Thursday, November 3, 2016

This Day, November 4, In Jewish History by Mitchell A. Levin

November 4

1310: King Jaime II issued a royal decree exempting Judah Bonseynor from all taxes to which the Aljama of Barcelona was usually required to pay.  “The king also ordered that neither Bonsenyor nor his children should be molested on account of unpaid taxes, and that he should be at liberty to enter or leave the "Juderia," or Jewish quarter, at will.” Bonseynor severed Alfonso II and his son Jaime as Notary General of Aragon. He was the official who provided the authoritative translation of documents from Arabic into Spanish.  Considering the makeup of the Iberian Peninsula at this time, this was a position of great importance. (As reported by Richard Gottehil and Meyer Kayserling)

1380: In France, coronation of Charles VI, the monarch who issued an order in 1394 expelling all the Jews from his kingdom

1482: In Spain by this date, nearly 298 persons had been burned at the hand of the Inquisition, while 98 had been imprisoned in Inquisitional prisons.

1501: Catherine of Aragon, the daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella (the Spanish monarchs who expelled the Jews from Spain) meets Arthur Tudor, the oldest son of English monarch Henry VII, for the first time.  One of the conditions of marriage between the two royal offspring is requirement by the Spanish monarchs that Henry VII promise that Jews would be forever banned from his kingdom.  

1650: Birthdate of William III who was supported by Solomon de Medina who serve as an “army contractor when the monarch went to England to lead the Glorious Revelation  

1677: The future Mary II of England marries William, Prince of Orange. They would later be known as William and Mary who took the English throne after the Glorious Revolution.  According to the historian Cecil Roth, the Glorious Revolution was financed, in part, by a Dutch Jew who lent the would-be monarchs an interest free loan of two million crowns and that “prayers were uttered in Dutch synagogues” for their success.

1762(18th of Cheshvan, 5523): Moses Levi Ulff, the son of Levi Ulff, passed away today. In 1714 Levi Ulff “had moved his ribbon factory from Wesel to Charlottenberg” and the “king appointed him as his Court Jew ordering the royal regiments to secure their ribbons from his factory. In 1720, when Moses took over from his father “the order was renewed” and Crown Prince Frederick required the younger Ulff “to supply all the royal regiments with the necessary braid.”

1722: Birthdate of Raphael Cohen, the native of Lithuania who became Chief Rabbi of Altona-Hamburg-Wandsbek.

1787: Birthdate of English actor Edmund Kean who first  played Shylock in 1814 and whose subsequent portrayals Shakespeare’s famous Jewish character “could not be surpassed” and who gives him the form not of a figure from Genesis but from Venice in the Middle Ages.

1806: M.J. Bing, one of Rothschild’s clients in Frankfurt wrote to Nathan Rothschild, head of the House of Rothschild in Great Britain, urging him to exercise caution in circumventing Napoleon’s ban on goods being shipped from England to Europe.

1837: Forty-four year old French politician Benoit Fould was re-elected as the representative for St. Quentin.

1841: In Warsaw, pianist and composer Aloys Tausig and his wife gave birth to pianist, arranger and composer Carl Tausig.

1842: Birthdate of Caroline Bamberger who would be buried in the Indianapolis, Indiana, Hebrew Congregation Cemetery when she passed away in 1907.

1843: In St. Louis, the United Hebrew Congregation assumed full ownership of the first Jewish cemetery which had been created in 1840. The cemetery was used until 1868. In 1867, the City of St. Louis prohibited further use of the grounds as a burial place. United Hebrew acquired land out in the county, which later became University City with the streets known as North and South Rd. and Canton Ave. Formal dedication of the new cemetery, called Mount Olive occurred in 1880. In 1880, the bodies in the original cemetery, as well as some of the stones were transferred to Mount Olive. In 1960, the name of the cemetery was changed from Mount Olive to United Hebrew.

1843(11th of Cheshvan, 5604): Parashat Lech-Lecha

1843(11th of Cheshvan, 5604): Forty-year old British welterweight champion Young Dutch Sam, the son of Samuel Elias, the British boxer known simply as Dutch Sam, passed away today.

1847: German composer Felix Mendelssohn passed away. Born in 1809, Felix was the grandson of Moses Mendelssohn, one of the leaders who provided the basis for what became the Reform Movement.  Felix’s father wanted his children to be able to fully participate in German life, so he had them Baptized in 1816. Despite the trip to the Baptismal font and Felix’s brilliance, he lost out on at least one major appointment because he was Jewish.  Also, such musical luminaries as Wagner did not accept him.  They used his works as examples of misguided attempts to Judacize (and weaken) German culture in general and German music in particular.

1852: Count Cavour became Prime Minister of Piedmont. Along with Mazzini and Garibaldi, Cavour made up the trinity who unified the states of the Italian peninsula and created the modern nation of Italy. Jews were among the most active supporters of the creation of Italian nationalism. Despite Cavour’s complaints the tough banking practices of Baron James Rothschild, Rothschild supplied Cavour with financial backing for the impending war with Austria.  Parts of Italy were in the Austrian Empire.  The two disguised the expenditures as being funds for a tunnel through the Alps.  Cavour appointed Jews to several top posts in his government, something hitherto unheard.  Isaac Arton served as his confidential secretary and “faithful lieutenant.”

1856: In Charleston, at the synagogue on Hasell Street, Rabbi Mayer officiated at the marriage of M.J. Solomons of Savannah, GA and Henrietta S. Emanuel of Georgetown, SC.

1857: In Charleston, SC, Rabbi Henry S. Jacobs officiated at the marriage of Zachariah Falk and Gerogiana S. Jacobi “the youngest daughter of W.J. Jacobi.”

1860(19th of Cheshvan, 5621): In the UK, Sixty-four year old Sophia Levy, the widow of Nathaniel Levy and the mother of Maria Levy passed away today today.

1861: The University of Washington opened in Seattle, Washington as the Territorial University.. Today Washington has 2,000 Jewish undergrads and 1, 000 grad students out of student population of 31,000 undergraduates and 12,000 grad students.  Washington offers approximately 20 Jewish studies courses with both a major and a minor in Jewish studies.  The university also offers year-round study programs in Israel.

1863: Birthdate of Joseph Mendes da Costa, a Dutch born Sephardi sculptor.

1867: Following yesterday’s defeat at the Battle of Mentana, forces under the command of Italian patriot Giuseppe Garibaldi and included Italian Jewish patriot Enrico Guastalla “retreated to the Kingdom of Italy.”

1871: Mr. R. J. de Cordova, famed Jewish raconteur and humorist delivered an address tonight entitled "Our First Baby" to packed house at the Association Hall in New York City.

1876: “New Publications” includes a review of The Conquests of the Saracens by Howard A Freeman “which meets a general demand on the part of the reading public for information on the history of religion (most notably Islam) and politics in the East. “In answer to Lord Derby’s remark that in past times Jews…have been worse treated in Western Europe than Christians are now treated” in the part of Europe controlled by the Ottomans, “Mr. Freeman says that while the condition of the Jews has been getting better and better, that of the Christians under Turkish rule has been getting worse and worse.” (Derby’s comment on the treatment of Jews in Christian Europe comes, considering when it was uttered, as a real eye-opener.)

1877: It was reported today that The Alliance Israélite Universelle or Universal Israelite Alliance “has become a very active and useful association.  Among its many goals, the Alliances provides instruction for the children of destitute Jews living in “the East” with training in the Hebrew language and religious customs.  According to the Jewish Messenger, the Association is supported by a wide range of Jews including Reform minded Germans, the Anglo-Jewish Associations, the growing American Jewish community and, of course, the French Jewish community.

1878: “The Bible in the Schools” published today described the controversy in New Haven, CT concerning the reading of the sacred text in the public schools.  Opposition and concern comes from many quarters including Roman Catholics, Protestants and German immigrants but not from the Jews who were apparently of no concern to Christian board members.

1878: It was reported today the Industrial School of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum has printed copies of a pamphlet by Dr. Isaac Schwab entitled “Can Jews be Patriots.”  The pamphlet was written as a refutation of Professor Goldwin Smith’s depiction of Jews as being unpatriotic. Goldwin Smith was a British-born Canadian college professor who was a notorious anti-Semite.

1878: Birthdate of Budapest native Jean Schwartz, the songwriter who came to the United States at the age of 13 who wrote “Mr. Dooley” – a song “which was sung by the title character in The Wizard of Oz”

1879: Justice of the Peace, Nathan Colman who was also the lay religious leader for the Jewish community, officiated at the first Jewish wedding in the Black Hills, when Rebecca Reubens married David Holzman today.

1879:  It was reported today that Rabbi David Einhorn’s funeral will take place at 9 o’clock on November 6. Services will be led by two of Einhorn’s sons-in-law – Rabbi Kaufman Kohler of Temple Beth-El and Rabbi Emil Hirsch of Louisville – and Dr. Samuel Hirsch of Philadelphia who was one of Rabbi Einhorn’s closest friends.

1879:  Birthdate of humorist, social commentator and vaudeville star, Will Rogers.  Rogers owed his early fame and fortune to Flo Ziegfeld.  Ziegfeld put Rogers in his famous Follies, leting Rogers stand on stage as a he twirled his lariat and came up with political zingers that would have made John Stewart smile. In 1924, the KKK was reaching the height of its power and was planning a large parade in New York.  Using his wit to try and deflate the Klan, Rogers pointed out that the Klan’s anti-Semitism was misguided if not downright anti-American.  As Rogers explained it, the Christians were beholden to the Jews for a successful Christmas.  After all, it was the Jews (remember this is the days of Gimbals’ and Macys) who sold the Christians all of the presents which were critical to the holiday celebration. 

1882: It was reported today that “drunken rioters have plundered” the shops owned by the Jews of Presburg, Hungary. The renewal of anti-Jewish violence has resulted in the death of at least one Jewess. Apparently the sentencing of those involved in the September riots to three months in prison has not brought matters under control.

1883: It was reported today that the Jews in New York “are solid” in their support for ex-Sheriff James O’Brien, the anti-Tammany Hall candidate for the position of Register.

1884: Grover Cleveland was elected to first of two terms as President of the United States.  He is the only President to be defeated in his bid for re-election and then to come back and win the office on his “third try.”  During his first term, Cleveland appointed Oscar Solomon Straus, the leading American Jew of his time, as envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to Turkey.  Cleveland intended the appointment “as an indirect rebuke to the government of Austria Hungary, which had refused to accept an appointee as United States ministers because the minister’s wife was Jewish.  In his second term, Cleveland vetoed immigration bill aimed at keeping Jews, among others, from entering the United States.  After he had left the White House, Cleveland continued to show support for Jewish causes by appearing at protest rallies against Russia’s treatment of her Jewish citizens.

1884: James Rubiner, a Polish Jew who owns a grocery store on Hester Street is still in jail today facing charges of having killed a youngster named Julius Silverman.  Silverman was part of a gang that started a bonfire in front Rubiner’s store as part of their election-night hijinks.

1884: The reprint of an article from the London Times entitled “Montefiore and the Jews” published today described the Italian town in which the great philanthropists family had its roots and described the growth and generosity of Moses Montefiore.

1887: It was reported today that Michael Simon has been elected as a magistrate in Glasgow. “He is the first Jew elected to that office in Scotland.”

1888(30th of Cheshvan, 5649): Rosh Chodesh Kislev

1888: Dr. Gustav Gottheil delivered a lecture at Temple Emanu-El this morning entitled “Government by the People and what it Owes to Judaism.”

1889: Mr. Rosenthal, the leading Republican in the Fourth District and the leader of the Hebrew American Republican League who has left the Republican Party plans to endorse the Tammany ticket at a mass meeting tonight.

1892: Former Chancellor Bismarck was quoted today as saying “that only newspapers, Poles and Jews desired war between the Russians and the Germans.” (The Jew as warmonger would gain transaction as can be seen Lindbergh’s and Patrick Buchanan’s invocation of the image in the 20th and 21st centuries)

1893: Six Polish Jews were arrested in Hudson, NY for illegal registration.

1894: “Boston Hebrews Rejoice” published today described “a mock funeral” held in Boston in which a large audience that included 2,000 Jews held in response to the death of the autocratic, anti-Semitic Czar Alexander III.

1894: A cross section of editorial opinion from Jewish newspapers following the death of Czar Alexander III published today included: The Jewish Herald – “We are glad to announce that the tyrannic heart of Alexander II beats no more”; The Volksadvocat – “Hurrah for the Angel of Death!” and The Abendblatt – “The Czar is dead.  Long live the social revolution!”

1894: Rabbi Joseph delivered a sermon today at Temple Emanu-El on “Civil and Religious Liberty in 1894”

1894: “Russia’s Puerile Autocrat” published today provides a portrait of Russia new Czar, Nicholas II including  a report circulating in London that Mlle. Kischeneffski, “the beautiful Jewess” has been the mistress of Nicholas for the last three years and that she “has two Romanoff children.

1895: It was revealed today that Samuel Levy owned the tenement on Pelham that burned down yesterday living four Jewish dead also owned the building on Cherry Street which was destroyed by fire last year.

1895: Chancellor von Caprivi who is an opponent of the anti-Semitic parties had an audience with the Emperor today.

1895: The will of the late Julius Lipman was filed in the Surrogate’s office today.

1895: “The Halevy Singing Society” published today described a concert sponsored by the Jewish musical organization under the direction of Leon Kramer that featured soprano Catherine Hilke, baritone Karl Dufft, tenor Charles A. Kaiser and violinist Sam Franko.

1895: The quarantine at the Hebrew Sheltering Arms ordered by Superintendent Henry Bernstein beause of the outbreak of measles continued in effect today.

1897: Birthdate of New York City native Albert D. “Dolly” Stark “the first Jewish umpire in the modern Major Leagues.

1897: Pennsylvanian George J. Newgarden was promoted to Captain and Assistant Surgeon in the U.S. Army.

1897: In his address at the Teacher’s College at Morningside Heights, William T. Harris, the National Commissioner of Education said that among the threads of education is “the Hebrew thread…the religious one which we recognize in the celebration of worship one day each week and in the various holy days” which “we acknowledge” as “the most essential thread of our civilization.

1898: Dr. Maurice Harris delivered an address tonight at Temple Israel in which he replied to Israel Zangwill’s criticism of Reformed Judaism.

1898: Abram Nelson has filed a petition on behalf of his client Jacob H. Bibo in Surrogate’s court that will finally settle the estate of Jacob Bibo, his nephew who disappeared mysteriously in the 1860’s and his brother Isaac for whose estate he is the executor.

1902: “The Admirable Crichton” produced by Charles Frohman opened at the Duke of York's Theatre.

1904(26th of Cheshvan, 5665): Willy Bambus passed away.

1905: “The Earl and the Girl” with additional music and lyrics by Jerome Kern opened at the Casino Theatre in New York.

1905: In Bachmut, Bessarabia, attacks on the Jews were “temporarily stopped” this morning “through the efforts of Russian peasants, but” after “the police spread false reports which aroused the mob, there was a renewal of the plunder and massacre” which resulted in losses reaching into the millions of dollars.

1905: “Odessa Terror Unchecked” published today included a summary of the violence in the Russian city which had begun “late in the afternoon” of October 31 when “all Jews found in the streets were severely beaten and may were killed in their shops which were ruthlessly pillaged.  In the poorer’ Jews’ quarters, on the outskirts of the town, whole streets were destroyed” while “crowds of workmen, women and children laden with all kinds of loot walked openly through the streets quarreling over the spoils.”  The violence has continued unabated on a daily basis ever since.

1908: Birthdate of nuclear physicist and anti-nuclear activist Joseph Rotblat.

1910: Attack made on the Jewish bank in Sophia, Bulgaria.

1911: Birthdate of Jack Rose the native of Warsaw who became an American gag writer and screen playwright.

1912: Birthdate of singer Frances Faye, who died on November 8, 1991.

1913: Jacob Aaron Cantor began his first term a member of the U.S. House of Representatives.

1913: Benjamin Cardozo was elected Justice of State Supreme Court of New York. In February of the following year he was made a judge on the Court of Appeals.

1913: “The Marks Nathan Orphanage” published in today’s Daily Jewish Courier provided “the entire report of Mr. Trotsky, the superintendent” of the institution.

1916: Figures were given out today showing the results accomplished since the establishment of the Joint Distribution Committee’s Remittance Bureau chaired by Felix Warburg which was established “to forward to the Jews in the war stricken countries remittances from relatives in the United States which it has been impossible to forward through any other private or governmental agency – a task made almost impossible because of “changing fortunes of war” in Russia, Rumania, Poland and Austria where territory “passes and repasses” from one country’s military to another.

1917: At the Central Jewish Institute East 85th Street, Israel Unterberg presided over the memorial service for philanthropist Samuel I. Hyman, officiated over by Rabbis Hyamson and Goldstein where the speakers included Dr. Cyrus Adler, Dr. J.L. Magnes and Louis Marshall who delivered a eulogy in which he “urged the necessity for patriotism and loyalty among the Jews in America.”

1917(19th of Cheshvan, 5678): Seventy year old Leopoldo Franchetti, a member of a family that came to Italy from Tunisia in the 18th century and who became an Italian political leader with a special interest in the problems of southern Italy passed away today.

1917(19th of Cheshvan, 5678): Eighty-seven year old Civil War veteran Solomon Stern passed away today in New Orleans.

1917: To the cheers of 12,000 inside Madison Square Garden and thousands more outside of the building Morris Hillquit, the Socialist candidate for Mayor closed his campaign “with an appeal to class feeling” and pacifism.

1918: The German Revolution began when forty-thousand sailors took over the port in Kiel.  During the revolt, the Communist Party which included “Jewish members” would try and seize power much as their counterparts in Russia had done a year earlier.  The revolt would fail and eventually the Weimar Republic which also had Jewish leaders would come to power in the 1920’s.  Hitler would use the German fear of disorder and the presence of Jews in both of these movements to whip anti-Semitism and justify the Final Solution.

1918: In Germany, Bavaria became the first (state to become a socialist “republic” under the leadership of moderate, non-Bolshevik Jew named Kurt Eisner

1919:  Birthdate of Martin Balsam one of the finest and most prolific television and movie character actors of the 20th century.  From a juror in Twelve Angry Men, to Admiral Kimmel in Tora, Tora, Tora, to an officer in the wacky comedy Catch 22, Balsam played them all with skill and aplomb. He passed away in 1996.

1921: Hadassah nurses and their teachers join the funeral procession which ends with the burial of the four victims of Arab violence at the Jewish Cemetery on the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem.

1923: Rabbi Samuel Schulman at Temple Beth-el and Rabbi Stephen S. Wise at the Free Synagogue defended Israel Zangwill's recent address at Carnegie Hall in which the Jewish publicist declared that political Zionism was dead.

1924: Eighteen year old featherweight Maurice Holtzer fought and won his first bout.

1924: Republican candidate Jesse H. Metcalf was elected to the United States by the citizens of Rhode Island. In June of 1933, during a Senate debate on the treatment of Jews in Germany, Metcalf would join those who condemned the Nazi government. “We as a national can only declare the existence of racial or religious prejudice to be untenable as a national ideal.”

1924: Republican candidate Albert Ottinger was elected Attorney General for the State of New York.

1925: Birthdate of Doris May Green, the St. Louis native who was raised by her mother Ann Meltzer and her step-father Chester H. Roberts, who gained fame as Emmy award winning actress Doris Roberts best known for her role as the nagging mother on “Everybody Loves Raymond.”

1926: In Brooklyn, “Aaron Fuchs, a baker and the former Rose Mintzer” gave birth to Murray Louis Fuchs who gained fame as choreographer Murray Louis. (As reported by Jack Anderson)

1926: Birthdate of Laurence Rosenthal, the Detroit native who gained fame as a composer, arranger and conductor creating the scores for  “Raisin in the Sun” and “Becket”

1926: Nineteen year old middleweight Seymour “Cy” Schindell fought his 10th bout leaving his record at 9 to 1.

1926: Rabbi Bernard Drachman and Rabbi B.A. Tinter officiated at the funeral of Harry Houdini which took place at the Machpelah Cemetery in the borough of Queens and was attended by “more than 2,000 mourners.

1927: Rabbi David Cohen and Sarah Elkin gave birth to She’ar Yashuv Cohen, the Ashkenazi Chief Rabbi of Haifa.

1928(21st of Cheshvan, 5689): Arnold Rothstein passed away.  Rothstein was one of New York City's most notorious gamblers.  He was a crook and a mobster; certainly not a credit to the Jewish people.  He was rumored to have been the brains behind the fixing of the 1919 World Series also known as the Black Sox Scandal.  He was shot to death over a poker game or gambling debts.

1928: Six months after premiering in New York City, “The Man Who Laughs” the screen version of the novel of the same name directed by Paul Leni and produced by Paul Kohner was released in the rest of the United States.

1932(5th of Cheshvan, 5693): Seventy Four year old Salomon Reinach, the distinguished French archaeologist passed away. The brother of author and politician Jospeh Reinach and archaeologist Theodore Reinach, he was an active member of the Jewish community serving as vice president of the Alliance Israélite Universelle 

1932:  Birthdate of actor and director Noam Pitlik who appeared in a variety of sit-coms including the Bob Newhart Show and whose directorial work included several episodes of the detective comedy series, Barney Miller.  He passed away in 1999.

1935: Birthday of Uri Zohar, the Tel Aviv native who went from being a successful entertainer to the life of a Haredi rabbi.

1936 Cardinal Michael von Faulhaber, the Archbishop of Munic travelled to Hitler's mountain retreat near Berchtesgaden

1936: In London, “Count Edward Raczynski, the Polish Ambassador called at the Foreign Office and intimated to Sir Robert Vansittart, the permanent Under-Secretary” that in his upcoming trip to the United Kingdom, Colonel Josef Beck, the Foreign Minister of Poland wants to discuss “the question of Jewish immigration” from Poland to Palestine with Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden” because the government in
Warsaw fears that the British authorities at Jerusalem are inclined to make concessions to the Arabs and temporarily restrict, if not block altogether, the flow of immigrants” by which Beck means Polish Jews fleeing that country’s on-going wave of anti-Semitism.

1937:, Isaac Kaplan, who was the first member of his family to go to college, and  Bessie Zwirn Kaplan gave birth to  Fred Kaplan who  grew up in the lower-middle-class environment of third-generation Jewish Ashkenazic immigrant culture, first in the Bronx and then in Brooklyn, where his family moved when he was ten. He was one of four sons, the other three of whom became lawyers. His avid reading of novels and other books at home, in the public library, in the public schools of Brooklyn, and at Brooklyn College, where he majored in classics and philosophy (B.A., 1959), led to his partial assimilation into Anglo-American culture; he then earned an M.A. Fred Kaplan's biographies of Thomas Carlyle and Charles Dickens are part of a projected biographical quartet charting the sweep of Anglo-American culture from the Romantic to the modern era. Kaplan is committed to biography as a literary form and draws upon the techniques of narrative art; he aspires to combine the power and dramatic resources of narrative prose and the rigorous intellectual requirements of historical literary scholarship and cultural analysis.

1937: The Palestine Post reported the British government’s announcement that there would be no retraction of the measures taken against members of the Arab Higher Committee and that the recent restrictions on Jewish immigration were only temporary. (The British must have had their fingers crossed on this last part of the statement since not only wouldn’t the restrictions be lifted they would actually be tightened.) It was decided, however, not to put pressure on the French authorities in Lebanon for the extradition of the mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin el-Husseini, from Beirut to Jerusalem (even though he was the architect of much of the Arab terrorism).

1938: “The Great Waltz,” a biopic with a script co-authored by Gottfried Reinhardt and Vicki Baum was released in the United States today.

1938: “At a public meeting in Epping, Winston Churchill narrowly survives an attempt by fellow Conservative and constituent Sir Colin Thornton-Kemsley to remove him from Parliament” which if it had been successful would have meant that Hitler’s most outspoken foe would not have been able to serve as First Lord or Prime Minister when WW II broke out ten months later.

1941: Stanley M. Isaacs won a seat on the New York City Council as an At-Large representative from Manhattan.

1941: Franklin Mott Gunther, the U.S. minister to Romania “described in detail the massacres committed in Bessarabia and in Bukovina and the cruelties that were committed during the deportations to Transnistria.”

1941: Last of a twenty train convoy made its way from Germany to the Lodz ghetto. In all, 19,837 Jews were taken. Banishment became official as the Reich Treasury issued directives that "Jews not employed in businesses of importance to the people's economy will be banished to one of the cities in the East. The property of the Jews who are to be banished will be confiscated

1942: Regina Jonas, the Berlin native who “became the first woman to be ordained as rabbi” was forced by the Nazis “to fill out a declaration form that listed her property, including her books.”

1942: During World War II, Axis forces retreated from El Alamein in North Africa in a major victory for British forces commanded by Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery.  This would mark the end of the Axis threat to the Jewish community in Eretz Israel.  Reluctantly, the British had turned to the leaders of the Yishuv to help prepare for the defense of the Middle East if Rommel had broken through at El Alamein and seized Egypt and the Suez Canal.  Many Egyptians were prepared to welcome what they would be a victorious German army and there were reports of Nazi flags being flown in parts of Cairo.  The defeat of the Axis at El Alamein, along with the battles at Midway and Stalingrad, was considered a major turning point in the war.  The Allied victory in the spring of 1943 would free the Jews of North Africa from the threat of the Nazis and the Vichy French. 

1943: In Poland, 3,898 Jews were deported from the Szebnie labor camp to Birkenau

1943: The Jews of Florence, Italy were rounded up and deported.

1943: “North Star” a cinematic treatment of a short story by Lillian Hellman who wrote the script, directed by Lewis Milestone, produced by Samuel Goldwyn and with music by Aaron Copeland was released today in the United States.

1943: The Germans put down an inmate revolt at the slave-labor camp at Szebnie, Poland. The camp is liquidated; about 3000 Jews are deported to Auschwitz.

1944: The ‘Death March' from Bor, Hungary, makes its way to Gyor, Hungary after a six week journey. Here hundreds of survivors were beaten or shot to death. The bodies were thrown into massive graves that the prisoners had dug just before their extermination. Five thousand people would start the march and only nine would survive to the end of the war. Many other similar marches would follow. After being forced to dig their own graves, hundreds of Jews from the copper-mine labor camp at Bor, Hungary, are shot or beaten to death at Györ, Hungary. Among the victims is a noted poet named Miklós Radnóti, age 35.

1944: Weizmann and Churchill met to discuss the future of Palestine.

1944: Sixty-two year old Sir John Greer Dill who served as the first British General to serve as the head of the Palestine from 1936 to 1937 passed away today in Washington, DC following which he was buried in Arlington National Cemetery.

1945: Reports of of anti-Semitic “demonstrations in Syria, Lebanon and Egypt published today in Tarabaulus el Gharb, a Libyan newspaper helped “to fan the flames of existing anti-Jewish feeling” that led to an outbreak of anti-Semitic riots.
1945: Anti-Jewish riots broke out in seven cities in Libya, including Tripoli which would last for four days during which ten synagogues were burned and looted while Jewish homes and businesses were broken into and looted.

1945: Drastic measures including imposing an extended curfew upon a wide strategic area southward and northward of the central harbor town of Haifa were announced by Maj. Gen. C.F. Loewen, British military commander of Northern Palestine.

1946: Nathaniel Lawrence Goldstein is re-elected New York State Attorney General, make it two wins a row for Republican leader and lawyer.

1948: The United Nations Security Council called for the withdrawal of all forces to the positions they had held on October 14, 1948.  It also called for negotiations to be conducted between the combatants.  The Israelis rejected the first part.  They were going to hold on to their gains in the Negev.  The Arabs refused to negotiate with the Israelis since they claimed that to do so would provide legitimacy to “the Zionist entity.”

1948: Birthdate of Shaul Mofaz, the native of Tehran who became the IDF’s 16th Chief of the General Staff in 1998.

1949: Elyahu Elath, the Israeli Ambassador to the United States asked George McGhee, the United States Assistant Secretary of the State for Near Eastern, South Asian and African Affairs if the United States would raise the question of the plight of Iraqi Jewry aat the United Nations, McGhee replied that  he ‘strongly’ recommended not raising the issue, because ‘a debate in the Gerneral Assemly would stir up feelings and do Iraq’s Jews more harm than good.”

1950: Billboard reported today that Arnold Eidus, a prominent radio and concert musician is one of the founders of Stradivari Record which is production chamber music featuring performance by this famed violinist.

1952: “The Prisoner of Zenda” a re-make of the 1937 film produced by Pandro S. Berman with music by Alfred Newman which was filmed by cinematographer Joseph Ruttenberg was released in the United States today by MGM.

1952: Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower was elected president, defeating Democrat Adlai Stevenson.  At the end of his first term, President Eisenhower would turn against the Israelis during the Suez Crisis.  He would side with the Soviets and save Nasser. 

1952 (16th of Cheshvan, 5713): Aaron Nusbaum passed away.  The Elgin, Illinois native was a vice president of Sears Roebuck & Co. and brother in law of Julius Rosenwald.  A noted philanthropist, he played a key role in the creation of the Adler Planetarium.

1955: U.S. premiere of “The Tender Trap” the movie version of Max Shulman’s play for which he co-authored the screenplay Julius Epstein and which was produced by Lawrence Weingarten.

1956: It was reported today that an Egyptian communique claimed Egyptian forces “had sunk four Biriths naval vessels and captured three troop landing craft at Suez.

1956: During the Suez Crisis, it was reported that the British and French paratroopers would drop into the Canal Zone within the next 48 hours now that the British had neutralized the Egyptian air force.

1956:  During the Sinai Campaign, a.k.a. The Hundred Hours War, Israeli forces reached the Suez Canal.

1956: An IDF force of 180 vehicles successfully made the trek through the Sinai wilderness and took Sharm es Sheikh from the Egyptians.  After six hours of fighting, the IDF prevailed and opened the Straits of Tiran.
1956: Soviet Army units unleashed a massive attack on Budapest as part of their move to suppress the Hungarian Revolution.  Jewish students had been prominent participants in the uprising.  Seeing that the revolt had failed and fearing a Stalinist style reprisal approximately 40,000 Jews joined the 170,000 Hungarians who fled to Austria.

1960: Marilyn Monroe finishes her last film, The Misfits.

1960: “Butterfield 8” a cinematic treatment of the 1934 novel directed by Daniel Mann, produced by Pandro S. Berman and starring Elizabeth Taylor (who won an Oscar), Laurence Harvey and Eddie Fisher was released today in the United States.

1961:  In Los Angeles Edward Baitz, “an executive of the Carnation Company” and his wife gave birth to Jon Robin Baitz who after a career in the California entertainment industry became “a professor at Stony Brook Southampton and The New School where he served Artistic Director of the BFA theatre program.”

1964: Comedian Lenny Bruch and club owner Howard Solomon were both found guilty of obscenity.

1965: Birthdate of French concert violinist Anne Gravoin.

1966: In Florence, hundreds of rare Jewish books, documents, archives and Judaica items, some of them centuries old, which were damaged when the Arno River continued to overflow its banks today.

1968: Seventy-nine year old Joseph Lewis, the Montgomery, Alabama born Jew turned atheist who as President of The Freethinkers of America” called on Jews to “renounce their ‘antiquated creed’” and denounced “Yom Kippur as the ‘most degrading and humiliating day in all the superstitious annals of religion’” passed away today.

1970: “Song of Norway” a movie version of the “operetta of the same name” co-starring Edward G. Robinson was released today in the United States.

1970: U.S. premiere of “A.k.a. Cassius Clay” which was filmed by cinematographer Isidore Mankofsky.

1974: New Yorker Richard Ottinger was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives.

1974: “In a letter to Senator Henry Jackson, one hundred Soviet Jews accused Soviet authorities of using the military draft as punitive measure against young Jewish applicants for emigration to Israel.”

1977: The Vatican appealed to Israel to release Greek Catholic Archbishop Hilarion Capucci, who had just completed three years of his 12-year prison sentence for smuggling arms for Arab terrorists from Beirut to Jerusalem. An undertaking was given that Capucci, if released, would no longer engage in any anti-Israeli activity and would be posted to a monastery outside the Middle East. (The statement speaks for itself in terms of analyzing Vatican-Israeli relations).

1977: Three people were injured when a bomb exploded as it was being removed from a bus in Jerusalem.

1979: A group of Iranian “students” stormed the U.S. Embassy in Teheran and seized 52 Americans whom they held hostage for 444 days.  The prolonged crisis was instrumental in Regan’s defeat of Carter which marked a fundamental change in the American political landscape.  It is also part of the Mosaic of Moslem attacks on Western Civilization of which the demand for the destruction of the state of Israel is another part.

1980:  More than 300 Soviet Jews sign an open letter to President Brezhnev accusing the Soviet government of paying lip service to the human rights provisions of the Helsinki Final Act and failing to honor the commitments on emigration.

1980(25th of Cheshvan, 5741): A suicide operation carried out by the Shiite Muslims and supported by Syria killed thirty six Israeli soldiers in Lebanon. The attack came after both sides had agreed to a cease-fire.

1986(2nd of Cheshvan, 5747): Eight year old German born British mathematician passed away today.

1987(12th of Cheshvan, 5748): Eighty-seven year old American painter, Raphael Soyer whose brother Moses and Isaac were also painters passed away today in New York. For more see Raphael Soyer and the Search for Modern Jewish Art by Samantha Baskind

1989: “As the Communist regime in East Germany began to topple, Stefan Heym joined other prominent would-be reformers at Marx Engels Square in the center of East Berlin where he spoke to a crowd of 100,000, saying that ''socialism, the right kind, not the Stalinist kind, is what we want to build for our benefit and the benefit of all Germany.'' (As reported by David Binder)

1990(16th of Cheshvan, 5751): Shalom-Avraham Shaki passed away.  Born in Yemen in 1906, he made Aliyah in 1914.  He worked as teacher before pursuing a career in politics that included service in the Knesset from 1962 until 1965.

1991: Mid East peace conference ends in Madrid Spain

1993: The BBC broadcast the final episode of “Scarlet and Black” co-starring Rachel Weisz.

1993(20th of Cheshvan, 5754): Seventh-three year old Peabody award winning producer Ely A. Landau passed away. (As reported by Eric Pace)

1994: Unveiling of a sculpture of Fred Lebow created by Jesus Ygnacio Dominguez designed to honor the Holocaust survivor who founded the NYC Marathon. The sculpture depicts Lebow timing runners with his watch. In 2001, the statue was moved to its permanent location on the East Side Central Park Drive at 90th Street.  Every year, however, the statue is moved to a spot in view of the finish line of the Marathon

1994: “Oleanna” a “film written and directed by David Mamet based on his play Oleanna” was released today in the United States.

1995: Aviv Geffen was scheduled to perform at tonight’s peace rally where chose to sing “Cry for You” (Livkot Lekha)

1995 (11th of Cheshvan, 5756): Yitzchak Rabin, Prime Minster of Israel, was assassinated by a right wing fanatic who was opposed to Rabin’s efforts to bring peace to Israel and its Arab neighbors.  Rabin was born in Jerusalem in 1922, making him Israel’s first sabra Prime Minister.  Rabin’s distinguished career in the IDF included serving as Chief of Staff during the Six Day in 1967.  Rabin’s first stint as Prime Minister during the during the 1970’s ended with him being forced to leave office do to a personal financial scandal.  His defeat opened the way for Begin and the Likud to come to power for the first time in Israel.  Rabin did not have any illusions about the PLO and Arafat.  We will never know if Rabin’s vision would have borne fruit.  Instead a killer took it upon himself to end the life of man who had spent his life risking his life in defense of Israel and the Jewish people.

1995: Shimon Peres began serving as Minister of Defense in Israel.

1996: In article entitled “A Man Who Makes Us Worry” published in The Information Bulletin of the Library of Congress, Harry Katz reports on the decision by Jules Feiffer to donate his papers to the library and describes the importance of the collection.

2001: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or about topics of Jewish interest including Old Men At Midnight by Chaim Potok and Where The Stress Falls by Susan Sontag

2001(18th of Cheshvan, 5762): Shoshana Ben Ishai, 16, of Betar Illit and Menashe (Meni) Regev, 14, of Jerusalem were killed when a Palestinian terrorist opened fire with a sub-machine gun shortly before 16:00 at a No. 25 Egged bus at the French Hill junction in northern Jerusalem. 45 people were injured in the attack.

2002: On his 54th birthday, Shaul Mofaz began serving as Israel’s Minister of Defense

2002(29th of Cheshvan, 5763):  Security guard Julio Pedro Magram, 51, of Kfar Sava, and Gastón Perpiñal, 15, of Ra'anana, both recent immigrants from Argentina, were killed and about 70 people were wounded in a suicide bombing at a shopping mall in Kfar Sava. The Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility for the attack.

2003:  A ketubbah (Jewish marriage contract) printed in Utica, New York in 1863, is showcased as a "Second Guest of Honor" at the Louis Marshall Award Dinner at the Pierre Hotel. The "Second Guest of Honor" program is another effort to further expose the treasures of The JTS Library that the Board instituted in which a rare piece from The Library's collection will appear at an event outside JTS.

2005(2nd of Cheshvan, 5766): Earl Leslie Krugel the West Coast coordinator of the Jewish Defense League was murdered by a fellow inmate, who struck him in the head with a block of concrete.

2005: The Center for Tel Aviv History organized a special tour to mark the anniversary of the assassination of late Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin.

2005(2nd of Cheshvan, 5766): Ninety-year old David Wilfred Abse, the native of Cardin who became “an eminent psychoanalyst” and “professor of psychiatry at the University of Virginia” passed away today.

2005: In Cedar Rapids, the National Czech & Slovak Museum & Library (NCSML) began hosting "The Tragedy of Slovak Jews," a special, temporary exhibition from the Museum of the National Uprising in Banska Bystrica, Slovak Republic. The exhibition addresses the tragic demise of the Jewish communities in Slovakia. Prior to World War II, Jews held an important and significant position in Slovak culture. The exhibit focuses on Slovak society and the solution of the Jewish question in the years 1938 – 1945, the first wave of deportations (March – October 1942), the origination of working and prison camps, the second wave of deportations in 1944, and the fascist reprisals in Slovakia.

2005: As further proof of the changing face of Reform Judaism in Israel, the four new Reform rabbis ordained at Jerusalem’s Hebrew Union College half are women and include three native Israelis and one of Iraqi heritage.

2006: Opening of the 10th Annual UK Jewish Film Festival

2007: Publication of Flotsam, by David Wiesner.

2007: Author E.L. Doctorow, the son of parents “of Russian-Jewish origin,” received the Chicago Tribune Literary Prize.

2007: The Sunday New York Times features reviews of the following books by Jewish authors and/or that featured Jewish topics including The World in a City: Traveling the Globe Through the Neighborhoods of the New New York by Joseph Berger and Proust Was a Neuroscientist in which author Jonah Lehrer the son of former Los Angeles ADL chief David Lehrer argues that artists predict the scientific future.

2007: The Sunday Washington Post features reviews of the following books by Jewish authors and/or that featured Jewish topics including Gentlemen of the Road by Michael Chabon and Young Stalin by Simon Sebag Montefiore.

2007: At the Jewish Community Center of Greater Washington 38th annual Book Festival, Pulitzer Prize winning David Vise discusses The Google Story: Inside the Hottest Business, Media and Technology Success.

2007: In a festive ceremony at the Weizmann Institute of Science, 11 young women scientists, who had completed their PhD studies with honors at several Israeli universities and academic institutions, each received an award of about $20,000 per year for two years.

2007: The New York city Marathon Minyan celebrates its 25th year of enabling runners to a join a minyan, lay tefillin and shout out the blessing ‘hanoten layaef koakh – He who gives strength to the weary’ prior to setting out on the 26.2 mile course through the city’s five boroughs. 

2007: National Jewish Book Month begins.

2008: America chooses between John McCain and Barack Obama in the U.S. Presidential election.  Regardless of the outcome, Obama is the first major presidential candidate whose closest political advisor – David Axelrod – is Jewish and who has a rabbi - Capers Funnye – as a family member.

2008:   Agriprocessors filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection

2008: A record number of Jews were elected to Congress. The next session of Congress will include 45 Jewish lawmakers, a new record, after Democrats Alan Grayson of Florida and John Adler of New Jersey took two House seats from the Republican column. Jared Polis, also a Democrat, was widely expected to win his Colorado House seat to match the previous record, set in the 2006 elections. The House will have 32 Jewish members. Only the class of 1990 had more Jewish members - 34 - but there were fewer Jewish senators at the time. The next Senate will have 13 Jewish members, the same as the previous session, despite a toss-up race in Minnesota, where both Republican incumbent Norm Coleman and his Democratic challenger, comedian Al Franken, are Jewish.

2009: Opening session of Union for Reform Judaism's 70th Biennial Convention in Toronto, Canada.
2009: Israeli navy commandos seized the M.V. Francop a cargo ship early today in the Mediterranean Sea that was carrying rockets and ammunition bound for militants from Hezbollah in what was known as Operation Four Species.

2009: French premiere of “Le Concert” directed by Romanian born French (Jewish) Radu Mihăileanu

2009: Today “Nancy Lieberman broke yet another barrier when she became the first woman head coach of the Dallas Mavericks’ D-League affiliate team.”

2010: Jeffrey Rosen, Professor of Constitutional Law at The George Washington University, is scheduled to speak on Religious Freedom and the Right to Worship, Freedom of Speech, Press, Assembly, and how the Supreme Court impacted the First Amendment of the Constitution, at Northern Virginia Hebrew Congregation, in Reston, VA.

2010: The Center for Jewish History, Centro Primo Levi and PEN World Voices Festival in collaboration with the Consulate General of Slovenia are scheduled to present: “Boris Pahor's Necropolis: A Slovenian Story of Culture, Conflict, and Persecution on the Northeastern Border of Italy.”

2010: Germany's burgeoning Jewish community ordained its first female rabbi since the Holocaust today, a major step for a religious group that until recently imported its leaders from abroad - most of them men. The ordination of Alina Treiger, a Ukrainian-born 31-year-old, is a sign of the growing diversity of Germany's largely conservative Jewish community, observers say, though some warned she will face an uphill battle among worshippers used to being led by male rabbis.

2011: George Schindler, the dean of the Society of American Magicians, other magicians and members of the general public are scheduled to visit Harry Houdini’s grave at the Machpelah Cemetery in the Queens borough of New York City on the 85th anniversary of his funeral. The visit used to take place on Halloween, Houdini’s Yahrtzeit

2011: The Phoenix Ensemble is scheduled to perform at Studio Hecht in Haifa.

2011: The “Excellence Concert Series” is scheduled to present “Young Piano Masters” at the Aldwell Institute of the Jerusalem Conservatory of Music and Dance

2011: This afternoon the Israel Navy intercepted two boats that approached the coast of the Gaza Strip with the intent to violate Israel's naval blockade of the territory. After the boats failed to heed calls to turn around or dock in Egypt or Israel, Israel Defense Forces Chief of Staff Benny Gantz ordered naval forces to board the ships. Nobody was injured during the boarding of the ships, a military source said.

2011: Immediately following his return from Cyprus today, President Shimon Peres joined the children, grandchildren and great grandchildren of Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin at the monument erected on the site of Rabin's assassination. Peres, who had been at a huge peace rally in Tel Aviv with Rabin on the fateful night of November 4, 1995, laid a wreath at the monument, as did Tel Aviv Mayor Ron Huldai.

2012: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including the recently released paperback editions of  The Puppy Diaries by Jill Abramson and The Convert by Deborah Baker.

2012: A day after three Syrian tanks entered the demilitarized zone on the Golan Heights to attack Syrian rebels, IDF Chief of Staff Lt.-Gen. Benny Gantz visited the border region today, and warned army forces that “the Syrian affair could turn into our affair.” Gantz instructed the IDF to be on alert in the area, and to prevent any spillover of the Syrian conflict onto Israeli territory.

2012: The Jerusalem Foundation honored Sir Winston Churchill today.

2012: “Letters of Light” New Works by Anna Gil, “a solo show of new works inspired by Jewish Mysticism” is scheduled to open at the Gallery Orange on Royal Street in the famous French Quarter of New Orleans.

2012: In Cedar Rapids, Iowa, The Hadassah Donor Dinner celebrating 100 years of Hadassah is scheduled to take place at Temple Judah.

2012: As part of its Turkish-Jewish Festival, in Rockville, MD, Tikvat Israel is scheduled to sponsor a performance by “renowned Sephardic musician Flory Jagoda.

2012: “A Kid For Two Farthings” is scheduled to be shown at the UK Jewish Film Festival.

2013: “Disaster!, a musical comedy starring Seth Rudetsky and written by both Rudetsky and Jack Plotnick, opened Off-Broadway at the St. Luke's Theatre.”

2013: The Annual International Shluchim Convention (Kinus Hashluchim) in Brooklyn, NY is scheduled to come to an end.

2013: B’nai Jeshurun is scheduled to host a Yitzhak Rabin Memorial Service this evening co-sponsored by the Israeli Consulate and Hashomer Hatzair Youth Movement

2013: Jonathan Kirsch is scheduled to deliver a talk on “the truth behind Kristallnacht” in which he examines “the tragic life…of Herschel Grynszpagn” at the San Diego Jewish Book Fair.

2013: As we mark the centenary of the trial of Melvin Beilis, the Center for Jewish History is scheduled to present a roundtable discussion “Reflecting on the Beilis Trial.”

2013: The Knesset raised the legal marriage age from 17 to 18 today. The bill, initiated by a group of Knesset members from across the political spectrum, was meant to fight the early betrothal customary in certain sectors, where minors are wed under familiar and community pressures. (As reported by Moran Azulay)

2013: Women of the Wall held a peaceful prayer service under police protection at the Western Wall to mark the group’s 25th anniversary.

2013(1st of Kislev, 5774): Ninety-one year Eleanor Mlotek, “the Queen of Yiddish Musicology” passed away today. (As reported by Joseph Berger)

2014: In Sydney, “Zero Motivation” and “The Farewell Party” are scheduled to be shown at the Jewish International Film Festival.

2014: “Sotheby’s is selling a 1917 gouache and crayon work ‘Seated Woman With Bent Left Leg’” which “once belonged to Fritz Grünbaum, a Viennese cabaret performer whose large art collection was inventoried by Nazi agents after he was sent to the Dachau concentration camp, where he died” but for which the family will receive no compensation because “United States federal courts have found that the family waited too long to file its claim and that there was insufficient evidence to conclude “Seated Woman” had been stolen.”

2014: The Tulane Jewish Studies Department under the leadership of Dr. Brian Horowitz is scheduled to present a lecture by Michael Stanislawski entitled “The Jewish and Muslim Enlightenments in Imperial Russia: A Comparison.”

2014: Elfriede Starer, a Kindertransportee, is scheduled to tell her story at the Wiener Library in London.

2014: “Jewish Voices,” a reading by prominent Jewish poets and writers is scheduled to take place for the fifteenth year at the Oregon Jewish Museum and Center for Holocaust Education.

2014: The Five Boroughs Food Talk is scheduled to feature “Jewish Food”

2014(11th of Cheshvan): Yarhrzeit of Rachel who passed away while giving birth to her second son Benjamin, the 12th son of Jacob and his 13th child.

2014: As Americans go to the polls Republicans Adam Kwasman, Lee Zeldin, Bruce Blakeman, Elon Carr and Micah Edmond each of whom are running for Congress hope to fill the shoes left empty by the defeat of Eric Cantor who was the on Jewish Republican serving in the House of Representatives.

2014: “Dozens of rival fans from Hapoel Tel Aviv and Maccabi Tel Aviv brawled in the street outside the city Magistrate's Court today, as rioters who invaded the pitch during Monday night's derby were brought to face a judge. Among those arrested after the fight was the son of MK Dov Khenin.” (As reported by Gilad Morag)

2014: “Israel and the United States used the inauguration of a joint warplane project today to stress it was business as usual in an alliance hit by acrimony over Israeli settlement building and strategy against Iran.”

2014: “Transportation Minister Yisrael Katz warned Tuesday that Israel was prepared to completely eviscerate Lebanon in response to any cross-border missile attack by Hezbollah.”

2015: Hindy Najman the first woman and the first Jew to serve as the Oriel Laing Professor for the Interpretation of Holy Scripture is scheduled to speak at the Lunch and Learn sponsored by the Oxford University Jewish Society.

2015: In Cedar Rapids, IA, “Lenka Lichtenberg, one of Toronto’s best-loved world fusion musicians with Czech and Jewish roots, is scheduled to perform traditional Jewish liturgical songs and poems” at CSPS Hall.

2015: The Skirball Center is scheduled to host “Remember Rabin” a memorial marking the 20th anniversary of the assassination of Yithak Rabin.

2015: The Consulate General of Israel in New York in partnership with IAC, JNF, WZO, StandWithUS and AZM a scheduled to showcase a panoply of educational programs focused on Israel and the Israeli experience.

2015: As part of Holocaust Education Week Beth Tikvah Synagogue in Toronto is scheduled to host “a panel of individuals born post-Holocaust in the Bergen-Belsen DP camp will address issues of intergenerational trauma; social, emotional and physical implications of their shared circumstances of birth; and how their parents’ Holocaust experiences informed their lives.”

2015: The biennial conference of the Union for Reform Judaism is scheduled to open today in Orlando, Florida.

2016: In Toronto, as part of Holocaust Education Week, Ron Levi is scheduled to speak at a Lunch ‘N Learn on “The Swiss banks Holocaust litigation and settlement: What can we learn from the proposals to allocate residual Funds?”

2016 At the Bernard Museum of Judaica at Temple Emanu-El, the opening of the exhibition “All About Golda” is scheduled to take places following Friday evening services.






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