Sunday, July 9, 2017

This Day, July 10, In Jewish History by Mitchell A. Levin

July 10

48 BCE: In his war with Pompey, Julius Caesar barely avoids defeat at the Battle of Dyrrhachium.  A month later, after regrouping his forces, Caesar defeated Pompey at the Battle of Pharsalus.  While neither of the Roman leaders were candidates for humanitarian of the year, Caesar was the better of the two; certainly from a Jewish point of view.  Pompey had shown his contempt for the Jews when he desecrated the Holy of Holies.  Caesar, on the other hand, took a benevolent attitude towards the Jews and did not mistreat them.

138: The Roman Emperor Hadrian died. From a Jewish perspective, Hadrian would have to rank as one of the worst of the Roman Emperors.  He triggered the Bar Kochbah Revolt with his anti-Jewish decrees that included a ban on circumcision and the announcement that he was going to build a Temple to Jupiter in Jerusalem thus turning the sacred city of the Jews into a pagan shrine. The three year long rebellion was a savage one at the end of which over half a million Jewish rebels were killed.  Furthermore so many towns and villages were laid waste that home of the Jews became a veritable wasteland.  While the Romans may have one the victory must have been a hollow one since, when making his report to the Senate, Hadrian omitted that standard victory statement, “I am my army are well.”  Hadrian took his vengeance on the Jews.  He had a Torah scroll burned on the Temple Mount.  He renamed Jerusalem Aelia Capitolina and changed the name of the country from Judea to Syria Palestina. We are reminded of Hadrian’s evil each year at the High Holiday season when we remember the martyrs who slain by him for continuing to teach the Torah.  Ironically, Hadrian’s handpicked successor would repeal many of Hadrian’s anti-Semitic decrees.  But the damage was one and the fate of the Jews of in Eretz Israel continued on a downward spiral.

988: The City of Dublin is founded on the banks of the river Liffey. Since the earliest mention of Jews dates from 1079, there were no Jews among the founders.  During the first half of the 20th century the Portobello section of Dublin was known as Little Jerusalem because it was the center of the Irish Jewish community.  Ironically, the most famous Jewish “citizen” of Little Jerusalem never really lived there because he was “Leopold Bloom, the fictional Jewish character at the heart of the James Joyce novel Ulysses, lived at 52 Clanbrassil Street Upper.”

1236: In Anjou, France, “crusading monks trampled three thousand Jews to death and destroyed the community.” (The History of the Jewish People)

1290: King Ladislaus IV of Hungary died. His reign was not one of the high points in the history of Hungarian Jewry. The Synod of Buda which was held during his reign decreed that every Jew appearing in public should wear on the left side of his upper garment a piece of red cloth; that any Christian transacting business with a Jew not so marked, or living in a house or on land together with any Jew, should be refused admittance to the Church services; and that a Christian entrusting any office to a Jew should be excommunicated.

1391: As news of the Spanish riots reached Majorca, riots broke out all over the island. Despite the efforts of Francisco Sa Garriga, the local viceroy, in many towns the entire Jewish community was destroyed and its inhabitants either converted or murdered. Over 110 families converted; the remnants fled to North Africa. Although the following year a number Jews were again invited to reside there, a blood libel 40 years later ended the 800-year old Jewish community.

1509: Birthdate of Protestant religious leader and theologian John Calvin.  According to at least one commentator, Calvin “generally had a more benevolent view of the Jews” than did other Protestant reformers such as Martin Luther.  “Although at times his remarks could be acerbic, he nevertheless taught that the Bible indicated a time when Israel would be restored by coming to faith in their Messiah.  In speaking about the Jews, Calvin said,  "I extend the word Israel to all the people of God, according to this meaning, ­When the Gentiles shall come in, the Jews also shall return from their defection to the obedience of faith; and thus shall be completed the salvation of the whole Israel of God, which must be gathered from both; and yet in such a way that the Jews shall obtain the first place, being as it were the first born in God's family.” “As Jews are the firstborn, what the Prophet declares must be fulfilled, especially in them: for that scripture calls all the people of God Israelites, it is to be ascribed to the pre-eminence of that nation, who God had preferred to all other nations...God distinctly claims for himself a certain seed, so that his redemption may be effectual in his elect and peculiar nation...God was not unmindful of the covenant which he had made with their fathers, and by which he testified that according to his eternal purpose he loved that nation: and this he confirms by this remarkable declaration, ­that the grace of the divine calling cannot be made void." One of the issues confronting Christians was the determination of the proper age for Baptism.  Calvin believed in the baptism of infants.  He saw baptism as analogous to circumcision – a rite by which the child is sealed in the faith of his fathers.  Since God had ordained circumcision for Jewish infants, it was obvious that He intended for Christian to undergo their version of the ritual as infants as well.

1548: Eighteen hundred marranos were released from the prisons of the Portuguese Inquisition

1733: George Frederick Handel conducted the premiere performance of “Athalia” at the Sheldonian Theatre in Oxford, UK. This was one of many times that the German born British musical giant used Jewish Biblical tales as the theme for his musical masterpieces. In this case, his work was based on the literary masterpiece by Racine which is fairly accurate depiction of this Jewish Lady Macbeth.

1767: George Goldsmid married Rebecca Cohen in Amersfoort, Holland.

1778: The French King, Louis XVI, allies his nation with the American revolutionaries and declares war on Great Britain. French support of the newly created United States was a decisive factor in the success of the American Revolution which gave birth to a nation that has provided Jews with unparalleled opportunities for success and safety.  At the same time, the king’s support of the American cause helped to bankrupt France; a bankruptcy which was a key element in bringing about the French Revolution which changed France into a land where Jews were able to flourish during the 19th and first half of the 20th century.   

1781(17th of Tammuz, 5541): Tzom Tammuz

1781: Esther Mordecai and Philip Moses Russell who “was a surgeon’s mate at Valley Forge during the Revolutionary War” gave birth to Zipporah Russell who married Isaac D. Mordecai and became Zipporah Russell Mordecai the mother of Isaac, John and Samuel Mordecai.

1782: In Mogador, Morocco, “Eliahu Ha’Levi ibn Yuli a Shab as-Sultan (a court Jew) to Mohammed ben Abdallah, Sultan Sidi Muhammed III” and his wife gave birth to Moses Elias Levy, the father of David Levy Yulee, the future U.S. Senator from the state of Florida.

1829: Birthdate of Filosseno (Philoxene) Luzzatto, an Italian scholar, who devoted himself to the study of Sanskrit and Semitic Languages. A native of Trieste, he was the son of Samuel David Luzzatto

1830: Birthdate of Camille Pissarro. Of Sephardic extraction, he became an important Impressionist painter and teacher. He mostly painted the busy streets of Paris and landscapes. He was associated with Monet and Corot. In the last years of his life he achieved recognition, and although suffering from an eye ailment painted 160 works in the last three years of his life.

1835: In Lublin, Tadeusz Wieniawski, Sr. and Regina Wieniawska gave birth to Henryk Wieniawski the husband of Izabella Wieniawska.

1837: Thirty-four year old Moritz Moses Jacob von Goldschmidt and Anna Netti von Goldschmidt gave birth to Theodor von Goldschmidt.

1839(28th of Tammuz, 5599): Seventy-two year old Philadelphia native Joseph Mordecai the third son of Moses and Elizabeth “Esther” Mordecai and the husband of Esther “Hetty” Marache the daughter of Solomon and Rebecca Marche who had lived in Virginia and South Carolina passed away today in Charleston.

1845: John Cuffe, 3rd Earl of Desart, and Lady Elizabeth Lucy Campbell gave birth to William Cuffe, 4th Earl of Desart who married Ellen Odette Cuffe, Countess of Desart, the daughter of German banker Henri Louis Bischoffsheim who has been described as “the most important Jewish woman in Irish history.”

1849: The United States Department of the Interior is established. Joel D. Wolfsohn who served as Assistant Secretary of the Department from in the final months of the Truman Administration appears to be the highest ranking Jew to have served at the Department of the Interior. He served from July 10, 1952 through February 20, 1953.

1850: Millard Fillmore is inaugurated as the 13th President of the United States upon the death of President Zachary Taylor, 16 months into his term. In 1851, Fillmore expressed his opposition to ratifying a treaty with Switzerland that would allow the Swiss to discriminate against American Jews.  The Senate did not ratify the treaty. In 1852, Fillmore became the first President to try and appoint a Jew to the Supreme Court when he offered the position to Judah P. Benjamin, the U.S. Senator from Louisiana.  Benjamin declined the offer.

1855: Birthdate of Isaac Newton Seligman, the New York born son of Joseph Seligman who was an “American banker and communal worker.” Educated at Columbia Grammar School and Columbia College, from which he graduated in 1876, Seligman was one of the crew which won the university eight-oar college race on Saratoga Lake in 1874. In 1878, after having finished an apprenticeship in the firm of Seligman & Hellman, New Orleans, he joined the New York establishment, of which he became head in 1880, on the death of his father. A trustee of nineteen important commercial, financial, and other institutions and societies, including the Munich Life Assurance Company, St. John's Guild, and the McKinley Memorial Association, and he has also been a member of the Committee of Seventy, of Fifteen, and of Nine, each of which attempted at various times to reform municipal government in New York; of the last-named body he was chairman. He has served as a trustee of Temple Emanu-El, the Hebrew Orphan Asylum and the United Hebrew Charities. (From the Jewish Encyclopedia)

1857: The correspondent for the New York Times writes from London today that the House of Lords will vote tonight on the “Jew Bill” and if it is rejected, Rothschild will resign immediately.

1862: The foundation stone was laid today on Chichester Road for the Bayswater Synagogue.

1864: Carl-Hyman Marcuse and Sophie Lewis, the parents of Wyatt Earp’s mistress Sadie Marcus, gave birth to Henrietta Marcus.

1865: “Miscellaneous: The Jews In the Papal States” published today reported that “The Vicar-General of Velletri has issued an order permitting Jews to remain ten days in that town upon lawful and honest business. During that time they must net return to their lodgings later than 1 o'clock in the morning, or leave before dawn. They are forbidden to approach all monasteries, academics and other pious places under episcopal jurisdiction, and in their intercourse and conversation with Christians they are to refrain from familiarity. The violation of any of these dispositions is to be punished by imprisonment and a fine of five crowns, to be applied to pious establishments.”

1865: The party under the command of Captain Charles Wilson that had made the most recent and most accurate survey of Jerusalem arrived in England.

1866: “In the village Shekhman, Tambov Governorate in Russia (now Tambov Oblast),” French surgeon Serge Abrahamovitch Voronoff, the son of “Abram Veniaminovich Voronov, a distiller and Rachel-Esther Lipsky was circumcised today in a synagogue.

1871: In Brooklyn, Nathan May and Matilda Mulhauser gave birth to Columbia School graduate Mitchell May, the Congressman from the 6th New York Congressional District, Secretary of State of New York, state Supreme Court Justice and husband of Pauline Joli.

1871: Birthdate of French author Marcel Proust.  The following excerpt from “Marcel Proust” provides an interesting insight into Proust’s Jewish origins and his literary treatment of his ancestors on his mother’s side. “Marcel Proust was the son of a Christian father and a Jewish mother. He himself was baptized (on August 5, 1871, at the church of Saint-Louis d'Antin) and later confirmed as a Catholic, but he never practiced that faith and as an adult could best be described as a mystical atheist, someone imbued with spirituality who nonetheless did not believe in a personal God, much less in a savior. Although Jews trace their religion through their mothers, Proust never considered himself Jewish and even became vexed when a newspaper article listed him as a Jewish author. His father once warned him not to stay in a certain hotel since there were "too many" Jewish guests there, and, to be sure, in Remembrance of Things Past there are unflattering caricatures of the members of one Jewish family, the Blochs. Jews were still considered exotic, even "oriental," in France; in 1872 there were only eighty-six thousand Jews in the whole country. In a typically offensive passage Proust writes that in a French drawing room "a Jew making his entry as though he were emerging from the desert, his body crouching like a hyena's, his neck thrust forward, offering profound `salaams,' completely satisfies a certain taste for the oriental."  Proust never refers to his Jewish origins in his fiction, although in the youthful novel he abandoned, Jean Santeuil (first published only in 1952, thirty years after his death), there is a very striking, if buried, reference to Judaism. The autobiographical hero has quarreled with his parents and in his rage deliberately smashed a piece of delicate Venetian glass his mother had given him. When he and his mother are reconciled, he tells her what he has done: "He expected that she would scold him, and so revive in his mind the memory of their quarrel. But there was no cloud upon her tenderness. She gave him a kiss, and whispered in his ear: `It shall be, as in the Temple, the symbol of an indestructible union.'" This reference to the rite of smashing a glass during the Orthodox Jewish wedding ceremony, in this case sealing the marriage of mother to son, is not only spontaneous but chilling. In an essay about his mother he referred, with characteristic ambiguity, to "the beautiful lines of her Jewish face, completely marked with Christian sweetness and Jansenist resignation, turning her into Esther herself"--a reference, significantly, to the heroine of the Old Testament (and of Racine's play), who concealed her Jewish identity until she had become the wife of King Ahasuerus and was in a position to save her people. The apparently gentile Proust, who had campaigned for Dreyfus and had been baptized Catholic, was a sort of modern Esther.  Despite Proust's silences and lapses on the subject of his mother's religion, it would be unfair, especially in light of the rampant anti-Semitism of turn-of-the-century France, to say that he was unique or even extreme in his prejudice against Jews. And yet his anti-Semitism is more than curious, given his love for his mother and given, after her death, something very much like a religious cult that he developed around her. His mother, out of respect for her parents, had remained faithful to their religion, and Proust revered her and her relatives; after her death he regretted that he was too ill to visit her grave and the graves of her parents and uncle in the Jewish cemetery and to mark each visit with a stone. More important, although he had many friends among the aristocracy whom he had assiduously cultivated, nevertheless when he was forced to take sides during the Dreyfus Affair, which had begun in 1894 and erupted in 1898, he chose to sign a petition prominently printed in a newspaper calling for a retrial. The Dreyfus Affair is worth a short detour, since it split French society for many years and it became a major topic in Proust's life--and in Remembrance of Things Past. Alfred Dreyfus (1859-1935) was a Jew and a captain in the French army. In December 1894 he was condemned by a military court for having sold military secrets to the Germans and was sent for life to Devil's Island. The accusation was based on the evidence of a memorandum stolen from the German embassy in Paris (despite the fact that the writing did not resemble Dreyfus's) and of a dossier (which was kept classified and secret) handed over to the military court by the minister of war. In 1896 another French soldier, Major Georges Picquart, proved that the memorandum had been written not by Dreyfus but by a certain Major Marie Charles Esterhazy. Yet Esterhazy was acquitted and Picquart was imprisoned. Instantly a large part of the population called for a retrial of Dreyfus. On January 13, 1898, the writer Emile Zola published an open letter, "J'accuse," directed against the army's general staff; Zola was tried and found guilty of besmirching the reputation of the army. He was forced to flee to England. Then in September 1898 it was proved that the only piece of evidence against Dreyfus in the secret military dossier had been faked by Joseph Henry, who confessed his misdeed and committed suicide. At last the government ordered a retrial of Dreyfus. Public opinion was bitterly divided between the leftist Dreyfusards, who demanded "justice and truth," and the anti-Dreyfusards, who led an anti-Semitic campaign, defended the honor of the army, and rejected the call for a retrial. The conflict led to a virtual civil war. In 1899 Dreyfus was found guilty again, although this time under extenuating circumstances--and the president pardoned him. Only in 1906 was Dreyfus fully rehabilitated, named an officer once again, and decorated with the Legion of Honor. Interestingly, Theodor Herzl, the Paris correspondent for a Viennese newspaper, was so overwhelmed by the virulent anti-Semitism of the Dreyfus Affair that he was inspired by the prophetic idea of a Jewish state.  In defending Dreyfus, Proust not only angered conservative, Catholic, pro-army aristocrats, but he also alienated his own father. In writing about the 1890s in Remembrance of Things Past, Proust remarks that "the Dreyfus case was shortly to relegate the Jews to the lowest rung of the social ladder." Typically, the ultraconservative Gustave Schlumberger, a great Byzantine scholar, could give in his posthumous memoirs as offensive a description of his old friend Charles Haas (a model for Proust's character Swann) as this: "The delightful Charles Haas, the most likeable and glittering socialite, the best of friends, had nothing Jewish about him except his origins and was not afflicted, as far as I know, with any of the faults of his race, which makes him an exception virtually unique." It would be misleading to suggest that Proust took his controversial, pro-Dreyfus stand simply because he was half-Jewish. No, he was only obeying the dictates of his conscience, even though he lost many highborn Catholic friends by doing so and exposed himself to the snide anti-Semitic accusation of merely automatically siding with his co-religionists.”

1876: The New York Times featured a review of Clarel: A Poem and Pilgrimage in the Holy Land a two volume American epic poem by Herman Melville, “Clarel,” the longest poem in American literature, is divided into four parts – Jerusalem, The Wilderness, Mar Saba, Bethlehem – and epilogue.

1877: According to reports circulating on Wall Street today, Mr. Gabriel Netter “of the Jewish banking house of Netter & Co…had received a letter from Saratoga signed ‘Wilkinson,’ saying that the Grand Union Hotel proprietors would be happy to extend all the accommodations the hotel affords to Mr. Netter and his family.”  Mr. Netter refused to confirm or deny if he had received such a letter.  But, if he had, he had no intention of responding.

1877: In Berlin, Harry and Caroline Breslau gave birth to Ernst Ludwig Bresslau

1877: The fourth council of the Union of American Hebrew Congregation opened this morning at St. George’s Hall in Philadelphia and as the first order of business elected B.F. Peixtto President.

1878: Approximately 300 people attended a banquet at the Plankinton House given by the Jews of Milwaukee in honor of the delegates of the Hebrew Council meeting here.

1879: Mr. William B. Hackenburg, President of the Sixth Council of the Union of American and Hebrew Congregations, called the morning session of the Council to order at 9:30 A. M. today. Dr. Samuel Hirsch of Philadelphia delivered the opening prayer.  Among other matters of business, the delegates debated whether or not to fund a project that would raise money for the purchase of land so that Jewish immigrants could become farmers.

1879: Delegates to the Sixth Council of the Union of American and Hebrew Congregations hold a banquet at Delmonico’s for which “a competent Jewish caterer has been engaged to supervise the preparation of the dinner.”

1881: The New York Times published an extensive review of Poems and Ballads of Heinrich Heine translated by Emma Lazarus.  The reviewer does not see any irony in the work of the apostate Jew being translated by a leading American Jewish poetess.

1881: It was reported today that Sir Edward Poynter is about to begin another of his larger than life historical paintings which is titled “Visit of the Queen of Sheba to Solomon.” The canvas will be 8 feet by 5 feet depicting the queen ascending the steps to the throne of the Jewish monarch.  [Note – Poynter had already drawn on Jewish themes when he painted “Israel in Egypt” in 1867.

1881: “German Army Volunteers” published today provided a detailed account of the recruiting and service paradigms in the Kaiser’s military including the fact that “the sons of Jews, seldom, if ever compete for commissions because they know they could not get them.”

1881: It was reported today that Tavistock House, the home for many years of Charles Dickens, has been purchased by Jews’ College a twenty-five year old day school in London that was established as a day school for training rabbis.

1882: This morning, 250 Jewish exiles arrived in St. Louis, MO. These European refugees, who have terrible tales to tell about their treatment in the Old World, are destitute so they are being cared for by a local committee of their coreligionists.

1882: It was reported today that the first free excursion-boat trip of the season sponsored by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children will take place later week.

1883: The SS Lydian Monarch arrived in New York from London.  Among the passengers were five Jewish families from Poland.  According to these passengers, their tickets had been paid for by either the Hebrew Society in London or the Hebrew Ladies’ Society of London.  While the English Jews had provided them with passage, they had not given them any more money which meant that they were destitute. The new arrivals have no one in the United States to sponsor them.

1883: An announcement was made today in Nyreghhaza, Hungary at the trial of the Jews who have been charged with murdering a Christian girl, that a coachman who was an important witness for the defense has committed suicide.

1883: Lipman Levi presided over the opening session of the 10th annual council of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations.  Two hundred and fifty delegates representing approximately 125 congregations filled Eureka Hall in Cincinnati, Ohio where the first order of business was to choose permanent officers to serve the Union in the coming year.

1886: Birthdate of Joseph Bruce Perskie, the native of Alliance, NY, graduate of Penn law school, state Supreme Court judge and an officer of the Federation of Jewish Federation of Jewish Charities and B’nai B’rith.

1887(18th of Tammuz, 5647): Fast of Tammuz observed since the 17th fell on Shabbat

1887: It was reported today that the Sanitarium for Hebrew children has raised $1,779 so far this year so it can provide free boating excursions for poor children and their mothers living in the tenements of the Lower East Side.

1888: “Mr. B.F. Peixotto of New York, who delivered the oration at the dedication of the Jewish Orphan Asylum” in Cleveland “20 years ago, will deliver the oration today at the dedication of the new building just completed at a cost of $200,000.”

1889: A spirited debate took place this morning at the Hebrew Union Convention in Detroit over whether or not there should be a special Jewish celebration of the upcoming 400th anniversary of the discovery of America which is to take place in 1892.  Josiah Cohen of Pittsburgh spoke on behalf of the eastern delegates, most of whom favored a uniquely Jewish celebration.  Israel Cohen of Chicago spoke on behalf of the western delegates, most of whom favored participation in the celebrations planned by the secular society and saw no need for a special Jewish event. In the end, the convention voted to adopt the report of a committee that had been formed to study the matter and had state that a uniquely Jewish celebration was “inexpedient,” “unnecessary” and “would be entirely out of place.”

1889: “The Hebrew Council” published today described a meeting of the Sunday School Union which listened to a report by Dr. Mielziner,  the Professor of Talmudic Literature at Hebrew Union College.

1889: “Need Hebrews Apply?” published today described the on-going controversy surrounding the nomination of state Senator Jacob A. Cantor for membership in the exclusive Harlem Club. While some expressed the opinion that if the members could vote on the nomination a majority would support Cantor enough of the members supported the sentiment that “in this club we draw the line at Hebrews” that there were more than enough “blackballs” available to defeat Cantor’s nomination.

1889: After registering at the Brunswick Hotel and going to her rooms at the fashionable Brunswick Hotel in Ocean Beach, NJ, Mrs. Joseph Davis was told by the proprietor that he had learned that she was Jewish.  Since it was the policy of the hotel not to rent to Jews, she and her children would have to leave the hotel.  He told her she could stay the night but she left immediately and took shelter at the cottage of leather merchant Moses Strauss.

1890:  Wyoming becomes the 44th state to join the Union.  Wyoming had granted women the right to vote in 1869 while it was still a territory.  When it joined the union, it was the first state to give women the right to vote.  Two of those who took advantage of this political power and the “freer ambiance” were Bertha Frank Myers of Cheyenne and her daughter Elsie.  Bertha Myers was a native New Yorker who came to Cheyenne in 1873 as the bride of a prominent merchant, William Myers.  Bertha was known as an expert horsewoman, bicyclist and the first motorist in Cheyenne.   The mother of four was active in civic and Jewish communal fairs.  She was a driving force in the fundraising for Cheyenne’s first Reform Temple.  She also started the local Sunday School in which she and her daughter served as teachers for twenty years.

1890: “Anxious For Arbitration” published today described the fight between the cloak manufacturers and their employees” which James H. Hoffman, Hyman Blum and M.W. Platzek of the United Hebrew Charities have offered to serve as intermediaries in an attempt to reach a settlement.

1890: Daniel Frohman, the manager of the Lyceum Theatre, who has been in Europe for the last month resting and gathering new material for his productions, spent a few hours at his office for the first time since the end of May.

1890: As of this date, contributions totaling $4,862.25 have been received by the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children to provide free summer excursions

1891: It was reported today that for the fiscal year ending on June 30, 1891, 405,654 immigrants arrived in New York of whom 33,504 were from Russia “most of whom were Jews.”

1892: It was reported today that “Max Margolis of Wilna, Berlin and Columbia College” will present a series of lectures this summer on “Jewish Literature From the Close of the Scripture Canon to the Close of the Talmud” which covers a period from 100 BCE to 600 CE.

1892: The alumni of the Hebrew Union College will have a re-union this afternoon at Temple Beth-El in New York City

1892: The third annual Convention of American Rabbis will end with an evening session at Temple Israel in Harlem.

1892: “L'Osservatore Romano, the Vatican's official newspaper, carries an article supporting the ancient myth that Jews kill Christians for their blood.”

1893: “A Lively Week For Germany” published today described the opening of the new Reichstag in which “the Jew-baiter” Hermann Ahlwardt is sitting next to “Liebermann von Sonnenberg, his Anti-Semitic colleague.

1894: Samuel Gompers expressed his support for the striking Pullman workers.  He said that if Pullman’s claim that the company  could not raise their pay because they were building the railway cars below cost merely to provide work for their laborers were true, Pullman had no reason to fear submitting the issues to arbitration.

1894: Samuel Gompers is leaving on the evening New York Central train for Chicago where he will be attending the meeting of the Executive Council of the American Federation of Labor.

1894: “Lecture To East Side Mothers” published today described a lecture delivered by Dr. Solotaroff at the Hebrew Institute in which he emphasized “the value of sterilized mile and the reasons why it is to be preferred to boiled and plain milk.”

1895: Dr. Max Landsberg and Dr. Gustav Gottheil are scheduled to be the first speakers at the opening session of the annual Central Conference of American Rabbis which opens tonight in Rochester, NY

1895: The will of Moses Heidelbach was filed for probate in the Surrogate’s office today.

1895: Birthdate of Nahum Goldman, the native of “Vishnevo, Russian Empire, a shtetl in the Pale of Settlement (now Vishnyeva, Belarus”  “the founder and longtime President of the World Jewish Congress who attended the Tenth Zionist Congress with his father while still a high school student.

1895: “Schools Before Christ’s Times” published today provided a detailed review of Historical Survey of Pre-Christian Education by S.S. Laure which included the observation that among the Romans and Greeks “there was apparently no conception that education was…a human right” and that it was only for the aristocrat.  But in other places, including Judea, theoretically nothing stood “between the lowest member of the community and the best the State could offer in the way of education except poverty.”

1896: It was reported today that 77 year old Isaac Bramfield will not survive the gunshot wound he sustained when he was accidentally shot by William Johnson.

1897: Well-known attorney and author Daniel Greenleaf Thompson, a non-Jew who was a member of the Jewish Historical Society passed away today.

1898: Three days after she had passed away at the age of 73, Hanna Barder, the wife of Louis Barder was buried at the Plashet Jewish Cemetery in London.

1898: In Atlantic City, NJ. Rabbi Henry H. Meyer offered the opening prayer at the first session of the second annual summer assembly of the Jewish Chautauqua Society

1899: In Poughkeepsie, NY, five merchants were arraigned before the Recorder on charges of having violated the Sunday Closing Laws. Among them was Aaron Friedman, “a Jew who closes his store on Saturdays.”  Friedman was fined 5 dollars after being convicted; a conviction which his attorney says he will appeal.

1899: “Blue Laws in Worcester” published today described the renewed enforcement in this Massachusetts town “of the old blue laws relating to Sunday business” closures which “grew out of the recent determination…to stop the Jews from doing business on the Sabbath.”

1900: Birthdate of Sacha Baraniev, the native of Mykolaiv, Ukraine, who gained fame as newspaperman and screenwriter Sidney “Sy” Barlett.

1903: Birthdate of Dr. Karl Rudolf Werner Best the native of Darmstadt, SS-Obergruppenführer and Nazi Party leader and the Third Reich's Plenipotentiary (Reichsbevollmächtigter) in Denmark whose post-war death sentence was changed to 12 years of which he only served three, much to the dismay of the Danish people.

1904: The Assembly of the Jewish Chautauqua Society is scheduled to begin today in Atlantic City, NJ

1905: Birthday of Polish native Maurice B. Pekarsky who came to the United States in 1921 and was ordained in 1933 by Hebrew Union College after which he began a lifetime of service to Hillel including serving as Director of the Jewish College youth organization at the University of Chicago starting in 1940.

1905: The Ninth Summer Assembly of the Jewish Chautauqua Society continued for a third day in Atlantic City, NJ.

1908: Levie (Louis) Hillesum the father of diarist Esther (Etty) Hillesum published his Latin thesis De imperfecti et aoristi usu Thucydidis (On Thucydides' use of the imperfect and the aorist, also awarded cum laude).

1908: In Denver, CO, the Democratic National Convention which Samuel Untermyer had attended as a delegate from New York came to an end to after nominating William Jennings Bryan for President of the United States. This was Bryan’s third and final run.  When he ran for the first time in 1896 he said of the Jews “I do not know of any class of our people who, by reason of their history, can better sympathize with the struggling masses in this campaign than can the Hebrew race." In 1920, Bryan was one of a 100 leading citizens who signed “The Perils of Racial Prejudice, a statement that urged "all those who are molders of public opinion" to "strike at" The International Jew, which it characterized as "un-American, un-Christian agitation." The International Jew was a notorious anti-Semitic work published by automobile make Henry Ford Sr. (As reported by the Virtual Jewish Library.

1910: In London, “Isadore and Anna Kertman Stein, immigrants from Ukraine who owned a butter-and-egg store” gave birth to Claire Styne the sister of songwriter July Styne who became Claire Styne Bregman while she married composer and conductor Buddy Bregman.

1911: In Milwaukee, Wisconsin, the 15th annual summer assembly of the Jewish Chautauqua Society led by Chancellor Henry Berkowitz continued for a fourth day.1

912(25th of Tammuz, 5672): Seventy-four year Nathan Mayer, a “physician and drama critic” passed away today in Hartford, CT.

1912: Four hundred public school teachers, educators and New York notables were among those attending funeral services for educator Julia Richman at Temple Ahawath Chesed Shaar Hashomayim, Rabbi Isaac Moses delivered a eulogy in which he praised Ms Richman for her many contributions while that the role of the teacher is both important yet thankless.

1914:  The Government of Greece abolished office of the Chief Rabbi of Salonica and placed the Jews of Salonica under the jurisdiction of the Chief Rabbi of Athens. At this time, the position of Chief Rabbi of Athens was vacant.

1914: Birthdate of Rabbi Aharon Zelig Epstein who served as Rosh Yeshiva of Yeshiva Shaar HaTorah-Grodno in Queens, New York.

1914: In Toronto, Julius Shuster (originally Shusterowich), an immigrant from Rotterdam who had a tailor shop in Toronto's garment district and Ida (Katharske) Shuster a native of Kiev in Ukraine gave birth to Joseph Shuster who along with Jerry Siegel created the comic character “Superman” and was the cousin of comedian Wayne Shuster.

1915: Sixty year old Ernst Henrici, the grammar school teacher who became a leading anti-Semitic politician passed away. In 1882 he participated in the first International Anti-Jewish Congress in Dresden. His anti-Semitic diatribes led to the burning of the synagogue at Neustettin.

1915: British General Sir Ian Hamilton wrote from the General Headquarters of the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force today:

“It may interest you to know that I have here, fighting under my orders a purely Jewish unit As far as I know, this is the first time in the Christian era such a thing has happened.  The men who compose it were cruelly driven out of Jerusalem by the Turks and arrived in Egypt with their families absolutely destitute and starving.  A complete transport corps was there raised from them for voluntary service with me against the Turks whom they naturally detest.  These troops were officially described as ‘Zion Mule Corps,’ and the officers and ranks and file have shown great courage in taking water and supplies and up to the fighting line under heavy fire.  One of the private soldiers has been specially recommended by me for gallantry and has duly received from the King the Distinguished Conduct Medal.”

1915: Birthdate of Saul Bellow. Born in Quebec to Russian-Jewish immigrants, Bellow was educated in the United States. A Nobel Prize winning author (1976) some of Bellow’s more famous works include Herzog, The Adventures of Augie March and Humboldt’s Gift. It was this last work published in 1975 for which he earned the Pulitzer Prize for Literature in 1976.

1916: It was reported today that there are 341 Young Judaea Clubs in the United States and Canada and that there are 3,500 Young Judeans living in New York.

1916: It was reported today that the United Synagogues of America has voted “to send three delegates to the conference of the American Jewish Committee” which is “to be held in New York on July 16, 1916.

1917: The Board of Directors of the Federated Orthodox Jewish Charities met at the Hotel Sherman this evening where it approved a budget for the month of $9, 758.87 for the various organizations it supports including the Marks Nathan Orphan Home and the Moses Montefiore Hebrew School.

1918: In the Netherlands, “The Jewish Correspondence Bureau of the Hague today” said that it has learned from Berlin that the “Pan Germans are agitating for a tax on Jews.”

1919(12th of Tammuz, 5679): Abraham Jacobi passed away. Born in 1830, he was a pioneer of pediatrics, opening the first children's clinic in the United States. To date, he is the only foreign born president of the American Medical Association.

1920: In the United Kingdom, textile manufacturer Henry Pasamount and his wife gave birth to Sir Leslie Porter.

1920: “A Lemberg dispatch reports that Professor Israel Friedlander” and Rabbi Max Cantor of the Free Synagogue, “were killed by bandits” while “distributing funds for the American Joint Distribution Committee.”

1922: Birthdate of Ewald-Heinrich von Kleist who took part in the plot to assassinate Hitler.

1925: Jerome Koholberg Sr., an importer and his wife Edith “a writer and charity worker” gave birth to Jerome Kohlberg, Jr. the pioneer of leveraged buyouts who is the Kohlberg in Kohlberg Kravis Roberts and Company.

1928:  Birthdate of Moshe Greenberg – author, teacher and recognized expert in the field of Biblical Studies.  Greenberg earned his PhD at Penn and did post-doctoral work at the Jewish Theology.  He is on the faculty at Hebrew University and has taught at several American schools including JTS and UC-Berkley.  He is a Guggenheim Fellow and a recipient of the Israel Prize.  He was editor in chief for the Ketuvim (Writings) sections of the new JPS translation of the TaNaCh.  He was also the editor of the Book of Ezekiel in the Anchor Bible series.

1928: The London Daily Telegraph reported that “The Minister of the Interior at Peking thought the Zionist wanted to purchase land in China for the purpose of settling Jews there and promised a special treaty if the Zionists would indicate the site for the proposed homeland and the approximate area required.The Director of Lands had already proceeded with drafting an agreement, when, through the British Minister at Pekin, the delegate managed to explain he only required permission to raise funds among Jews in China for the Palestine upbuilding work. This permission was granted. “ (As reported by JTA)

1928: The New York Times describes the reaction of various Jewish newspapers in Palestine to the recently published report of the Non-partisan Survey Commission. Based on press reaction, readers may wonder how “non-partisan” the Survey Commission really is.  Doar Hayom, a Jerusalem daily, praised the report since it agreed with the conclusions about the need for “private initiatives and private holdings.  Haaretz was critical of the reports lack of support for communal agriculture settlements and the land purchases of the JNF.  Davar, a paper published by the General Jewish Labor Federation was highly critical of the report seeing it as an assault on all of the growth that has been accomplished under adverse conditions including violent opposition from some Arabs.

1931: Birthdate of Jerry Herman “an American composer and lyricist, known for his work in Broadway musical theater” including the “scores…Hello, Dolly!, Mame, and La Cage aux Folles.

1932: The foundation stone of the Oscar Straus School was laid at Nathanyah. The event was attended by several many Jewish and Arab notables. The project is being sponsored by the Naotaiah Colonization Agency (Palestine Settlers Service of NYC.)

1933: German newspapers publish their first stories about the new concordat between Nazi Germany and the Vatican (Reichskonkordat).

1933: "Prayer (Oh Lord, make me a movie star)" written Rodgers and Hart, was registered for copyright as an unpublished work today.

1934: The Polish anti-Semitic organization Oboz Narodowo-Radykalny(ONR- NATIONAL Radical Camp) is banned by Polish leader Marshal Jozef Pilsudski, three months after its formation.

1936: The Second International Conference on Jewish Social Work has its final session in London. Among those attending the conference was Professor Maurice Karpf who had written “The Jewish Community Organization” for presentation at the conference.

1936: It was reported today that in Potsdam, doctors declared that fifty-five year old Ludwig Lion, a Jewish physician had committed suicide by taking rat poison while waiting in jail to stand trial “for alleged race shame based on relations with an Aryan woman.”

1936: As of today these rabbis are the officers of the Rabbinical Assembly of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America are Eugene Kohn, president; Simon Greenberg, vice president; Alexander Basel, treasurer; Henry Fisher, recording secretary and Arthur Neulander, corresponding secretary.

1936: The Palestine Post reported that Joseph Katz, 16, was killed and four quarry workers seriously injured when their bus was ambushed on a side road off the Castel bends on the Jerusalem-Jaffa road. Senior Arab public servants submitted a memorandum to the high commissioner recommending a total stoppage of Jewish immigration. Four dunams of fruit-bearing trees were destroyed near Hadera.

1936: The Palestine Post reported that the body Yehiel Goldstadt, a young halutz from Poland, who tried to smuggle himself into Palestine on a coal transport ship, and apparently had been killed by sacks of coal falling on him was discovered.

1936: As secret negotiations between Germany and Austria became public it was reported that the Germans “desire to see the Austrian question settled” and that the Nazis are demanding “immediate Anschluss and a general program against the Jews in Austria.

1936: Birthdate of Lois Ada Goldberg, the native of Chicago who gained famed as Lois Lilienstein, part of the trio “Sharon, Lois & Bram.”

1936: “The Bride Walks Out” a romantic comedy produced by Edward Small and a screenplay co-authored by Philip G. Epstein was released in the United States today.

1937: Birthdate of Sandra Galitz who gain fame as American pop singer Sandy Stewart and the wife of Moose Claptrap.

1937: In “Palestine Plan Only Small Part of Larger Problem,” published today Anne O’Hare McCormick contends that the problem in this part of the world “is not restricted to a tiny strip of territory between the Syrian and Egyptian borders at the eastern end of the Mediterranean” but actually “involves all of the Arabian peninsula and reaches across the African desert into Algeria.” (Editor’s Note – Apparently we have not learned the lessons she was trying to teach 80 years later.)

1938: National and State leaders paid tribute to Associate Justice Benjamin Nathan Cardozo of the United States Supreme Court at brief and simple funeral services held at Beth Elohim Cemetery in Brooklyn. Justice Cardozo, who was known for his modesty, had expressly requested that he be buried without eulogy.

1938(11th of Tammuz, 5698): Alexander Zaid, who was born at Zima in 1886 and was “one of the founders of Bar Giora and Hashomer passed away today.

1938(11th of Tammuz, 5698): A month before his fifty-third birthday, Otto Eisler the son of Alois and Emilie Eisler and the husband of Alice Eisler passed away today in his native Vienna.

1938: Government soldiers and police shot it out with a band of Arabs near Dabbuyria, killing three of the terrorists. A Jewish policeman serving with the government forces was killed during the action and three British soldiers were wounded.

1939: Unless the British government relents, 16 year old Heinz Bernard will be expelled and forced to return to his native Germany

1940:  The French government was established at Vichy.  The French had surrendered after a mere six weeks of fighting against the Germans.  While the French soldiers had acted with courage and fortitude, the French military establishment behaved in a most craven and inept manner.  The government at Vichy was headed by Pierre Petain, hero of the Battle of Verdun in World War I.  Pierre Laval was the political engine that drove this fascist, collaborationist government.  Vichy was so riven with anti-Semites and wished to become part of the New German World order so badly, that the French government actually began rounding up Jews before the Nazis even for them to do so.  After the war, Laval was executed for his role.  Petain was spared the death sentence because he was an old man whom DeGaulle remembered as a giant from the First World War.

1940: Leon “Blum was thunderstruck when a majority of his Socialist comrades rallied behind the new government of Pierre Laval.”

1941(15th of Tammuz, 5701): At Vilna 1,600 Jews are tortured then driven into a barn and burned alive.

1941: The Jewish residents of the Polish town of Jedwabne are accosted by their Polish neighbors and by peasants from outlying areas, and are marched to the central market. In a day-long ordeal, the Jews are tortured and subsequently herded into a barn, which is set ablaze with kerosene. The massacre is not carried out by the Germans, who maintain only a token presence in Jedwabne on this day.  The Polish role in the massacre only recently became common knowledge, much to the shame of those living in Poland today. For more details about this read Neighbors by Jan T. Gross

1941 Birthdate of Alain Krivine, “a leader of the Trotskyist movement in France.”

1941(15th of Tammuz, 5701): In Liepāja, Latvia, Erhard Grauel, a detachment of Einsatzkommando 2 under the command of Erhard Grauel,  murdered another 100 people today, most of whom were Jews.

1941: In Poland’s eastern village of Jedwabne 1,600 local Jews were burned alive by their neighbors – fellow Poles –  in a massacre that puts the lie to the myth that only German Nazis killed Jews.

1942: Royal Canadian Air Force fighter pilot George Beurling, who would die while flying for the Israeli Air Force in 1948, became an ace today when shot down his fifth enemy plane over Malta.

1942: Dutch banker Jacobus Henricus Kann owner of the Lissa and Kann bank, the delegate to the first Zionist Congress who purchased the land for the first houses in Tel Aviv “wrote his daughter-in-law” today “In a fortnight I will reach the age of wisdom. It took a long time to reach this age.  I wonder how did we manage to bring the world to such an awful and chaotic state with so many people at the age of wisdom !!!”

1942: The first Medical Experiments take place at Auschwitz. 100 Women are taken from their barracks and sterilized through a series of hideous experiments.

1942: “Five hundred and fifty-seven refugees from Nazism who had been stranded in Portugal and unoccupied France” left Lisbon today aboard the S.S. Nyassa. (As reported by JTA)

1943(7th of Tammuz, 5703): Thousands of Jews from Lvov, Ukraine, are murdered at Kamenka-Bugskaya

1943: In Warsaw, the search for Jews continued weeks after the Warsaw Ghetto had been destroyed. Thirty men were shot in the Pawiak prison.

1943: Samuel Fuller and the rest of the 16th Infantry, boarded landing craft for the assault Sicily, seized the beach and “pushed into the hills beyond” where they hung to their territory despite being hit hard with an armored counterattack by German tanks.

1944(19th of Tammuz, 5704): Eight-one year old landscape painter and engraver Lucien Pissaro, the oldest child of impressionist Camille Pissarro “and his wife Julie Vellay and husband of Esther Levi Bensusan passed away today

1944: In France, U.S. Army Lt. Bert Katz is hit in shoulder and left hand by German shrapnel.  The wound gets him a Purple Heart but not a ticket home which in this case is Cedar Rapids, Iowa.  Katz did return home after the war where he became a successful businessman, a noted philanthropist and a pillar of the Jewish community.

1944: German resistance fighter Robert Abshagen was beheaded today for his role in anti-Nazi activities.

1947: Tonight a group of refugees traveling in 170 trucks, under the leadership of Noah Klieger, “the commissioner of Mossad Aliyah Bet” reached the port of Sete, a port on the Mediterranean coast of France, where they were to board a vessel that would run the British blockade.

1948: During Operation Dekel, the 7th Armored Brigade, a battalion from the Carmeli Brigade along with some elements from the Golani Brigade captured Kuwaykat, Jiddin and Khirbat.

1948: With the end of the truce, a company of sixteen and seventeen year old boys under the command of twenty-one year Oded Chai set out to take the high ground west of Jerusalem.  Chai, who was a veteran of the Jewish Brigade died almost as soon as the attack had begun, the victim of a sniper’s bullet.  The new commander, Elaihu Lichtenstein rallied the troops with a new battle cry, “For Oded” and reached the summit of the hill.  That hill is now known as Mount Herzel.  [Editors note:  The source for much of the information about the War of Independence comes from Israel by Martin Gilbert.  Events like these remind us that every inch of Israel was watered by the blood of Jewish fighters, many of whom never made it out of their teens.]

1948:  Israeli forces attacked a bridgehead that the Syrians had established on the west bank of the Jordan River.  The Syrians had seized the bridgehead during what was supposed to be the Four Week Cease Fire.  The Syrian air force dominated the sky above the battlefield.  The Syrian artillery outraged the Israeli guns.  Despite ten days of see-saw fighting, the bridgehead would remain in Syrian hands.

1948(3rd of Tammuz, 5708): An Egyptian Spitfire (yes the same Spitfires that had won the Battle of Britain) “dropped a number of bombs on the Jewish sector of Jerusalem killing three children.”

1948(3rd of Tammuz, 5708): Seventy-eight year old Berlin native Else Preuß, the daughter of Carl Theodor Liebermann and Antonie (Toni) Amalie Liebermann and wife of Dr. of Jurisprudence Hugo Preuß passed away today in Paris.

1948: Two attempts by the Arab Legion to break into the New City (Jerusalem) were thwarted.

1948(3rd of Tammuz, 5708): Lionel Bloch who “flew with SAAF in Italy in latter half of WW II, crashed near Quneitra today while providing air cover for Israeli troops who were being attacked by Syrian AT-6s.

1948: Hortense Calisher's award-winning short story "The Middle Drawer" was published in the New Yorker Magazine.

1950: “Israeli authorities released two British planes detained since last week for landing at Lydda Airport without permission.”

1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that the government had decided to subsidize the import of hides in order to keep shoe prices at their present level.

1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that the Ministry of Labor investigating the cause of the Castel quarry disaster in which seven workers lost their lives resolved to issue strict regulations on the handling of explosives and to impose severe penalties to discourage workers from violating specific instructions.

1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that electricity consumption restrictions were eased throughout the country.

1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that one thousand newcomers arrived from Romania.

1952: Robert Lehman celebrated his third marriage when he tied the know with Elena Lyn today in New York.

1952: The cost-cutting measures at M-G-M studio headed by Nicholas M. Schneck and Dore Schary were described today as being necessary because of the “new operating and operating conditions” that have “resulted in enforced economies at all Hollywood studios.

1952:  Joel D. Wolfsohn began serving as Assistant Secretary of the Department of Interior in the final months of the Truman Administration. Up to that time, he appears to be the highest ranking Jew to have served at the Department of the Interior. He served from July 10, 1952 through February 20, 1953.

1957(11th of Tammuz, 5717): Sholem Asch, a Polish-born American Jewish novelist, dramatist, and essayist in the Yiddish language passed away.

1957: “The Pride and the Passion” an epic set in the Napoleonic era directed and produced by Stanley Kramer was released in the United States today.

1960: “The Rate Race” “ produced by William Perlberg, written by Garson Kanin, with music by Elmer Bernstein and starring Tony Curtis and Don Rickles and featuring Norman Fell was released in the United States today.

1962(8th of Tammuz, 5722): Rabbi Yehuda Leib Maimon passed away. Born in 1875 in what was then a part of the Russian Empire, he was one of the founders of the Mizrachi movement in 1902.  He would later help develop the movement in the U.S. during WW I after he had been expelled from Palestine by the Turks.  He returned to Palestine in 1919 where he worked to develop the Jewish home during the inter-war years.  The highpoint of his career may have come when he helped draft Israel’s Declaration of Independence, a document of which he was a signatory.

1964: Mortimer Kaplan completed his term as the IRS Commissioner.

1964: A recording of "Do Wah Diddy Diddy" a song written by Jeff Barry and Ellie Greenwich and originally recorded in 1963, as "Do-Wah-Diddy" was released today.

1965: Arthur Andrew Julian completed his service as Canada’s ambassador to Israel.

1966: The new Israeli Parliament building, the Knesset was inaugurated.

1969: “Putney Swope” directed by Robert Downey, Sr. whose paternal grandparents were Romanian Jews and whose mother was of “half Hungarian Jewish ancestry” and co-starring Allen Garfield was released today in the United States.

1969: The body of the lone Israeli captured by Egyptian commandos when they raided an Israeli tank depot on June 9, 1969 is found.  From the evidence, he had been summarily executed by his captors.  The attack and the execution set the stage for the subsequent Israeli commando raid on Green Island, an Egyptian fortress in the Gulf of Suez.

1971: Gloria “Steinem was one of over 300 women who founded the National Women's Political Caucus (NWPC)” today.

1971: Ed Rendell, future Mayor if Philadelphia and Governor of Pennsylvania marries Marjorie Rendell in what is the most common form of inter-marriage – a Jew marrying a Catholic.

1971: Hassan II of Morocco, a moarch who would a vital role in bridging the gap between the Jewish state and the Arab world and who later be described as "a friend to the governments of Israel in their voyage toward peace with the Arab people” survives an attempted coup d'état.

1972: Democratic National Convention opened in Miami Beach, FL at which, in case of Jew versus Jew, Betty Friedan and Gloria Steinem would clash on how the National Women’s Political Caucus should deal with various issues.

1973(10th of Tammuz, 5733): Seventy-five year old Frederick Marcus Warburg, the son of Felix and Frieda Marcus, an alumnus of Harvard, partner at Kuhn, Loeb since 1931, a member of the board of trustees of Smith College and the husband of Wilma Warburg passed away today at Winchester City, VA.

1973: The Commonwealth of the Bahamas gains full independence within the Commonwealth of Nations. There were probably between one hundred and two hundred Jews living in the Bahamas at this time. The Bahamas Jewish Congregation, a modern orthodox congregation is located in Nassau. The Community in Freeport, on Grand Bahama Island, the Freeport Hebrew Congregation, is somewhat lesser in numbers than in Nassau, and is affiliated to the Union for Reform Judaism. Its Synagogue, named the Luis De Torres Synagogue is named for a Luis De Torres, a Marrano who sailed with Columbus and who was the first person of Jewish heritage to reach the Bahamas.

1974: The second part of the Agranat Commission’s three-part report was released today.  The Commission had been established to examine the failures before and during the Yom Kippur War. The report called for the dismissal of some senior officers and resulted in changes in basic military doctrine.

1975: Malcolm Toon presented his credentials as U.S. Ambassador to Israel.

1975: Birthdate of Roi Klein, the native of Raanan Israel, the son of Holocaust survivors who rose to the rank of Major in the Golani Brigade before being killed in the 2006 War with Lebanon.

1976: It was reported today that the Foreign Minister of Uganda has demanded UN condemnation of Israel’s raid on the Entebbe airport.  Israel’s Chief UN delegate responded by telling the Security Council in no uncertain terms that that Preside Amin and others had collaborated with the hijackers. As the clash between the two diplomats came to a head, Herzog raised the issue of Dora Bloch a 75 year old hostage with dual Israeli and British citizenship who had been taken to a Ugandan hospital before the raid.  The Foreign Minister said she had been returned to the plane before the raid.  Herzog called this “a blatant untruth” because a British official had visited her in the hospital the day after the rescue mission.

1978: Anatoly Sharansky was on trial for espionage and treason.

1979(15th of Tammuz, 5739): Famed orchestra leader Arthur Fiedler passed away. Fiedler’s name is synonymous with the Boston Pops and the spirit of Americanism that is connected with it every Fourth of July.

1981: “The Fox and the Hound” an animated film version of the novel by the same name featuring the voice of Jack Albertson, Paul Winchell and Corey Feldman was released in the United States today.

1981: PLO units that had occupied southern Lebanon turning into “a state with a state” unleashed a massive rocket attack on northern Israel.

1985: In the United Kingdom, premiere of “Return to Oz” with music by David Shire and starring Piper Laurie (Rosetta Jacob) as Aunt Em.

1987(13th of Tammuz, 5747): Sixty-six year old “Alexandre P. Rosenberg, founding president of the Art Dealers Association of America and for many years a prominent art dealer in New York, died of a heart attack in London” today. (As reported by John Russell)

1989(7th of Tammuz, 5749): Mel Blanc passed away. Born Melvin Jerome Blanc on May 30, 1908, in San Francisco, where his parents managed a ladies' ready-to-wear apparel business he was known as "The Man of a Thousand Voices." At one point he supplied the voices for 90 per cent of the Warner Brothers cartoon characters. Generations know him as the voice of Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck and Porky Pig. In talking about the Porky Pig role Blanc said they "called me in and asked me if I could do a pig -- a fine thing to ask a Jewish kid.”

1993(21st of Tammuz, 5753): Peretz Miransky, a member of an influential young Yiddish literary group in Poland between World Wars I and II, died today in a hospital in Toronto at the age of 85. “Mr. Miransky won the National Jewish Book Award in the United States in 1980 and twice won the J. I. Segal award of Canada for Yiddish poetry. He wrote fables and poetry as a member of Young Vilna, a group of writers from Vilna who adapted traditional Yiddish to express concerns of their generation. His early manuscripts were lost when he escaped the German invasion in World War II. He later recorded his early writings from memory in his first book, "A Light for a Penny." After resettling in Canada in 1949, he worked as a shipper for a store, then as a Canadian distribution agent for The Yiddish Daily Journal, which had headquarters in New York City. Later he became an agent for other Yiddish papers. After he retired in the mid-1970's, he wrote poetry full time and published three collections.

1994: Hedge fund manager, William Albert Ackerman, “the founder and CEO of Pershing Square Capital Management, “married Karen Ann Herskovitz, a graduate of Harvard University and a landscape architect” today.

1998: U.S. premiere of Pi (π) directed and co-produced by Daren Aronofsky who also co-authored the script and starring Mark Margolis and Ben Shenkman.

1998: In an article entitled “Hadera Journal; Jewish Family Heirloom: 15 Square Miles of Death,” Serge Schemann describes how Zypora Frank, Polish born Jew, who survived the Holocaust reacted when she learned that her family owned the land on which the infamous Auschwitz death camp had been built.

2000: “In Paper Seen as Villain in Abuse Accusations Against Rabbi” published today, Felicity Barringer described the impact of an article by Gary Rosenblatt entitled “Stolen Innocence” that described charges made against Rabbi Baruch Lanner concerning the abuse of “teenagers in his charge.

2001: Two Palestinian terrorists shot 45 year old Yosef Twito near Moshav Ahisemekh.

2001: Australia's entrants in the Maccabiah Games gathered in Sydney this evening to prepare for a return to Israel, their first since the disastrous bridge collapse killed four of their team members in 1997 and left many more fighting for compensation.

2002(1st of Av): Rosh Chodesh Av

2002(1st of Av): “IDF officer Capt. Hagai Lev, 24, of Jerusalem, deputy commander of a Givati reconaissance unit, was killed by Palestinian sniper fire while conducting a search for weapons smuggling tunnels in Rafah, in the southern Gaza Strip. The Fatah Al Aksa Martyrs Brigades claimed responsibility for the shooting.”

2003: The British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem, amalgamated within the Council for British Research in the Levant (CBRL) in 1998, was officially renamed the Kenyon Institute today in honour of Dame Kathleen Kenyon “the most influential female archaeologist in the 21st century” known for her work at Jericho.

2004: Ninety-four year old actress Inge Meyself “who was banned from performing 1935 until 1945 because her father, Julius Meysel, was Jewish, passed away today.

2005: Ben Stiller and his wife Christine Taylor gave birth to their son Quinlin Dempsey.

2005: U.S premiere of “Say Uncle” a comedy co-starring Lisa Edelstein as Sarah Faber

2005: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Lion of Hollywood: The Life and Legend of Louis B. Mayer by Scott Eyman.

2006: Jews gather in major cities all over the world to show their solidarity for the immediate release of Cpl. Gilad Shalit, who was kidnapped two weeks ago from his army outpost.

2007: Today, the Chabad of Brazos Valley, also known as the Chabad Center of Texas A&M, was founded by Rabbi Yossi Lararoff and his wife Manya

2007: In Jerusalem, a concert at Israel Museum Celebrate the opening event of the summer at the Israel Museum with a performance by the Jerusalem Symphony Orchestra - Israel Broadcasting Authority, conducted by Daniel Kosov. The performance includes pieces by Strauss, Haydn, Bruch, Mendelssohn, Bizet and Britten, performed by the orchestra and outstanding young soloists from Israel and abroad. Concert takes place in the Art Garden at 9pm and is included with museum admission.

2007: The Conference on the Future of the Jewish People opens in Jerusalem.

2008: At the public library in Iowa City, Agudas Achim and Hillel sponsor an exhibit of art by Jack Balch who died in 1980 and who was the father of the late Iowa Economics Professor, Dr. Michael Balch. Father and son were members of Agudas Achim.

2008: The Los Angeles premiere of “Parade” at Tony Award winning musical that “dramatizes the 1913 trial of Leo Frank” took place at the Neighborhood Playhouse of Palos Verdes

2008: Following a week of near-daily Palestinian violations of the Israeli-Hamas cease-fire, two Kassam rockets struck the western Negev.  A faction of Fatah claimed responsibility for the attack while eight Palestinians, members of a cell of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, were arrested on suspicion of throwing Molotov cocktails at cars on the road near Mt. Scopus

2009: "Bruno" debuts in Britain and the United States. The movie is Baron Cohen's follow-up to his 2006 hit "Borat: Cultural Learnings of America for Make Benefit Glorious Nation of Kazakhstan," in which he played a clueless journalist on a U.S. tour.

2009: In Tel Aviv, Israel faces a team from Russia in Day 1 of the Davis Cup Quarter-Final matches.

2010: The 7th AICE Australian Film Festival is scheduled come to an end with a screening of “Beautiful Kate” in Tel Aviv.

2010: The Jerusalem Cinematheque, which is currently in the midst of running its annual Jerusalem Film Festival this week in the capital, released a statement this evening saying that comments made last week regarding the possibility of Dustin Hoffman attending the event were in fact misleading and incorrect.

2011: “20 Years-Searching for the Answer,” an exhibit that explores questions about the Armenian genocide through art is scheduled to come to an end at the Holocaust Memorial Center in Farmington Hills, Michigan.

2011: Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu announced today Israel's official recognition of South Sudan as an independent state.

2011: Police are turning a blind eye to ultra-orthodox efforts to block traffic on a central Jerusalem street every Saturday, with hundreds of religious men often resorting to violence in a bid to prevent cars from desecrating Shabbat, secular activists reported today

2011: Nirvana, a hypnotizing dance show from Korea, that is touring Israel for the first time, is scheduled to be performed at the Jerusalem Theatre.

2011: The New York Times featured reviews of books written by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Lee Krasner: A Biography by Gail Levin and Rene Blum and The Ballets Russes:  In Search of a Lost Life by Judith Chazin-Bennahum

2011: The Galilee Music Festival is scheduled to come to an end.

2011: The Jewish Women's Archive “2011 Institute for Educators” is scheduled to start today.

2011: In Israel, the “Conversion Bill Moratorium” is scheduled to come to an end.

2011: An ancient rock inscription of the word “Shabbat” was uncovered near Lake Kinneret this week – the first and only discovery of a stone Shabbat boundary in Hebrew. The etching in the Lower Galilee community of Timrat appears to date from the Roman or Byzantine period. News of the inscription, discovered by chance today by a visitor strolling the community grounds, quickly reached Mordechai Aviam, head of the Institute for Galilean Archeology at Kinneret College. “This is the first time we’ve found a Shabbat boundary inscription in Hebrew,” he said. “The letters are so clear that there is no doubt that the word is ‘Shabbat.’” Aviam said Jews living in the area in the Roman or Byzantine era (1st-7th centuries CE) likely used the stone to denote bounds within which Jews could travel on Shabbat. The Lower Galilee of Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages had a Jewish majority – many of the Talmudic sages bore toponyms indicative of Galilee communities. The engraving uncovered in Timrat is the first and only Shabbat boundary marker yet discovered in Hebrew – a similar inscription was found in the vicinity of the ancient Western Galilee village of Usha, but its text was written in Greek. Aviam and his colleagues plan to enlist local help in scouring neighboring areas to locate additional inscriptions, and eventually to publish their findings in an academic journal. “This represents a beautiful, fascinating link between our modern world and antiquity, both emotional and archeological,” Aviam said. “Certainly for those of us who are religiously observant, but also for the secular among us who enjoy a stroll on Shabbat to know that we’re walking in places where Jewish history lived two thousand years ago.”  

2012: CBS News Middle East correspondent Dan Ravi who co-authored Spies Against Armageddon with Yossi Melman is scheduled to speak tonight at the Historic 6th & I Synagogue in Washington, DC.

2012: Israeli settlements in the West Bank are a danger to Israel and threaten its long-term status as a center of Jewish life, President Shimon Peres said this evening.

2012: Hezbollah arrested three people it suspects of running a spy network for Israel and the United States, pan-Arab news channel Al Arabiya reported today

2012: Ehud Olmert, a former prime minister of Israel, was acquitted of corruption charges in two major matters by a court today but was convicted in a third, closing a high-profile prosecution that cut short his term in office and changed the course of Israeli politics and diplomacy.

2012(20th of Tammuz, 5772): Seventy-four year old Dutch Jewish author Berthe Meijer, whose life intersected with Anne Frank’s passed away today (As reported by Toby Sterling)

2012: Rabbi Joel Levenson of Congregation B'nai Jacob, Woodbridge/New Haven, CT, gave the opening prayer at the U.S. House of Representatives.

2013: “Koch” and “Wilt Chamberlain: Borscht Belt Bellhop” are two of the two movies scheduled to be shown today at the 30th Jerusalem Film Festival.

2013: “Israel: A Home Movie” is scheduled to be shown at the Film Forum.

2013: The William Breman Jewish Museum and the Jewish Genealogical Society of Georgia are scheduled to sponsor “Commemorating 280 Years of Jews In Georgia.”

2013: The Alexandria Kleztet is scheduled to perform in Annandale, VA.

2013: The Jewish Historical Society of Greater Washington in partnership Adas Israel Congregation, EntryPoint DC, andThe Foundation for Jewish Studies are scheduled to sponsor a lecture by author “Beth Kanter will share stories she collected while writing the book and guide attendees in producing their own food writing.”

2013: Jewish-Palestinian journalist, politician and Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) member, Ilan Halevi, passed away today in Paris at the age of 70

2013: The first Haredi pre-military academy funded by the Defense Ministry will open this August in the Jordan Valley. News of its establishment today follows heightened tensions surrounding the issue of haredi enlistment in the IDF and an attack against a haredi soldier carried out by a mob of ultra-Orthodox men in Jerusalem lasr night.  (As reported by Jeremy Sharon)

2014: The 92nd Street Y is scheduled to host a conversation with Patricia Bosworth and Oscar winning Jewish actress Lee Grant who was a victim of the Black List and author of I Said Yes to Everything

2014: Terrorist rockets set off the warning sirens in Jerusalem while other rockets hit a house in Ashdod and a home in the Sha’ar HaNegev Regional Council.

2014: “Despite ongoing rocket fire at Israel from Gaza Strip, some 200 trucks of goods including food and basic products passed into Gaza from Israel's Kerem Shalom crossing with Gaza.” (As reported by Yoav Zitun and Roi Kais.

2014: A 17-year-old Jewish girl is pepper-sprayed at Paris’ Place du Colonel-Fabien square.

2014: In “Brooklyn, a Trove of Hebrew Books From Centuries Past” published today described the volumes to be found in the newly opened Chabad-Lubavitch Library.

2014: The Jewish community in South Africa condemned the ANC’s comparison of Israel’s action in Gaza with those of Nazi Germany. (As reported by Raphael Ahren)

2015: “Millions of Iranians took part in anti-Israel and anti-US rallies across Iran today, chanting “Down with America” and “Death to Israel” on Al-Quds Day, internationally observed annually on the last Friday of the month of Ramadan.”

2015: “The Second Mother” is scheduled to be shown at the Jerusalem Film Festival.

2015: The Eden-Tamir Music Center is scheduled to present a piano recital by Adi Neuhaus as part of its “Future Generation Series.”

2015: “Amy,” “a new documentary cover the life of the late Jewish-British singer Amy Winehouse” is scheduled to “hit U.S. theatres nationwide” today.

2015: “WarCraft” “an exhibition of video installations by Israeli artist Nevet Yitzhak” is scheduled to come an end at the Yossi Milo Gallery

2015: The 35th International Conference on Jewish Genealogy is scheduled to come to an end today.

2016: The Jewish Genealogical Society of Illinois and the Illinois Holocaust Museum and Education Center are scheduled to host a presentation by “Mike Karsen, past President of the Jewish Genealogical Society of Illinois who explores the personal value of connecting with one's roots, and shares a case study based on David Laskin's book, "The Family," which illustrates how to locate U.S. records and those held by Yad Vashem.”

2016: Final screening of “The Kind Words” is scheduled to take place at the Lincoln Plaza Cinema today.

2016: “Commemorations were held today in the north-eastern town of Jedwabne to mark the 75th anniversary of the 10 July 1941 massacre of around 300 Jews during the occupation of Poland by Nazi Germany.

2016: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Bridge Ladies: A Memoir by Betsy Lerner, Ordinarily Well: The Case for Antidepressants by Peter D. Kramer and You’ll Grow Out Of It by Jessi Klein along with an interview with author Cynthia Ozick.

2017: Joseph J. Schacter is scheduled to deliver his first lecture on "Majesty and Humility: The Life, Leadership, and Legacy of Joseph B. Soloveitchik"

2017: “Accompanied by clarinetist Avigail Malachi-Baev and vocalist Inbar Goldman, Cellist Elad Kabilio of MusicTalks, is scheduled to host “a musical journey through Yeshiva University Museum’s exhibition City of Gold, Bronze and Light: Jerusalem between Word and Image.”

 2017: The Maccabiah’s night rights, considing of three heats -- 5K, 10K, and a half marathon- 21K – is scheduled to take place this evening in Jerusalem “with a celebratory party at the Hatachana compound.”


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