu-El_02.jpg

2003: Kate Remembered by A. Scott Berg  “a biography-cum-memoir detailing his 20-year friendship with the Hollywood actress Katharine Hepburn was published today, 12 days before her death.

2004(22nd of Tammuz, 5764): “Sgt. Ma'ayan Na'im, 19, of Bat Yam, was murdered and 33 others were wounded when a bomb exploded at a bus stop in downtown Tel Aviv at about 7 a.m. One person was critically wounded, four were moderately wounded, and the rest were lightly hurt.”

2004(22nd of Tammuz, 5764): Eighty-two year old fitness guru Joe Gold, the creator of the ubiquitous Gold’s Gyms, passed away today. (As reported by Wolfgang Saxon)

2005: Opening ceremonies for the 17th Maccabiah.

2006: “Grilled” featuring Lisa Edelstein, Michael Rapaport and Barry Newman “was released direct-to-video in the United States today.

2007: Ninety­-two year old American born Canadian businessman, philanthropist and theatrical impresario Ed Mirvish, the owner of Hones Ed’s discount store passed away today.

2007: In Sydney, Australia, the International Conference of Christian and Jews comes to an end.

2008: US Ambassador to Israel Richard Jones leave his post, some three years after taking up the position. He will be replaced by James Cunningham, whose appointment has already been confirmed by the US Senate.

2008: U.S. premiere of “Hellboy II: The Golden Army” produced by Lloyd Levin and Joe Roth, co-starring Ron Perlman, Selma Blair and Jeffrey Tambor and with music by Danny Elfman.

2008: At a conference on the Dead Sea Scrolls at the Orion Center held by the Hebrew University's Mandel Institute of Jewish Studies and the Israel Museum Professor Israel Knohl from the Department of Bible Studies at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem presented a new and surprising interpretation to a text found on a stone tablet that has been called the ''Vision of Gabriel''. According to his interpretation, the word Hayia – or ''will live'' – that appears on the tablet is an old form of the imperative word ''Live!'' and shows that the angel Gabriel resurrected a messianic leader by the name of Sar HaSarin, or ''prince of princes'' three days after his death. The Vision of Gabriel is a text written on stone from the first century B.C.E. that was discovered in Transjordan, and describes an apocalyptic vision that is told by the angel Gabriel. The vision recounts that an evil king will succeed in destroying many of the people of Israel and killing its leader, the ''Prince of Princes''. After three days, this leader will be resurrected by the angel Gabriel. Prof. Knohl, who is the Yehezkel Kauffman Professor of Biblical Studies, suggests reconstructing the words from a fragmented line in the text ''in three days come back to life, angel Gabriel commands you''. Prof. Knohl claims that in this line it is clear that Gabriel is approaching someone and commanding him to come back to life after three days. Prof. Knohl found that development of the tradition regarding the messiah son of Joseph is based on real historic events, and that the belief in the resurrection of the messiah and on his rising up to heaven three days after his death developed before Christ's crucifixion. ''We are able to determine that the period in which the Vision of Gabriel was written was at the end of the first century B.C.E, close in time to the birth of Jesus of Nazareth. The idea that the death of the messiah is an integral part of the salvation process was at the time a commonly held belief among certain circles,'' claims Prof. Knohl. ''Therefore, if there was a Jewish tradition of a messiah who will be resurrected, it is possible to believe that Jesus was the Jewish messiah who goes to his death out of the belief that his spilled blood will cause G-d to bring about the redemption of the Jewish people. This discovery should bring about a renewed appreciation of the parallel development of Jewish and Christian messianism.''

2009: In Tel Aviv, Israel faces Russia in Day 2 of the Davis Cup Quarterfinals.

2009: At the Jerusalem Film Festival, a screening of “Camera Obscura” a film based on a novel by Angélica Gorodisher set at the end of the 19th century, in a colony of Jewish immigrants living in Entre Ríos Province, Argentina.

2010: The final performance of the World Premiere engagement of The Socialization of Ruthie Shapiro is scheduled to take place at Theatre West in Los Angeles.

2010: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Council of Dads: My Daughters, My Illness, and the Men Who Could Be Me by Bruce Feiler and The Men Who Would Be King by Nicole LaPorte which chronicles how Jewish showbiz veterans Steven Spielberg, David Geffen and Jeffrey Katzenberg banded together to form DreamWorks SKG, their own custom-­designed production studio and the first new Hollywood studio in 60 years.

2010: The 70th yahrzeit of Vladimir Ze'ev Jabotinsky was marked today, at Mount Herzl cemetery in Jerusalem, by Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and President Shimon Peres

2011: Nirvana, a dance show from Korea, based on ancient ritual Buddhist dances, is scheduled to performed at the Performing Arts Center in Herzliya

2011: The "Boycott Bill" was approved in its final reading in the Knesset tonight, after a plenum discussion that lasted nearly six hours and uncertainty throughout the day as to whether a vote would take place.

2011: Argentinean Rabbi Sergio Bergman won a seat on the Buenos Aires municipal legislature today, leading the vote tally with 45 percent of the votes.  Bergman garnered triple the number of votes of the candidate who came in second place, Juan Cabandié of the Victory Front Party,  who won 14 percent of the vote.

2011: A leading rabbi and halachic authority in Israel has recognized the Chuetas of Palma de Majorca as Jewish, the Shavei Israel organization announced today. The Chuetas are descended from the Jewish inhabitants of the Spanish island of Majorca who suffered extreme oppression in the Middle Ages, until by 1435 all of them had been killed or forcibly converted to Catholicism. Because the Chuetas are related to the previous generations and married among themselves they should be considered Jewish, Shavei Israel Chairman Michael Freund told reporters that Rabbi Nissim Karlewitz, chairman of the Beit Din Tzedek (rabbinical court) in Bnei Brak, wrote in a letter to the organization. “Since it has become clear that it is accepted among them [the Chuetas] that throughout the generations most of them married among themselves, then all those who are related to the former generations are Jews, from our brethren the children of Israel, the nation of God,” Karlewitz wrote. “We, the Jewish people, have a responsibility to the Chuetas,” Freund told The Jerusalem Post. “Their ancestors were kidnapped from us and taken against their will six centuries ago. The Inquisition sought to quash their Jewish identity down through the ages and we are coming here today to say that the Inquisition did not succeed. Jews are still here and the Chuetas are still here, and the best revenge on the Inquisition would be to bring as many of these people as possible back to their roots and back to their people.” Despite having been converted, the Chuetas – whose name comes from the Catalan word for pig – continued to face intense discrimination and oppression, and were not allowed to marry Catholics or adopt certain professions. Because of the ban on intermarriage, the Chuetas almost exclusively married within their own community. “Although there is no actual discrimination any longer against Chuetas, on a societal level many feel ostracized and to a certain extent outsiders,” Freund said. “Acceptance of the Chuetas over the past 40 years has grown, which is positive, but brings with it a greater danger of assimilation, which is why the timing of this announcement is so important.” Karelitz’s decision refers to the Chuetas as a collective, and for anyone wanting to return in full to the Jewish community it will be necessary for a rabbinical court to speak with the individual. According to Freund, many of the Chuetas have documentation attesting to their family lines, often going back 500 years. “There are 15 distinct Chueta family names. Because of the historical circumstances and because of the endogamy practices, it is relatively easy to document and prove their genealogy,” Freund said. In May, the president of the Balearic Islands province of Spain, Francesc Antich, attended a memorial service in the Majorcan capital of Palma commemorating the execution in 1691 of 37 Chuetas for practicing Judaism in secret, including Rabbi Rafael Valls, the secret rabbi of the Chuetas who, along with two others, was burned alive. Antich condemned the “grave injustice” done against the Chuetas, the first time an official from Majorca had condemned such events. “The recognition of their Jewishness was received with great happiness and joy, some people at the announcement burst into tears, because they now know the Jewish people are aware of them and feel a kinship with them,” Freund said of the press conference on Monday. Rabbi Nissan Ben-Avraham, who is of Chuetas origin and works for Shavei Israel in Palma de Majorca, will be joining with the Arachim outreach organization to provide a program of lessons in Hebrew, Jewish history, culture and religion for the Chuetas. “We are not coming here to tell people how to live their lives, we are just presenting them with an option. Those who wish to return to the Jewish people will now have opportunity to do so and will be welcomed back with open arms. Our goal is to help as many as possible to return to their Jewish roots,” Freund said.

2011: A four-alarm fire broke out tonight at an Upper East Side synagogue, Congregation Kehilath Jeshurun, which was being renovated, spitting flames through stained-glass windows, destroying the roof and heavily damaging the upper floors, the Fire Department said.

2011: Aaron “Swartz was indicted by a federal grand jury on charges of wire fraud, computer fraud, unlawfully obtaining information from a protected computer and recklessly damaging a protected computer.”

2012: While it is said that “wine gladdens the hear” the Historic 6th & I Synagogue in Washington, DC turns its attention to another form of fermented refreshment tonight when it is scheduled to host “Summer Brews: A Season Tasting with The Beer Activist.”

2012: The 92nd Street Y is scheduled to present “Saving America’s Working Class” – a discussion with James Carville and Stan Greenberg.”  (Guess which one is not Jewish)

2012: In Jerusalem, Dalik Voloniz is scheduled to moderate “Destruction and Hope,” a pre–Tisha B’Av event that combines discussion, song, and music.

2012: Former US secretary of state Condoleezza Rice today confirmed the accuracy of her account of a 2008 meeting with Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas in which he had told her why he couldn’t accept then-Israeli prime minister Ehud Olmert’s terms for a permanent Israeli-Palestinian peace accord. In an interview over the weekend, Abbas had denied that the conversation Rice described and quoted in her memoir had taken place at all.

2012(21st of Tammuz, 5772): Eighty-seven year old author Donald J. Sobol passed away today.(As reported by Denise Grady)

2012: A meeting between Vice Prime Minister Moshe Ya’alon and MK Yohanan Plesner focused on drafting universal conscription legislation ended today with the two sides unable to come together, and with Plesner storming out.

2012(21st of Tammuz, 5772):Eighty-seven year old ” Marvin S. Traub, the retailing impresario who transformed Bloomingdale’s from a stodgy Upper East Side family department store into a trendsetting international showcase of style and showmanship in the 1970s and ’80s” passed away today. (As reported by Robert D McFadden)

2013: “The Longest Journey – The Last Days of the Jews of Rhodes” is scheduled to be shown at the 30th Jerusalem Film Festival.

2013: In San Francisco, the Contemporary Jewish Museum is scheduled to host an examination of the life of Allen Ginsberg entitled “The Beat Generation with Biographer Bill Morgan and Poet David Meltzer”

2013: The Wiener Library for the Study of the Holocaust & Genocide and the International Study Group for Education and Research on Anti-Semitism are scheduled to sponsor a workshop that seeks to analyze “the University and College Union, Anti-Semitism and the boycotts campaigns against Israel”

2013: The UKJF is scheduled to sponsor a screening of “Salsa Tel Aviv” preceded by a free salsa class.

2013: In the second such attack in two days, this evening a uniformed soldier was assaulted in the capital by fellow haredim opposed to ultra- Orthodox army service. According to Police spokesman Micky Rosenfeld, around 6:30 p.m., while the soldier was walking alone on Shmuel Hanavi Street, the assailants drove up and began cursing him and throwing objects at him without provocation. (As reported by Daniel K. Eisenbud and Jeremy Sharon)

2013: The Dallas Mavericks signed Gal Mekel a native of Ramat HaSharon to a three-year minimum fully guaranteed contract, and he became the second Israeli to join the NBA

2013: Egypt is reported to be prepared to ask Israel for permission, under the terms of their decade’s long peace treaty, to enter the Sinai with such sufficient forces “to launch a broad campaign to root out Islamic extremists in the largely wild peninsula.” (As reported by Asher Zeiger)

2013(4th of Av, 5773): Eighty-six year old Reuven Helman, a Weightlifting Champion, hero of the 1948 War for Independence and follower of the Lubavitcher Rebbe passed away today.

2014: Members of SHINDC (Sephardic Heritage in DC) are scheduled to lead a service spiced with Sephardi traditions, melodies, and practices, followed by a Persian (Iranian) dinner at the Historic 6th & I Synagogue.

2014: John and Susan Nicholson are scheduled to play at the Summer Kaleidoscope Music Series in Milwaukee which begins after Shabbat eve services.

2014: A group of anti-Israel hackers who support the Palestinian terrorists are scheduled to launch a large-scale cyber-attack on Israel with a denial of service (DDOS) Attack. (As reported by David Shamah)

2014: “At least one rocket fired from southern Lebanon exploded early this morning in an open area near Metula, Israel's most northern town sitting on the Lebanese border.” (As reported by Roi Kais and Itay Blumenthal)

2014: “Rocket fire on Israel from Gaza continued tonight as Israel went into the Sabbath.

2014: “The Israel Air Force targeted a meeting of senior terrorists in the Gaza Strip, the IDF said tonight, after a day of Israeli air strikes in Gaza and Gazan rockets on Israel.”

2015: The new documentary about Amy Winehouse which was first shown at the Cannes Film Festival is scheduled to be shown today at the Jerusalem Film Festival.

2015: The Eden-Tamir Music Center is scheduled to host the Ensemble Concertante.

2015: Larry and Mindy are scheduled to perform at Ornament Harmonya Gallery in Jaffa.

2016: Maxwell Wiley of State Supreme Court in Manhattan, is to rule on a series of evidentiary issues in the case in which Pedro Hernandez is charged with killing of Etan Patz, the 6 year old Jewish boy who vanished in 1979.

2016: “Weiner” a documentary about the disgraced New York Congressman whose wife is a close confidante of Hillary Clinton is scheduled to be shown at the Jerusalem Film Festival.

2017: Russ and Daughters is scheduled to celebrate the New Catch Holland Herring Season which includes New Catch Holland trays certified as kosher by the Chief Rabbinate of Holland at the Astor Center today, a month after holding such a celebration at the Jewish Museum.

2017: “Tribe is scheduled to come together to practice mindfulness in a session that will include mindfulness readings, guided meditation, and discussion for the purpose of being present in the moment as a community” at Congregation Rodeph Sholom in NYC.

2017: “A tournament named after” Holocaust survivor and wrestler Josef Roytman “who can be credit with the Russian martial art Sambo to Israel” “in honor of the 20th Maccabiah Games is scheduled to take place in Bat Yam today “with participants from the world Sambo team, Maccabi Russia, and the Israeli team all competing for the Josef Roytman medal.”

2017: The YIVO Institute for Jewish Research is scheduled to host a screening of “The Muses of Bashevis Singer” followed by a Question and Answer session with Director Asaf Galay.

2017(17th of Tammuz, 5777): Tzom Tammuz






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