Tuesday, November 1, 2016

This Day, November 2, In Jewish History by Mitchell A. Levin

November 2

1285: King Peter III of Aragon passed away.  According to the Jewish Encyclopedia, Pedro III “protected the Jews from the hatred of the clergy, who destroyed their vineyards and disturbed their graves, and though he took especially severe measures against the Bishop of Castellnou, who favored these outrages yet he did this more in his own interest than from any humanitarian motive. He was one of the kings of Aragon who placed the Jews under contribution and exacted enormous taxes from them. They supported him in his wars against Africa, Sicily, and France with voluntary subsidies. When, in 1283, he was threatened with invasion by France, he made the Jews of Faca and Gerona and their districts bear half the expense of improving the towers and fortifications; and a year later the Jews of his state had to raise 130,000 sueldos in taxes at the shortest notice. When he wished to marry his daughter to King Diniz of Portugal, he found that the sum of 185,000 sueldos of the promised dowry was lacking; thereupon he imposed a tax for that amount on the Jews. As soon as he did not require money from the Jews he ceased to be gracious to them. In 1278 he threatened them with the loss of all their privileges if these were not submitted to him for confirmation within a month. When, in 1283, the Jews of Catalonia asked the Cortes of Barcelona for recognition as vassals of the barons in whose cities or territories they lived or had acquired property, Pedro opposed this request. He even declared that in the future no Jew might come to court or act as "bayle" or tax-collector or hold any office whatsoever entailing any jurisdiction over Christians. An oath was to be taken by them in a specially prescribed form; and they were not to be permitted to slaughter in the public slaughter-houses or within the cities they inhabited.”

1327: King James II of Aragon, who employed a Jew as his secretary and interpreter, passed away. James levied a special tax on the Jews to support his war against Sicily but for some reason he exempted the Jews of Monzon from the tax.  James followed in the footsteps of his predecessors and allowed the Jews of Montpelier to practice medicine with “the proviso that the Jewish physicians must pass the regular examinations before exercising their profession.”

1389: In what would prove to be a good thing for the Jews, Boniface IX began his papacy today. During his reign he gave the Jews of Rome “legal right to observe their Shabbat, protection from local oppressive officials, and a reduction of taxes as well as giving “to treat Jews as full-fledged Roman citizens.”

1603: Birthdate of Adam Boreel, the Dutch theologian and Hebrew Scholar who was a friend of Baruch Spinoza who provided him with a home after he was expelled from the Amsterdam Jewish community.

1648: Twelve thousand Jews were massacred by Chmielnicki's forces. The revolt of the Ukrainians against their Polish masters was a disaster for the Jews of Poland.  When the slaughter ended, the Jewish community had lost the position and prosperity it had gained over the previous three centuries.  As Poland, which had been a haven for Jews fleeing persecution in Germany and Spain, descended into chaos Jews would seek refuge in the Messianic phenomenon of Sabbatai Z’ Vie and the Chassidism of the Baal Shem Tov.

1687: Juan Bautista Diamante, “a minor Spanish dramatist” whose family appeared to falsify family records to obscure their Jewish origins passed away today.

1712: Elkan Frankel “was pilloried, scourged and sent to the Wurzburg for life imprisonment” today.

1780: A court of inquiry met at West Point, NY and exonerated Colonel David Franks of any involvement in Benedict Arnold’s plot to betray the United States and surrender West Point to the British

1781: During the reign of King Joseph II of Austria an ordinance was adopted that Jews were to be "considered 'fellow-men' and all excesses against them were to be avoided. 

1791: Birthdate of “Austrian industrialist and philanthropist” Hermann Todesco.

1793: Birthdate of Louis Jacques Begin the native of Liege who served as a surgeon in Napoleon’s campaigns against Germany and Russia.

1820: In London, Lydia,( nee’ Lyons) the widow of Sampson Samuel gave birth to Sir Saul Samuel the Australian merchant and member of Parliament who was born after his father had passed away.

1830: Birthdate of French composer Jules Emile David Cohen who “composed new music for the choruses of two biblically based operas – “Athalie” and “Esther.”

1830: In Alsace-Lorraine, Wolff Levy and Dina Matz gave birth to Samuel Wolff Levy, the husband of Babette Bloch, who came to the United States when he was 16 and later served as the President of the Eureka Benevolent Association, Treasurer of Associated Charities of San Francisco and founder of the Pacific Hebrew Orphan Asylum and Home Society.

1831: The formal establishment of the congregation that came to be called The Great Synagogue (known in Hebrew as Beth Yisrael - "House of Israel") took place today in Sydney, Australia.

1831: Birthdate of Julius Stettenheim, the Hamburg born son an art dealer, who gained fame as humor writer.

1833: In Philadelphia, PA, abolitionist Annis Pulling Furness and abolitionist William Henry Furness gave birth to Horace Howard Furness who worked with Professor Paul Haupt “on a new translation of Hebrew Bible” in the last decade of the 19th century.

1837: Helen Skirving Mowbray and the Rev. Ridley Haim Herschell, who was a native of Strzelno, in Prussian Poland and who as “young man convert from Judaism to Christianity and took a leading part in found the British Society for the Propagation of the Gospel Among the Jews” gave birth to Farrer Herschell, 1st Baron Herschell

1840: Birthdate of Mark Antokolski, the Wilno native who gained famed as a sculptor.  Among his early works were "Jewish Tailor", "Nathan The Wise", "Inquisition's Attack against Jews" and “The Talmudic Debate".

1843: Lazarus Morgenthau, “the legendary patriarch of one of the great Jewish American” families married Babette Guggenheim.”

1844:  Birthdate of Mehmed V, the Sultan who was on the throne when the Ottoman Empire entered World War I on the side of the Central Powers, Germany and Austria. The Sultan was really a figurehead and real power rested in the hands of the “Three Pashas.” Therefore, he cannot be held responsible for the hostile treatment of the Jews living in Palestine. At the same, during his reign, Jews served in responsible positions in the government and in the military.

1848: Johann Jacobyhe gained great popular acclaim as a member of a parliamentary delegation to the Prussian monarch with his remark, "It is the tragedy of kings, that they will not hear the truth."

1856: As reported in The News of the World, in Italy the Pope "commands” people to turn in known heretics-including Jews. He desires them to denounce family, friends, and associates if appropriate to the "Holy Inquisition." The Pope requests the "names of every one of whom they know."

1864(3rd of Cheshvan, 5625): Antony Mayer de Worms passed away in London.

1865: Birthdate of Warren G. Harding, 29th President of the United States.  During his presidency, Harding signed into law an extremely restrictive immigration bill that had previously been vetoed by Woodrow Wilson that used a quota system that all but put an end to the immigration of Jews from Eastern Europe. On the other hand, he signed a Joint Resolution passed by Congress that spoke of “favoring the establishment in Palestine of a National Home for the Jewish people.”

1872: It was reported in New York today that the Jews of Romania will not be immigrating en masse to the United States. Such a plan had been considered by some as a way of relieving the miserable conditions under which these people live.

1876: Birthdate of Daniel Joseph Jaffé, the younger son of Martin Jaffé.  A civil engineer, he constructed waterworks in China and Jaffe Road in Hong Kong was named in his honor.

1876: Birthdate of London native Charles Joseph Singer, the son of Simeon Singer (a native of Hungary who served as a rabbi at several English synagogues and is best known for his Authorized Daily Prayer Book first published in 1890) a physician by training who gained fame as medical historian.

1877: Birthdate of Aga Khan III whom Doctor Waldemar Haffkine “approached” in 1898 “with an offer…to settle Jews in Palestine” on land that would be purchased from” Ottoman Sultan’s subjects.

1879: It was reported today that some Romans still do not like Jews.  When a Jewish funeral procession passed a saloon, some of the patrons jeered and then assaulted the mourners.  The police had to be called so that the procession could continue.  When the mourners were returning, they were again attacked and the police had to be called out to prevent a riot.

1879(16th of Cheshvan, 5640): David Einhorn, the German born rabbi who became one of the first leaders of the Reform Movement in the United States pass away today just eight days before his 70th birthday.

1881: “The specifications for a building to occupied by the Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum were filed in the Bureau of Inspection of Buildings” in New York City today.

1881: Rabbi David Levy officiated at the wedding of Edward H. Lopez to Cecile Ottolengui, the daughter of Israel Ottolengui which took place at the bride’s home.

1881: Rabbis in Washington, DC has joined with ministers of other denominations in soliciting funds to building a hospital in memory of President James Garfield

1881: It was reported today that in Germany, the “Jews…have instituted proceedings against Dr. Adolf Stoecker” for his role “in stirring up the people against the Jews.

1881: It was reported today that the Public Prosecutor in Berlin has instituted legal proceedings against Ernst Henrici, “the notorious ‘Jew baiter’”.

1882: “The Jews and Cromwell” published today recounts the efforts of Oliver Cromwell to convince the Council of State to readmit Jews to the British Isles. Although he failed to win over the Council, The Protector found a way to open the realm to a trickle of Jews who became the cornerstone of the modern Anglo-Jewish community.

1883: Five Jews from Neustettin went on trial today in Koslin, Hungary on charges that they intentionally burned down a synagogue to collect the insurance money.

1883: Based on the date on the manuscript, today is when Emma Lazarus’ famous sonnet, "The New Colossus," was either completed or presented to others. She wrote the poem for an art auction "In Aid of the Bartholdi Pedestal Fund." The Statue of Liberty, designed by sculptor Frederic Auguste Bartholdi, was erected on October 28, 1886. It was given to the people of the United States by France in recognition of the friendship between the two nations established during the American Revolution. While France provided the statue itself, American fundraising efforts paid for the pedestal. In 1903, sixteen years after Lazarus's death, "The New Colossus" was engraved on a plaque and placed in the pedestal as a memorial. In the 1880s when anti-Semitism was sweeping through Eastern Europe and pogroms were a common occurrence, there was a massive Jewish flight to America. During this time, Lazarus, already a well-known poet, visited Russian refugees and helped at the Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society. She became a spokesperson and advocate for the Jewish community and responded with some of her most powerful works. Lazarus's famous lines in "The New Colossus," "Give me your tired, your poor,/ Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free," caught the national imagination and continue to inspire the way Americans think about freedom and exile. The poem captures what the Statue of Liberty came to mean to the millions of people who migrated to the United States seeking freedom, and to those who continue to come to this day. Cited frequently, including at the 2004 Republican National Convention, the "The New Colossus" continues to symbolize America's promise of opportunity and freedom to the "huddled masses" of every land

1884: Fifty-six year old Isaac Honig, was buried in Salem Fields Cemetery on Long Island following a funeral that had been held at the home of his brother Henry Honig.  A native of Mayence, he came to the United States in 1850 and became a successful realtor.  He was an active supporter of the Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum Society and Mount Sinai Hospital.

1884: It was reported today that the Russians have found a new way to torment its Jewish population. In Pultowa, it has been proposed to change the designation of every place in which there is no town hall into villages” since, under the law, Jews can be expelled from villages but not from towns.

1884: It was reported that the French Minister to Morocco has threatened to take action if attacks on Jewish citizens of France living in the North African country do not come to half.  French Jews in Fez “have been scourged for refusing to walk barefooted in the streets.

1886: Isidor Rayner was elected to the House of Representatives from Maryland’s Fourth Congressional District.

1886: “Fourteenth-Street Theatre” published today reviewed the “Caught in a Corner” by W. J. Shaw which centers around “Isaac Greenwald” a Jewish broker “who bets, matches coins, plays tennis makes love and upsets the plans of villainous speculators with equal facility.” H.B. Curtis, who is known for playing Jewish comedic roles, stars in the role of Greenwald.

1886: It was reported today that the Jews, who usually vote Republican had voted for Abraham Hewitt, the Democratic candidate for Mayor of New York instead of Teddy Roosevelt, the Republican candidate.  Roosevelt actually placed third, with second place going to Henry George, the reform candidate who had established his own following among working class and immigrant Jews.

1887: “The Senatorial Fight” published today examines the qualifications of the candidates seeking to be elected to the New York State Senate. Assemblyman Jacob A. Cantor is the Democratic candidate for the Tenth Senatorial District, a district that contains one fifth of the voters of New York City. Cantor, who is Jewish, is described as an effective reformer whose election would serve the city well.

1888: It was reported from Odessa, that “foreign Jewish farmers have ordered to leave Poland within a month” and that “foreign Jews in southern Russia expect to be expelled.”

1888: In Astryna (in modern day Balarus) Sarah and Max Wolfson gave birth to Henry Austryn Wolfson “a scholar, philosopher, and historian at Harvard University and the first chairman of a Judaic Studies Center in the United States”

1889: Joseph Toole, who would lay the cornerstone for Temple Emanu-El in Helena, began serving his term as Montana’s first elected governor.

1889: North and South Dakota are admitted as the 39th and 40th U.S. states. Jews came to the Dakotas before the territories were divided into what would become two states. Nathan Dorfman, the grandfather of the editor of “This Day… in Jewish History” moved from Chicago and tried his hand at homesteading in the Dakotas.  He lasted for one winter before returning to the windy city.  According to family lore, Nathan and his brother Jake survived on a large supply of soda crackers.  Nathan left the land with Jake who supposedly enjoyed a small financial success when oil was found on the land.  “Many of the Jews who came to North Dakota were lured by the promise of free land. Baron Maurice de Hirsch, a banker and philanthropist, believed that Jewish immigrants entering the United States should leave East Coast cities for the vast interior, where they would disperse and assimilate into American society. He set up a fund to encourage such migration.” Free land, wouldn't that have sounded like the American dream?" asked Dianne Siegel, whose great-grandfather ventured to North Dakota thanks to the de Hirsch fund. Other Jews came as merchants or peddlers, sensing opportunity in the territory, which gained statehood in 1889. "There was a Jewish merchant in just about every town along the railroad," recalled Myer Shark, who grew up in Devils Lake, N.D. Shark's father came to North Dakota in 1909 and opened a men's clothing store. But Jews who settled the Great Plains didn't have an easy road. Hal Ettinger, an architect in Lawrence, Kan., said his great-grandparents, Simon and Sophie Ettinger, arrived in North Dakota via Chicago and St. Paul, Minn., where Simon had been a peddler. With six children in tow, the family moved into a 12-by-14-foot shack where they homesteaded a 170-acre property with livestock and crops. Simon died a year after being issued his land permit, and Sophie moved to Chicago with the children, selling the property for $10. "Why a German or Russian immigrant coming to the U.S. could possibly think they could make it in North Dakota or the Dakota territories is unbelievable," Ettinger said. "I guess it's some indication of how bad they had it" in the Old World. The Jews who arrived on the plains had little inkling of what lay ahead. Jews had not been allowed to own land in Russia, and had little knowledge of how to farm. Crop failures, harsh winters and prairie fires made harvesting difficult, and life on the frontier did not include modern conveniences like plumbing and heating systems. Additionally, accounts show that Jews weren't always greeted hospitably. In 1885, 25 North Dakota farmers petitioned to have a Jewish colony removed from a village called New Jerusalem. Shark felt the prejudice. "Early in my childhood I learned I was different than the other kids," he said. Shark said that a man in the community once tried to block his mother from moving into his neighborhood, saying, "I don't like the idea of a Jew building a home in that area." Still, Jews lived -- and lived Jewishly -- in North Dakota. Siegel said that her family kept kosher, and that the state's lone rabbi would come to town for major ceremonies. Shark recalled that "the district judge would not set a term of court until he checked with one of the Jewish residents to find out when High Holidays were" -- even though the judge wasn't Jewish himself.”

1890: Reports that Jews are supporting the entire Tammany ticket were refuted by large number of Jewish leaders who claim that they are supporting the People’s Municipal League and “denounced as an insult the bid for the Jewish vote by Tammany” saying that the Jewish has never been a “class vote” and all that the Jews want is “honest and efficient government.”

1890: George M. Bersick announced that he has received the endorsement of Harmonia, Fiedelo and other leading Jewish clubs in his bid to be elected to the Assembly from the 21st District.

1891(1st of Cheshvan, 5652): Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan

1891(1st of Cheshvan, 5652): Julia (Lewenthal) Cantor, the wife of American lawyer and political leader, Jacob Aaron Cantor, passed away.

1892: The opinion was published today that in light of the three day demonstration in London by unemployed Jews, English Jews seem “to be less philanthropic than American Jews” because unemployed Jews in the United States “have not been permitted to become a public charge…because they have been taken care of by their co-religionists.”

1892: “Slighted by Gladstone” published today expressed surprise at the decision of the Prime Minister and other leaders to boycott the inaugural banquet of Lord Mayor-elect Stuart Knill because he is Catholic since Polydore De Keyser who is also Catholic has held the job and his successor was Henry Aaron Isaacs who was Jewish.

1894: At the start of the Dreyfus affair when some Frenchmen were really trying to find the spy in their midst, the Italian military attaché Colonel Panizzardi telegraphed in cipher to his government "If Captain Dreyfus has had no intercourse with you, it would be to the purpose to let the ambassador publish an official denial, in order to forestall comments by the press." This telegram, written in cipher, and of course copied at the post-office, was sent to the Foreign Office to be deciphered. The first attempt left the last words uncertain; they were thus translated: "our secret agent is warned." This version, communicated to Colonel Sandherr, the chief of French counter-intelligence, seemed to him a new proof against Dreyfus.

1894: A letter was sent to the Committee of Seventy today signed by several prominent Jewish leaders including Simon Sterne, Jacob Schiff and Max J. Lissauer refuting the “unjust accusations” that  William L. Strong, the Republican candidate for Mayor of New York City, had opposed the election of Theodore Seligman to the Union League Club.

1895: Miss Julia Richamn, a public school principle and “who is also an active worker at the Hebrew Institute and the Hebrew Free Schools addressed a meeting at Arlington Hall where she expressed her pleasure at seeing the that “first organization of the boys and girls to assist in keeping the east-side streets clean was formed at the Hebrew Institute.”

1895: Birthdate of Judith Epstein, the Worcester, MA born Hadassah leader.

1896 Family physician Dr. J. C. Lewinsky and long-time family friend Solomon Kuntz spoke today at the simple funeral services of 28 year old Abraham Fox and his mother, 60 year old Christine Fox who died within two days of each other.

1896: Birthdate of Sir Jack Cohen the native of Northumberland and husband of Kitty Sinclair who was served in World War I, held a variety of elective offices as a member of the Labour Party and was chairman of the Sunderland Zionist Society.  (He is one of several people with this name so it is easy to confuse the facts about their respective lives>)

1896: The funeral for Samuel Corn, who enjoyed a successful career in the cap and furrier trade before entering the field of real, is scheduled to take place at 9:30 this morning at Temple Israel on the corner of 125th Street and 5th Avenue.

1897: The forces of Tammany were successful in today’s elections which disappointed Rabbi Gustav Gottheil because he was afraid “that the cause of good government had suffered and that the progress of the last few years would lost.”

1898:”Sacrificed Herself By Fire” published today describe the death of Kate Hart, “a devout Roman Catholic” who had fallen in love with Charles Mundag, “a devout Jew” whom she married despite parental opposition.

1898(17th of Cheshvan, 5659): Julius Goldschmidt of Milwaukee who had served as Consul General in Vienna during the administration of President Harrison and who has been serving Consul General in Berlin since last year passed away today.

1898: Theodore Herzl was part of a delegation of Jews who met with Kaiser Wilhelm II in Jerusalem.  Herzl’s meeting with the Kaiser was part of his plan to rebuild the Jewish national home by gaining the support of leading political leaders.  The Kaiser had his own agenda in the East.  A settlement of German Jews in the Middle East would have provided him with leverage in dealing with the English in Egypt.  But the Kaiser was afraid to give Herzl too much support lest he offend the Turks who ruled the ancient Jewish homeland.  In the end, Herzl accomplished much less with this meeting than he thought he had.

1898: In an action that would presage the famed reforesting project of the JNF complete with Tree Certificates, Zionist leaders Herzl and Wolffsohn plant trees in Motza near Jerusalem. One is a cedar and the other is a date-palm.

1899: Isaac Stern Chairman of the Executive Board of the Mount Sinai Hospital voiced his opposition to plans for building the Emanuel Hospital and Dispensary saying “that he had not heard of any real support of the new hospital except from twelve or fifteen physicians” and Isaac Wallach said he is opposed to the plan because it will be a duplicate of effort that will deplete Jewish resources.

1899: “Oppose Emanuel Hospital” published today described the opposition of Isaac Stern and Isaac Wallach of Mount Sinai Hospital to the construction of a new hospital that would be supported by donors from the Jewish community.

1899: The Boers begin their 118 day siege of British held Ladysmith during the Second Boer War. According to the Jewish Encyclopedia, “Jews fought on both sides during the Second Anglo-Boer War (1899–1902). Some of the most notable fights during the three years' Boer war — such as the Gun Hill incident before the Siege of Ladysmith — involved Jewish soldiers like Major Karri Davies. Nearly 2,800 Jews fought on the British side and the London Spectator counted that 125 were killed. Around 300 Jews served among the Boers during the second Boer War and were known as Boerjode: those who had citizenship rights were conscripted along with other burghers ("citizens"), but there were also a number of volunteers. Jews fought under the Boers' Vierkleur ("four colored") flag in many of the major battles and engagements and during the guerilla phase of the war, and a dozen are known to have died. Around 80 were captured and held in British POW camps in South Africa. Some were sent as far afield as St. Helena, Bermuda, and Ceylon to where they had been exiled by the British. Some Jews were among the Bittereinders ("Bitter Enders") who fought on long after the Boer cause was clearly lost.”

1900: Nina Jenny Warburg, the daughter of Salomon and Betty Loeb, and her husband Paul Moritz gave birth to Bettina Warburg who became Bettina Grimson when she married Samuel Bonarions Grimson.

1901: In Kiev, Israel and Celia Goldberg gave birth to Herschel Goldberg, the brother of “Hyman Goldberg, a syndicated columnist and food critic for the New York Post and author of several books including Our Man in the Kitchen" who gained fame as author Harry Grey, the husband of Mildred Beck with whom he had three children – Beverle, Harvey and Simeon.

1902: Birthdate of Isaak Semyonovich Brook, Russian pioneer in the field of computer technology. In 1939, the  37-year old Doctor of Technical Sciences, presented a paper at a session of the Presidium of the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union, in which he described a mechanical integrator capable of solving differential equations up to the sixth order. The integrator was built under Brook's supervision at the Electric Systems Laboratory of the Academy of Sciences Power Engineering Institute. Brook's report aroused great interest because there were no other such machines in the Soviet Union at that time. Only the US and Great Britain had one model each.

1904(24th of Cheshvan, 5656): Sixty-five year old Giuseppe Ottolenghi  who began his military career in 1859 and rose to the rank of brigadier-general in 1888 and who, after holding a series of successively more important position was named commandant of the Italian army’s first corps in 1903, passed away today.

1905: At Odessa, the massacre of the Jews that began on October 30 during which “the police and Cossacks murdered all the Jews in one quarter as large as that of La Chapelle in Paris,” “poured boiling water on the children and threw the old men out of windows” leaving 1,500 corpses in their wake, appeared to have come to an end today.

1905: “Workmen carrying the Emperor’s portrait attacked the Jewish shops at Kernson today and plundered the market.”

1905: During today’s celebration in Vyazma marking the granting of a Constitution, “a Jewish service was held in memory of those who died in the cause of freedom.”

1905: In Bachmut, Bessarabia, a three-day long attack began on the Jews that appeared to have been organized by the police that including the beating of Jewish students, the sacking of Jewish stores and the plundering of Jewish residences.

1905: In Minsk, the doctors at the Jewish Hospital worked all night “on the wounded brought in from the railroad station where the troops had fired volleys at the demonstrators.”

1905: Riot, Slaughter, Looting” published today described how the Jews have been victims of mobs in several cities including Kiev, Minsk, Kherson and Elizabethgrad where, after having attended services at the Cathedral, “loyalists bearing a lot a portrait of Emperor Nicholas went to the Jewish quarter” where they beat, wounded and killed several Jews while sacking their houses and stores.

1911: Russian Premier Kokovtzoff has heeded the appeal of the 1,500 Jews who have settled in Ekaterinoslaff since 1882 to modify the original order of expulsion.  Under the revised order issued by the provincial governor today, only those Jews who have settled in the province since 1906 will be expelled.

1914: Russia declares war on the Ottoman Empire. With this declaration of war, the Ottomans regarded the Jews of Palestine, a large number of whom were from Russia, as an enemies of the state and treated them accordingly.

1914: A protest was held in Sophia, Bulgaria by the Jewish community, against ritual murder accusations in a case associated with memorial services for soldiers who fell in war.

1915: In New York, state elections which newly naturalized Jewish citizens had been urged to participate in at a rally held Adolph Lewisohn Stadium, took place today.

1915: Michael Sidney Luft, a minor movie producer who would gain fame as the husband of Judy Garland, was born to Jewish parents who had immigrated from Germany and Russia.

1915(25th of Cheshvan, 5676): Sixty-five year old Isaac Leopold Rice, the Bavarian born American chess patron and inventor who build 85 submarines and 722 sub chasers for the U.S. Navy during World War I passed away today

1916: Turkish military leader Djemal Pasha orders barricades erected to prevent Jews from praying at the Western Wall in Jerusalem.

1916: Klemens Wilhelm von Klemperer author of German Resistance Against Hitler: The Search for Allies Abroad, 1938-1945 was born in Berlin today into what had been a Jewish family until his grandfather, Gustav, the director of one of Germany’s largest banks, converted to Protestantism. (As reported by Dennis Hevesi)

1916(6th of Cheshvan, 5677): Dr. Henry W. (Pinchas HaLevi) Schneeberger, the Rabbi at Chizuk Amuno Congregation in Baltimore, MD passed away.  On the afternoon of his death The Baltimore newspapers that afternoon ran a photograph of Dr. Schneeberger with a caption above it saying, ‘Grand Old Man’ Dies after Long Illness, Beloved Rabbi Dead.’”

1917: Arthur Balfour, British Secretary for Foreign Affairs, sent Lord Rothschild a letter declaring the government's sympathy and support for the Zionist cause. Known as the Balfour Declaration, this document helped to supply the legal and international political underpinnings for the nascent Zionist movement.  Almost thirty years to the day of the sending of this letter, the UN would vote to create a Jewish state in Palestine.

Foreign Office

November 2nd, 1917

Dear Lord Rothschild:

I have much pleasure in conveying to youon behalf of His Majesty's Government, the following declaration of sympathy with Jewish Zionist aspirations which has been submitted to, and approved by, the Cabinet:

His Majesty's Government views with favor the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavors to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country.

I should be grateful if you would bring this declaration to the knowledge of the Zionist Federation.

Arthur James Balfour

1917: Winston Churchill who was Minister of Munitions wrote Sir Frederic Nathan the Jewish explosives expert asking why his ministry was collecting 25,000 tons of horse chestnuts.  Nathan explained to Churchill that the horse chestnuts were part of Dr. Chaim Weitzman’s experiments to create large quantities of acetone which was need to make cordite the smokeless powder used as the propellant in making ammunition.

1917: Four days before the hotly contested election for Mayor of New York, “Oscar S. Straus, Chairman of the Public Service Commission and former Ambassador to Turkey declared that any candidate who refused to buy Liberty bonds was treasonable” which was an indirect “slap” at Morris Hillquit the Socialist candidate.

1917: In Russia, “food riots and anti-Jewish disturbances” took place at Tambov, Belopolie and Alexandrovsk,

1920: Birthdate of Morris Mazer, the son of Brooklyn kosher poultry worker, who as Bill Mazer became a “fixture” in the world of those who covered sports in the New York area. (As reported by Richard Goldstein)

1920: Warren G Harding elected President on his 55th birthday. Warren Harding was the first President to sign a Joint Congressional Resolution endorsing the Balfour Declaration and the Palestine Mandate supporting the establishment in Palestine of a national Jewish home for the Jewish people. The resolution was signed September 22, 1922.

1920: Nathan David Perlman was elected as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from New York’s 14th District.

1920: Henry Abrams of Indianapolis, Indiana, was re-elected to the State Legislature.

1920: In New York City, Otto A. Rosalsky, the judge of the Court of General Sessions was re-elected today.

1920: Simon L. Adler of Rochester, NY, was re-elected to the State Legislature.

1920: Elijah Adlow of Boston, Mass. was elected to the State Legislature.

1920: M.C. Ansorge of New York City was elected to the United States House of Representatives.

1920: Benjamin Antin of New York City was re-elected to the State Legislature.

1920: Bernard Aronson of New York City was elected to the State Legislature.

1920: Isaac Bachrach of Atlantic City, NJ, was re-elected to the United States House of Representatives.

1920: Harry Baum of New York City was re-elected to the State Legislature.

1920: Maurice Bloch of New York City was re-elected to the State Legislature.

1920: Mitchell Erlanger of New York City was elected judge of the Supreme Court.

1920: Bernard Finkelstein of Boston, Mass, was elected to the State Legislature.

1920: Noel B. Fox of New York City was re-elected to the State Legislature.

1920: Ralph Halpern of New York City was re-elected to the State Legislature.

1920: Maxwell S Harris of New York City was elected the State Senate.

1920: Gustave Hartman of New York City was elected judge of the City Court.

1920: Henry Jaeger of New York City was elected to the State Legislature.

1920: Julius Kahn of San Francisco, CA, was re-elected to the United States House of Representatives.

1920. Milton Krauss of Peru, Indiana, was re-elected to the United States House of Representatives.

1920: Nathan Leibman of New York City was re-elected to the State Legislature.

1920: Meyer London of New York City was elected to the United States House of Representatives.

1920: Isaac May was re-elected Mayor of Rome, GA.

1920: Morris A. Penter of Pueblo, CO, was elected to the State Legislature.

1920: Nathan D. Perlman of New York City was elected to the United States House of Representatives.

1920: M. Warley Platzek of New York City was elected judge of the Supreme Court.

1920: L.G. Moses of New York City was elected to the State Legislature.

1920: Samuel Orr of New York City was re-elected to the State Legislature.

1920: Schuyler M.  Meyer of New York City was elected to the State Senate.

1920: M.D. Reiss of New York City was elected to the State Legislature.

1920: Louis B. Rosenfeld of Hartford, CT, was elected to the State Senate.

1920: Adolph J. Sabath of Chicago, Illinois, was re-elected to the United States House of Representatives.

1920: Albert B. Rossdale of New York City was elected the United States House of Representatives.

1920: Joseph W. Schulman of Chicago, Illinois, was elected Judge of Municipal Court today.

1920: Charles Shulman of Boston, Mass., was elected to the State Legislature today.

1920: Isaac Siegel of New York City was re-elected to the United States House of Representatives.

1920: Coleman Silbert of Boston, Mass., was elected to the State Legislature.

1920: Charles Solomon of New York City was re-elected to the State Legislature.\

1920: Joseph Steinberg of New York City was re-elected to the State Legislature.

1920: Nathan Straus, Jr. of New York City was elected to the State Senate.

1920: Sol Ullman of New York City was re-elected to the State Senate.

1920: Lester D. Volk of Brooklyn was elected to the United States House of Representatives.

1920: Isidor Wassservogel of New York City was elected judge of the Supreme Court in New York and Bronx Counties.

1921(1st of Cheshvan, 5682): Rosh Chodesh Chesvan)

1921: The Arabs rioted in Jerusalem on the fourth anniversary of the Balfour Declaration.  Four Jews were killed and 20 were injured. 

1921: Graduation ceremonies for the first class of nurses to complete the three year program at the Hadassah nursing school are postponed due to Arab riots.

1922: “Peter the Great” a biopic about the Czar co-starring Fritz Kortner was released in Germany today.

1922: Founding of the moshav Balfouriyyah on the fifth anniversary of the Balfour Declaration.

1924(5th of Cheshvan, 5685): Zionist leader Dr. Menachem Mandel Scheinkin was killed today in a street car accident in Chicago.  Dr. Scheinkin was born in Balta Bessarabia 54 years ago.  He was a rabbi in the small town before moving to Palestine thirty years ago.  He worked to development the Jewish settlements founded by the late Baron Rothschild and was one of the founders of Tel Aviv.

1924: “The Man from Mexico” a film version of a Broadway play produced by Adolph Zukor and Daniel Frohman was released today in the United States.

1927: In the Bronx, Emanuel and Anna Frank Cohen give birth to Morris Leo Cohen, a “book lover who shunned the practice of law because it was too contentious and became one of the nation’s most influential legal librarians, bringing both the Harvard and Yale law libraries into the digital age.”

1929:  Birthdate of Harold Faberman, founder and Artistic Director of the Conductors Institute at Bard College. Harold Farberman was born on New York City's Lower East Side. Coming from a family of musicians (his father was the drummer in a famous 1920s klezmer band led by Schleomke Beckerman; his brother was also a drummer), it was inevitable that he would pursue music as a career. After graduating from the Juilliard School of Music on scholarship in 1951, Farberman became the youngest member of the Boston Symphony Orchestra (BSO) when he joined its percussion section.

1930: In “Fair Play to the Jews”, published today Churchill attacked the Passfield White Paper that contended Britain’s’ obligations to the Jews and Arabs under the Mandate were equal.  Churchill contended that the British owed a debt to the Jewish people as embodied in the words and spirit of the Balfour Declaration.  To say otherwise was a betrayal of British honor.

1932: Birthdate of Nobel Prize winning physicist Melvin Schwartz.

1933(13th of Cheshvan, 5694): Sixty-three year old Sameul S. Piser, a native of Russia who came to Chicago when he was sixteen and has operated an undertaking business for the last twenty years, passed away today.

1934(24th of Cheshvan, 5695): Eighty-nine year old Baron Edmond Benjamin James de Rothschild a member of the French line of the House of Rothschild  whose early support of Zionism included the establishment of the Palestine Jewish Colonization Association, passed away today.

1934: “The Merry Widow” the cinematic version of the operetta produced by Irving Thalberg and Ernst Lubitsch who also was the director, with a libretto by Victor Leon and Leo Stein and a screenplay by Samson Raphaelson was released in the United States today by MGM.

1934: Funeral services were held this afternoon for former Russian revolutionary Simon Oscar Pollock, the “counsel to the Political Refugees Defense League of Work followed by internment  at Mount Zion Cemetery in Queens, NY.

1934: “Transatlantic Merry-Go-Round” a musical comedy-drama co-starring Jack Benny and Sid Silvers with a score by Alfred Newman was released today by United Artists.

1936: It was reported today that most of the newspapers in Vienna have expressed “great satisfaction” that Otto Lowei, a professor at Austria’s Graz University was a co-winner of the Nobel Prize in Medicine.  The clerical newspapers are the exception to the rule, which may be because Lowei is Jewish.  The Clerical Reichspost gave the story four and a half lines and the Weltblatt hid the story in the Personal News Column.

1936: Birthdate of Martin Aronstein, a native of Pittsfield, MA whose career as lighting designer on Broadway spanned 36 years whose creations earned him five Tony award nominations.


1936: Father Charles E. Coughlin denied he had ever “assailed Jews” but admitted he had challenged the Jews “to abandon the philosophy of an eye for an eye and tooth for a tooth.”

1936:  Italian dictator Benito Mussolini proclaims the Rome-Berlin Axis, establishing the alliance of the Axis Powers.

1937: Republican Stanley M. Isaacs was elected Manhattan Borough President.

1937(28th of Cheshvan 5698): Eighty-two year old Vladimir Jochelson, the Jewish revolutionary who used his time as an exile in Siberia to study the “language, managers and folk-lore “of the indigenous peoples of the Russian North.”

1937:” I'd Rather Be Right,” a musical with a book by Moss Hart and George S. Kaufman, lyrics by Lorenz Hart, and music by Richard Rodgers premiered on Broadway at the Alvin Theatre The story produced by this Jewish quartet, is a Depression-era political satire set in New York City, about Washington politics and political figures, such as President Franklin Roosevelt. The plot centers on Peggy Jones and her boyfriend, who needs a raise in order for them to get married. The President steps in and solves their dilemma. It starred George M. Cohan as Franklin Roosevelt. (Some people mistakenly thought that Cohan’s name was a form of the name Cohen and that he was Jewish.)

1937: On the 16th anniversary of the Balfour Declaration, “the Syrian newspaper al-Ayyam expressed support for the measures being implemented by the French authorities to protect the Jews Quarter of Damascus from Muslim attacks.” 

1938: As a result of The Munich Agreement Hungary was “awarded the Felvidek region of South Slovakia and Ruthenia.

1938: Abraham Liessin, well-known Yiddish poet and editor of Zukunft, the literary and political monthly collapsed Wednesday while reading a poem at the funeral services for his friend and associate, B. Charney Vladeck. (As reported by JTA)

1938:  Birthdate of musician Jay Black of “Jay and the Americans.”

1938: Krystyna Skarbek the future British espionage agent whose father was a Polish Catholic noble and whose mother was Jewish married Jerzy Giżycki in Warsaw.

1941(12th of Cheshvan, 5702): Seventy-three old John Simon Guggenheim, businessman, philanthropist and former U.S. Senator from Colorado passed away today in New York City

1941: The Nazis deported more than 15,000 Serbian Jews to a concentration camp at Sajmiste, Yugoslavia. They are later killed in mobile gassing units disguised as Red Cross vans.

1941: The Germans begin the construction of an extermination center at Belzec, Poland.

1941 A Jewish ghetto at Grodno, Belorussia, is established.

1941 A Nazi-sanctioned concentration camp opens at Hadjerat-M'Guil, North Africa.

1941: Diana Barnato Walker, the daughter of Woolf Barnato and granddaughter of Barney Barnato who secured the family fortune in his diamond and gold mining operations, “was admitted to the ATA's Elementary Flying Training School at White Waltham” today.

1942: On the 25th anniversary of the Balfour Declaration, Churchill sent a telegram to Weizmann and a message to the Jewish Chronicle recognizing the special suffering being endured by the Jewish people and reiterating his continued support of Zionism

1942(22nd of Cheshvan, 5703): The Nazis begin deportations in the Bialystok region. Reportedly, 3,000 to 6,000 Jews were deported from Siemiatzycze. Hundreds were shot while trying to revolt against the round up. The resistance was led by Herschl Shabbes. Hundreds of Jews managed to escape from the actions. Some Poles helped the Jews hide while others didn't. Those who were caught assisting a Jew were shot. When the train of Siemiatzycze Jews reached the Treblinka station, one car was heard singing "Hatikvah'. Some of the people were stripped naked in near freezing temperatures, taken to the fields and shot dead. All the rest but 152 of the 3,200 were gassed.  As part of the Action in the Bialystok region, hundreds of small towns would be raided, their Jews rounded up for deportation. The total of captured Jews was estimated to be above 100,000. There were too many to be processed immediately. Interim camps were then set up. Eventually most of them would be transported to Treblinka over the next several weeks and months.

1942(22nd of Cheshvan, 5703): In the Lithuanian town of Marcinkance, 370 Jews who refuse to board trains for deportation bolt for the ghetto boundaries. In the mêlée that follows, 360 Jews and many guards are killed. Between deaths and successful escapes, not one Jew is left to board the trains

1942(22nd of Cheshvan, 5703): In Zolochev, Ukraine, the chairman of the Jewish Council is murdered by Germans after refusing to sign a paper saying that the liquidation of the ghetto was necessitated by the spread of a typhus epidemic. The poet S. J. Imber, the nephew of the author of Hatikvah is among the 2500 Zolochev Jews deported to Belzec.

1942: More than 100,000 Jews remaining in the towns and villages in the Bialystok region of Poland are arrested and deported to holding camps at Zambrów, Volkovysk, Kelbasin, and Bogusze before being sent to the Auschwitz and Treblinka death camps.

1942: Wolfram Sievers, head of Germany's Ancestral Heritage Society, requests skeletons of 150 Jews. SS chief Heinrich Himmler approves a plan to establish a collection of Jewish skeletons and skulls at the Strasbourg Anatomical Institute in France, near the Natzweiler-Struthof concentration camp.

1942: The Nazis shipped the Jews of Rujenoy were shipped to Treblinka.  Among them was the family of Yitzhak Shamir, who according to the future Prime Minister of Israel, were not able to leave for Palestine when that opportunity was still a possibility “because they could not afford the £1,000 fee demanded by the British.”

1943: Nazis liquidated Riga ghetto sending the remaining 1,000 Jews from the Riga Ghetto to Birkenau.

1943(4th of Cheshvan, 5704): The Germans commenced operation "Harvest Festival" - the destruction of the survivors of the Warsaw ghetto uprising who were held captive since April. Within a few days 50,000 Jews would be shot in ditches at Majdanek. At Trawniki, all the Jews were machine-gunned down. Of the 500,000 Warsaw Jews driven away from the ghetto and placed in camps between July 1942 and May 1943 only about three hundred survived.  Some of the survivors would form a Kibbutz in Israel memorializing the brave stand of their fallen comrades.

1943: Stanley Isaacs, a political ally of Mayor Fiorello La Guardia, was elected to the New York City Council.

1943: In Genoa, “the hunt for Jews began…when two German police agents entered the office of the Jewish community and forced the custodians, Linda and Bino Polacco, to turn over membership lists and summon members to a meeting at the synagogue the following morning. (As reported by the Jewish Virtual Library)

1943: While serving in the U.S. Navy, Kirk Douglas married Diana Dill with whom he had two sons – Michael and Joel Douglas.

1944: Orders were sent from Berlin to suspend killing of Jews at Auschwitz.  This was not a humanitarian act.  

1945: Anti-Jewish riots broke out in Egypt.

1945: “Confidential Agent” a film set in the Spanish Civil War co-starring Lauren Bacall and Peter Lorre with music by Franz Waxman was released today in the United States.

1945: While responding to parliamentary questions, British Foreign Minister Bevin of the newly installed Labor Government made the observation that “if the Jews, with all their suffering, want to get too much at the head of the queue, you have the danger of another anti-Semitic reaction through it all.” While Britain has had its Philo-Semites, anti-Semitism is a common currency whether it be the genteel kind of the Conservatives or the more uncouth variety found among some members of Labor at this time.  Bevin’s statement was an indication that he and Prime Minister Attlee were about to turn against the promises of the Balfour Declaration and continue o enforce the White Paper adopted as British policy in 1939.

1948: President Harry S. Truman surprised the experts, narrowly winning re-election over Republican challenger Thomas E. Dewey.  Truman’s upset victory was due in part to heavy support among Jewish voters in critical states with large electoral votes such as New York.  Truman’s liberal social policies such as support for federal school lunches and health insurance for the elderly were popular among Jewish voters.  Most Jews will remember and revere Truman as the man who supported the creation of the state of Israel.  Despite opposition from most of the leaders in his administration, including George C. Marshall whom Truman revered, the man from Missouri ensured the United States was the first nation to recognize the re-born Jewish state.

1948: On the anniversary of the Balfour Declaration, the Israeli military cancelled the blackout in West Jerusalem.  “’The city blazed with lights and its citizens crowded the streets and cafes to taste the future they had fought for.’”

1948: Marcus Sieff sends a letter to Winston Churchill stating that “many Israeli leaders were anxious to see ties with Britain renewed, but that British policy in the United Nations Assembly with regard to Israel and the Arab States prevents any such rapprochement.”

1949: Weizmann Institute of Science was dedicated in Rehovot.

1950: “Harriet Craig” a melodrama directed by Vincent Sherman was released in the United States by

1951(3rd of Cheshvan, 5712): Ninety year old Martha Bernays, the widow of Sigmund Freud, passed away today Columbia Pictures.

1953: Major General (Ret) Kenneth Nichols became General Manager of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) which enable him to initiate the AEC Personnel Security Board hearing on the loyalty and trustworthiness of atomic scientist J. Robert Oppenheimer

1955: “‘Hill 24 Doesn't Answer,’ an Israeli-made feature had its première tonight at the World Theatre.”

1955: Birthdate of Bob Tufts, the major league pitcher who went to Princeton before going into professional baseball and got an MBA at Columbia after he left the game.

1955(17th of Cheshvan, 5716): Ninety-one year old Samuel Shulman the Russian born American rabbi whose first pulpit was at Temple Emanu-El in Helena, Montana and who eventually replaced Kaufman Kohler as the rabbi Temple Beth-El and Temple Emanu-El in New York City passed away today.

1955: Hadassah, the Women's Zionist Organization of America, has been designated by the Government as the central agency for the distribution of surplus American food in Israel.

1955: A force of paratroops from the 890th Battalion augmented by a Nahal company attacked the Egyptian emplacements at Sachba while units from the Golani Brigade's 12th Battalion attacked Egyptian emplacements at Ras-Siram this evening in the start of Operation Volcano.

1956: Israel captured Gaza, Sheham and El Arish (the Egyptian capital of the northern Sinai) during the war with Egypt.

1956: Much to everybody’s surprise Israeli tanks came to within ten miles of the Suez Canal. The IDF captured sixty armored cars and forty modern tanks from the retreating Egyptians.  These weapons were part of the large mass of modern weapons that the Soviets had supplied Nasser in exchange for Arab support and much of the future Egyptian cotton crop.  The weapons were much better than anything the IDF had and would be incorporated into the arsenal of the Israeli military forces.

1956: During the Sinai Campaign, the specter of a wider war opened when the Syrian embassy in Washington informed the United States government that Syria had ‘decided to implement immediately’ the joint Egyptian-Syrian defense pact.

1956: The governors of Gaza City and the Gaza strip surrender to the Israelis.

1956: “The Rack” a film about Korean vets starring Paul Newman with a script by Stewart Stern was released in the United States by MGM

1956: U.N. Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld informed Israel that the General Assembly had passed a cease fire resolution.

1959(1st of Cheshvan, 5720): Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan

1959: “The Dock Brief” and “What Shall We Tell Caroline?” produced by David Susskind were broadcast on “The Play of the Week.”

1959: During the Congressional investigations of the “Quiz Show Scandals,” Charles Van Dorn admits that he had received answers in advance when he appeared on the hit quiz show, “Twenty-One.”  Van Dorn was part of a famous family of WASP intellectuals.  “Twenty-One” was the creation of two Jews named Jack Berry and Dan Enright.  Herbert Stempl, a Jew from Brooklyn, was the contestant who “took a dive” so that Van Dorn could win.

1961: “The fifth Knesset started with David Ben-Gurion’s Mapai part forming the tenth government” today.

1961: Eliyahu Sasson began serving as the Minister of Postal Services in Israel.

1961: Eliyahu Sasson began serving as the Minister of Communications.

1961: Dr Giora Yoseftal began serving as Israel’s first Minister of Housing and Construction.

1961: Elections confirm the predominance of the Labor movement. Mapia remained the largest party with forty-two seats.  But this was still 19 short of the sixty one seats needed for a majority which meant that Ben Gurion would have to form another coalition government.

1961: Birthdate of Nancy Morris, the Montreal native “a Reform rabbi, who was appointed to Glasgow Reform Synagogue, formerly known as Glasgow New Synagogue, in October 2003, making her the first female rabbi in Scotland.”

1963: In UK, June Flewett and Sir Clement Freud, the grandson of Sigmund Freud gave birth to Matthew Freud, the head of Freud Communications.

1964: King Saud of Saudi Arabia is deposed by a family coup, and replaced by his half-brother King Faisal. Saud was on the throne during the 1956 Suez war and stopped exporting oil to Britain and France due to the Suez Crisis.  At the same time, he was an opponent of Nasser’s imperial dreams and provided aide to the royalist forces in Yemen. As king, Faisal continued the close alliance with the United States begun by his father, and relied on the U.S. heavily for arming and training his armed forces. Faisal was also anti-Communist. He refused any political ties with the Soviet Union and other Communist bloc countries, professing to see a complete incompatibility between Communism and Islam, and associating Communism with Zionism, which he also criticized sharply. He also engaged in a propaganda and media war with Egypt's pan-Arabist president, Gamal Abdel Nasser, and engaged in a proxy war with Egypt in Yemen that lasted until 1967 (see Yemeni Civil War). Faisal never explicitly repudiated pan-Arabism, however, and continued to call for inter-Arab solidarity in broad terms. During the 1973 Arab-Israeli War, launched by Faisal withdrew Saudi oil from world markets, in protest over Western support for Israel during the conflict. This action quadrupled the price of oil and was the primary force behind the 1973 energy crisis. It was to be the defining act of Faisal's career, and gained him lasting prestige among many Arabs and Muslims worldwide. The new oil revenue allowed Faisal to greatly increase the aid and subsidies begun following the 1967 Arab-Israeli to Egypt, Syria, and the Palestine Liberation Organization.

1965: In Israel, elections scheduled to be held will pit former Premier David Ben-Gurion and his newly formed Israel Workers Party against Premiere Levi Eshkol whom Ben Gurion had selected as his predecessors two years ago. (As reported by James Feron)

1966: “The Professionals” an Oscar nominated western directed, produced and written by Richard Brooks and edited by Paul Zinner was released today by Columbia Pictures.

1966:  In Flushing, Queens, “attorneys Arthur and Arlene Coleman-Schwimmer” gave birth to David Schwimmer best known for his role as Ross on the television hit Friends but who demonstrated the fact that he does have some range as an actor when he played a miss-fit officer in the World War II series, Band of Brothers.

1970: Bella Abzug was elected to the United States House of Representatives on a proudly feminist, anti-war, environmentalist platform.

1970: Roger Greenspun reviewed “WUSA” directed by Stuart Rosenberg, with music by Lialo Schifrin and co-starring Paul Newman and Laurence Harvey,

1973: "Barbra Streisand ...and Other Musical Instruments" airs on CBS TV

1975: The impact of the publication of Against Our Will: Men, Women and Rape was reflected in four different articles published in the Washington Post

1976: Jimmy Carter elected President of the United States.  Carter will be remembered as the man who brokered the peace treaty between Egypt and Israel as well as the ex-President who voiced increasingly anti-Israeli opinions as the 20th century gave way to the 21st century.

1976: In Israel, founding of the Democratic Movement for Change known as DASH.

1977: “Madame Rosa” the cinematic adaptation of The Life Before Us by Romain Gary which tells the story of “a frail, aging, retired Jewish prostitute and Auschwitz survivor” directed by Moshe Miarahi who also wrote the script was released today in France.

1983(26th of Cheshvan, 5744): Seventy-five year old Leonard Bertram Naman Schapiro the native of Glasgow who spent part of his childhood in Russia and who is the author of The Origins of the Communist Autocracy and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union passed away.

1984: A Brooklyn synagogue two blocks from one that was virtually destroyed in an arson fire two days agi was the target of an arson attempt this evening. The latest fire was set in the doorway of Congregation and Talmud Torah Tifereth Israel, at 2025 64th Street in the Bensonhurst section. A passer-by spotted the small fire at 6:35 P.M. and put out the flames, the police said. The Fire Department said that a flammable liquid had apparently been splashed on the door. The fire caused little damage. The earlier fire occurred at the Mapleton Park Hebrew Institute, which houses a synagogue and a yeshiva, at 2022 66th Street.

1986(30th of Tishrei, 5747): Sixty-six year old Paul Frees, the man with a million voices whom we all heard when we watched Rocky and Bullwinkle passed away today.



1988:  Yitzchak Shamir led Likud to victory in the Israeli election.

1988: “Gracie Allen Still Steals the Show” published today provides a review of Gracie: A Love Story by George Burns as well as providing a brief summary of how devoted Burns was to the wife who made his career.”

1988(22nd of Cheshvan, 5749): Screenwriter Lukas Heller, the native of Kiel whose film credits including “Hush…Hush, Sweet Charlotte” and who is the father of British writers Bruno and Zoe Heller, passed away today.

1990: James Bartleman completed his service as Canada’s Ambassador to Israel.

1991(25th of Cheshvan, 5752): Movie Producer Irwin Allen, best known for The Poseidon Adventure, passed away.

1991(25th of Cheshvan, 5752): Eighty-one year old Yosef Aharon Almogi passed away in Haifa.  Born in the Polish part of the Russian Empire, he made Aliyah in 1930 and served in the British Army during World War II.  During his political career he served in the Knesset and held various cabinet posts.

1993: Ehud Olmert defeats Teddy Kollek, ending Kollek’s twenty-eight tenure as Jerusalem’s mayor.

1994(1st of Kislev, 5755): Rosh Chodesh Kislev

1994: The Hobcaw Barony, which consisted of over 15,000 acres in South Carolina acquired by Bernard Baruch which became a nature preserve and eventually came to be owned by The Belle W. Baruch Foundation “was named to the National Register of Historic Places”

1994: Snapple, a maker of bottled and canned iced tea and fruit drinks, founded by Hyman Golden and Arnold Greenberg in 1972, “announced today that it had agreed to be acquired by the Quaker Oats Company for $14 a share, well above the $5 a share that Snapple got when it went public in December 1992” but well below “the $23 a share other had paid “when Snapple insiders unloaded 9.2 million shares a year ago.”

1997: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or about topics of Jewish interest including The World of Benjamin Cardozo: Personal Values and the Judicial Process by Richard Polenberg, Paris in the Fifties by Stanley Karnow, Where She Came From: A Daughter's Search for Her Mother's History by Helen Epstein, Strangers to the Tribe: Portraits of Interfaith Marriage by Gabrielle Glaser, Roadkill by Kinky Freeman, My Vast Fortune by Andrew Tobias, The Autobiography of Foudini M. Cat by  Susan Fromberg and Memoirs by Sir George Solti.

1999: A recording of “The Famous 1938 Carnegie Jazz Concert” Benny Goodman’s ground-breaking music tour de force which had been recorded at the time was reissued today.

2000(6th of Cheshvan, 5761): Parashat Noach

2000(6th of Cheshvan, 5761): Ayelet Shahar Levy, 28, and Hanan Levy, 33, were killed and ten others were injured in a car bomb explosion near the Mahane Yehuda market in Jerusalem for which The Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility,

2001(16th of Cheshvan, 5762):  Elazar Menachem Man Shach passed away.  Born and educated in Lithuania, he was a leading Haredi Rabbi in Bnei Baraik

2001(16th of Cheshvan, 5762): Shoshana Ben Ishai, 16, of Betar Illit and Menashe (Meni) Regev, 14, of Jerusalem were killed when a Palestinian terrorist opened fire with a sub-machine gun shortly before 16:00 at a No. 25 Egged bus at the French Hill junction in northern Jerusalem. 45 people were injured in the attack.

2001(16th of Cheshvan, 5762):  Rabbi Morton M. Applebaum passed away at age 90 in Boca Raton. He was Rabbi of Temple Israel from 1953 to 1979, and continued as Rabbi Emeritus of Temple Israel until his death.Rabbi Morton M. Applebaum was born in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.  He received his B.A. degree at the University of Toronto, and was graduated from and ordained by the Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1940, where he also obtained his Master of Hebrew Letters degree, and his Doctor of Divinity degree in 1965.  Upon ordination, Rabbi Applebaum was called to serve as rabbi of Congregation Shaarey Zedek, in Lansing, Michigan, and also as Counselor of the B'nai B'rith Hillel Extension at Michigan State College.  In 1943 he was invited to become spiritual leader of Temple Beth El in Flint, Michigan, and served there until his call to Temple Israel of Akron, Ohio, in July, 1953, his congregation for over 46 years. He had contributed articles to national and international Anglo-Jewish periodicals, lectured in many American colleges, and addressed numerous church and service club audiences.  In 1959 he authored the book What Everyone Should Know About Judaism, which was the result of many of the questions that had been asked of him by Christians and Jews about Judaism.   During his term in Akron he started the children's interfaith service, a men's exchange program with St. Paul's Episcopal Church, and an annual Christian clergy institute on Judaism.  He served as a member of several major boards of Reform Judaism in America.  From 1979 to 2001 he served as our Rabbi Emeritus.  The Applebaum Chapel is named for him. His son, Bruce had preceded him in death, and a Temple Israel tribute fund for supporting youth programming was established by the congregation in his son's honor.  A Temple Israel tribute fund for supporting Scholarship has established by the congregation in Rabbi Applebaum's honor.

2001: Radio Liberty reported that fifty gravestones in a Jewish cemetery were desecrated in Baku, Azerbaijan. The head of the Religious Community of Mountain Jews of Azerbaijan, Semyon Ikhilov, was quoted by Radio Liberty as saying that this is not the first time such an attack has taken place. The government of Azerbaijan has recently warned of the threat of rising Islamic extremism to Jewish and minority Christian groups and has closed some mosques associated with radical Islamic tendencies.

2002: Matan Vilnai completed his term Minister of Culture and Sport.

2002: Binyamin Fuad Ben-Eliezer completed his term as Minister of Defense.

2003: The New York Times book section features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or on topics of special Jewish interest including Family Circle: The Boudins and the Aristocracy of the Left by Susan Braudy, Autumn of the Moguls: My Misadventures With the Titans, Poseurs, and Money Guys Who Mastered and Messed Up Big Media by Michael Wolff and George Gershwin: A New Biography by William G. Hyland

2005: German Foreign Minister Joschka Fischer praised the decision of The United Nations General Assembly to unanimously approve the proposal to set January 27 as the "International Day of Commemoration in Memory of the Victims of the Holocaust." The decision was made at the end of a special General Assembly session that began at UN headquarters in New York on Monday, November 1. January 27, 1945 is the day the former Nazi concentration and extermination camp, Auschwitz-Birkenau, was liberated. Fischer reminded the world that for the German people the Holocaust will forever be a dark time in their history demanding special treatment.

2005: As further evidence of the changing face of Conservative Judaism in Israel  three new female rabbis and one male who were ordained on at the Masorati/Conservative movement's Schechter Rabbinical Seminary, with religious backgrounds ranging from Orthodox to secular and a variety of cultural heritages, including Moroccan and French.

2006: Following a call by Baruch Marzel, Itamar Ben-Gvir and Hillel Weiss for a “holy war” against the upcoming Jerusalem Gay Pride Parade, “a demonstration” today “in Meah Shearim led to rioting” with “thousands of protestors blocking roads with burning garbage cans.”

2006: The Helicon Association's Sha'ar Poetry Festival opens at the Hebrew-Arabic Theater Complex in Jaffa. The Tel Aviv festival's artistic director is the poet Amir Or. The Sha'ar Festival of Poetry will also be hosting 12 poets from abroad and many local artists. The festival opens at Helicon House in Tel Aviv with a lecture by poet Admiel Kosman on sex and gender in Talmudic texts.

2007: Richard Pratt, the Polish born  Jewish Australian businessman  and the Visy group received a A$36 million fine, representing both the largest fine in Australian history and an estimated 0.75% of the Pratt fortune] Federal Court judge Justice Heerey said Mr Pratt and his senior executives were knowingly concerned in the cartel, which involved price fixing and market sharing

2007: Physician Oliver Sacks discusses and signs Musicophilia: Tales of Music and the Brain at Politics and Prose Bookstore in Washington, D.C.
2007: This evening, four mortar shells were fired at an Israeli community north of Gaza. All landed in open territory, and no wounded or damage were reported. This was the second such attack from Gaza in the least two days.
2008: Saul Steinberg: Illuminations, a travelling exhibition, which displays original Steinberg works came to a close at Kunsthaus Zürich
2008: James Galway, “the man with the golden flute," gives a concert at Tel Aviv's Performing Arts Center.

2008: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or about topics of Jewish interest including The Road To Rescue: The Untold Story of Schindler’s List by Mietek Pemper with Viktoria Hertling, assisted by Marie Elisabeth Müller; translated by David Dollenmayer and Searching for Schindler: A Memoir by Thomas Keneally

2008: The Washington Post book section reviewed Chagall: A Biography by Jackie Wullschlager and featured the work of Jewish poet Brenda Hillman including a poem entitled “Partita for Sparrows,"

2009: Mitch Albom, author of the bestselling Tuesdays with Morrie, reads from and signs his new inspirational book, Have a Little Faith: A True Story, at the Sixth & I Historic Synagogue in Washington, D.C.

2009: At the St. Louis Jewish Book Festival, Thomas M. Bloch leads a presentation entitled: “Stand for the Best” during which he discusses “What I Learned After Leaving My Job as CEO of H&R Block to Become a Teacher and Founder of an Inner-City Charter School

2009(15th of Cheshvan, 5770): Sixty-one year old Shabati Kalmanovich “a KGB spy, who later became known in Russia as a successful businessman, concert promoter and basketball sponsor” was killed today.

2009 (15 Cheshvan, 5770): Seventy-three year old Lord Leonard Steinberg, a much loved leader and philanthropist who passed away today.

2009 (15 Cheshvan, 5770): Sixty-eight year old Amir Pnueli, “who turned a philosopher’s explorations of time, logic and free will into a critical technique for verifying the reliability of computers, passed away today.”  (As reported by Kenneth Change)

2010(25th of Cheshvan, 5771): Eighty-eight year old Sarah Doron passed away.  A native of Lithuania she made Aliyah in 1933 and pursued a political career that led to her being elected to the Knesset as a member of Likud.

2010: “Political newcomer Steve Katz, was elected assemblyman for the 99th Assembly District as a candidate of the Republican and Independence Parties.”

2010: Proposition 19 which would have legalized marijuana in the State of California, a cause to which George Soros had contributed a million dollars, failed to pass in today’s election.

2010: The New York Times reviewed two books by Jewish authors: Cleopatra: A Life by Stacy Schiff and Frank: The Voice by James Kaplan

2010: Cedar Lake is scheduled to present the New York Premier of Israeli born Hofesh Shecter’s “The Fools” at the Joyce.

2010: Eric Cantor, the only Republican Jewish member of the House of Representatives, is among those standing for office in the U.S. elections which are scheduled to be held today.

2010: Today's US midterm elections propose to present a disproportionately large number of Jewish candidates for high office, some of them in quite unexpected places. Several already well-known political names in important races are California Senator Barbara Boxer (D), running for re-election in a close race with former Hewlett Packard executive Carly Fiorina, and former Connecticut state attorney-general Richard Blumenthal who has maintained a slight lead against Linda McMahon of WWE wrestling fame for the state's open Senate seat. Blumenthal has managed to maintain a single-digit lead, despite a minor scandal over exaggerated claims of Vietnam War service, in no small part due to Connecticut women's discomfort with McMahon's close ties with a sport known for violence and a significant element of misogyny

2011: The Center for Jewish History is scheduled to a present a lecture entitled “Glikl’s Legacy: Jewish Women in France before the Revolution” by Professor Jay Berkowitz, the Center’s inaugural National Endowment for the Humanities Senior Scholar Fellowship,

2011: Hyman S. & Freda Bernstein Jewish Literary Festival is scheduled to come to a close tonight in Washington, D.C.

2011: Israel test-fired a ballistic missile today, at the Palmahim Israel Defense Forces base in central Israel. The test was part of an examination of a new missile currently being developed by the defense establishment.

2012: After premiering at the Toronto International Film Festival, “A Late Quartet,” a simply marvelous must see movie directed and co-produced by Yaron Zilberman, with a script by Seth Grossman and Yaron Zilberman was released today in the United States.

2012: U.S. premiere of “A Late Quartet” a must see “little cinematic gem” produced and directed by Yaron Zilberman who co-authored the script along with Seth Grossman.

2012: As part of the Turkish-Jewish Festival, Tikvat Israel in Rockville, MD is scheduled to follow Kabbalat Shabbat with “an authentic vegetarian Turkish dinner prepared by Beyhan Cagri Trock author of The Ottoman Turk and the Pretty Jewish Girl – Real Turkish Cooking.

2012: Beth El, Shir Tikvah, Temple Israel, Kol Ami, & Emanu-El are scheduled to host the WRJ Central District Convention.

2012: Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas denounced the firing of rockets from Gaza into Israel in an interview with Channel 2 that aired in its entirety tonight.

2012: The comments by Defense Ministry security and diplomacy chief Amos Gilad do not reflect the positions of the security establishment nor do they reflect the positions of Gilad, the Defense Ministry said in a statement today. The statement follows comments made by Gilad earlier in the day at the IDC Herzliya's "Strategic Fridays" event, in which he said that "There is no talking going on between (Israel's) and Egypt's political echelons and I don't think there will be."

2012: The Ritual Committee of Temple Judah is scheduled to host a Spaghetti Dinner as part of the Friday night Shabbat celebration.

2012: In “The Lox Sherpa of Russ & Daughters” Corey Klignannon described the role of Chhappte Sherpa “saving the salmon” at the “popular lox purveyor” as Hurricane Sandy struck New York.

2012: “Orchestra of Exiles” is scheduled to open in Los Angeles.

2012: Ninety-fifth anniversary of the Balfour Declaration

2013: In Jerusalem, the Eden-Tamir Music Center is scheduled to host a chamber music concert, “From Mozart to Kleizmer.”

2013: The 19th annual San Diego Jewish Book Store is scheduled to begin this evening.

2013: The Oshman Family JCC in Palo Alto, California, is scheduled to host a screening of “Orchestra of Exiles” and a performance of by the string quartet from the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra.

2013: IDF Spokesperson's Unit reported that IDF fired at two Syrians who approached the border fence from the Syrian side in the southern Golan Heights while trying to steal mines. One of the Syrians was injured in his leg. The two ran back to where they came from. (As reported by Maor Buchnik, Yoav Zitun)

2013:  German Chancellor Angela Merkel today cautioned her countrymen against the dangers of anti-Semitism, a week ahead of the 75th anniversary of Kristallnacht, a series of pogroms carried out against German Jews in 1938.

2013: In a review published today “of an American production of the play, Bad Jews, Times of Israel critic Jordan Hoffman said “Bad Jews” was the “finest work about Jewish assimilation [he had] come across since Philip Roth’s 2004 novel ‘The Plot Against America.’”

2013: Tom Maayan “started at point guard in Seton Hall’s first of the season” today.

2013: “Oregon or Bust” is scheduled to come to an end at the Oregon Jewish Museum.

2014: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Nazis Next Door: How America Became a Safe Haven for Hitler’s Men by Eric Lichtblau, Villiage of Secrets: Defying the Nazis in Vichy, France by Caroline Moorehead and Lincoln and the Power of the Press: The War for Public Opinion by Harold Holzer

2014: Under the leadership of Amy Barnum, Hadassah is scheduled to hold its annual Donor Dinner in Cedar Rapids, Iowa.

2014: Artist Shirley Gittlesohn is scheduled to host “an informal tour of her exhibit ‘L’Chaim—To Life! At the Oregon Jewish Museum and Center for Holocuast Education

2014: A Day of Jewish Learning, an “annual adult education conference featuring seventy sessions” is scheduled to take place at American University in Washington, DC.

2014: The Twin Cities Jewish Film Festival is scheduled to come to an end today.

2014: “A senior Hamas official rapped Israel for closing the crossings into the Gaza Strip on today, two days after a rocket was fired from the coastal enclave at southern Israel.” (As reported by Spencer Ho)

2014: “Police Chief Yohanan Danino told an emergency meeting of the Knesset Internal Affairs Committee on Sunday that he is determined to maintain the right of Jews to access the Temple Mount compound, including by deploying as many officers as it takes to enable visits.” (As reported by Stanley Winer)

2014: “Part of a wrought-iron gate, bearing the Nazis’ cynical slogan “Arbeit macht frei” or “Work sets you free,” was stolen from the former Dachau concentration camp, police said today

2014: “Holocaust Education Week” is scheduled to begin today.

2015(20th of Cheshvan, 5776): Ninety-one year old timpanist Richard Horowitz passed away today. (As reported by Margalit Fox)

2015: The Aleph Society is scheduled to host its annual dinner with Rabbi Adin Even-Israel Steinsaltz.

2015: The Center for Jewish History is scheduled to host “Peretz Markish and the Destruction of Soviet Jewish Culture” which include a screening of a documentary on the poet and playwright and readings from his works by Yiddish actor Shane Baker.

2015: “Marrying An Ice Cream Factory” is scheduled to be shown at the 29th Israel Film Festival in Los Angeles.

2015: Three people including an 80 year old woman were wounded this afternoon in a stabbing attack by a Palestinian in the central city of Rishon Lezion, a southern suburb of Tel Aviv

2015: The Illinois Holocaust Museum & Education Center is scheduled to host a screening of Boris Maftisr’s “Guardians of Remembrance.”

2015: “Holocaust Education Week” is scheduled to begin today.

2016(1st of Cheshvan, 5777): Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan; for more see http://downhomedavartorah.blogspot.com/

2016: Holocaust Education Week’s “scholar-in-residence Ron Levi, who holds the George Ignatieff Chair of Peace and Conflict Studies at the University of Toronto, is scheduled to speak tonight at Beth Emeth Bais Yehuda Synagogue with HEW’s opening night speaker Gavriel D. Rosenfeld, professor of history at Fairfield University in Connecticut, about how the Holocaust fits into the current political climate.”

2016: The Center for Jewish History is scheduled to host its “Young Jewish American Composers Concert.”

2016: The Illinois Holocaust Museum and Educational Center is scheduled to host a lecture by Dr. Rachel G. Saidel on “Women in the Holocaust.

2016:  Ninety-ninth anniversary of the Balfour Declaration.






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