Sunday, November 20, 2016

This Day, November 21, In Jewish History by Mitchell A. Levin

November 21


456 BCE (20th of Kislev, 3306): On November 21, Ezra called together all the men of Judah and Benjamin and told them that they would have to give up their foreign born wives.  This was part of an attempt by the returning exiles to purify and strengthen the House of Israel even though some might say that it altered the definition of “who was a Jew” as can be seen by the Book of Ruth which was written to portray a different point of view. 

164 BCE: On the secular calendar, Judas Maccabaeus, son of Mattathias of the Hasmonean family, restores the Temple in Jerusalem. Events commemorated each year by the festival of Hanukkah.

1265: Abraham of Augsburg, who had converted to Judaism “died a martyr’s death” today which was the subject of elegies by Mordecai ben Hillel and Moses ben Jacob.

1272:  Following Henry III of England's death on November 16, his son Prince Edward becomes King of England.  As bad as Henry had been for the Jews, Edward would prove to be even worse.  After squeezing all he could out of his Jewish subjects, Edward expelled them in 1290.  England would remain officially Jew-free until for the next four centuries.


1384, Philip the Bold regulated the status of the Jews. He permitted fifty-two families to settle in the towns of his domain on payment of an entrance fee and an annual tax. He fixed the rate of interest; henceforth a Jew was to be believed on his oath, and the evidence of a single apostate was declared invalid. The chiefs of the Jews were called "masters of law"; the Jewish cemetery was separated from the others, and a noble of the court was instituted guardian of the Jews. The general expulsion of the Jews from France in 1394 put an end to their presence in Franche-Comté. Israel Lévi has proved that a certain number of well-known rabbis lived in this province in the first half of the fourteenth century—for instance, Joseph b. Jacob Tournoy and Joseph de Musidan.

1513: As Johann Reuchlin continued Johannes Pfefferkorn's drive to confiscate all books belonging to the Jews, Pope Leo ordered the Bishops of Speyer and Worms to hear the charge against Reuchlin.  Reuchlin was a Christian German Scholar whose field of study included Greek and Hebrew.  He had studied the Hebrew texts for the Emperor and found that most of them did not speak ill of Christiainity which meant that they should not be destroyed.  This thwarted the aim of Pfefferkorn and his allies. 

1616(5377): Moses Mordecai ben Samuel Margolioth, the native of Posen who served as the head of the Yeshiva at Cracow for twenty years starting in 1591 when Joseph Katz passed away, passed away today.

1619: Shah Abbasi (Sufi Dynasty, Persia) intensified persecution against the Jews. Many Jews were forced to live "Marrano-like" lives, outwardly practicing Islam. This policy was continued by his son, Abbas II.

1654(11th of Kislev, 5415): Rachel Heller (Ashkenazi), the wife of Tosfot Yom Tov and daughter of Aharon Moses Ashkenazi (Munk) and Nechama Nechele Nechly Netile Ashkenazi passed away today.

1694: Birthdate of the French philosopher Voltaire.  The great philosopher of the Enlightenment was a vicious anti-Semite.  Not only that, he was an anti-Semite with a twist.  Other Enlightenment philosophers that once Jews were no longer persecuted they would give up their religious trappings and meld into the mainstream of European culture.  Voltaire believed that Jews were innately deformed and that they were beyond reform.  However, Voltaire was humane, but he did not believe that they should be burned at the stake. In his own words he described Jews as “an ignorant, and barbarous people who have long exercised the most sordid avarice and detestable superstition, and an insurmountable hate for all peoples who have tolerated and enriched them.

1789: North Carolina ratifies the U.S. Constitution to become the 12th state in the Union.  North Carolina has one of the oldest Jewish communities in the United States. The early history of the Jews in North Carolina is a mixed.  In 1776, it was one the original thirteen colonies that could boast of having an organized Jewish community.  In 1852, the Jews of Wilmington, N.C, purchased land for a burial plot.  However, the congregation was not organized for another until 1867.  This lengthy was not unusual in the South.  In other ante-bellum communities, land was purchased for a cemetery, but with war clouds gathering, Jews waited before building synagogues and temples.  Further delay was caused by the Civil War and the impoverishment that followed. In 1809, Jacob Henry was the first Jew elected to the legislature in the state.  He accomplished this feat despite the state’s religious tests for office holders.  Strangely enough, the Tar Heel state did not get around to removing religious tests until 1876. The Jewish Community of North Carolina has made great strides over the years.   According to the Glenmary Research Center, which publishes Religious Congregations and Membership in the United States Guilford County (which includes Greensboro and High Point) ranked 99th on a list of the 100 counties in 2000 with the largest Jewish communities, based by percentage of total population. The thirty thousand Jews comprise 0.3% of the state’s population but pack enough clout to have gotten then Governor Jim Hunt to support a state agency designed to stimulate economic and cultural exchanges with the state of Israel. 

1792: Birthdate of Benoit Fould, the French banker who married Helena Oppenheim whose dowry provided “part of the initial capital of the new bank Foul-Oppenheim et Cie.

1800: Birthdate of “bare-knuckle boxer” Barney Aaron the native of Aldgate who was nicknamed “The Star of the East” and who was the father “Young Barney Aaron”.

1818: A petition written by Lewis Way, an English missionary, requesting the restoration of an independent Jewish nation in Palestine was submitted by Czar Alexander to the Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle

1822(7th of Kislev, 5583): Eighty year old Lazarus Solomon passed away in Jamaica today.

1823: Birthdate of Julius von Gomperzes, the Austrian industrialist who brother of historian Theodor Gomperzes, and the uncle of philosopher Heinrich Gomperzes.

1824: [Editor’s note: Contrary to popular misconception, the American Jewish Community has deep, historic roots outside of New York and its immediate environs.] The first Reform Congregation, Beth Elohim, was established in Charleston, South Carolina. Beth Elohim congregation is the birthplace of Reform Judaism in America and the oldest surviving Reform congregation in the world. Its members have been eminent leaders in the city, state and nation. Among them: Moses Lindo, who helped develop cultivation of indigo, and Joseph Levy, the first Jewish military officer in America. The present beautiful Greek revival temple at 90 Hasell Street (pronounced Hazel) was built in 1840. The congregation began as a Sephardic group in 1749. George Washington wrote, "May the same temporal and eternal blessings which you implore for me rest upon your Congregation..." The Beth Elohim Coming Street cemetery is the largest pre-Revolutionary Jewish cemetery in America. The congregation's first rabbi, Moses Cohen, was the first person buried here, in 1762. Bernard Baruch's great grandfather, Rabbi Hartwig Cohen, is one of several other Beth Elohim rabbis here. Other noteworthy persons at this site are nine Charleston Jews who took part in the American Revolution, six who fought in the War of 1812, eight of the 180 Charleston Jews who fought in the Civil War, and three of the Jewish Masons who founded the Scottish Rite here in 1801. The history of Charleston Jewry is beautifully documented with ceremonial objects, records, paintings and photographs at the Beth Elohim Archives Museum. A three-story house at 89-91 Church Street in Charleston was the model for Catfish Row, the centerpiece of Porgy and Bess. George Gershwin wrote the opera while living in Folly Beach. As it moves into the 21st century, the Jewish Community shows its vibrancy through the construction of the College of Charleston, Yaschik/Arnold Jewish Studies Center. Housed in a new three million dollar, 12,000 square foot building, the center offers college credit Jewish studies courses serving the entire community. The Robert Scott Small Library houses the largest archives of South Carolina Jewish history.  Last but not least, Reuben Morris Greenberg has been Chief of Police in the city since 1982.  He is the first African-American Jewish police chief in the city’s history.

1831: Robert le diable (Robert the Devil) an opera in five acts composed by Giacomo Meyerbeer premiered tonight at the Academie Royale De Musique in Pars.

1837: Birthdate of “Austrian literary historian Marcus Landau” the native of Brody who “wrote over 700 essays, memoirs, and feuilleton articles in German and Italian for newspapers and literary periodicals.”

1842: Sir Louise Loewe created a series of hand-drawn maps for Sir Moses Montefiore showing the parts of Western and Eastern Europe through which they would be traveling on their way to the Levant.

1848: In New York, the "B'nai Jeshurun Ladies' Hebrew Benevolent Society," for the relief of indigent females was formed thanks to the efforts of Mrs. Henry Leo, Mrs. A.H. Lissak and Mrs. David Samson.

1849: Birthdate of William A Gans, who practiced law with Samuel B Hamburger for 35 years and who besides his involvement in numerous Jewish communal organizations, served as a Captain in the Sixth Regiment of the National Guard of New York.

1851: In New York, Albert M. Gans and Julia Stransky gave birth to attorney William A. Gans the graduate of NYU, the youngest ever appointed to serve in the New York National Guard and active member of the B’nai B’rith who was president of the Maimonides Library for twenty years., president of the Menorah Publishing Company for five years and columnist for the American Hebrew who wrote the “On the Wing Column” using the nom de plume “Argus.”

1852: Birthdate of Jeanette Schwerin, the native of Berlin who “was a women’s rights activist and a pioneer social worker.

1854: Birthdate of Giacomo Paolo Giovanni Battista della Chiesa who as Pope Benedict XV denounced anti-Semitism in response to a petition by American Jews and who gave Nahum Sokolov an extended audience where he presented the case for a Jewish state in Palestine to the Pontiff.

1857: In Zanesville, Ohio, Jacob Schumacher and his wife gave birth to Gottlieb Schumacher, the future U.S. Consular Agent in Haifa.

1859: Simon F. Norton the future father-in-law of Henry Klein, who had founded Norton’s Dry Goods at Los Angeles earlier this year became a naturalized U.S citizen today.

1861: Confederate President Jefferson Davis appointed Judah P. Benjamin Secretary of War. Before the Civil War, Benjamin had been the second Jewish member of the United States.  After the war, he would refuse to surrender and would move to Great Britain where he became a barrister.  Benjamin is always connected with Louisiana and New Orleans.  However, there is also a strong connection with Charleston, South Carolina. Judah Philip Benjamin attended the Hebrew Orphan Society School in Charleston, as a boy. The building still stands at 88 Broad Street. High on the front is a Hebrew inscription. The house of Judah Benjamin's father can be seen nearby at 35 Broad Street.

1866: Jacob Schiff was licensed as a broker today.

1870: In Vilna, leather merchant Osip Berkman and Yetta Berkman gave birth to Ovsei Osipovich Berkman who gained famed as Alexander Berkman the anarchist from of Emma Goldman who attempted to assassinate Henry Clay Frick during the steel strike.

1871: “Railroad Travel” published today described the interaction between a passenger traveling from Syracuse and New York City and what he described as “Hebrew matron” weighing at least “250 pounds.”


1873: It was reported today that the Charity Committee of the Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum Society has issued an appeal to the Jewish community to provide aid to their less fortunate co-religionists who are suffering during the current economic depression which has resulted in a marked increase in unemployment.  Because of the severity of the current economic crisis there is a large number of “industrious laborers and artisans” who are suffering and are not used to seeking aid and assistance. Contributions of money and clothing can be left a Number 6 Walker Street in Manhattan.


1874(12th of Kislev, 5635): Birthdate of Rena L. Phillips.
1875: According to reports published today, Emanuel B. Hart, a member of New York’s Jewish community will be in charge of entertainment at next month’s fund raiser for Mount Sinai Hospital.


1877: Birthdate of Rudolf Löb, the native of Eberfeld, Prussia who was the first non-family member to serve as chairman of the banking house of Mendelssohn & Co.


1878: It was reported today that a copy of the “Kabbala Denudata” which was published in Frankfort in 1684 has been sold at auction for $19.00. (This probably refers to work entitled “The Kabbalah Unveiled” by Christian Knorr von Rosenroth.]


1879: “An assignment for the benefit of creditors, by Abraham Lager to Max Moses, with $1,850 preferences was filed in the County Clerk’s office” in New York today.


1879: A report was published today describing the worsening situation of the Jews in Germany.  During the last month, at least 30 anti-Semitic pamphlets have been published in Berlin.  An "Antisemiten-Liga" (“League of Antisemites”) has been formed the members of which are “many of the wealthiest and most prominent citizens.”  Riots have taken place in which Jews have been not only insulted by severely maltreated.   The origin of this commotion may be traced back directly to that current of reaction, both in Church and State, which is now setting in all over Germany.”


1879: The first edition of The American Hebrew is published in New York. Phillip Cowen was the first publisher of this weekly paper which was founded by F. de Sola Mendes
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1880: Founding of the Hebrew Union Synagogue in Greenville, MS located on Main Street with a cemetery on Poplar Street.
1880: The annual reception and ball sponsored by the William Rothschild Association is scheduled to take place this evening in New York City’s Irving Hall.
1880: It was reported today that the government faced stiff questioning about the recent outbreak of anti-Semitism during a session of the lower house of the Prussian Diet.  Deputies “denounced the revival of race hatred and pointed out the inconsistency” of a country that “had taken diplomatic action in favor of the removal of disabilities of the Jews in the Balkan Principalities” harboring such sentiments.
1881: “Jewish Legends” published today provides a detailed review of The Wandering Jew by Moncure Daniel Conway.
1882: Jehiel Brill left Rosinoi, Russian Poland, with eleven men—ten farmers and a "melamed" (teacher)—today, and arrived at Palestine the following month. The story of his journey and of its results is given in detail in his work, Yesod ha-Ma'aleh (The Base of the Slope). Brill was Russian journalist who had been chosen for his take by Rabbi Samuel Mohilever and Baron Edmond de Rothschild.  (As reported by the Jewish Encylopedia)
1883: It was reported today that Mr. and Mrs. Ernest Nathan led the opening march at the charity ball hosted by the Brooklyn Hebrew Orphan Asylum.


1883: In Odessa, Mordecai (Max) Podeell and Minnie Podell gave birth to David Louis Podell, the husband of Sarah (Cissie) Podell
1884: Birthdate of David Louis Podell, the native of Odessa who came to the United States in 1891 where he became a successful lawyer in New York, helped to draft the National Industrial Recovery Act and served as a trustee for the Federation of Jewish Charities and the Educational Alliance.


1885: At Parepa Hall on the corner of 86th Street and Third Avenue “A charitable fair” sponsored by the Hebrew Ladies’ Benevolent Society which is raising “funds to assist the poor without regard to creed, color or nationality” is scheduled to come to an end this evening


1885: On Shabbat, Rabbi Henry Pereira Mendes delivered a sermon at Shearith Israel Synagogue “concerning the recent meeting” of a group of rabbis at Pittsurgh “and their publication of a…declaration of the ideas of reformed Judaism, ideas which” the rabbi said, “are totally different from European reformed Judaism.


1887: Birhdate date of Louise Pollak who married Julian Pollak in 1913


1887: “Something About Prejudice” published today highlights the views of Rabbi Kaufmann Kohler on this subject. In his view, the Jews can do a great deal “to totally annihilate” prejudice “by not exhibiting prejudice in their turn”


1888: It was reported today that Conrad Ausorge performed Schubert’s “Wander Fanstasia” at the Metropolitan Opera House as part of concert that was a fundraiser of the Aguilar Free Library which was founded in 188 and named for Sephardic Jewish author Grace Aguilar.


1890: After surviving a three day run the Finance Committee of the Citizens’ Savings Bank which had been so desperate to regain public confidence that it had enlisted the services of a local rabbi, is scheduled to meet today to see what can be done to salvage the financial institution that has large number of poor Jewish depositors. 


1890: Mark Koss, a tailor from Kiev, begged Agent Reinholz of the United Hebrew Charities Society to help him recover his missing baby who had been kidnapped by Sara Grimsburg, a former girlfriend whom he had known in Russia.


1891: A “Palestine Bazaar” a fund raiser held to provide additional funds for the Louis Down-Town Sabbath and Daily comes to an end after three days.  The Bazaar had been closed on Friday.
1891: Herzl's comedy "Prinzen aus Genieland" - "Princes from Genius Land", is produced at the Carltheater in Vienna. It achieves only a short run.


1891(20th of Cheshvan, 5652): In the U.K. 41 year old David Crawcour who lived at 10 Mulcaster Street, passed away today.
1892(2nd of Kislev, 5653): Henry Murh, a prominent member of the Philadelphia, PA Jewish community passed away.  A native of Bavaria, he established H. Murh’s Sons, a jewelry manufacturing firm.


1892: Sándor Wekerle, the Prime Minister of Hungary appeared before the Diet where he “promised that bills for State recognition of the Jewish religion” would be introduced by his government.
1893: Dr. Joseph Silverman introduced Professor Charles Briggs at a meeting of the Young Men’s Hebrew Association who lectured on “Modern Biblical Criticism.”
1893: “A Sop for Jews in Russia” published today described a possible new policy in Russia that will Jews to live in “Russo-Polish” villages owned by noblemen who will “guarantee their lawful behavior” but will continue to forbid Jewish settlement where such guarantees cannot be obtained.
1894: “The New Czar” published today held out little hope for an improvement of the condition of the Jews, since “the cruel persecution of the Jews, was the most popular part of the late Czar’s governmental program and that if a “really representative Russian Parliament” were ever assembled it adopt even more stringent regulations against the Jews.
1895: Several New York Jewish businessman expressed their “utter indifference” with the announced plans of Dr. Ahlwardt , the German anti-Semite and Jew baiter to visit the United States next month. 
1895: Herzl arrives in London and holds conversations with Israel Zangwill. Zangwill gives him the names of "several suitable men" with whom to meet including Colonel Goldsmid, Rabbi Singer and Chief Rabbi Adler.
1896: Following the issuance of President Grover Cleveland’s Thanksgiving Proclamation that asked for “a continuance of heavenly favor through the mediation of Him who us how to pray, Rabbi Isaac M. Wise said that in invoking the image of Jesus, “the President panders to the passions of those bigoted sectarians who have been endeavoring to undermine the pure secularism upon which this Government is based.”
1897: Professor Felix Adler delivered an address “What is Religion?” at the Carnegie Music Hall today.
1897: Today, Rabbi Joseph Krauskopf, the founder and President of the National Farm school said, "It requires courage, moral courage, the highest kind of courage to be honest: fairly, frankly, fully honest. If you are honest, there lives not a man on earth who can humiliate you. If you have honor, though very little else besides, you have more wealth, more glory, more power, than all the hypocrites combined."
1897: Services were poorly attended today at Temple Emanu-El “owing to the fact that it was not generally known that Sunday services were being held” and that this only the second Sunday on which Sabbath services have been held. (The Reform Movement would find that moving Shabbat Services from Saturday to Sunday would not be a boon to attendance any more than the replacing Saturday services with Friday Night Family Services would be.)
1898: After having identified the body Emanuel Wachenheim, William Wolf was reported to have said he count imagine “why he killed himself” since he was “in good circumstances,” had a wife and three children and was active in several Jewish organizations including the Sons of Benjamin.
1898: According to a description published today the new Hebrew Infant Asylum “building” which can accommodate 200 children “is a four story structure of colonial design” that includes all the modern conveniences including “a hospital for contagious disease.”
1899: Herzl submits a memorandum for the Czar to explain the Zionist plans and to ask for an audience.
1899: In Paris, “The Senate sitting as High Court for the trial of conspiracy cases resumed the examination of” Jules Guérin “who insisted the Anti-Semitic League of France” of which he is a leader ‘had not meddled with politics but had merely ‘defended the working classes against the power of the Jews and that he “had never plotted against the Republic.”  (Anti-Semitism, including the Dreyfus case, were part of a larger conflict between those who supported the Third Republic and those who sought a rightist takeover.)
1901: The care of children was scheduled to be the topic at the second day’s meeting of the Second New York State Conference of Charities and Corrections at which time Rabbi Adolph M. Radin will be allowed to express his concern about the treatment of Jewish children at the Juvenile Asylum including the lack of a Rabbi to serve as a children and the practice of taking Jewish children and sending to live with Christian families who will raise the youngsters in that faith.


1904(13th of Kislev, 5665): A month before his 62nd birthday, Joseph Bernard Bloomingdale, the Bavarian born Jewish immigrant who, along with his brother Lyman “founded Bloomingdales Department Store” or as it is known to shopping aficionado’s  “Bloomies.”
1905: Albert Einstein's paper, "Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy Content?", is published in the journal "Annalen der Physik". This paper reveals the relationship between energy and mass. This leads to the famous equation e=mc².
1905: “In an interview on the ant-Jewish outrages Prince Urusoff, the new Assistant Minister of the Interior said today that the Jews were to a certain extent to blame on account of their open exultation over their new found liberties.”
1905: Having already sent $600,000 to Sir Samuel Montagu which is to be forwarded as quickly to Russia, Jacob H. Schiff, Treasurer of the National Committee for the Relief of Sufferers by Russian Massacre is scheduled to send $50,000 today to the Anglo-Jewish leader for their Russian co-religionists.
1905: In Chicago, “M.E. Greenbaum, Treasurer of the Jewish Relief Association Committee, sent a check for $20,000 to Jacob H. Schiff of New York” today bring the total sent from this city to $60,000.
1905: It was reported today that Miss Lillian D. Wald of the Nurses Settlement and her co-workers have offered “to go to Russia and nurse the sick and wounded.”
1905: Dr. Maurice Fishberg of the Jewish Daily News “received a letter from Solomon Rabinowitz” the author known as Sholom Aleichem describing conditions in Kiev in which he wrote “I, with my wife and children are cowering under a storm of leaden bullets that are being fired over our heads so that we shall remain powerless, useless, paralyzed.”
1905: In the Russian capitol, “an afternoon paper quotes a man who has just arrived in St. Petersburg as saying that 10,000 Don Cossacks are marching from Tashkent to St. Petersburg with the object of releasing the Emperor, whom they believe to be a captive in the hands of the Jews.”
1905: “Speaking of the Jewish question a member of the Russian Cabinet said today: “For the Cabinet there exists no Jewish question.  It is not what should be done, but how to do it.  We are absolutely of one mind that all the restrictions on the Jews should be abolished.  But for the government to decree equality without action on the part of the Duma would be full of danger” because anti-Semitism is so prevalent in the country.
1907: Birthdate of American artist Aaron Bohrod, the native of Chicago and “son of an emigre Bessarabian-Jewish grocer” who is “best known for his trompe-l'œil still-life paintings.”
http://www.nytimes.com/1992/04/06/arts/aaron-bohrod-84-realist-artist-whose-paintings-could-deceive.html
http://www.aaa.si.edu/collections/interviews/oral-history-interview-aaron-bohrod-12310
1912: In Palestine, Nehemiah Myer Cohen and his wife gave birth to Israel Cohen, who left his father’s butcher shop business in Lancaster, PA during the 1930’s to combine forces with Samuel Lehrman to open the first of the grocery stores that became the Giant Food store chain.
1912: The New York State Conference of Charities and Corrections which was attended by delegates Samuel Untermyer, Mortimer L. Schiff, Simon Rosendale of Albany, NY, William M. Rosendale, Rabbi Max Landsberg, Mrs. Albert Hessberg, Samuel Gompers and Lee Frankel of New York City opened in Syracuse, NY was scheduled to come to an end today.
1913: Supreme court Justice Seabury ordered the sale in foreclosure of the Bijou Theatre property in a suit brought by Felix M Warburg, Isaac N Seligman, Paul M. Warburg and Mortimer L. Schiff as trustees under the will of Alfred M. Heinsheimer against the Bijou Real Estate Company. [Seabury was the only non-Jew mentioned in this item.]
1914(3rd of Kislev, 5675): Parashat Toldot
1914(3rd of Kislev, 5675): George Zierger passed away today in New York
1914: “Contributions to the Central Committee for the Relief of Jews suffering the war” as of today “amount to $1,845” with the amount deposited to date in the Guaranty Trust Company of America totaling $23, 556.
1915: Funeral services for Dr. Solomon Schechter were held this morning at the Jewish Theological Seminary.  Four hundred mourners, including a “who’s who” of the Jewish community, packed the building while more than a thousand people stood outside waiting to pay homage to the deceased sage and scholar.
1915: In response to a written, publicly published request by Ephraim Cohen, their President, members of Congregation Kehilath Israel are among those attending the funeral service Professor Solomon Schechter that start this morning at 10:30 A.M.
1915: “In an address” today “before the Independent Order Free Sons of Israel at Daniel Webster Hall, Maurice B. Blumenthal expressed the Jewish fraternal organization’s opposition to the Gary Plan because of its “religious features.”
1915: The funeral of New Yorker Isaac Aaron who passed on November 19 is scheduled to be held today
1915: The tombstone of Abraham Weckstein was unveiled this afternoon at Mount Zion Cemetery at Maspeth, L.I.
1916: Birthdate of Sid Luckman, legendary quarterback of the Chicago Bears.
1916:  Emperor Franz Josef dies at the age of 85. He is followed to the throne by his 29 year old great nephew, Archduke Charles. Beginning with the start of regime of Franz Joseph I of Austria as the Emperor of the Austria–Hungary Empire his Jewish subjects enjoyed an unprecedented period economic, artistic and social success. “Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria bestowed on the Jewish population equality of rights saying, ‘the civil rights and the country’s policy is not contingent in the people’s religion.’ The emperor was well liked by the Jewish population, which as a token of appreciation wrote prayers and songs about him which were printed in Jewish prayer books. In 1849 the emperor canceled the prohibition against the Jewish population organizing within the community. In 1852 new regulations of the Jewish community were set. In 1867 the Jewish population formally received full equal rights. In 1869 the emperor visited Jerusalem and was greeted in great admiration by the Jewish population there. The emperor established a fund aimed at financing the establishment of Jewish institutions and in addition established the Talmudic school for rabbis in Budapest. During the 1890s several Jews were elected to the Austrian parliament.” But Franz Josef’s greatest impact on the Jewish people was his role in the start of World War I.  The Emperor’s unwillingness to reach any compromise with Serbia and his determination to punish his Slavic neighbor unleashed the catastrophe that caused unprecedented suffering for the Jews of eastern Europe who were caught between the opposing imperial armies for four years, unleashed the forces that led to the Holocaust and led to the destruction of the Ottoman Empire that results of which reverberate across the Middle East as we approach the second decade of the 21st century.

1917: “Heavy rainfall and cold weather” thwarted the advance of His Majesty forces who were faced with 8,000 entrenched troops and their artillery which led to a decision retire to Beit Ur el Foqa and wait for support from the 1 Squadron of the Australian Flying Corps which would give them an edge as they continued to advance towards Jerusalem.”
1917: The Allied Forces (including Jewish soldiers) under General Allenby were fighting the Turks on the slopes of Nebi Samwil, the traditional site of the Tomb of the Prophet Samuel.
1918: After the fall of the Czar there was a strong movement in Ukraine to establish an independent political entity. The Jewish parties voted against the severance with Russia leading to direct attacks on the Jews in the form of Pogroms (lasting 2 years). One of the first attacks was in Lvov where 72 Jews were killed and 443 wounded.
1918: During the Polish-Ukrainian War, the Lwów or Lemberg Pogrom began.
1918: Polish soldiers organize a pogrom against Jews of Galicia, Poland.
1919: After having commissioned as the first Jewish chaplain in the United States Navy in 1917 with the rank of Lieutenant Junior Grade, Rabbi David Goldberg completed his services at the Great Lakes Naval Training Station today where he had been serving since June of 1918.
1919: In an interview with the Sultan, Hahambashi assures him that Jews will never forget that when they were persecuted in other countries, Turkey welcomed them and that, if they had reason for complaint in recent years, it was directed rather against the regime which had been disastrous for all elements of the population, than against the Turkish people.
1921: Birthdate of Lev Lipschitz, the Moscow native who made Aliyah in 1924 and gained fame as Israeli political leader and MK Aryeh Eliav.
1921: In Los Angeles, Mordechai and Elsie Vickman gave birth to Robert “Bob” Vickman, the WW II veteran of the USAAF who disappeared in July, 1948 while flying a mission for Squadron 101, the first fighting unit of the infant Israeli Air Force
1922: The first official meeting of the Lausanne Conference, which was intended to deal with issues arising out of the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire was held today with Lord Curzon serving as its President.
1923: Birthdate Harry Zohn the native of Vienna who became a professor at Brandeis University.
1924: In Baltimore Cantor Max Kotlowitz and his wife Debra gave birth to “Robert Kotlowitz, a novelist and editor who reluctantly became a public television executive in 1971 and went on to help shape a lineup of homegrown and imported shows — including “The MacNeil/Lehrer Report,” “Live at the Met,” “Dance in America” and “Brideshead Revisited” — that represent a high-water mark in American television” (As reported by Paul Vitello)
1924: Today, the Febre Line vessel, SS Canada which is carrying the body of the late Dr. Menachem Mendel Scheinkin set sail for Jaffa which is to be the site for his burial.
1929: Birthday of Nahum Admoni the native of Jerusalem who served as Direct of Mossad from 1982 to 1986.
1929: Birthdate of Brooklyn born comedian Stanley Myron Handelman.  By the time he died on August 5, 2007 at the age of 77 Handeleman had enjoyed a successful career as a television and nightclub comedian.
1933: A delegation representing all elements of the Jewish community including members of the Vaad Leumi, representatives of Agudath Israel, leaders of the agricultural community and Israel Rokach, the Vice Mayor of Tel Aviv, met with the High Commissioner, Sir Arthur Grenfell Wauchope.  They were protesting British immigration policy including plans to deport Jews already living in Palestine as well as the negative impact of that immigration policy on the economic well-being of all those living in Palestine including the Arab populace.
1933: Henry G. Schackno resigned his seat in the New York State Senate preparatory to filling one of the new Justice of the City Court positions to which he had been elected on November 7.
1935: U.S. Secretary of Labor Frances Perkins, NYC Mayor Fiorello La Guardia and 800 others honored Rebekah Kohut's 50 years of communal work at a special dinner. Chaired by the novelist Fannie Hurst, the dinner assembled a wide array of political, cultural, and philanthropic notables who spoke of Kohut's varied contributions and her efforts to apply scientific principles to charitable work. Kohut was a notable activist in the Jewish and secular communities in the areas of education, social welfare and women's organizational life. She came to the United States from Hungary as a child, growing up in Richmond and San Francisco where her father served as a rabbi. In her early twenties, she married the traditionalist New York rabbi Alexander Kohut, a widower with 8 children, 6 under the age of 13. Rebecca devoted herself chiefly to these children and to her husband's scholarly work until his death in 1894. In succeeding years, Kohut immersed herself in the expanding world of Jewish women's organizational life and in the financial support of her family. She was the first president of the New York Section of the National Council of Jewish Women, gave public lectures on Jewish subjects, and opened a private school in cooperation with her stepchildren. During World War I, she became involved in employment work, which led to her role as an advisor on unemployment to New York governor Franklin D. Roosevelt in the early 1930s. Her efforts to bring relief to devastated European Jewish communities after World War I led to her leading role in convening the World Congress of Jewish Women in Vienna in 1923 and being elected as the organization's first president.
1936: It was reported today that Janien Berg, a Polish-Jewish student who had once studied in Rome received money from Mussolini so that he could return to Italy and finish his studies which had been stopped due to anti-Semitic riots in Poland.
1936: “Three Men on a Horse” the movie version of the Broadway play directed and produced by Mervyn LeRoy and featuring Same Levene in a reprise of his role of “Patsy” was released today in the United States.
1936: At Temple Emanu-El Rabbi Samuel H. Goldenson is scheduled to deliver a sermon on “What Shall We Do About Our Fears?”
1936: At Temple Rodeph Sholom, Rabbi Louis I. Newman is scheduled to deliver a sermon “The Brothers Ashkenazi.”
1936: At the Jewish Science Society, Rabbi Morris Lichtenstein is scheduled to deliver a sermon on “Wake Up and Live.”
1937: Henri Caïn, who the libretto for “Le Juif Polonais” (The Polish Jew) passed away today.
1937: Birthdate of Ingrid Pitt, the daughter of a Polish Jew who survived the Stutthof Concentration Camp to become the first lady of British horror cinema, who starring in sanguinary classics of the 1970s like “The Vampire Lovers,” “Countess Dracula” and “The House That Dripped Blood.” (As reported by Margalit Fox)
1938: The British House of Commons objects to German persecution of minorities.
1938(27th of Cheshvan, 5699): Pianist Leopold Godowsky passed away,
1938: In the aftermath of Kristallnacht, Time published an article entitled “German: These Individuals!”
"The civilized world stands revolted by a bloody pogrom against a defenseless people. Every instinct in us cries out in protest against the outrages which have taken place in Germany during the last five years and which sank to new depths in the organized frenzies of the last few days. . . . If you saw a gang of cowardly ruffians set upon a helpless man in a public street and proceed to beat him, you wouldn't long remain silent. If you saw a fanatical mob pillage and burn a church or a synagogue you wouldn't long remain silent. If you saw a brutal band drive helpless families from their own homes, you would speak out, and promptly." Thus last week outspoke New York State's defeated gubernatorial candidate, Republican Thomas E. Dewey, and was joined in vehement indignation by Democratic Senator William H. King of Utah who proposed that the U. S. forthwith break off diplomatic relations with the German Government. Outspoke ex-U. S. President Herbert Clark Hoover: "The blame is squarely up to the political agencies in power [in Germany]. These individuals are taking Germany back 450 years in civilization to Torquemada's expulsion of the Jews from Spain. They are bringing to Germany not alone the condemnation of the public opinion of the world. These men are building their own condemnation by mankind for centuries to come." One, Two, Three. But no active head of State,* and no No. 1 official associates of any head of State chose to speak out last week against "these individuals" who shocked an almost shockproof world with a display of deliberate and unprovoked mass cruelty. "These individuals" are four. Adolf Hitler is the World's No. 1 anti-Semite by temperament and conviction, whose intimate friend Julius Streicher publishes Der Stunner, the grossly fanatical No. 1 anti-Semitic newsorgan of the world. No. 3 Nazi Dr. Paul Joseph Goebbels is a part-time virtuoso of antiSemitism, using his Ministry for Propaganda & Public Enlightenment alternately to incite and to calm German anti-Semitic mobs. And No. 2 Nazi Hermann Wilhelm GÖring is a ruthless German activist who signs the most drastic anti-Semitic decrees and has them legally enforced by the courts, the police and the army. "I Am Not A Dog!" The Führer was beside himself last week because a Polish Jew, once a resident of Germany, had put two bullets into Ernst vom Rath, third secretary to the Germany Embassy in Paris. Herr Hitler immediately sent his personal physician, Dr. Brandt, to Paris accompanied by the eminent German specialist, Professor Georg Magnus of the university at Munich. Four blood transfusions failed to save Ernst vom Rath. He died in a coma without being able to understand a message from the Führer promoting him to First Class Embassy Counselor. The assassin, Herschel Grynszpan, meanwhile told his French jailers: "Being a Jew is not a crime. . . . I hoped President Roosevelt would take pity on us refugees. . . . I am not a dog. I didn't mean to kill. I lost my head." "Mobs" and Mobs. Nazi bigwigs have often said off the record that if a Jew should ever assassinate the Fuhrer, "next day not a single member of the Jewish race would be left alive in the Reich." Last week only a handful of Jews were reported killed in the avenging of Ernst vom Rath. But in every part of Germany mobs smashed, looted, burned Jewish property. The purpose was to wreak final ruin on a section of the German population which had already been systematically persecuted to the brink of ruin. Synagogues were everywhere fired or dynamited. Numberless Jews of both sexes were beaten by mobs from the Baltic to the Brenner and from Sudetenland to the North Sea. The complicity of the German Government was proved by the fact that in most cases police made no effort to restrain the so-called "mobs." These consisted mostly of young Germans who drove up in cars. Heavy boots of the sort worn by party members when in uniform gave a good clue to the identity of the window smashers and firebugs. The synthetic "mobs" were in some cases joined by genuine mobs but these were mostly Germans who simply grabbed what they could after Jewish shop fronts had been smashed by the "mobs." Some mobsters tossed Jewish goods out of smashed windows to passersby with guffaws and cries of: "Here are some cheap Christmas presents. Get yours early!" Not all German Aryans countenanced this depravity. Said an Aryan Berlin housewife despondently as she watched Aryan children making off with the contents of a Jewish shop: "So that is how they teach our children to steal!". A few poorly-clad men jogged the elbow of a New York Times Berlin correspondent and whispered: "The German people do not approve of such treatment of the Jews." Bad Neighbor Policy. The harsh, explosive epithets in which the German language is rich, were heaped, together with obscenities, upon Jewish men, women and children in every part of the Reich. They were spat upon, cuffed, nose-jerked, kicked and given black eyes. The atrocities stopped short of rape or firing squads. Some Jews were so affected by the Nazi terror that, notably along the German-Netherlands frontier, they pitifully got down on their knees and crawled some distance, wailing and lamenting, to supplicate Dutch frontier guards to let them in. These guards were adamant in every case, on instructions of Her Majesty's Government, for The Netherlands has good reason to fear Bad Neighbor Germany. Damage & Indemnity. In Germany, insurance companies reported damage claims of more than $5,000,000 from Jewish policy holders in Berlin, more than $4,000,000 in Vienna. The New York Times estimated that total damage to Jewish property in Germany "may possibly reach one billion marks" ($400,000,000). The Times thought that the Jewish community this week, after all depredations, still owned property in Germany worth perhaps four billion marks ($1,600,000,000) and, before Hitler, may have owned 20 billions. But the spoliation did not end with the three-day pogrom. At the Air Ministry in Berlin last week, Air Minister Goring signed, as Economic Chief of the German Four-Year Plan for Self-Sufficiency. decrees providing: 1) that Jews of German citizenship as a community pay to the State a billion marks indemnity for the assassination of Rath; 2) that the State confiscate whatever is payable to Jews by insurance companies for damage done last week; 3) that Jewish owners of damaged premises must repair them at their own cost; 4) that after Jan. 1, 1939 Jews be excluded from "operation of retail shops, mail-order houses and independent exercise of handicrafts. . . . Jewish shops operated in violation of this order will be closed by the police" [and presumably turned over to Aryans]. He planned ultimately to move into ghettos all Jews who can or must tolerate life in Germany. And Jews were also forbidden to go to theatres, concert halls, art galleries, public schools, high schools, universities. In Paris, when the assassin of Rath heard of these decrees, he vowed in anguish: "I will pray every Monday for forgiveness for what I have done to my people." In England meanwhile Lord Rothschild said that nothing short of the execution of the Jews of Germany could be worse than what has now been done. Let Jews Starve? In Frankfort, where the assassin once resided, every male Jew between the ages of 18 and 60 was taken into custody. The same was done in certain other German cities. With many Jewish breadwinners torn from their families, with many of those families hungry, Der An griff, personal organ of Dr. Goebbels, coldly noted: "Noticeably large is the number of Jewish women with many children who ask for relief. . . . Our laws give even a foreigner the right to relief. . . . [Jewish] progeny and their [obscene synonym for "females"] become a burden on German funds." By holding the Jewish community of Germany in a state of general inability to earn a living wage, Nazis obviously hope to force the international Jewish community to remit to Germany huge enough sums in "good money" to keep their Jewish relatives in the Reich from going too hungry or too cold. The dollars, pounds, francs to be secured by thus "shaking down the whole Jewish race" (as some Nazis term it) are wanted to pay for such vital imports as Germany cannot get by barter deals. The Schwarze Korps, influential Nazi newsorgan of Adolf Hitler's personal Elite Guard and the Blackshirt Storm Troops, has openly hinted at the burgeoning of this gangster-blackmail scheme for several years. "Intellectual Originators." Referring to the assassin, Der Angriff libelously insinuated: "It is no coincidence that Grynszpan took the same line followed by Winston Churchill, Anthony Eden, Alfred Duff Cooper and their associates!" Der Angriff went on with a long list of "the intellectual originators of the crime'' which included, strangely enough, certain French Rightists like Henri de Kerillis but not the French Jewish Socialist on whom Nazis usually vent spleen, Leon Blum. Obvious reason: Blum and his Socialists last week had not broken with French Premier Edouard Daladier, one of the Munich "Big Four." In Paris the Jewish aunt and uncle of the assassin were arrested and it was revealed that just prior to the killing of vom Rath they were held under arrest for five days on suspicion of harboring an undesirable alien. Their papers were seized and the French Surete Generale probed to discover who really were the "intellectual originators" of the crime—if any. Meanwhile, French editors were not behind those of Britain and the U. S. in denouncing German pogroms in the strongest possible language and showing they felt even that to be inadequate. It was suggested that Charles Augustus Lindbergh and other Aryans who have recently received high German decorations ought to send them back to the Führer. Funk No. 2? The Great Powers plainly funked when Germany was permitted to dismember Czechoslovakia. On the issue of Jewish persecutions in Germany, Funk No. 2 raised its head this week. Typically funking was a statement issued by the Archbishop of Canterbury and Primate of All England: "Would that the rulers of the Reich could realize that such excesses of hatred and malice put upon the friendship which we are ready to offer them an almost intolerable strain!"
*Britain's Neville Chamberlain did say: "No one in this country would seek to defend the senseless crime of the murder of vom Rath, but at the same time there will be deep and widespread sympathy for those being made to suffer for it."
1939(9th of Kislev, 5700): Fifty three year old Aaron Lipper, the president of Brooklyn’s Kay Manufacturing which makes steel products for furniture and bedding and “the chairman of the budget and policy committee of the American Committee for the Settlement of Jews in Birobidjan passed away today “in Lakewood, NJ where he had gone to recuperate from pneumonia.”
1940: A cargo of 1,771 stateless Jews mostly from Austria, Slovakia, Bohemia, Hungary and Rumania are loaded aboard the Patria, a French steamer chartered by the British to ship them from Palestine to detainment camps on the British island of Mauritius.
1941: U.S. premiere of “Shadow of the Thin Man,” the fourth in a series of Thin movies in this case based on a story by Harry Kurnitz who also co-authored the screenplay.
1943:  Future Nobel Prize winner Dr. Arthur Kornberg married Sylvy Ruth Levy, also a biochemist of note. She worked closely with Kornberg and contributed significantly to the discovery of DNA polymerase.

1943: In a review entitled “A Revolutionist’s Testament” Saul Bellow examines the newly published Arrival and Departure by Arthur Koestler.

1944: In Chicago, Ruth and Nathan Ramis, who owned the Ace Food & Liquor Mart on the city's far North Side gave birth to Harold Allen Ramis who performed and wrote in several comedies including Animal House and Groundhog Day.
1945:  Laura and Edward Hawn gave birth to Goldie Hawn, the product of the Washington suburbs who first gained fame on Rowan & Martin’s Laugh-In.
1945: “What Next, Corporal Hargrove?” a WW II comedy written by Harry Kurnitz was released in the United States by MGM.
1945: John Farrar and Roger Williams Straus, Jr. “began the firm of Farrar Straus & Co.”
1945: “Saratoga Trunk,” the film version of the Edna Ferber novel by the same name produced by Hal B. Wallis with music by Max Steiner was released in the United States by Warner Bros.
1945(16th of Kislev, 5706): Twenty-five year Al “Bummy” Davis, who named to Ring Magazine's list of 100 greatest punchers of all time” was gunned down today when he tried to thwart a robbery at Dudy’s Bar in Brownsville..
1946: Plans for the upcoming installation of Joseph Smith to serve as the new Rabbi of Temple B’nai Israel in Burlington, NJ were published today.
1947: “Against Palestine Partition” a letter from several prominent Americans published today provides a panoply of reasons of why the United States should oppose the creation of a Jewish state including the fact that four –fifths of the proven oil reserves are in Arab hands and the fact that there are 40 million people inhabiting the Arab League States. The letter writers “all have intimate Jewish friends” but warn that any outbreak of violence in the Middle East that hampers American business interests will lead to a wave of anti-Semitism in the United States.
1947: U.S. Premiere of “The Lost Moment” directed by Martin Gabel
1948: The Sunday morning religious program "Lamp Unto My Feet" first aired over CBS television. It became one of TV's longest-running network shows, and aired through January 1979.
1948: Israeli soldiers jam the biblical city of Beersheba to hear piano concertos played by Leonard Bernstein.
1948: Israeli premier David Ben-Gurion praises King Abdullah of Transjordan and says he will meet with Abdullah and other Arab leaders anytime they wish.
1948: It was announced in Tel Aviv today that “the picking of citrus fruit will begin throughout Israel this week, with the prospect of a crop almost equaling last season's in Jewish-owned groves but altogether of a little more than one-third of the pre-war production in Palestine.”
1949: The United Nations voted to give Libya its independence within 14 months triggering a mass exodus of Jews who were so fearful of their future in the Moslem state that they left even though it meant giving up most of their property and wealth.  Over 30,000 of these Jews found refuge in the state of Israel.

1954: Birthdate of Thomas Edgar “Tom” Rothman the Baltimore, MD who became an executive in the motion picture industry

1955: It was reported today that a two-day conference under the auspices of the American Tenchnion Society, the financial arm Technion, which was being held at the Statler Hotel in Washington, D.C. has come to an end.

1958: U.S. premiere of “The Tunnel of Love” produced by Martin Melcher and Joseph Fields, with a script by Joseph Fields, the son of Lew Fields.
1959(20th of Cheshvan, 5720):  Max Baer passed away.  Baer was heavyweight boxing champion in 1934.  He was 49 at the time of his death.
1959:  Jack Benny, on the violin, played a duet with pianist Richard Nixon, then Vice President of the United States.
1961: Alexander Bittelman was called before the House Un-American Activities Committee to provide testimony about his former organization today but he refused to testify, citing his rights under the 1st and 5th Amendments to the U.S. Constitution.
1961: New Square, the first Chassidic town in the U.S., elected its mayor. 
1962: U.S. premiere of “Two For The Seesaw” produced by Walter Mirsch, with music by Andre Previn which saw the movie debut of Harold Gould.
1962: Birthdate of Abraham Kwastler who gained fame as broadcaster Avri Gilad who has been listed “among the top-ten TV earners.”
1962: Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion attends the founding ceremony for the city of Arad.
1965: The port of Ashdod port opened for business when a freighter docked at the port for the first time.
1965: The Central Council of the Sephardic Jewish Brotherhood of America created a Golden Jubilee Committee to celebrate the Brotherhood's fiftieth anniversary. At the time there were over 2,500 members of the Brotherhood.
1969: Wayne Morse (one of only two Senators to vote against the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution) is scheduled to speak today at the funeral of Jewish labor lawyer Lee Pressman which will be attended by “his widow, the former Sophia Platnik, three daughters – Susan, Marcia and Dr. Ann Pressman – a his brother Irving.
1970(22nd of Cheshvan, 5731): Anzia Yezierska, “a female sweatshop worker from a Polish shtetl” who became a “renowned author” passed away today.
1970: Birthdate of Israeli actress and comedienne Alma Zack.
1972: “Black Gunn” a “blaxploitation” movie co-starring Martin Landau was released in the United States today.
1973: The Agranat Commission, a national committee charged with investigating the failures of the IDF prior to the Yom Kippur War, was established today.
1976: In New York, premiere of “Rocky” the boxing film produced by Irwin Winkler and Robert Chartoff.
1977:  Off-Broadway premiere of “Uncommon Women and Others” the first play written by Wendy Wasserstein.
1980: “The Apple” a musical comedy that “makes use of Biblical allegory including the tale of Adam and Eve” directed and written by Menahem Golan who co-produced along with Yoram Golbus and was filmed by David Gurfinkel was released in the United States today.
1982: Rabbi Arnold Resnicoff delivered the closing prayer at the official dedication of “The Wall,” the Vietnam memorial in Washington, DC
1984: “Operation Moses,” a two month long “covert evacuation of Ethiopian Jews from Sudan began today.
1985: Jonathan Pollard and his wife were arrested and charged with spying for Israel. Pollard, who had worked for Naval Intelligence, had passed on information to Israel regarding Arab capabilities. Pollard was caught as he was trying to enter the Israeli Embassy in Washington. The Pollard affair caused great embarrassment to Israel both from the American perspective and also due to Israel's refusal to support him once he was caught. He was given a life sentence, and despite numerous requests from Israel for clemency he is still in prison.
1988(12th of Kislev, 5749): Eighty-one year old Esther Gottlieb, “the founder and president of the Adolph and Esther Gottlieb Foundation” which provided aid for “older artists in need” passed away today.
1988: Michael Dekel completed serving his term as Deputy Minister of Defense.
1988: Weizman Shiry completed serving his term as Deputy Minister of Defense.
1989: Morton Isaac Abramowitz was appointed “Career Ambassador.”
1990: Michael Milken was sentenced to 10 years for security law violations
1991: William Caldwell Harrop was named U.S. Ambassador to Israel.
1991(14th of Kislev, 5752):Seventy-nine award winning director Daniel Mann whose works ranged from comedies like “The Teahouse of the August Moon” to weighty dramas like “ The Last Angry Man.”
1991(14th of Kislev, 5752):  David "Sonny" Werblin passed away.  For most Americans, Werblin is best remembered for his purchase of the New York Jets in 1963.  Werblin then used his fortune to draft the AFL’s first super-star, Joe Namath.  Namath would lead Werblin’s Jets to victory in Super Bowl III, an event that would change the face of professional football.
1996: Publication of the Impressionist Print in which Michel Melot describes Alphonse Hirsch as “an artist but mainly a hanger-on” to Edgar Degas” who “was one of several prominent artists who depicted Hirsch in his work.”
1997: Speaking “at a ceremony at which he recalled the push for peace made  by” the late Yitzhak Rabin President Clinton “warned the Israelis and Palestinians today that they were running short of time” to reach come to an agreement.
1998(2nd of Kislev): Eighty-eight year old Nosson Meir Wachtfogel, the Lakewood Mashgiach, passed away.
1999: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or about topics of Jewish interest including Yosl Rakover Talks To God by Zvi Kolitz; translated by Carol Brown, Village of a Million Spirits: A Novel of the Treblinka Uprising by Ian MacMillan and In The Family Way: An Urban Comedy by Lynne Sharon Schwartz.
2000: Itamar Yefet, 18, of Netzer Hazani died from a gunshot wound to the head by Palestinian sniper fire at the Gush Katif junction
2002(16th of Kislev, 5763): 2002 - Eleven people were killed and some 50 wounded by a suicide bomber on a No. 20 Egged bus on Mexico Street in the Kiryat Menahem neighborhood of Jerusalem. The bus was filled with passengers, including schoolchildren, traveling toward the center of the city during rush hour. Hamas claimed responsibility for the attack. The victims: Hodaya Asraf, 13, of Jerusalem; Marina Bazarski, 46, of Jerusalem; Hadassah (Yelena) Ben-David, 32, of Jerusalem; Sima Novak, 56, of Jerusalem; Kira Perlman, 67, and her grandson Ilan Perlman, 8, of Jerusalem; Yafit Ravivo, 14 of Jerusalem; Ella Sharshevsky, 44, and her son Michael Sharshevsky, 16, of Jerusalem; Mircea Varga, 25, a tourist from Romania; Dikla Zino, 22, of Jerusalem.
2004: In an article entitled “At Holocaust Museum, Turning a Number Into A Name,” the New York Times reports on plans for Yad Vashem to make its lists of Jewish victims of the Holocaust, along with biographical information available on line.
2004: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or on topics of special Jewish interest including Breath: Poems by Philip Levine
2005: Prime Minister Ariel Sharon asked President Moshe Katsav to dissolve the Knesset, just hours after he sent shockwaves across the political system with his decision to quit the Likud and form a new centrist party. Sharon formally announced that he had left the Likud and had formed a new party called National Responsibility.
2005: Shaul Mofaz rejected Sharon's invitation to join his new party, Kadima, and instead announced his candidacy for the leadership of Likud.
2006: Southern California coastal authorities have decided to allow a beachfront eruv - a boundary that makes it possible for observant Jews to carry objects on Shabbat - to be built in the state for the first time. The eruv will surround sections of Santa Monica, Los Angeles and Marina del Rey.
2007: The planned chopping down of the chestnut tree that comforted Anne Frank as she hid from the Nazis did not take place thanks to a court order issued on November 20,2007 ordering city officials to into ways to save the 150 year old tree.
2007: “Yiddish Theatre: A Love Story” opens at the Two Boots Pioneer theater in Manhattan. This new documentary film is about Zypora Spaisman the amazing woman who has kept the oldest running Yiddish Theater in America alive. Zypora Spaisman is a Holocaust survivor who conquers all hearts in her passion for art, life and Yiddish.
2008: President Shimon Peres returns to Israel after a three-day state visit to Great Britain where he met with dignitaries, visited Parliament, delivered a lecture at Balliol College, Oxford University's oldest college, and met with Queen Elizabeth II, Prince Charles and the Prime Minister.
2008: In Manhattan, the 92nd Street Y presents “An Exploration of the Seven Deadly,” during which Aviad Kleinberg, one of the most prominent intellectuals in Israel examines the seven deadly sins with his trademark insight and deadpan humor. “What is wrong with a little sloth? Where would haute cuisine be without gluttony? Where would we all be without our parents’ lust? Can consumer culture survive without envy and greed? And with all humility, why shouldn’t we be proud? Journey through Jewish, Christian and Greco-Roman thoughts on sin, and examine the unchanging passions that make us human.” Aviad Kleinberg is Professor of History at Tel Aviv University and the author of Prophets in Their Own Country: Living Saints and the Making of Sainthood in the Later Middle Ages and Flesh Made Word: Saints' Stories and the Western Imagination
2008: Dozens of synagogues and mosques across the United States and Canada are to take part in a first-of-its-kind three-day joint public relations campaign against anti-Semitism and anti-Muslim xenophobia beginning today. The initiative, which was given the code-name "Twinning," calls for close cooperation between rabbis and imams based in some of the largest cities in North America, including Boston, Atlanta, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, Detroit, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, New York, Palm Beach, St. Louis, and Washington DC.
2009: In the face of far-left, Arab and Muslim opposition, the New York Mets organization has decided to honor its commitment to rent its Caesar's Club for a fundraiser benefiting the Jewish community of Hebron that is schedule to be held tonight.
2009: At the 92nd St Y in Manhattan Alan Dershowitz, the self-described “top defender of Israel in the court of public opinion,” and Jeremy Ben-Ami, the founder and director of J Street, debate issues surrounding America’s policy in the Middle East with special emphasis on matters surrounding Israel and its relationship with the United States.
2009: Cedar Rapids Opera Theatre, in collaboration with the National Czech & Slovak Museum & Library, gives two performances of the children’s opera, Brundibar, sponsored by the Joan & David Thaler Holocaust Remembrance Fund, Bradley & Riley, P.C and Dr. Ronald and Sue Reider, two pillars of the Cedar Rapids Jewish Community.
2010: Michael Makovsky is scheduled to delve into Winston Churchill's complex relationship with Zionism, his impact on the creation of the State of Israel and the modern Middle East that emerged from the two world wars of the 20th century during a program entitled Winston Churchill, Zionism & the Modern Middle East at the 92nd Street Y in New York City.
2010: Avrom Bendavid-Val, author of The Heavens are Empty: Discovering the Lost Town of Trochenbrod  is scheduled to deliver a lecture based on his writings at the Historic 6th & I Synagogue in Washington, DC.
2010: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Foreign Bodies by Cynthia Ozick and Saul Bellow: Letters edited by Benjamin Taylor.

2010: The Los Angeles Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Dangerous Otto Katz: The Many Lives of a Soviet Spy by Jonathan Miles. “The son of a prosperous Czechoslovakian manufacturer, Katz, who was Jewish, was drawn to the theatrical (and cabaret) life of Berlin, where he aspired to playwriting. What politicized him was the rise of Nazism in the 1920s, in particular its vicious anti-Semitism. He gravitated toward the Soviet Union, which seemed to him — not incorrectly at the time — the only nation mounting any sort of effective opposition to Hitler. In his accurate view, all the other major European states were, albeit somewhat more politely, anti-Semitic as well.”

2010: Outgoing head of Military Intelligence Maj.-Gen. Amos Yadlin issued a warning at his final cabinet meeting today, saying that Israel should not be lulled into complacency by the relative quiet that the country has recently enjoyed. Yadlin said that Israel's enemies, with Iran under the leadership of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad being chief among them, are "getting more powerful and better arming themselves."
2010: Debbie Rosenbloom, the wife of David Levin, became a savta (grandmother) today when her daughter-in-law gave birth to a daughter.

2011: “Latkes & Grits” by Murray Wolfe is scheduled to open at the Missing Piece Theatre in Burbank, California.

2011: In California, Helen Duffy and Marcie Lynn Ross starred in “a wonderful reading of Murray Wolfe’s funny future in-law comedy ‘Latkes and Grits.’”

2011: David Mitchell became the Rabbi at West London Synagogue.

2011: The 8th Jewish Eye Festival, the World Jewish Film Festival held annually at Ashkelon is scheduled to come to an end.

2011: Israel and Arab states plan to attend talks at a forum opening today sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency aimed at freeing the world from nuclear weapons.

2011: Israel has gradually boosted naval patrols around its east Mediterranean natural gas fields for fear of guerrilla attacks and as maritime rivalry with Turkey deepens, an Israeli official said today.

2011: A Jordanian delegation visiting the West Bank today called on Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas to renew peace talks with Israel.

2012: The Wiener Library for the Study of the Holocaust & Genocide is scheduled to sponsor a screening of 'Nuremberg: Its Lesson for Today'

2012: As the eighth day of Pillars of Defense begins, Israelis mourn the loss of eighteen year old Corporal Yosef Partuk and an Arab-Israeli civilian identified as Alayaan Salem al-Nabari who had been killed yesterday morning during a mortar attack

2012: In a case of Jew follows Jew, Lionel Perez was elected borough mayor of Côte-des-Neiges-Notre-Dame-de-Grace by acclamation, replacing Michael Applebaum after the latter was selected as the new Mayor of Montreal.

2012(7th of Kislev, 5773: Eighty-one year old “Mr. Food” who was in reality Art Ginsburg passed away today.


2012(7th of Kislev, 5773): Eighty-nine year old film editor Dann Cahn passed away,

2012: Ninety year old Valdka Mead, a leader of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising in which she served as a courier and arms smuggler, passed away today.


2012: An explosion ripped through a bus in central Tel Aviv around noon on Wednesday — the first bombing attack in the city since 2006.Twenty-one people were injured in the bombing, three of them seriously. No one was killed. 


2012: The UN Security Council called on Israel and Hamas to uphold a ceasefire agreement today and commended the efforts of Egypt's Islamist President Mohamed Morsi and others for brokering the deal.

2013: The Center for Jewish Culture is scheduled to sponsor a screening of “Marvin Hamlisch: One Singular Sensatio.”

2013: Whole Foods in Friendship Heights is scheduled to host “8 Days of Oil” which will include a free olive tasting…and take-home booklets for celebrating” Chanukah.

2013: The Valley Chapter of the of Los Angeles Yiddish Club is scheduled to host an evening of Yiddish Song with Cindy Paley

2013: The 7th annual Other Israel Film Festival is scheduled to come to an end.

2013: Tonight, Twentieth Century Fox renamed its historic Fox Music Building in honor of film and television composer Lionel Newman, whose career with Fox spanned nearly half a century and included more than 200 films, 11 of which earned him Academy Award nominations, including “There’s No Business Like Show Business” and “Doctor Dolittle,” and 1 of which – the score for “Hello Dolly” – won him an Oscar,
at a ceremony featuring Steven Spielberg and nephew Randy Newman.

2013(18th of Kislev, 5774): Fifty-one year old Michael Weiner, the executive director of the Major League Baseball Player Association passed away today. (As reported by Richard Goldstein)


2013: The Iranian government is reminiscent of “dark regimes of the past” that tried to wipe out the Jews and then conquer the world, Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said today in Moscow, vowing to deny Iran nuclear weapons.

2013: German authorities released more pictures and details today of the massive trove of art that was discovered in a Munich apartment last year.

2014: In Melbourne, “Anywhere Else” and “Young Perez” are scheduled to be shown at the Jewish International Film Festival.

2014(28th of Cheshvan, 5775): Eighty-two year old Pulitzer Prize winning columnist and former foreign correspondent Richard Eder passed away today.


2014: “A new production of Stephen Sondheim’s ‘Assassins’ opened today at the Menier Chocolate Factory in London.”

2014: In the UK, the Wiener Library for the Study of the Holocaust & Genocide is scheduled to host a seminar that “will help students acquire skills to locate archival material on subjects including: the Holocaust, twentieth-century German history and European Jewish culture.”

2014: “This Is Where I Leave You” is scheduled to be shown at the 18th UK Jewish Film Festival.

2014: Hundreds riot throughout West Bank after Friday prayers

2014: Two Jewish seminary students were attacked and wounded in East Jerusalem this evening. The two were reportedly hit with stones, metal rods and nails near the Beit Orot seminary in Jerusalem's Mount of Olives, days after Palestinian terrorists opened fire in a Jerusalem synagogue and killed four rabbis and a Druze policeman. (As reported by Noam (Dabul) Dvir)

2014: “My Old Lady” a marvelous comedy set in Paris written and directed by Israel Horovit and co-produced by Rachel Horotvitz was released in the UK today.

2014: “French Interior Minister Bernard Cazeneuve expressed his support for the Jewish community.” “Every time you feel the violence exercised against you, when you are afraid for your children, when you are worried about this rising violence, remind yourselves that the republic protects you and an interior minister who loves you and who is your friend,” Cazeneuve said at an event sponsored by Station J, a Jewish radio channel. (As reported by Stephanie Butnick)

2015: In Fairfax, VA, Congregation Olam Tikvah Men’s Club is scheduled to host Indian-Jewish Night with complete with a Kosher Indian Dinner.

2015: “The Law” and “To Life” are scheduled to be shown in Melbourne at the Jewish International Film Festival.

2015: “Saturday’s Profile” published today under the headline “WW II Hero Credits Luck and Chance in Foiling Hitler’s Nuclear Ambitions” described actions by Joachim Ronnenberg, who is now 96, and his team that “destroyed the Nazi’s only source of heavy water” thereby helping to thwart Hitler’s plan to build an Atomic bomb.

2015: Jonathan Pollard, who has been imprisoned for 30 years for spying for Israel is scheduled to be released today.

2015: The Eden-Tamir Music Center is scheduled to host a concert by the piano duo of Tami Kanazaw and Yuval Admoni.

2015(9th of Kislev, 5776): Parsha Vayetze

2016: “Fever at Dawn” and “One Week and A Day” are scheduled to be shown in Sydney, Australia as part of the Jewish International Film Festival.

2016: Following “the closing of the 2016 CJA campaign” “a year-long celebration of the founding of the Federation of Jewish Philanthropies in 1916? Is scheduled to get underway today in Canada.






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