Tuesday, September 27, 2016

This Day, September 28, In Jewish History by Mitchell A. Levin


September 28

48 B.C.E.: Pompey the Great was assassinated on orders of King Ptolemy of Egypt after landing in Egypt.  While many Roman leaders get low marks in terms of Jewish History, Pompey rates at a very low level.  He was the Roman who desecrated the Holy of Holies and then mocked the Jews for praying to nothing.  Besides which, his rival, Julius Caesar, had comparatively positive relations with the Jews.

351: The Eastern Roman army led by Constantius II defeated the western forces supporting the usurper Magnentius at the Battle of Mursa Major. The Jews might have been better off if Magentinus had won since, as can be seen by his treatment of pagans, he was not a creature of Christianity.  They certainly could not have been worse off since Constantius II vigorously pursued the anti-Jewish policies begun by his father Constantine.

1066: William the Conqueror invaded England.  The first verifiable Jewish presence in England began with William who, in spite of opposition from the Church, allowed Jews from Rouen, France, to settle in his newly won kingdom. 

1197: The Holy Roman Emperor, Henry VI, died. During his reign outbreaks of violence aimed at the Jews took in an area that included the districts along the Rhine and in Vienna itself.  Henry was also the Emperor who held King Richard I of England for ransom after the Third Crusade.  The Jewish community in England “was forced to contribute toward the king's ransom 5,000 marks, more than three times as much as the contribution of the City of London.”  In other words, Henry not only would not protect the Jews in his own realm, his greed played a key role in bankrupting the Jews living beyond the boundaries of his power.  

1238: King James I, of Aragon, conquers the Kingdom of Valencia.  This is the same King James who presided over the debate Pablo Christiani and Nachmanides.  In a departure of from the norm, Nachmanides won the debate and King James awarded Nachmanides a prize and declared that never before had he heard "an unjust cause so nobly defended."

1251: King Jaime I declared, "No Jews will hold office in the Kingdom of Valencia." The following year Jews were banned from office in all of Catalan and Aragon.

1394: Pedro de Luna elected elevated to the papacy as Benedict XII whom the Council of Constance which deposed him in 1415 as having “caused much suffering to the Jews” and who “shrank from no measure” to force

1494: Bernardino da Feltre passed away.  Born Martin Tomitano in 1439, he was a priest and religious Italian of Friars Minor. He became a priest in 1463. In his religious fanaticism, he railed against the Jews who deemed them the murderers of Christ, and was among those that caused the most deaths in the Italian Jewish community of the time. In 1475, in Trento, he reportedly delivered a series of anti-Jewish sermons that led to 15 members of the local Jewish community being sentenced to death. The Jews were falsely accused of the death of Simon, a boy found dead in the Jewish Quarter. He was recognized as a saint by the Catholic Church for his alleged martyrdom in 1588. In 1965, the beatification process was canceled because of the unfounded historical accuracy of the story.

1577: The Sultan ordered a census of the Jews of Safed for the purposes of raising taxes.

1614: The Emperor ordered the arrest of Vincenz Fettmilch who led an uprising in Frankfurt that included the murder of Jews and the looting of the Judengasse.

1634: Comus, John Milton’s work dealing with the struggle between good and evil appeared for the first time.  He would tackle the topic again in his more famous work, Paradise Lost.  In the meantime, Milton joined other writers of his time including John Locke in writing in support of a Jewish state.  This was in line with Christian views about the conditions needed for the Second Coming.

1772(1st of Tishrei, 5533): Just a week after the treaty partitioning Poland among the Russians, Prussians and Russians is signed Polish Jews observe Rosh Hashanah under one of three different rulers.

1776(15th of Tishrei, 5637):  As the British begin their seven year occupation of New York during the American Revolution, many of the city’s Jews are not in the city to celebrate Sukkoth having fled because they support independence and are considered to be rebels.

1791(29th of Elul, 5551): Erev Rosh Hashanah

1791: France became the first country in Europe to emancipate its entire Jewish population

1795(15th of Tishrei, 5556): As the French battle the European monarchies to save their revolution Jews observe Sukkoth

1797: Date on the will of Israel Abbady, the former chazzan from Barbados, a copy of which can be found in the American Jewish Archives in Cincinnati, Ohio.

1810(29th of Elul, 5570): Erev Rosh Hashanah

1810(29th of Elul, 5570): Abraham Goldsmid passed away.  Born in Holland in or around 1756, he went to England with his father where he joined his brother Benjamin in a series of financial transaction that led to the creating of the banking house Baring Goldsmid. He lost his fortune in currency manipulation involving the East India Company.

1812(22nd of Tishrei, 5573, Shemini Atzeret

1823: Pope Leo XII was chosen to lead the Catholic Church.  Leo was a reactionary seeking to do away with the lingering effects of the French Revolution and the wave of liberalism that it had unleashed.  He did pass harsh laws aimed that made life in the ghetto even more miserable for the Jews than it had been.  But he also attacked other forces that he connected with heresy, modernity or any deviation from accepted conservative Catholic doctrine.  According to some commentators, his death was not an overly mourned event in the Christian world.

1823: Birthdate of French Painter Alexandre Cabanel who instructed Jewish artist Solomon Joseph Solomon.

1824: At Great Yarmouth Elizabeth Turner and historian Sir Francis Palgrave (Francis Ephraim Cohen) gave birth to their first son, poet and critic, Francis Turner Palgrave.

1827: In Brandenburg, Prussia, Abraham and Sophia Blumenberg gave birth to their 21st child Leopold Blumenberg the decorated Prussian military officer who settled in 1854 settled in Baltimore, MD where he would organize the Fifth Maryland Infantry Regiment for the Union Army  and climax his military career at the Battle of Antietam where as a Colonel leading his regiment he was severely wounded by a Rebel sharpshooter.

1839(20th of Tishrei, 5600): Shabbat Chol Ha Moed Sukkoth

1839(20th of Tishrei, 5600):  Manis (Morris) Jacobs passed away.  Born in 1782 at Amsterdam he made his to New Orleans where he as the founder and first President of Congregation Shanagarai Chesed.  Although he did not have smicha, he also served as the congregation’s first “rabbi."

1840(1st of Tishrei, 5601): Rosh Hashanah

1840: Services were held for the first time in Woolwich, UK at the house of Mrs. Myer.

1840: Birthdate Karl Bettelheim, the Hungarian born Austrian born physician whose area of expertise was “the pathology of the heart and blood vessels.”

1841: Birthdate of French statesman Georges Clemenceau.  The world remembers him as the Tiger who served as Prime Minister of France in the last years of World War I, providing the French with the will to fight on against the Germans.  Along with Britain’s Lloyd George and America’s Woodrow Wilson, he dictated the terms of the Versailles Treaty.  But Jews remember him as a defender of Alfred Dreyfus when the Jewish Colonel and the Jews of France stood charges as traitors.

1844(15th of Tishrei, 5605): Sukkoth

1848(1st of Tishrei, 5609): Rosh Hashanah is observed for the first time after the signing of The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo which ended the Mexican-American War.

1850: The United States Navy abolished flogging as a form of punishment.  One of America's early Jewish naval officers played a key role in this change.  Uriah Phillips Levy had abolished flogging aboard his ship back in the 1830's, an action that led to his court martial.  However, the decision was overturned by President Tyler and he was reinstated.  Levy commanded the Mediterranean Squadron of the U.S. Navy and reached the rank of Commodore (in the old Navy, this was rank just below Admiral).  Levy passed away in 1862.  He was an in awe of President Jefferson.  Monticello, Jefferson's home, had been sold to pay off his debts.  Levy purchased the home with intent of restoring it as shrine to Jefferson.  The Levy family maintained Monticello until it was turned over the Jefferson Memorial Associate in the 1920's.

1850(22nd of Tishrei, 5611): Shemini Atzeret

1851: Hermann de Stern, a Portuguese baron and banker and the head of Stern Bros., of London, Paris and Belgium, and Julia Goldsmid gave birth to Herbert Stern, 1st Baron Michelham

1854: In Eschau, Bavaria, Simon Michael and Sarah Ottenheimer gave birth to Elias Michael, the husband of Rachel Stix, the vice president of Rice-Stix Dry Goods Company, the St. Louis, MO Company founded by William Stix which by the time of the “1904 World’s Fair would be the city’s largest business.”

1857(10th of Tishrei, 5618): Yom Kippur;

1857: New York Times reported today on the observance of Yom Kippur saying that, “the custom among the Jews” is to meet together, “confessing with penitence their transgressions, fasting for many hours and refraining from all manual labor…Today is also the day of reconciliation…between those whom occasion of ill-filling may have arisng during the year and of the renewing of fraternal relations.”  The observance will last all day until the “first three stars of evening show themselves” at which time the fasting comes to an end “and the reign of feasting and rejoicing” follows.

1858: An article published today entitled “Charge of Bigamy” reported that a 30 year old Hebrew named Samuel Morris has been arrested on charges of “stealing wearing apparel from the boarding houses of Mrs. Schrimer and Mrs. Wardell. He had lived at both of these locations and his wife was found wearing a silk vest which was part of the stolen property. Mr. Morris may also be guilty of bigamy.

1858: The "Personals" column published today reported that the Jews of Boston have adopted a series of resolutions thanking Parliament for the admission of Mr. Rothschild.

1860: “On Visiting Barnum’s Little Theatre” published today shows the impact of the Bible on popular American culture as it reported that “the earliest dramatic efforts of the middle ages, which were always taken from Scriptural subjects, not unnaturally passes across the mind, as the title of the piece to be represented is announced, -- "Joseph and his brethren." A portion of the Scripture narrative is mingled with the numerous other events which succeed each other with startling rapidity, and are purely imaginative. There are Babylonians -- including the King -- by the score among the dramatis personae, and a corresponding number of Jews and Egyptians. The piece is placed on the stage in a gorgeous manner, and evidently gratifies, not only the children, but the parents also.”

1862(4th of Tishrei, 5623): Tzom Gedaliah

1863(15th of Tishrei, 5624): As Union forces regroup after the Battle of Chickamauga Jews observe Sukkoth

1867:  Toronto became the capital of Canada.  At this time Toronto had a Jewish population of about 200 people.  The community supported one synagogue called Toronto Hebrew Congregation-Holy Blossom Temple. Holy Blossom was Orthodox but would later join the Reform movement. The Jewish community has grown to over 150,000 and, along with Montreal, is one of the two leading centers for Jewish life in Canada.

1868: In Staufen Leopold and Louise Kahn gave birth to Baruch Kahn

1869(23rd of Tishrei, 5630): Jews celebrated Simchat Torah for the first time during the Presidency of U.S. Grant

1870(3rd of Tishrei, 5631): Tzom Gedaliah

1870: In Novaya Michailovka, Russia, Yitzchak and Beyla Shapira gave birth Avraham Shaipria, “the legendary pioneer shomer of Petach Tikva.

1873: Establishment of Temple B'nai Jeshurun. It is the oldest of Des Moines' synagogues. Many members of this congregation are buried in Des Moines' oldest Jewish cemetery, Emanuel Jewish.

1873: In Michigan, Congregation Beth El officially affiliated with the Union of American Hebrew Congregations

1874(17th of Tishrei, 5635): Third Day of Sukkoth

1874: “Feast of Tabernacles” published today described the observances on the second day of Sukkoth, including the fact that the Reform only observe the first and last days of the festival while the Orthodox observe the second day in the same manner as the first day. According to the story, the entire service was “conducted in accordance with the command found in the 23rd chapter of Leviticus.  The congregants were dressed in white, recited the Hallel and waved the branches of palm, myrtle and willow as well as the citron.

1876(10th of Tishrei, 5637): Yom Kippur

1877:  Reverend T. De Witt Talmage delivered a lecture in the Brooklyn Tabernacle entitled “The Admission of Jews Into Gentile Society” and “the Death of the Mormon.”  He began by discussing the tempest created last summer by the Jewish being banned from one of the leading hotels.  He presented an argument that Gentiles were no better than Jews and Jews were no better than Gentiles.  The decision to ban the Jews was based on business and should be left to stand as a business matter.  He then went on to condemn Brigham Young and the Mormons.

1877(21st of Tishrei, 5638): Hoshana Rabah

1877: Today was market day in Bayard Street in NYC.  Reportedly, throngs of Polish Jews were busy buying geese and chickens from one of a multiplicity of buildings that have signs saying “Kosher” their windows.

1878(1st of Tishrei, 5639): Rosh Hashanah

1878: Four thousand worshippers attended services today Temple Emanu-El on New York’s Fifth Avenue.  Rabbi Gustav Gottheil led the service and delivered a sermon in English.  The sermon was based on a verse from Genesis, “So he sent his brethren away, and they departed, and he said unto them, see that you fall not by the wayside.” Professor Davis served as organist as well as music director for the service.

1878: It was reported today that several agencies in New Orleans were soliciting funds to aid those suffering from Yellow Fever including the Hebrew Benevolent Association.

1880(23rd of Tishrei, 5641): For the last time Jews celebrate Simchat Torah under President Hays.

1881: Forty-eight Jews who had arrived at Castle Garden yesterday will be sent to Chicago and Toledo today by a recently formed committee of New York Jews that is charged with meeting their initial needs in the United States.  The group includes ten families and most of the workers are tailors and farmers. 

1882(15th of Tishrei): Sukkoth

1884(9th of Tishrei, 5645): Erev Yom Kippur

1884: It was reported today that Austrian Emperor is prepared to raise Herr Hirsch, the Chief Rabbi of Prague “to noble rank.”

1884: The case of Abraham Jacobs and Jacob Jacobs, two Jews who had charged each other with assault was heard at the Tombs Police Court today.  Since there were no other witnesses and each person’s story had equal weight, charges were dismissed.

1887(10th of Tishrei, 5648): Yom Kippur

1888(23rd of Tishrei, 5649): Simchat Torah

1889: Birthdate of Berlin native Hans Behrendt, “the actor, screenwriter and director” who was murdered at Auschwitz in 1942.

1890(14th of Tishrei, 5651): Erev Sukkoth

1890: Rabbi Gustav Gottheil led services this evening at Temple Emanu-El  where “the pulpit was festooned with garlands of flowers and decorated with fruits and blossoming plants” that included a “majestic palm…a myrtle and a willow.”

1891: Minister Smith leaves for St. Petersburg where he will present President Harrison’s concern about Russian treatment of their Jewish population. This represents a reversal of the behavior of American officials posted to the Czar’s government. Secretary of the Legation Wurtz has exerted pressure against any move to improve the conditions of Russian Jews and “other oppressed classes with whom the great-hearted American people really sympathize.

1891: Jewish Emancipation Day, marking the 100th anniversary of the National Assembly’s vote to grant full citizenship to the Jews of France, was celebrated with an afternoon and evening of merriment at Sulzer’s Harlem River Park.

1892: The annual reported of the Trustees of the Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews, a summary of which was published today showed there are 160 people living at the facility and that the death rate during the past year “was the lowest in the history of the institution.”

1892: In Russia, The May Laws were amended so that Jews having the “right of residence might rent rooms or might build houses of their own on land leased for the purpose.”

1892: Judge Henry M. Goldfogle chaired tonight’s meeting of those interested in providing assistance to those who suffered losses during the Ludlow Street Fire and $300 was raised with more help promised by Jacob H. Schiff and the United Hebrew Charities.

1893: Mrs. Annie Bauman came to post bail for Max Kestenbaum and Ernest Sachs, her confederates in a scheme to swindle her husband Jacob Baumann the superintendent of the Engle, Heller & Co, a wholesale liquor businesses.

1895(10th of Tishrei, 5656): Yom Kippur

1895: Communicants and Voters” published today provides a snapshot of religious affiliations in the United States where there are twenty million “church communicants” of whom 130,313 are Jews placing them second  from last on the tally followed only by the Friends (Quakers) with 107, 208

1897(2nd of Tishrei, 5658): 2nd day of Rosh Hashanah

1897: The Philadelphia Inquirer described the observance of Rosh Hashanah in Camden, NJ where the Jews held services in Furey’s Hall at the corner of Fourth Street and Kaighn Avenue.

1899: Seventy-seven year old Isaac Bierman who is the Director of the Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews and his wife celebrated their golden wedding anniversary today.

1899: Birthdate of Boris Yefimov, a Russian cartoonist who would “despised by Hitler and beloved by Stalin” and “who for 70 years and 70,000 drawings” would wield “his talent as a keen sword to advance the goals of his country.”

1901(15th of Tishrei, 5662): Sukkoth

1901:  Birthdate of William S. Paley.  Paley took control of the fledging CBS radio network in the 1920's.  He would make it a competitor of the dominant NBC before shifting CBS to television where it would be the dominant network for several decades.  Under Paley, CBS represented the gamut of American culture from the lowbrow of I Love Lucy to the highbrow of Edward R. Murrow.  One thing that it never did was become a Jewish media outlet, despite what anti-Semitic critics might have said.

1902(26 of Elul, 5662): Sixty-eight year old Barend Joseph Stokvis, “the professor pharmacodynamics and internal medicine” passed away today. (See Jews and Medicine by Frank Henick)

1902: Sir Elly Kadoorie and his wife gave birth industrialist and philanthropist Sir Horace Kadoorie, the brother of Sir Lawrence Kadoorie and the nephew of Sir Ellis Kadoorie.

1903(7th of Tishrei, 5664): Seventy-six year old Italian patriot Enrico Guastalla who fought with Garibaldi during the wars that created the modern Italian nation passed away today at Milan.

1904(19th of Tishrei, 5665): Chol Ha Moed Sukkoth

1904(19th of Tishrei, 5665): Eighty-two year old Dr. Phineas J. Horowitz who served as Chief of the Navy Bureau of Medicine passed away today

1905: “Jacob Litt Is Dead” published today included a description of Litt’s rise from program boy at the Grand Opera House in Milwaukee to successful New York theatrical manager whose estate is estimated to be worth more than a million dollars.

1906(9th of Tishrei, 5667): Erev Yom Kippur

1907: In Chevreuse, Ile-de-France, France, Leopold and Lena Pilichowski gave birth to Thea Ursula Doniach and Amnon Vivien Pilley

1907: “A group of Poalei Zion members gathered at Yitzhak Ben-Zvi's unfurnished apartment in Jaffa apartment formed Bar-Giora, a Jewish self-defense organization named for Simon Bar Giora, one of the leaders of the Jewish Revolt against the Romans. The founding members were Israel Shochat, Yitzhak Ben-Zvi, Mendel Portugali, Israel Giladi, Alexander Zaid, Yehezkel Hankin, Yehezkel Nissanov and Moshe Givoni. The goal of the organization was settling the land and guarding it from Arab attackers. Previously, Arab guards had been hired for protection. Many Jews refused to employ members of Bar- Giora fearing it would cause more friction with the local Arabs.. Bar-Giora chose a line from Yaakov Cohen's poem, Habiryonim as its motto.  "In fire and blood did Judea fall; in blood and fire Judea shall rise." This was one of the mottos of the Jewish defenders during the pogroms in the Russian Empire. Members swore an oath of secrecy, discipline, selfless service, devotion to the cause and loyalty. All decisions had to be ratified by unanimous vote. All members were required to have least a year's experience in farming. Guarding was put off until the members of the organization had gained enough experience and knowledge of the land. When Hashomer was formed in 1909, Bar-Giora was absorbed into it

1909:  Birthdate of Al Capp.  Born in New Haven, Connecticut, the cartoonist gained fame with the creation of "Li'l Abner."  Among the creatures that inhabited the world of Li'l Abner were the Shmoos, little ghost like creatures that when cooked, tasted like any food you would desire.  Many said that the concept reminded them of the Biblical manna. 

1912: In Washington, DC, the Fifteenth International Congress of Hygiene and Demography which Henry Adler of Dallas, TX,  Max Goltman of Memphis, TN, Nathan Straus of NY and J.G. Lipman, a Professor at Rutgers were attending as official delegates came to an end.

1912(18th of Tishrei, 5673): Mrs. Elka Kahn passed away today.

1913: Birthdate of psychoanalyst Albert Ellis a founder of the now widely practiced cognitive behavioral therapy.  His blunt advice to patients included “forget god-awful pasts, face fears and change actions.  He passed away on July 24, 2007 at the age of 93.

1914: Seventy-five Jewish refugees arrived in Philadelphia “from the European war zone” and were taken to the Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society headquarters at 299 Broadway.

1914: “Answers Jewish Protest” published today provides Postmaster Morgan’s reply to a letter from the East Side Protective Association “protesting against the sub-clerks and sub-carriers of Jewish parentage being forced to work on Yom Kippur” in which he says he is following the same policy as in the past i.e. leave without pay will be granted to those whom apply except in cases where the demand of the workload requires their presence in which case failure to report as requested “will be regarded as insubordination and dealt with as such.”

1914: “Hebrew Federation Officers” published today included a list of those elected to lead the New Jersey Federal of Young Men’s and Young Women’s Hebrew Associations

1915: Birthdate of Ethel Rosenberg.  She would join her husband Julius as part of America’s most famous husband and wife spy team.  They would both be executed in 1953.

1915: It was reported today that Louis D. Brandeis was opposed to the conference proposed by the American Jewish Committee which is to be held on October 24 saying that it “would not only be futile but dangerous” because “its deliberations would secret” so any decision “would lack the united support of the Jews” of the United States.

1916(1st of Tishrei, 5677): As Americans debated the question of whether or not the United States should enter the World War, Jews observed Rosh Hashanah

1916: At Temple Israel, “Rabbi M. H. Harris spoke on ‘War and Life’ and urged that” the United States “should become militant only for peace.

1916: At Temple Beth-El, “Rabbi Samuel Schulman urged the Jews to agree among themselves as to what they wanted before making demands upon other nations” during his sermon on “The Problem of the Jew is the Problem of the World.”

1916: Birthdate of Yizhar Smilansky who was better known by his pen name Samech  Yizhar He  was an Israeli writer and a great innovator in modern Hebrew literature. His pen name S. Yizhar was given to him by the poet and editor Yitzhak Lamdan, when in 1938 he published Yizhar's first story “Ephraim Goes Back to Alfalfa” in his literary journal Galleons. From then on, Yizhar signed his works with his pen name. He passed away in 2006.

1917: In Warsaw, “the third Delegates’ Conference of the Zionist Organization of Poland adopted a resolution favoring the recognition by the forthcoming International Conference of the right of Jews to create a Jewish national center in Palestine and” for Jews to enjoy “national autonomy in countries where they live in great numbers.”

1917: In Odessa, female Jewish workers “employed at the post and telegraph offices resigned in protest again the antagonistic attitude of their colleagues.”

1917: In Fastov, Russia, accusations of the Blood Libel were revived when a Jewish shop keeper detained “a peasant woman on charges of theft.”

1918(22nd of Tishrei, 5679): Shemini Atzeret

1918(22nd of Tishrei, 5679): Keni Liptzin, star of the Yiddish Theatre who was most famous for playing the lead roles in two Jacob Gordin plays, Di shkhite and Mirele Efros, the former an attack on arranged marriage, the latter a story about an embittered matriarch who is finally reconciled again to her family, passed away today in New York

1918: As forces under Allenby continued to fight their through Palestine Ottoman forces surrendered to the Anzac Mounted Division today “rather than risk slaughter by Arab irregulars.”

1918: Birthdate of comedian and comedic actor Arnold Stang. Stang gained early fame on the Milton Berle Show.  His voice would become famous to later television generations in several animated series.

1919: The Omaha Race Riot began today; an event for which the Omaha Bee, owned by Victor Rosewater, played a role because of its previous “sensationalized” reporting about attacks by black men

1919: In London, consecration of the Artillery Lane Synagogue.

1919: In Glasgow, “consecration of the new home of the Gertrude Jacobson Orphange.

1919: Opening of the Jewish Hospital in London.

1919: Birthdate of Prague native and jazz musician Fritz Weiss who would be forced to perform by the Nazis at  the Theresienstadt concentration camp before being murdered at Auschwitz.

1920: Funeral services for Jacob Schiff are scheduled to be held at 10 o’clock this morning at Temple Emanu-el

1923: Birthdate of Naphtali Kupferberg who would gain fame as Tuli Kupferberg, a poet and singer who went from being a noted Beat to becoming, in his words, “the world’s oldest rock star” when he helped found the Fugs,

1924(29th of Elul, 5684): Erev Rosh Hashanah

1924: Birthdate of Yekutiel (Kuty or Sulic) Sapir, the Ukrainian native married to Mina Arison Sapir the mother of Micky and Shari Arison.

1924: Birthdate of Rudolf Barshai, an orchestral conductor who built a prominent career in the West after defecting from the Soviet Union in the 1970s.

1925(10th of Tishrei, 5686): Yom Kippur

1926: Birthdate of Mordechai “Mottie” Hod, the sabra from Degania who commanded the Israeli Air Force during the Six Day War in 1967.  If you did not know he was a real person you would have thought he was created Ian Fleming or Tom Clancy.

1927(2nd of Tishrei, 5688): Rosh Hashanah II

1929: Birthdate of General Mordechai “Mottie’ Hod, the commander of the Israeli Air Force during the Six Day War.

1928: Shortstop Jonah Goldman made his major league debut with the Cleveland Indians.

1930: “Soup to Nuts” a comedy written by Rube Goldberg, starring the comic trio that would become known as “The Three Stooges” was released today in the United States today by Fox Film Corporation.

1930(6th of Tishrei, 5691): Seventy-four year old Daniel Guggenheim passed away today

1931: “Who Take Love Seriously,” “a German romantic comedy with a script by Henry Koster and co-starring Otto Wallburg the WW I veteran who won the Iron Cross and who would be murdered at Auschwitz was released today in Germany.

1931: “The House of Connelly” starring Stella Adler, J. Edward Bromberg and Clifford Odets which was staged by Lee Strasberg opened at the Martin Beck Theatre.

1932: Birthdate of Sir Jeremy Issacs, the cousin of virologist Alick Isaacs, was a successful British television producer as well General Director of the Royal Opera House at Covent Garden.

1933: Birthdate of Madeleine May Kunin, a Swiss born American diplomat and politician. She was the Governor of Vermont from 1985 until 1991. She also served as United States Ambassador to Switzerland from 1996 to 1999. She was Vermont's first female governor as well as the first Jewish governor of Vermont. She was also the first Jewish woman to be elected governor of a U.S. state.

1935(1st of Tishrei, 5696): Rosh Hashanah

1935: The second Broadway run of “Awake and Sing” a play by Clifford Odets, directed by Harold Clurman with a cast that included Luther Adler, Stella Adler, Morris Carnovsky, John Garfield and Sanford Meisner came to an end today.

1937: Mussolini and Hitler gave speeches in front of 1,000,000 people in Berlin  Italians would later try and portray themselves as victims after they had switched sides during World War II.  The reality is that the Axis Alliance was seen by Hitler as a valuable tool in his plan to create a Third Reich that would be Jew-free.

1937(23rd of Tishrei, 5698): Simchat Torah

1937: It was reported today that John M. Schiff, the grandson of the late Jacob M. Schiff, will head the campaign to raise $250,000 for The Henry Street visiting Nurse Service.  Schiff is a partner in Kuhn, Loeb & Co.

1938: The Munich Conference is attended by French Premier Edouard Daladier, British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain, Italian dictator Benito Mussolini, and Hitler. Climaxing the Allies' appeasement policy, France and Great Britain permit Germany to illegally annex the Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia. Most of Europe breathes a sigh of relief because war is averted. Daladier, observing the huge crowds awaiting him at the Orly airport near Paris, fears that they will tear him apart for betraying France's Czech ally. After he lands, he is relieved when his people throw roses at him.

1938: The Czech representatives to the conference, who had been forced to wait helplessly in the corridor outside the conference hall, break down into sobs after hearing the news of the Allied concessions to Germany. Also at the conference, Chamberlain signs a Friendship Treaty with Germany without informing his French ally. Arriving home, he triumphantly holds this scrap of paper up to the crowd that surrounds his airplane and promises "peace in our time."

1939: Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned Poland. The result was a sudden mass expulsion of Jews during which thousands were robbed and hundreds murdered.

1939: In a cynical attempt to consolidate their partition of Poland and give France and Britain a chance to return to their previous policy of appeasement, Germany and the Soviet Union issued a statement saying that now that they have settled “the problems arising from the collapse of the Polish state” “it would serve the true interest of all peoples to put an end to the state of war existing at present between Germany and England and France.”

1939: The Nazis turned Przemsyl over to the Soviets after they had murdered 600 Jews living there.

1939: Warsaw surrenders to Nazi Germany during World War II.  The Holocaust comes to the Polish capital.  In the meantime, the French army, which could have attacked Germany on its western border thus providing real help to the Poles, remained, for all intents and purposes, inactive.

1939: The SS selects the start of the weeklong Jewish festival of Sukkoth to forcibly deport more than 8000 Jews from Pultusk, Poland.

1939(15th of Tishrei, 5700): Sukkoth

1941(7th of Tishrei, 5702): The Massacre at Kamenets-Podolsk, in the Ukraine continued for its second and final day during which 23,000 Jews were killed.

1942(17th of Tishrei, 5703): In another example of the mindless cruelty of the Nazis, 76 year old chemist Wilhelm Traube the great-grandson of a rabbi who actually was a member of the “Evangelical Church of the Old Prussian Union” died in a Berlin prison today

1942: In Breda Dutch chess player Salo (Salomon) Landau and his family were captured today as they tried to escape to Switzerland and were shipped to two different concentration camps.

1942: The Nazis activated a new train schedule that included the following daily direct transports: one train a day from Radom to Treblinka, one train a day from Cracow to Belzec, and one train a day would go from Lvov to Belzec. Each train would consist of 50 cars and carry 2,000 Jews. By November two more direct connections would be established: Lublin to Sobibor and Chlemno to Sobibor.

1943: After secretly making sure Sweden would receive Jewish refugees, Georg Ferdinand Duckwitz, a German diplomat, leaked word of the plans for the operation against Denmark's Jews to Hans Hedtoft, chairman of the Danish Social Democratic Party. Hedtoft contacted the Danish Resistance Movement and the head of the Jewish community, C.B. Henriques, who in turn alerted the acting chief rabbi, Dr. Marcus Melchior.

1943(28th of Elul, 5703): Todays marks the two-day slaughter of the Jews from the community from Split, Yugoslavia, the concentration camp in Sajmiste, Yugoslavia,.

1943: Over a forty-eight hour period Roman Jews deliver 50 kilograms of gold to the Gestapo in Rome, as ordered. Pope Pius XII had offered to lend the Italian Jews 15 kilograms of gold if they could not collect the full amount themselves. In the end, it does not matter.  The Germans lied, taking the gold and the Jews. 

1943: A convoy of taxis and private cars pulled up to the Gestapo headquarters in Rome carrying the ransom of fifty kilograms in gold which was the payment demanded to avoid the deportation of two hundred Jews.

1943: The Last Nazi "Action taken" took place in Amsterdam. Two thousand Jews were deported.  This meant that almost 110,000 Jews, which was 95% of Holland's former Jewish population, would not survive the war.

1944(11th of Tishrei, 5705): Boys deemed too short by Auschwitz's Dr. Josef Mengele are gassed.

1944: After a four month hiatus, the Nazis resume deportations from Theresienstadt, to Auschwitz. Among the 2499 prisoners deported on this day is teenager Petr Ginz, a Czech of Jewish background who was the guiding light behind Vedem (In the Lead), a secret "magazine" created and distributed throughout Theresienstadt. More than 1000 of these 2499 prisoners are gassed immediately.

1944(11th of Tishrei, 5705): One thousand of the 2,499 Jews sent to Birkenau from Theresienstadt were gassed.

1944: On his twenty-fifth birth jazz musician Fritz Weiss whose Ghetto Swingers were forced to appear in “the propaganda movie The Fuhrer Gives a City to the Jews” was murdered today at Auschwitz.

1944: German forces defeat British airborne troops at the Battle of Arnhem in the Netherlands.   This marked the end of Operation Market Garden, Field Marshall Montgomery’s poorly planned, poorly executed “plan” to defeat Germany with a single “masterstroke.”  This ego-manical mission meant fuel and supplies were defeated from Patton’s hard charging Third Army and that the war would be prolonged which of course meant more Jews perishing in the Holocaust.

1944: Soviet troops liberate Klooga Concentration in Kalooga, Estonia.

1945(21st of Tishrei, 5706): Hoshana Raba observed for the first time since the end of WW II.

1946(3rd of Tishrei, 5707): Shabbat Shuva

1946: “Cloak and Dagger” a WW II thriller with a script co-authored by Albert Maltz, with music by Max Steiner and co-starring Lili Palmer (Lili Marie Peiser) was released today in the United States by Warner Brothers.

1946: Birthdate of rock star Helen Shapiro. Born in the East End of London she was the granddaughter of Polish Jewish immigrants and the daughter piece-workers in the garment industry.

1947: Dora Meyerhardt was buried today in Jefferson City, MO.

1947: HUAC subpoenaed 24 "friendly" (some had previously testified during HUAC's closed sessions in L.A.) and 19 "unfriendly" witnesses (mostly Jewish), summoning them to Washington. The self-styled hunt for Communist, as can be seen from HUAC’s activities took a definite anti-Semitic tinge.

1950: Too late for the opening ceremonies, but just in time for the start of the first day’s athletic competition, thirteen athletes and four officials fly in from the Netherlands to compete in the Maccabiah.

1950: Jewish athletes from around the world begin playing in the elimination rounds for soccer, tennis and basketball as the Maccabiah games get under way in stadiums in nine Israeli cities including Tel Aviv, Jerusalem, Rehovoth and Petah Tikva.

1950: The movie version of “The Glass Menagerie” directed by Irving Rapper, produced by Jerry Wald, with music by Max Steiner and starring Max Steiner was released in the United States today.

1951:Israel's waterfront, its only border now open to the rest of the world, is being rapidly improved to handle its increased shipping activity and expanding young merchant marine, Raphael Recanati, general manager here of the Israel-America Line,” said here today.  Mr. Recanati spoke glowingly of the improvements that have been made at the Port of Haifa and plans to improve conditions at the underutilized facilities at Tel Aviv.  He also reported that the Israel-America line will add another freighter to its fleet, bringing to eight, the number of vessels plying the waters between the east coast of the United and the ports of Haifa and Tel Aviv.

1952(9th of Tishrei, 5713): As the war drags on, the haunting tones of Kol Nidre take on an especially haunting sound for American GI’s in Korea.

1952: Nineteen year old Susan Sontag and Philip Reif, the author of Freud: The Mind of the Moralist gave birth to “Princeton grad and Senior Editor at Farrar. Straus and Giroux” David Rieff.

1954(1st of Tishrei, 5715): Rosh Hashanah

1954(1st of Tishrei, 5715): Eighty-two year old Eva Drux, the widow of Solomon “Sol” Peyser and the mother of Philip Sylvan Peyser and Theodore Dux “Ted” Peyser passed away today after which she buried in the Hebrew Cemetery in Washington, DC.

1954: Birthdate of Jerry Stahl, author of Permanent Midnight, which was made into a movie starring Ben Stiller.

1956(23rd of Tishrei, 5717): Simchat Torah

1956: An Israeli delegation headed by Golda Meir that included Moshe Dayan, Moshe Carmel and Shimon Peres left Lod airport for a secret trip to Paris, the purpose of which was to explore the possibility of coordinating an attack on Egypt,

1957(3rd of Tishrei, 5718): Shabbat Shuva

1959: In what is turning out to be a season for baseball miracles, Larry Sherry pitches the Dodgers past the Braves to take a one game lead in the National League playoff.  Another victory will mean the Dodgers will make it to the World Series after having finished in 7th place in 1958.

1960: Warner Brothers released Dore Schary’s “Sunrise at Campobello”

1963:  Whaam!, now considered Roy Lichtenstein's most important work, debuted at an exhibition held at the Leo Castelli Gallery that lasted until at October 24.

1964(22nd of Tishrei, 5725): Shmini Atzeret

1964(22nd of Tishrei, 5725): Harpo Marx passed away at the age of 75. One of the famed Marx Brothers, Harpo was the one who did not speak.

1968: “After a run of 286 sparsely attended performances,”  the curtain came down  on the original Broadway production of “Happy Time” a musical with a book by N. Richard Nash (Nathan Richard Nusbaum) that won three Tony Awards.

1970:  Gamal Abdel Nasser, President of Egypt died.  Nasser had come to power as a reformer in the 1950's.  The Israelis had hoped that Nasser would make peace with the Jewish state.  However, Nasser saw himself as Pan Arab leader who would unite the Arabs/Moslems in one unified entity from Morocco to Indonesia while driving the Western Imperialists from this domain. (Yes, Osama is not the first person to have this idea.) Nasser was committed to the destruction of Israel. He did not hate the West because of Israel.  As he said, he hated Israel because it was of the West.  Nasser was replaced by Sadat who made history with his trip to Jerusalem and the Camp David Accords.

1971: “The Last Movie” with a script by Stewart Stern and co-starring Henry Jaglom was released in the United States today by Universal Pictures.

1973: In St. Johnsbury, VT, Congregation Beth-El celebrated the Bat Mitzvah of Amy Aronoff, daughter of Gene and Sheila.  It was the first Bat Mitzvah to be held at the temple.

1973: Three Jewish immigrants from Russia were taken hostage while traveling on a train heading to Vienna after which they would be released when the Austrian Government promised to close the transit camp at Schonau for Russian immigrants en route to Israel. (“The 2 Palestinian terrorists arrested by the Austrians were released and flown to an Arab country.”)

1974: “Steam Heat” “show tune from the 1954 Broadway musical ‘The Pajama Game,’ written by Richard Adler and Jerry Ross was performed by the Pointer Sisters tonight on prime time television because it had become their signature song.

1975(23rd of Tishrei, 5736): Simchat Torah

1975: “Jewish activists in Kiev were not allowed to attend the Babi Yar commemoration ceremony on the 34th anniversary of the Nazi massacre of Jews

1975:  Birthdate of Ukrainian born, American gold medal winning swimmer, Lenny Krayzelburg.

1976: “One Day At A Time” starring Bonnie Franklin began its second season.

1978: The Israeli Knesset endorsed Camp David Accord moving Egypt and Israel one step closer to a peace treaty that has held for over a quarter of a century.

1981: In St. Johnsbury, Vermont, Congregation Beth-El, held its first services in its new building.

1982: Today the Israeli government established the Kahan Commission which “four months later found Israel to be indirectly responsible for the massacres, and recommended Ariel Sharon's resignation.”

1982(11th of Tishrei, 5743): Eighty-one year old actress Mabel Albertson the older sister of actor Jack Albertson who may be best known for playing “the interfering mother” on the sitcom “Bewitched” passed away today.

1983: U.S. premiere of “The Big Chill” directed by Lawrence Kasdan who co-authored the script.

1984(2nd of Tishrei, 5745): Second Day of Rosh Hashanah

1984: “The Wild Life” a comedy co-starring Rick Moranis was released today in the United States by Universal Pictures.

1984: “Incredible Differences” a comedy produced by Nancy Meyers who co-authored the script and co-starring Allen Garfield was released today in the United States by Warner Bros.

1985(13th of Tishrei, 5746): Ninety-one year old Hungarian born American photographer Andre Kertesz passed away today. (As reported by John Durniak)

1986: “What Strangers? What Gates?” published today provides Roland Sanders description of current conditions between Israelis and Arabs.

1988: The funeral of Paul Cowan is scheduled to take place today at 9 A.M. at Ansche Chesed synagogue, at West End Avenue and 100th Street.

1990: U.S. premiere of “Pacific Heights” directed by John Schlesinger.

1992(1st of Tishrei, 5753): The Orthodox synagogue in Little Rock, AR is filled with a throng of extra attendees – Jewish Clinton campaign workers celebrating Rosh Hashanah

1993: Outfielder Shawn Green made his major league debut with the Toronto Blue Jays.

1994(23rd of Tishrei, 5755): Simchat Torah

1995: In “Negotiators, Arab and Israeli, Built Friendship From Mistrust” published today Serge Schmemann reported from Jerusalem today that  “There was a moment in the final, crisis-ridden hours of the negotiations on the West Bank that brought home to the heads of both the Israeli and the Arab teams what they had really achieved in their long months together.”

1997: In a review entitled “The Return of the Schlemiel,” William Goodman examines The Complete Stories by Bernard Malamud whose “magic barrel overflows with schnorrers and schleppers, hustlers and gulls, down-at-the-heel rabbis and down-in the mouth students…”

1997: The New York Times book section included reviews by Jewish authors and/or about topics of Jewish interest including Kirk Douglas's Climbing the Mountain: My Search for Meaning'  an extension of his 1988 best-selling autobiography, The Ragman's Son

2000: Ariel Sharon and an escort of over 1,000 Israeli police officers visited the Temple Mount complex, site of the Dome of the Rock and al-Aqsa Mosque, the holiest place in the world to Jews and the third holiest site in Islam

2000: In “At Home With Mel and Patricia Ziegler” Peter Hellman described the latest business for the founders of the Banana Republic.

2000: Al Aqsa Intifada began.  While there are those who claim that the violence was a spontaneous response of Ariel Sharon to the Temple Mount, the reality differs from what might politely be called an Urban Myth.  The Al Aqsa Intifada was the orchestrated response of Arafat to the Camp David proposals of Ehud Barak and backed by President Clinton.  Arab history is replete with using violence as a response to diplomatic negotiations.

2001: “Zoolander” a comedy produced by Scott Rudin and co-starring Jerry Stiller was released today in the United States by Paramount Pictures.

2003(2nd of Tishrei, 5764): Marshall N. Rosenbluth, a pioneer in unleashing and taming nuclear fusion, the force that powers the sun and stars, passed away at the age of 76.  A modest man whose insights were not as well-known as those of more flamboyant colleagues, Dr. Rosenbluth as a young man helped invent the hydrogen bomb, was exposed to radioactive fallout in a nuclear test and soon thereafter devoted himself to trying to harness thermonuclear fire for peaceful ends.  In 1997, he won the National Medal of Science, the nation's highest scientific honor, for contributions to nuclear fusion and plasma physics, the study of hot electrically charged gases like those in interstellar space and the atmospheres of stars.  Known as the dean of plasma physics, Dr. Rosenbluth was a world leader in trying to turn the hot plasmas of nuclear fusion into nearly limitless electrical power.  ''Marshall was a scientist of towering stature,'' said Dr. Marvin L. Goldberger, a former president of the California Institute of Technology and a former director of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, N.J.  A warm, friendly person who liked opera and sometimes smoked a pipe, Dr. Rosenbluth won many friends among the physicists who came to dominate the nation's scientific life in the atomic era and won respect from them for his keen intellect.   ''He was incredibly capable at analyzing problems and finding solutions to a great depth of understanding,'' said Richard L. Garwin, a physicist who worked with Dr. Rosenbluth on the hydrogen bomb.  Born in Albany, Marshall Nicholas Rosenbluth graduated from Harvard in 1946 and went to graduate school in physics at the University of Chicago, where many of his teachers had recently helped to invent the atomic bomb.  He liked to tell friends how Enrico Fermi and Edward Teller -- two stars of 20th-century physics -- got into an argument in 1949 while listening to him defend his doctoral thesis.  ''It went on and on,'' recalled Harold Agnew, then a graduate student at Chicago, who eventually directed the weapons laboratory at Los Alamos, N.M. ''Finally, Fermi turned to Edward and said, 'O.K., you pass.' And then he turned to Marshall, who was just 22, and said 'O.K., you pass, too.''' In 1950, Teller recruited Dr. Rosenbluth to join the Los Alamos National Laboratory, where the young scientist did secret research that helped create the hydrogen bomb. Dr. Teller, considered the father of the bomb, credited Dr. Rosenbluth with important details of its design. In 1952, preparing for the bomb's first explosive test, Dr. Rosenbluth went to the South Pacific. One night he ate too much shrimp and had trouble sleeping, as recounted in Richard Rhodes's 1995 book ''Dark Sun: The Making of the Hydrogen Bomb.'' Sleepless, Dr. Rosenbluth pondered the bomb's design and suddenly realized that the scientists had made a serious mistake that could result in a dud. The problem was soon acknowledged and fixed with a new explosive core. When detonated, the hydrogen bomb vaporized a mile-wide island with power 700 times as great as the atom bomb dropped on Hiroshima. In 1954, again in the South Pacific, Dr. Rosenbluth was aboard a Navy destroyer when a hydrogen bomb test turned out to be unexpectedly strong and showered his ship with radioactive fallout. ''It was pretty frightening,'' he recalled in Mr. Rhodes's book. ''There was a huge fireball with these turbulent rolls going in and out. The thing was glowing. It looked to me like a diseased brain up in the sky. It spread until the edge of it looked as if it was almost directly overhead. It was a much more awesome sight than a puny little atomic bomb. It was a pretty sobering and shattering experience.'' Around this time, Dr. Rosenbluth joined a small group of scientists who developed the Monte Carlo simulation, now a standard research tool in statistical mechanics, chemistry, biochemistry and other fields. It involves random sampling to simulate physical systems. Dr. Rosenbluth also turned his energies to the challenge of harnessing nuclear fusion for peaceful purposes. His dream was to find a way to compress fickle hot plasmas into stable configurations that generate excess power, a task that has been compared to using rubber bands to hold a blob of jelly. In 1956, he joined General Atomics, a San Diego company that sought to pioneer fusion energy. He also taught physics at the University of California at San Diego, joined the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton and directed the Institute for Fusion Studies at the University of Texas. He retired in 1993 as an emeritus professor of physics at San Diego. In the cold war, Dr. Rosenbluth advocated science exchanges with the Soviet Union. ''The more interaction there is, the less paranoia,'' he said in 1985. ''The Russians certainly have shown a good deal of that.'' More recently, he worked to foster international teamwork in fusion and physics research. He was a central figure in the International Center for Theoretical Physics in Trieste, Italy, and of the International Thermonuclear Reactor, a program to demonstrate the feasibility of using fusion to generate power. For more than half a century, Dr. Rosenbluth aided the federal government, serving on panels like Jason, which is composed of eminent scientists who advise security agencies on knotty scientific issues. He was a member of the National Academy of Sciences and received numerous awards, including the E. O. Lawrence Award, the Albert Einstein Award and the Enrico Fermi Award. With typical modesty, Dr. Rosenbluth made little fuss about his achievements on his faculty profile at San Diego. It was three sentences long. (As reported by William J. Broad)

2003(2nd of Tishrei, 5764): Second Day of Rosh Hashanah

2003: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or about topics of Jewish interest including Act of Creation: The Founding of the United Nations: A Story of Superpowers, Secret Agents, Wartime Allies and Enemies, and Their Quest for a Peaceful World by Stephen C. Schlesinger and Real Jews :Secular vs. Ultra-Orthodox and the Struggle for Jewish Identity in Israel by Noah J. Efron

2004: George Soros “dedicated more money to the campaign and kicked off his own multi-state tour with a speech: Why We Must Not Re-elect President Bush delivered at the National Press Club in Washington.”

2005(24th of Elul, 5765): Ninety-seven year old Leo Henryk Sternbach, the chemist who created Valium passed away today. (As reported by Jeremy Pearce)

2005:  The Jerusalem Post reported two major archeological finds.  First and foremost was a First-Temple period seal discovered amidst piles of rubble from Jerusalem's Temple Mount, The small - less than 1 cm - seal impression, or bulla, was discovered by Bar-Ilan University archaeologist Dr. Gabriel Barkay amidst piles of rubble from the Temple Mount This marks the first time that an written artifact was found from the Temple Mount dating back to the First Temple period. The 2,600 year old artifact, with three lines in ancient Hebrew, was discovered amidst piles of rubble discarded by the Islamic Wakf that Barkay and a team of young archaeologists and volunteers are sifting through on the grounds of a Jerusalem national park. The seal, which predates the destruction of the First Jewish temple in 586 BCE, was presented Tuesday night, September 27, to the press at an archaeological conference at the City of David sponsored by the right-wing Elad organization. Barkay said that the find was the first of its kind from the time of King David. He has not yet determined what the writing is on the seal, although three Hebrew letters -- thought to be the name of its owner -- are visible on one of its line.
The seal was found amidst thousands of tons of rubble discarded by Wakf officials at city garbage dumps six years ago, following the Islamic Trust's unilateral construction of an mosque at an underground compound of the Temple Mount known as the Solomon's Stables. Secondly, in a separate major archaeological development in Jerusalem, a Jewish ritual bath, or mikva, dating back to the Second Temple period, and a First Temple Wall have been found in an underground chamber adjacent to the Western Wall tunnels.  The announcement came from Jon, Seligman, Jerusalem regional archaeologist for the Antiquities Authority'.

2006: A state memorial ceremony is held at Babi Yar, near the Ukrainian capital of Kiev, where German and Ukrainian soldiers and policemen carried out the mass murder. The memorial is being held on the first day of what would be a two day massacre.  Only 10% of those who were murdered have been identified.  There has been a renewed effort in the past year to identify more of the victims.

2006: According to a report published today there has been a ten per cent increase in the numbers of Jewish students at Vanderbilt University. Four years after Chancellor Gordon Gee’s public call for increased numbers of Jewish students in a 2002 Wall Street Journal article, Vanderbilt University has a student population that is 12 percent Jewish and has made its way onto Reform Judaism magazine’s list of the top 30 private schools that Jewish students choose.

2007: Former Chief Rabbi Avraham Elkana Shapira, the 94-year-old spiritual giant of religious Zionism, who passed away yesterday morning after a sudden deterioration in his medical condition will be buried today with the burial procession, which is expected to draw tens of thousands, slated to leave Harav Yeshiva at 10:30 a.m. Between 1983 and 1993, Shapira was chief Ashkenazi rabbi while Rabbi Mordechai Eliahu served as the chief Sephardi rabbi. Shapira and Eliahu were considered the two most senior religious Zionist Halachic authorities. Shapira was behind two ground breaking Halachic decisions during his stint as chief rabbi. First, he recognized Ethiopian immigrants as members of the Jewish people. His decision, which followed that of Rabbi Ovadia Yosef of Shas, opened the way for the acceptance of Ethiopian immigrants to religious Zionist institutions. And in 1986, Shapira made the controversial decision to allow heart transplants and other organ transplants.

2007(16th of Tishrei, 5768): Second Day of Sukkoth

2007: “The International Monetary Fund's 24 executive directors selected Dominque Strauss-Kahn as the new managing director

2007: The Archivist of the United States presented to Congress, the Administration, and the American people the final report of the Nazi War Crimes and Japanese Imperial Government Records Interagency Working Group (IWG) on which Elizabeth Holtzman served as a public member.

2007: In Patterson, NJ. Barnet Hospital which was named in honor of Jewish philanthropist and former mayor Nathan Barnet, was scheduled to close after having sought protection in Chapter 11 in August.

2007: The "Save Our Simon" project raised 1.2 million dollars to be used in the preservation of the Simon Theatre in Brenham, Texas.  The Simon Theatre was built by Alex Simon, a member of the Simon family of Brenham, Texas, a family known for its business acumen and civic mindedness.

2008(28th of Elul, 5768): Aaron Katz, who for more than 50 years publicly sought the exoneration of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg passed away today at the age of 92.  He also sought exoneration for Martin Sobel who was imprisoned for spying on behalf of the Soviets along with the Rosenbergs. Mr. Sobell served more than 18 years in prison, and for years Mr. Katz worked to clear his name. Unfortunately for Mr. Katz, in 2008, Mr. Sobell, 91, after maintaining his innocence for 57 years, admitted that he and Julius Rosenberg had been spies for the Soviets during World War II, when the Soviets were allies of the United States. “Yeah, yeah, yeah, call it that,” he said of the espionage label, making his admission in an interview with The New York Times. “I never thought of it as that in those terms.” Mr. Sobell also said that Ethel Rosenberg had been aware of her husband’s espionage but had not participated in it. “She knew what he was doing,” he said, “but what was she guilty of? Of being Julius’s wife.”  Mrs. Katz said she had not told her husband of Mr. Sobell’s admission which means he went to his grave believing in their innocence. “He would have been very upset, mortified, to know that all 50 years he was spending defending the Rosenbergs and Morton, and to find out that now Morton is saying he and Julius were guilty,” Mrs. Katz said. “He really believed in Morton’s innocence, as well as the Rosenbergs’. He also believed Ethel was framed.”

2008: The Center for Jewish History presents "Hotel Terminus: The Life and Times of Klaus Barbie” The 20th Anniversary Presentation. “This fall marks the 20th anniversary of the release of the Academy-Award-winning documentary directed by Marcel Ophuls about the notorious "Butcher of Lyons." John S. Friedman, producer of the film, Dr. David Marwell, director, Museum of Jewish Heritage-A Living Memorial to the Holocaust and chief of investigative research for the Department of Justice during the hunt for Barbie, and Stuart Klawans, film critic of The Nation, will provide an introduction.’

2008: The New York Times reviewed books by Jewish authors and/or about topics of Jewish interest including Hurry Down Sunshine by Michael Greenberg, Fallen Giants’ History of Himalayan Mountaineering From the Age of Empire to the Age of Extremes, co-authored by Maurice Isserman and The King and the Cowboy: Theodore Roosevelt and Edward the Seventh, Secret Partners by David Fromkin

2008: The Washington Post reviewed books by Jewish authors and/or about topics of Jewish interest including American Lightning: Terror, Mystery, Movie-Making, and the Crime of the Century by Howard Blum and The Other Side of the Island by Allegra Goodman

2008: Yefim Bronfman performed with the St. Louis Symphony Orchestra.

2009 (10 Tishrei, 5770): Yom Kippur

2009: This morning, on Yom Kippur, Palestinian militants opened fire at IDF troops patrolling the border fence between Israel and Gaza. An exchange of fire ensued, but none of the soldiers were hurt. Shortly afterward, Gaza militants fired several mortar shells into Israel near the Kerem Shalom border crossing. The IDF registered the firing of another Qassam rocket, but could not locate the explosion site. The rocket apparently exploded within Palestinian territory. This evening, a mortar shell was fired from Gaza at Israel, but apparently exploded within Palestinian territory. The Israel Air Force bombed a rocket launching device in the Gaza Strip this evening, which was aimed at Israel and set to fire, the Israel Defense Forces Spokesperson's Office reported. The IAF confirmed that the launcher was hit and destroyed.

2009: Iranian Revolutionary Guards are scheduled to test-fire a missile on today that defense analysts have said could hit Israel and U.S. bases in the Gulf region. Israel is especially sensitive to military action on Yom Kippur given what happened in 1973

2009: In Lexington, Mississippi, recitation of the Nei’lah services marks the final scheduled worship service at the 104 year old white wooden synagogue that is the home of Temple Beth el.  While this may be a bitter-sweet moment for the members of this Jewish community that has existed since the 1830’s, their accomplishment of keeping the light lit for almost two centuries is a challenge to us all.  A congregation like this thrives not because of a large staff of paid professionals; it thrives because of the devoted participation of each congregant. 

2010: The Center for Jewish History in New York is scheduled to present a program entitled “Communism on Trial: Jewish Politics and the Slansky Affair

2010: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or or special interest to Jewish readers including “Washington: A Life” by Ron Chernow and “Poisoning the Press: Richard Nixon, Jack Andrson, and the Rise of Washington’s Scandal Culture” by Mark Feldstein

2010(28th of Tishrei, 5771): Eighty-eight year old cinema director and producer Arthur Penn passed away today.

2010(28th of Tishrei, 5771): Ninety-two year old Aaron Katz, who publicly and actively proclaimed the innocence of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg passed away today.  (As reported by Dennis Hevesi)

2010: Alan G. Hevesi, the former state comptroller, is poised to plead guilty to a felony corruption charge after a lengthy investigation into his office’s rewarding of pension investment business to firms that provided financial benefits to Mr. Hevesi and his aides, people with knowledge of the case said today  Barring an 11th-hour change of heart, Mr. Hevesi would become the highest-ranking state official convicted in the case and one of the most likely to serve time in prison: in 2006, he pleaded guilty to a separate felony after admitting he had used state workers to chauffeur his ailing wife, but avoided jail time in that case after he agreed to resign. The pension investigation, conducted by the office of Attorney General Andrew M. Cuomo, is one of the longest running in Albany and came to symbolize the ethically troubled culture of the capital. It has focused on allegations that Mr. Hevesi’s friends, family and associates sold access to the state’s $125 billion pension fund, one of the world’s largest, to reward allies, pay back political favors and reap millions of dollars for themselves. Hevesi is the grandson of Simon Hevesi who had served as Chief Rabbi of Budapest in pre-war Hungardy and the brother of New York Times reporter Dennis Hevesi.

2010: It was reported today that Dr. Eli Landuah has “The White Book,” the first pork cookbook written for the Israeli market.

2011: The Tel Aviv District Labor Court ruled this afternoon that railway workers must return to negotiations with Israel Railways over plans to purchase new train cars from an external company, Bombardier, and outsource maintenance of those cars to that company. 

2011: Today the United States sought to press its wary allies in Egypt's army leadership to bolster ties with Israel and stick to scheduled elections later this year, even though a new set of leaders much less friendly to the US and the Jewish state may be the winners. Ahead of a meeting between Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and Egyptian Foreign Minister Muhammed Amr, the State Department said it was encouraged by the way Egypt's military council has defused tensions with its neighbor after protesters recently stormed the Israeli embassy in Cairo.

2011: Egyptian Foreign Minister Mohamed Kamel Amr said today that Israel and the Palestinians should resume talks with clear terms of reference and clear timeline.

 2011(29th of Elul, 5771): Erev Rosh Hashanah

שנה טובה, כתיבה וחתימה טובה.

2012: “Jews From Algeria” is scheduled to open at the Musee d’art et d’histoire du Judaisme in Paris, France.

2012: David Fisher’s “Six Million and One” is scheduled to be shown for the first time at Lincoln Plaza Cinema in New York City.

2012: An explosion struck a Jewish community building in the southern Swedish city of Malmö early this morning, Swedish media reported. The blast caused no injuries. “There has been an explosion. Something has detonated – we are certain of that,” police officer Erik Liljenström said to local paper Sydsvenskan.

2012(12th of Tishrei, 5773): Eighty-five year old Avraham Adan, the Israeli General who commanded the 162nd Division which valiantly tried to stave off the advances of the Egyptians during the first days of the Yom Kippur War, passed away today.

2012: Jordan has appointed a new ambassador to Israel over two years after the previous envoy returned from Tel Aviv to Amman, a senior Jordanian official told AFP and Ammon News today..The new ambassador, Walid Obeidat, is a career diplomat in the Hashemite Kingdom's Foreign Service.

2012(12th of Tishrei, 5773): Eighty year old advertising executive Stephen Frankfurt passed away today.

2013: In Spain, the towns of San Juan and Rio Jerte are scheduled to open a “Judaica festival featuring a mock wedding to celebrate their lost Jewish Heritage.”

2013: “In The Dark Room” a creation of Israeli filmmaker Nadav Schirman is scheduled to be shown as the New York Film Festival opens for its 50th year.

2013(24th of Tishrei, 5774): On Shabbat all over the world, Jews begin the Torah cycle again with “Bereshit.” Am Yisroel Chai

2013: No tickets are available for tonight’s showing of “Fill the Void” at the 17th annual Jewish Film Festival in Dallas

2013: “Three Israel Air Force jets were scrambled today to intercept unidentified aerial objects amid suspicion these were unmanned drones that penetrated Israeli airspace.”

2014: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Faithful and Virtuous Night by Louise Glück, The Undertaking by Audrey Magee, Consumed by David Cronenberg and  The Shifts and the Shocks: What We’ve Learned ---and Have Still to Learn – From the Financial Crisis by Martin Wolf

2014: Israeli filmmaker Nadav Schirman is scheduled to make a personal appearance at the New York Film Festival.

2014: The Oregon Jewish Museum and Center for Holocaust Education a Next Generations Get-Together which will help train those who will be speaking about the Holocaust.

2014(4th of Tishrei, 5775): T’zom Gedaliah observed

2014(4th of Tishrei, 5775): Ninety-one Welsh poet Dannie Abse passed away today.

2014(4th of Tishrei, 5775): Forty year old actress Sarah Goldberg passed away today.

2014: Prime Minister Netanyahu flew out of Ben-Gurion Airport today as he made his way to New York where he will address the UN General Assembly tomorrow.

2014: “A terrorist from Gaza, armed with a knife and spike, was caught today by the Security Coordinator of Moshav Shokeda, not far from the religious agricultural community, in the Sdot Negev Regional Council.” (As reported by Uzi Baruch and Gil Ronen)

2014: “Israeli archaeologists recently dug up an ancient subterranean structure, parts of which date back to Roman times, just meters from the Temple Mount, Channel 10 reported today.

2015(15th of Tishrei, 5776): Sukkoth

2015: As of today Square Enix should effectively own Taito, the company “founded in 1953 by Russian Jewish businessman Michael Kogan.

2015: In Jerusalem, a central Sukkah at Safra Square which in the past has attracted as many 100,000 visitors is scheduled “to be open for public use” starting today.

2015: “Relative calms was restored to the Temple Mount” this afternoon “after a morning of clashes between Israeli security forces with Palestinian rioters” who “barricaded themselves inside the al-Agsa Mosque” while “hurling rocks, firebombs and firecrackers…”

2016: “It Not About Ebisu” based on the work by Wendy Sandler, linguistic professor at the University of Haifa and directed by Atay Citron an associate professor in the theatre department at University of Haifa is scheduled to be performed at the Panera Theatre.

2016:  The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum is scheduled to livestream “a discussion about Denial, a new film describing Deborah E. Lipstadt’s courtroom battle against notorious Holocaust denier David Irving” who “in 1996 sued Lipstadt for libel in a British court.”


 

 

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