Monday, September 26, 2016

This Day, September 27, In Jewish History by Mitchell A. Levin


September 27

0070 The walls of the upper city of Jerusalem were battered down by the Roman army

1331: Polish forces under Wladyslaw and his son Casimir defeated the Germanic Knights at the Battle of Plowce.  From a military point of view the battle may have been a draw but it was a political victory for the Poles since it enabled them to assert their national identity. For the Jews, this has to be viewed as a positive event since when Casimir assumed the throne he treated the Jews in a favorable fashion and welcomed them as they fled Germany where they had been accused of causing the Black Plague.  

1480: The Catholic Kings of Spain Ferdinand and his wife Queen Isabella ordered a tribunal in their kingdoms to study cases of heresy. This is the start of what would soon be known as the Spanish Inquisition.

1481: In Medina del Campo.Miguel de Morillo and Juan de San Martín were named, as the first two inquisitors of the Spanish Inquisition.

1540: The Society of Jesus known as The Jesuits was founded by Ignatius Loyola The first Jesuits were Spanish Christians who began their work at a time when the reconquest of Spain from the Moslems was but recently accomplished, and persons with Moorish or Jewish ancestry were under suspicion. It is accordingly much to their credit that the Jesuits were firmly opposed (particularly under Ignatius and his first three successors as Superior General of the Jesuits) to ecclesiastical anti-Semitism and to the Inquisition's persecution of suspected Jews. When Ignatius was accused of having partly Jewish ancestry, he replied, "If only I did! What could be more glorious than to be of the same blood as the Apostles, the Blessed Virgin, and our Lord Himself?"

1601: Birthdate of King Louis XIII.  Louis was king of France for 33 of his 43 years.  He and his son Louis XIV were the two monarchs who ruled the dominate European power for almost the entire 17th century.  When Louis came of age and began ruling in his own right he reaffirmed the ban on Jews living in France that had been in effect since the fourteenth century, despite the fact that his mother had brought a practicing Jew to France to service as Louis’ doctor when he was a child.  On at least two occasions, Louis let economic necessity overcome the anti-Jewish policy.  When the French acquired the city of Metz, Louis allowed the Jews to stay in the city since they were an integral part of the city’s economic well-being.  The Jews of Martinique were left alone to help build this new outpost in France’s colonial empire.

1773(10th of Tishrei, 5534): Yom Kippur

1777: During the American Revolution, Lancaster, PA is capital of the United States for one day. Lancaster was approximately 60 miles west of Philadelphia.  “A Jewish burial plot had been set aside there as early as 1747.  Jewish religious services were conducted in the home of Joseph

Simon.  Simon was the father-in-law of Michael Gratz, part of Pennsylvania’s most prominent Jewish family.   Simon was one of the leading traders on the frontier and supplied the Continental Army with large amounts of muskets, ammunition and other supplies. After the Revolution, the smaller Lancaster community was absorbed by the larger Philadelphia Jewish community.  The Jewish community would reappear in Lancaster in the years preceding the Civil War as evidenced by the establishment of a synagogue in 1856.

1779: “Solomon Bush, a paroled prisoner of war” who was the son of Mathias Bush “an observant Jew who had been an active supporter of the patriotic course since 1765” “petitioned the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania for his monthly salary and rations which had been suspended since his capture by the Britsh.

1783(1st of Tishrei, 5544): Just 24 days after Great Britain and the United States sign the Treaty of Paris marking the end of the American Revolutionary war Jews on both sides of the Atlantic observe a peaceful Rosh Hashanah

1785(23rd of Tishrei, 5546): Simchat Torah

1786: Birthdate of Abraham Ben Samuel Firkovich, the native of Lutsk, Volhynia who became a leading Karaite archeologist.

1791: The National Assembly grants civil rights to the Jews of Alsac and Lorraine completing the process of emancipation for French Jews.

1791: In France, Jews were granted full rights and declared citizens. Some sources contend that this was the first time that Jews were declared full citizens of any country since the Roman Empire. However, this contention is not wholly accurate.  Jewish in the United States were full citizens from the time of the country's birth.  This point was driven home by the Anti-Establishment clause of the First Amendment.  The Jews were never declared citizens because nobody was.  In fact the first time that such a declaration would take place would be at the time of the Civil War with the ratification of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments. Jewish women would share in the same disabilities as non-Jewish women and would not become fully participating citizens until they were guaranteed the right to vote by the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.

1792: Birthdate of George Cruikshank the British caricaturist who illustrated Oliver Twist for Charles Dickens. His drawing of “Fagin in his cell” is an example of the work he did for this anti-Semitic novel. Cruikshank later claimed that he had created much of the plot for the novel, a claim that Dickens denied.

1794(3rd of Tishrei, 5555): Shabbat Shuvah; fast is put off until Sunday.

1797(9th of Tishrei, 5558): Erev Yom Kippur

1797(9th of Tishrei, 5558): Uriah Hendricks passed away in New York City.

1810: Rothschild and his elder sons drew up a new irrevocable partnership agree replacing the 1796 agreement.

1820: Birthdate of Herman Bodek, the native of Brody who “was the son-in-law of S.L. Rapport and the author of Eleh Dibre ha-Berit (These Are the Words of the Covenant.

1812(21st of Tishrei): As the War of 1812 rages between Britain and the United States, Hoshanah Rabah  is observed in London and New York.

1820: Birthdate of Herman Bodek, the native of Brody, son-in-law of S.L. Rapport and businessman whose knowledge of Hebrew enabled him to serve as a translator “in courts of law”  as well as authoring a book on Masonic rituals written in Hebrew for Jews living outside of Europe.

1821(1st of Tishrei): Rosh Hashanah is celebrated as wave of Latin American nations gain their independence from Spain opening a whole new area for Jews to finally settle and openly practice their religion.

1825(15th of Tishrei): Sukkoth is observed a month before the opening of the Erie Canal

1825: In Michelfeld, Baden German, two days before her death Henriette (Mayer) Oppenheimer and Marx Oppenheimer gave birth to Abraham Oppenheimer/

1826: Birthdate of Julius Bien. Educated at the Academy of Fine Arts, Cassel, and at Städel's Institute, Frankfort-on-the-Main, he moved to New York where he established a lithographic business in 1850. He was president of the National Lithographers' Association from 1886 to 1896, and was a member of numerous scientific societies. Bien was twice president of the order B'nai B'rith.

1830(10th of Tishrei, 5591): Yom Kippur is celebrated as the southern provinces of the Netherlands rebel – a rebellion which lead to the creation of the Kingdom of Belgium.

1834: In Brno, Moravia, Löbl Strakosch and Julia Schwarz gave birth Markus “Max” Strakosch

1836: Birthdate of Isaiah Luzzato, the son of S.D. Luzzato, who practiced law in his native Padua, Italy.

1839(19th of Tishrei, 5600): Fifth day of Sukkoth

1839(19th of Tishrei, 5600): Manis (Morris) Jacobs passed away. Born in 1782 at Amsterdam, he moved to New Orleans, Louisiana, where he was a co-founder and president of Congregation Shangarai Chasset.  Jacobs served as the congregation’s first rabbi even though he had not been formally ordained.  This was not an unusual situation in the United States since there was no school for training clergy at this time and most European rabbis were reluctant to come to a place they consider hostile to Jewish way of life. In 1881 Shangarai Chasset would merge with Nefutzot Yehuda to form Touro Synagogue a Reform congregation located on St. Charles Avenue.

1842(23rd of Tishrei, 5603): Simchat Torah

1843(3rd of Tishrei, 5604): Three months before “A Christmas Carol by Charles Dickens,  Jews observe the Fast of Gedaliah

1850(21st of Tishrei, 5611): As Congress passes the Compromise of 1850 which would postpone the Civil War for another ten years, Jews observed Hoshanah Rabah

1851(1st of Tishrei, 5612): Nine days after the founding of the New York Times, Jews observe Rosh Hashanah

1854: Frederick Catherwood, an English artist and architect who was not Jewish but was one of several artists who visited Palestine and provided the West with depictions of “the Holy Land.” Passed away today.  During his visit to Jerusalem in 1833, he may have been the first Westerner to survey the Temple Mount.

1858: The New York Times reported that Samuel Morris, a thirty year old “Hebrew” has been arrested for stealing clothing from two of the boarding houses at which he has resided.  Mr. Morris has also been charged with being a bigamist having begun marrying a series of women starting in July, 1856 and acquiring a new wife at the various boarding houses he has inhabited in the last two years.

1860: It was reported today that the cattle market in New York has been “sluggish” (low prices for sellers) because of the “superabundance of poor cattle” and the absence of the Jewish butchers from the market due to the celebration of their holidays.

1860: It was reported that “Joseph and his Brethren” is playing at Barnum’s little theatre in New York.  The opening portion of the play is based on the biblical narrative but it then moves on to flights of fancy that include Babylonians and large numbers of Jews and Egyptians.

1861(23rd of Tishrei, 5622): Simchat Torah - Jews from the North and South face each other on the battlefield but are united in finishing and starting the Torah cycle.

1862(3rd of Tishrei, 5623): During the Civil War, as Jews observe Shabbat Shuvah “The Confederate Congress passes the Second Conscription Act, authorizing the President to draft men between the ages of 35 and 45” and “the first all-black regiment in United States history is formed in Union-controlled New Orleans from ‘free Negroes.’"

1866: Only a few days after a group of Christian settlers had landed at Jaffa, a son was born to one of the families.

1868: Fifty-eight year old Alexandre Florian Joseph, Count Colonna-Walewski, allegedly the son of Napoleon Bonaparte, who had son named Alexandre Colonna-Walewski with his mistress the famous Jewish actress Rachel Felix, passed away today. (And you thought Jewish history was all about Talmuds, Torahs and Talaisim)

1870(2nd of Tishrei, 5631): Second Day of Rosh Hashanah

1870: It was reported today that there are 27 synagogues in New York City.

1870: It was reported today that yesterday that Chatham Street, the Bowery and the other places “where the chosen people do business presented a Sunday appearance” because the Jews were in their houses of worship observing their New Year.  “Not a solitary store belonging to the Israelites was open…”

1871: Birthdate of Martin Henry Glynn, the first Roman Catholic to serve as Governor of New York. In 1919 he wrote an article entitled “The Crucifixion of Jews Must Stop!” that described the conditions of the Jews living in post War Europe.  Considering the tenor of the times, it was a courageous act for a man in the political arena.

1871(12th of Tishrei, 5632): Fifty-five year old Jacob Heart, the German physician who served as a surgeon during the Austro-Prussian War in 1866 and the Franco-Prussian War four years later, passed away today at Erlangen.

1872: The funeral of Mrs. Hannah H. Leo, the wife of Henry Leo was scheduled to place today.  Mrs. Leo was active in many Jewish communal organizations including the “Auxiliary Society of the Mount Sinai Hospital of which she was President at the time of her death.

1873: In Detroit, Michigan, Temple Beth El officially began its affiliation with the Union of American Hebrew Congregations.

1874(16th of Tishrei, 5635): Second Day of Sukkoth

1874(16th of Tishrei, 5635): Rabbi S. M. Isaacs delivered the sermon at Gates of Praise Synagogue on 44th Street, between Broadway and Sixth Avenue in NYC. He told the congregation that “the festival was meant to remind them that their ancestors had once dwelt in tabernacles and to teach them that, whether in adversity or prosperity, they should always with gratitude remember God.”

http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9C07E6DC1E39EF34BC4051DFBF66838F669FDE

1876(9th of Tishrei, 5637): Erev Yom Kippur

1876: “Jewish Day of Atonement” published today provides a brief but accurate of “the celebration of the fast of Yom Kippur.”  It includes the fact that “in Orthodox synagogues the supplicants will wear shrouds to remind them of the grave.  Reformed Jews, though joining in the fasting and praying, discard the shrouds.”

1878(15th of Tishrei, 5548): Sukkoth

1878: The New York Times featured a review of “The Writer Heine Loved Most: Lessing” by James Sime.

1879(10th of Tishrei, 5640): Yom Kippur

1879: Birthdate Hans Hahn an Austrian mathematician who made contributions to functional analysis, topology, set theory, the calculus of variations, real analysis, and order theory

1880: It was reported today that the last issued of the National Quarterly Review contains an article by David Ker entitled “The Political Future of the Jews.” He thinks that the probability of this “outlawed race” returning to Palestine, “the land of their fathers”  “rests upon more durable grounds that the visions of fanatical zeal or of patriotic enthusias.

1880: In Missouri, the town of Herdsville was re-named Seligman in honor of financer Joseph Seligman who had died the previous April.

1881: The SS Egypt arrived today from Liverpool carrying 48 Jewish immigrants who were met at Castle Garden by the newly formed committee that will help will advise and aid them as they adjust to their surroundings.

1881: Birthdate of Israel Zolli the chief rabbi in Rome from 1940 to 1945 who converted to Catholicism in 1945.

1883: It was reported today that rioting in the Ukrainian town of Nowomoskowk has left 200 Jewish families homeless and that only one synagogue and three homes belonging to Jews “escaped demolition.  The riot began because Jews were blamed for the plundering of a Russian Church.

1884: Abraham Jacobs and Jacob Jacobs (no relation) ended up being arrested after an altercation at the door way to the Covenant Hall on Orchard Street.  The two combatants actually went to the police station together to file complaints against each other.  When the desk sergeant was told that there were no witnesses he locked them both up until the matter was sorted out.

1885: Birthdate of Gustav Schröder, Captain of the MS St. Louis.

1886: Birthdate of Sir George James Giffard who in 1940 “was General Officer Commanding British Forces in Palestine and Trans-Jordan” meaning that he was the senior officer “on the ground” when the Yishuv faced the twin threat of Nazi invasion and the enforcement of the infamous White Paper.

1889(2nd of Tishrei, 5650): 2nd day of Rosh Hashanah

1889: Officer Gebhard of the Eldridge Street squad put out the lights in a synagogue Erev Shabbat at 91 Delancy Street because he claimed that the establishment doubled as a dance hall and it was the only way to stop a dispute between two groups, one of which wanted to pray and the other one of which wanted to dance.

1890: “The Jews In Russia” published today described “the appointment: of “a special commission”… “to consider the position of the Jews in Russia.”

1890: Albert B. Theime attributed the undercounting in his census figures to the fact that so much of his district was made up of Polish Jews he said “seemed to think that I had some sinister motive in asking questions. He deliberately did not count approximately count approximately 500 people living in two buildings on Orchard Street because it would have taken too much time.

1891: The Brooklyn Eagle published "Judaism in Brooklyn: The Ancient Faith of Israel and Its Local Adherents."

1891: The New York Times published reports from its foreign correspondents describing the desperate plight of the Jews of Russia. Two to three thousand Jews are attempting to leave the famine strapped Southern part of the empire, but this exodus “has no real effect on the hideous pressure of congested Jews inside the Pale.”

1891: “New York State Churches” published today provided described the problems that the congregation in Poughkeepsie is having with their Rabbi Herman Faust who has been replaced by Rabbi Sandberg.

1892(6th of Tishrei, 5653): Michel Erlanger, the native of Alsace who “as  an active member of the Alliance Israélite Universelle, assisted Charles Netter in establishing at Jaffa the agricultural school known as "Miḳweh Yisrael" and “succeeded Albert Cohn in the management of the Rothschild charities” passed away today in Paris.

1892: Starting today, 4 ambulances will be stationed at the Willard Parker Hospital after Charles Wilson, the President of the Board of Health determined that Samuel Machinsky, a young Jewish boy had “been allowed to lied on the sidewalk at the Bowery and Houston Street for two hours” before help arrived because there was a shortage of ambulances at the hospital due to the outbreak of Cholera.

1892: The response of former President Grover Cleveland, who is running again this fall for the Presidency, to a letter from a Jewish voter expressing his appreciation for the Democratic Party’s plank about the treatment of Russian Jews was published today.  Cleveland assured him that he supported the plank but said the party was only acting “in accordance with humanity and the kindly feeling which ought to exist in the brotherhood of mankind.”

1892: During today’s dedication of the Girl’s High School in Brooklyn, Joseph C. Hendrix, President of the Board of Education spoke to the crowd about the “swarms” of Polish and Russian Jews who “bring their moral diseases….with them.”  “The only quarantine that will avail against this is the school, erected and maintained by the tax and the bounty of the people.”

1894: Mrs. Elke Rubenstein and her sister Basche Ragleski of Jerusalem arrived at Ellis Island.

1895(9th of Tishrei, 5656): Erev of Yom Kippur

1895: In New York, the Board of Health is refusing to issue special permits to allow for the sale of live poultry which means that the forty or fifty poultry dealers who had bought between 100,000 and 150,000 chickens which they had intended to sell to Jews so that they could perform their pre-Yom Kippur rituals are going to lose a lot of money.

1895: In London, Barney Barnato “who made his fortune in South African diamond and gold mining” and Fanny Bees gave birth to their youngest son Joel Woolf Barnato.

1895: Judge Fitzgerald agreed to postpone the trial of Morris Schoenholz which had begun yesterday because Yom Kippur was starting this evening and it would inconvenience the Jewish client and Abraham Levy, his Jewish lawyer.

1897(1st of Tishrei, 5658): Jews celebrate Rosh Hashanah for the first time during the Presidency of William McKinley.

1897: “The Jewish residents of Camden, NJ, celebrated Rosh Hashanah in Furery’s Hall.

1897: Relying on sentiments that first appeared in the Jewish Messenger the following “text for the New Year was published today – “The Jews needs the world’s broadening impulse and world requires the ethical foundations of the Jew.”

1897: It was reported today that the French Cabinet has instructed the Minister of Justice to take the matter known as the Dreyfus Case to the Court of Cassation which “will examine all the evidence in the case to whether the ex-artillery officer was unjustly condemned, either through perversion of justice or through inadequate or untrustworthy evidence or because evidence has been discovered since the trial raising the question of reasonable doubt as to the man’s guilt.”

1898: Photographer Alfred Stieglitz and his wife, the former Emmeline “Emmy” Obermeyer gave birth to their daughter Katherine “Kitty” Stiegelitz the future wife of Milton Sprague Sterns.

1899(23 of Tishrei, 5660): For the final time in the 19th century, Jews celebrated Simchat Torah

1899: Birthdate of Rebecca Goodman who would marry author David Freedman and as Beatrice Freedman would have three sons and one daughter with him.

1903(6th of Tishrei, 5664): Forty five year old Julius Plotke the native of Borek who became a successful lawyer and was a trustee of the Jewish Colonization Association passed away in Frankort-on-the Main.

1904: The Miriam Barnert Hebrew Free School was dedicated today in Paterson, New Jersey by Nathan Barnert

1904: “On Clinton Street in the lower East Side of Manhattan Fred and Gussie Terris gave birth to Sydney Terris the boxing champion known variously as the Galloping Ghost of the Ghetto and the Dancing Master of the East Side.

1905(28th of Elul, 5665): Famed theatrical manager Jacob Litt passed away today.

1905: Albert Einstein published the paper "Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy Content?" in Annalen der Physik. This paper revealed the relationship between energy and mass. . [If you have any questions about his work, I suggest you consult Dr. Joe Rosen, the only person I know who understands this sort of thing.]

1905: Third baseman Phil Cooney made his major league debut with the New York Highlanders (the modern day Yankees).

1905: In Philadelphia, Dr. Cyrus Adler married Miss Racie Friedenwald at the home of Mrs. Jane Friedenwald, the bride’s mother in a ceremony conducted by Rabbi Leon H. Elmaleh of Congregation Mikvah Hisrael.  Dr. Adler was a native of Van Buren, a town in Crawford County, Arkansas.

1911: Birthdate of writer and humanitarian Ruth Gruber. Gruber, who had earned bachelor's and master's degrees by age 19 and a Ph.D. by 20, dedicated her life to helping relieve the oppression suffered by Jews worldwide. At the age of 21, Gruber began her career as a journalist, reporting on global politics. In 1944, Gruber was asked by the US Secretary of Interior Harold Ickes to conduct a secret mission to escort 1000 Italian Jewish refugees to America. This brief break in the nation's otherwise restrictive immigration policy allowed the refugees to be "guests" of President Roosevelt throughout the war. Throughout the mission, Gruber was aggressively hunted as a foreign spy by Nazi seaplanes and U-boats. In her writing of the experience of the refugees that she accompanied, Gruber drew attention to the plight of European Jews. After World War II Gruber returned to journalism and began reporting on the Jewish migration to Palestine. Her reports helped advance the dissolution of Displaced Person camps in Africa, Europe, and the Middle East. Throughout the 1940s Gruber worked to ensure the success and growth of Israel through her work as an activist and by sparking global attention through her news reports. Gruber continues to advocate for Jews worldwide and, for many, is herself a symbol of Jews' rescue from oppression. Gruber has written thirteen books, seven of which focus on the subject of Israel and the Middle East from the end of World War II to the present. Her book, Destination Palestine: The Story of the Haganah Ship Exodus 1947, was used as source material for the movie and book Exodus. Gruber's memoir, Ahead of My Time: My Early Years as a Foreign Correspondent, was published in 1999, and her life was the subject of Haven, a 2001 CBS miniseries.

1911(5th of Tishrei, 5672: Sixty-seven year old Auguste Michel –Lévy, the French geologist who became inspector of mines and director of the Geological Survey of France, passed away.

1913: In Asbury Park, NJ founding of Sons of Israel Synagogue.

1913: Birthdate of Albert Ellis. Born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania he is a psychologist whose Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), is the foundation of all cognitive and cognitive behavior therapies. REBT is a comprehensive theory of personality and psychotherapy which holds that one's personal beliefs, evaluations, and personal philosophy control one's feelings. Thus, it is not external events that causes emotional disturbance, rather it is a person's own beliefs about events or adversity that produce it. Ellis proposed that the way to improve well-being is to change ones thoughts, beliefs, and behavior. It was this principle that he first formally expressed in the early 1950's that became the basis of all cognitive psychotherapies.

1914: Henry S. Felter of New Brunswick “was re-elected President of the New Jersey Federation of Young Men’s and Young Women’s Hebrew Association today.

1914: Under the caption “The Kaiser’s American Agents,” The Times of London printed a letter from Israel Zangwill in which he wrote “I should add that since receiving Sir Edward Grey’’s assurance that England’s sympathies lay with the emancipation of the Russian Jews I have had a number of applications from Jews – Rumanian and English as well as Russian Jews living outside of Russia – anxious to enlist in the Jewish Territorial Organization under the idea that is a branch of the British Army.” (Gray was the British Foreign Minister who is credited with the lines as he walked out of his ministry on the evening that Britain declared war on Germany – "The lamps are going out all over Europe, we shall not see them lit again in our life-time.”

1914: As both sides wooed the Ottoman Empire at the outset of WW I, the German commander of the Dardanelles fortifications ordered the major waterway closed, adding to the impression among the Allies that the Ottomans had already decided to ally themselves with the Central Powers, setting in motion events that reverberate in the Middle East in the 21st century.

1915(19th of Tishrei, 5676): Fifth day of Sukkoth

1915: Each youngster who attended yesterday’s Sukkoth celebration sponsored by Young Judaea including the children from the Hebrew Orphan Asylum received “as a souvenir” “a picture depicting the observations of the Succoth festival in the synagogue drawn by Leopold Pilichowski.”

1915: “In an address in the Baltimore Opera House tonight Louis D. Brandeis urged the necessity of unity among the Jews in order to aid their brethren in Europe after war” saying that “When the war ends the Jews of America hope to aid in the solution of those problems which most deeply affect their brethren abroad.”

1916(29th of Elul, 5675): Erev Rosh Hashanah

1916: As labor unions line up to show their support for the Amalgamated Association of Street and Electric Railway Employees, it was learned today the International Ladies’ Garment Workers with 65,000 members had voted to go on strike while the United Hebrew Trades with 100,000 to 200,000 members “has pledged their unanimous support to the union leaders and strike organizers.”

1916: “The thousands of Jewish soldiers on duty at the Mexican border with the National Guard will take part in the religious services which will be held for them under the auspices of the newly organized army and navy branches of the Young Men’s Hebrew Association “in answer to requests on the part of parents and families of Jewish guardsmen in service at the border and elsewhere.”

1916:  In Rehovot, author Zev Zass Smilensky and his wife gave birth to “Yizhar Smilansky known by his pen name S. Yizhar” who was also the nephew of author Moshe Smilansky.

1916: “The New Synagogue, the latest Jewish liberal congregation organized on the West Side held its New Year’s Eve services at Aeolian Hall where Rabbi Frisch preached a sermon on ‘A Happy New Year.’”

1917: Birthdate of Rear Admiral Maurice H. Rindskopf who was the youngest submarine commander in World War II

1917: “Jews Give $350,000 for War Suffers” published today reported that “when Yom Kippur, the Jewish Day of Atonement, came to a close at sunset yesterday more than $350,000 had been contributed within twenty-four hours in all the synagogues and temples of the city to the $10,000,000 relief fund which is being raised for the relief of Jewish war suffers in Europe.”  The New York appeal was part of a nationwide movement designed to raise $10,000,000 for the Jews trapped in war-torn Europe and Palestine.

1917: Jacob Billlikopf, Executive Director of the American Jewish Relief Committee, said that yesterday’s Yom Kippur appeal for funds to help relieve the suffering Jews trapped in war-torn Europe was separate from the Jacob Schiff’s campaign for funds that will begin on the first of December.

1917: The furloughs granted to U.S. soldiers and sailors so that they could observe Yom Kippur came to an end today.

1917: Birthdate of American microbiologist Benjamin Rubin, “the inventor of the bifurcated vaccination needle.”

1917: Amidst the turmoil of war and revolution, among the reforms promulgated by the Kerensky government was the issuance of a decree “legalizing an easier form of oath for Karait Jews.”

1918(21st of Tishrei, 5679): Hoshanah Rabah

1918: General Allenby’s victorious cavalry rode across the Golan Heights into Syria, heading for Damascus.

1919: Emma Goldman was released from a two-year prison term, only to be immediately rearrested. Goldman had been arrested in 1917 with her long-time comrade Alexander Berkman for "conspiring against the draft" as a result of their work creating the No-Conscription league in May 1917 to oppose U.S. involvement in World War I. The activists were arrested less than one month later and imprisoned in December. After immigrating to the United States at 16 in 1885, Goldman soon became an outspoken advocate for the rights of workers and women. Incensed by the poor standard of living of the majority of workers, she began lecturing and promoting anarchy as the best method to achieve equality. Goldman's belief in the anarchist principle of absolute freedom shaped her activism for the rest of her life.  As Goldman's prison release neared in August 1919, the director of the Justice Department's General Intelligence committee, the young J. Edgar Hoover, worked to ensure Goldman and Berkman's permanent removal from American society. Hoover pressured the courts to deny Goldman's citizenship claims, thus making her vulnerable to the 1918 Alien Act. In a letter to a governmental official, Hoover described Goldman and Berkman as "beyond doubt, two of the most dangerous anarchists in this country," concluding that they would, "if permitted to return to the community do undue harm." Goldman and Berkman were deported at the end of 1919 with 247 other immigrant radicals to the new Soviet Union. After less than two years in Russia, Goldman left the country disillusioned by the violence and unforgiving rule of the Bolsheviks. She spent the remainder of her life traveling throughout Europe and Canada, politically frustrated by her status as an exile. After her death, Goldman was finally readmitted to the United States and buried in Chicago.(As reported by the Jewish Women’s Archives)

1920(15th of Tishrei, 5681): Sukkoth

1920: For the first time since 1492, the Spanish government formally recognized the Jewish community, according to it all privileges of other religious bodies.

1920: Reports were published today that Nathaniel Cantor, the brother of Rabbi Bernard Cantor who was murdered by Bolsheviks, is the first recipient of the Bernard Cantor Fellowship created by the Free Synagogue for students at the Hebrew Union College.

1922: In the U.K., probate was granted to Elsie, the sister of the late Dorothy Elizabeth Levi, better known as Dorothy Levitt the female pioneer in the field of motoring and power boat racing.

1922: Birthdate of Arthur Hiller Penn, the American director and producer who was the younger brother of fashion photographer Arthur Penn.

1922: Birthdate of Nat Shapiro who played a key role in the music industry and promotional director for Mercury Records and A&R director of Columbia Records.

1925(9th of Tishrei, 5685): Erev Yom Kippur

1925: It was reported today that the “production of the new season at the Neighborhood Playhouse” will be the ‘The Dybbuk’ long well known on the Yiddish stage.”

1925: It was reported today The Amphion, an old theatre in Brooklyn where Yiddish plays are being performed for the first time is the home” to “Samuel Goldenburg a versatile actor” who used to star at the Second Avenue Theatre and Cecilia Adler, “a daughter of Jacob Adler best known for her work in Peretz Hirshbein’s idyll of Russian-Jewish life.”

1928: Birthdate of Lester Donald Shubin, the Philadelphia native who was among the U.S. troops that liberated Dachau. While working for the Justice Department, he developed one of the most effective bullet proof vests of the 1970’s.

1928: Birthdate of Zev Wolfson, the native of Vilna who came to the United States at the age of 17 and became a successful real estate tycoon and generous philanthropist.

1927(1st of Tishrei, 5688): Rosh Hashanah

1929: Birthdate of Leonard Jerome Harris, the Bronx native who became arts and theater critic for New York’s CBS television affiliate

1930: When the Yiddish talking film “The Jewish Mother,” an American production was presented for the first time tonight at the Mograbi Theatre in Tel Aviv a mob of several thousands of Jews gathered outside the theatre shouting ‘Down with Yiddish!  Hebrew is our language.  Several young men, members of the ‘Army for the Defense of the Hebrew Langue,’ broke into the theatre and threw tear bombs.  They also hurled ink bottles at the screen.  Policemen immediately were sent to the scene and found it almost impossible to force their way through the huge mob.  They finally succeeded in arresting about a dozen of the ringleaders and dispersing the mob.  The show was then continued, but soon afterwards an even larger mob again gathered and the authorities found it necessary to order that the show be discontinued.  Even then the crowd refused leave until all the lights in the theatre were out.”

1930: In Vienna, Samuel and Rene Reichman gave birth to their fifth child, future real estate mogul Paul Reichman.

1933: Ludwig Müller, Hitler’s candidate and a dedicated Nazi was elected as the new Reichsbischof of the German Evangelical Church

1934: Fifty-seven year old Martha Levy, the daughter of Morris Levy and Isabelle Baker and wife of Maurice Steinfeld who had passed away three days ago was buried today at New Mt. Sinai Cemetery in St. Louis, MO.

1935(29th of Elul, 5695): Erev Rosh Hashanah

1936: At Yankee Stadium a crowd of more than 30,000 people saw “the better teamwork of the Maccabees, soccer champions of Palestine, route the New York State Football Association All-Stars 6 to 0” in a contest “sponsored by the Federation of Polish Jewish in America” the proceeds of which “will be shared by the American Committee for the Relief of Jews in Poland and the Maccabee Tel Aviv Sports Organization in Palestine.”

1936: The Maccabees of Tel Aviv, the soccer champions of Palestine are scheduled to play their first game against a team of the New York State Football Association at Yankee Stadium.

1936: After a four month tour of Europe, Mrs. Edward Jacobs, the national president of Hadassah returned to New York today and “said the situation of the Jews in Eastern Europe was a ‘reflection of the unhealthy and unwholesome general state’ in that part of the world” while “Eastern European countries were making ‘scapegoats’ of the Jews.”

1936: Herbert J. Seligman, “the director of public relations of the American Joint Distribution” returned to the United States today and said the Jews in Eastern and Central Europe “were living under conditions more critical than even in the anarchic post-war years.”

1936: “The Nazi regime in Germany is definitely anti-Christian because it legislates against Jews and thereby violates the fundamental principle of Chrisitianity, the union of all men into one family under the Fatherhood of God, the Reverend Howard Chandler Robbins declared in his sermon this morning at the Protestant Episcopal Church.”

1937: Birthdate of Sir Kurt George Matthew Mayer Alberti who has served as the President of the Royal College of Physicians and the National Clinical Director for Emergency Access in the United Kingdom.

1938(2nd of Tishrei, 5699): On the second day of Rosh Hashanah Jews are barred from practicing law in Germany.

1938: As Rosh Hashanah came to an end Reb Levi Yitchok Bender made their clandestine escape by train from Uman to Kiev where an informer turned him over to the local police.  After interrogation, he was released because he convinced them that he had been in Khrysthnivka and not Uman. The leader of the Breslov Chasidim would spend the war in Siberia before making Aliyah in 1949.  He died forty years later.

1938: As the crisis over the Sudetenland worsened the French held a cabinet meeting at which Premiere Daladier insisted on mobilization which led to a conflict with his Foreign Minister.

1939: Berlin issues a command to establish Jewish ghettos in Poland on the same day that formal Polish military resistance collapses. 

1939: As they sought to escape from the Nazis, Moses and Tamara Schorr arrived at Ostrog today.

1939: The Communist deputies were excluded today from the National Assembly today after the pact between Nazi Germany and the Soviet had been signed – an exclusion which would make it easier for Pierre Laval, the Nazi supporter to form a new government in 1940.

1939: “The SD and SiPo (made up of the Gestapo and the Kripo) were folded into the new Reich Main Security Office (Reichssicherheitshauptamt; RSHA), which was placed under Reinhard Heydrich's control which led to Werner Best being made head of “Amt I” with the responsibility for developing and explaining “the Nazi Jewish policy.” was made head of Amt I (Department I) of the RSHA: Administration and Legal. That department dealt with the legal and personnel issues/matters of the SS and security police.[10] Heydrich and Heinrich Himmler relied on Best to develop and explain legally the activities against enemies of the state and in relation to the Nazi Jewish policy. In 1939 Best became one of the directors of Heydrich's foundation, the Stiftung Nordhav.

1940: “Strike Up the Band” a musical produced by Arthur Freed was released today in the United States by MGM.

1940: “Rangers of Fortune, a Western featuring Joseph Schildkraut as “Colonel Lewis Rebstock” was released in the United States today.

1940: “Spring Parade” a remake of the 1934 film directed by Henry Koster, featuring Mischa Auer and S. Z. Sakall and produced by Jos Pasternak who had also produced the original version.

1940(24th of Elul, 5700: Walter Benjamin died by his own hands today. He was a German Jewish Marxist literary critic and philosopher. Benjamin committed suicide in Port Bou at the Spanish-French border, while attempting to escape from the Nazis, when it appeared that his party would be denied passage across the border to freedom. The rest of the group was allowed to cross the border the next day, possibly because their desperation was made clear by Benjamin's suicide. A completed manuscript which Benjamin had carried in his suitcase, possibly his "Arcades Project," disappeared after his death and has not been recovered.

1940: Thirty-nine year old Helmut Neustadter, who would gain fame as Australian photographer Helmut Newton, who had been interred by British authorities while in Singapore escaping from Nazi Germany, arrived in Sydney aboard the Queen Mary and was shipped to the camp at Tatura under armed guard.

1941(6th of Tishrei, 5702): Shabbat Shuvah

1941(6th of Tishrei, 5702): The two day massacre of the Jews began at at Kamenets-Podolsk, in the Ukraine.

1942(16th of Tishrei, 5703): Second Day of Sukkoth

1942(16th of Tishrei, 5703): An additional 897 French Jews were killed at Berkenau

1942(16th of Tishrei, 5703): Several hundred Belgian Jews were killed at Berkenau

1942(16th of Tishrei, 5703):  Three hundred cold and hungry women and children, part of the 1000 Jews still at large following a September 24 escape from the ghetto at Tuchin, Ukraine, return to the city under German promises of safe repatriation. All 300 are shot. Of the 700 Tuchin Jews who remained at large, only about 20 will survive the war.

1942: Lydia Litvyak, shot down a German Junker 88 today over Stalingrad.

1942: The ghetto at Parysow, Poland was liquidated when it 3,500 inhabitants were shipped to Treblinka.

1943: Ugo Foa, head of the Jewish community in Rome approached the Vatican in hopes of getting a Papal loan for the fifty kilograms of gold the SS was demanding if the Jews were to avoid deportation to the death camps.  In a rare act designed to save Jews, Pius XII approved the request.  Funds were never released since the Jews, acting in desperation, raised the funds on their own.

1943: The Germans occupied the island of Corfu which would prove to be the prelude to the deportation of the Jewish community to Auschwitz.

1944(10th of Tishrei, 5705): Yom Kippur

1944: While leading Yom Kippur services in Rome, Rabbi Israel Zolli, experience a vision Jesus, which according to his autobiography led him to convert to Christianity.

1944: Delivery date of the “Benjamin Peixotto", a Liberty ship named after the 19th century American Jew who was a served both his country and his co-religionists with distinction.

1944: At Birkenau the Jews were reminded that the "Goebbels Calendar" still was in effect.  The Goebbels Calendar referred to the Nazi custom of emptying sick wards on Jewish holidays and shipping these people to the death chambers.  On this Yom Kippur, 2000 boys would be told that extra bread would be given to them on their Day of Atonement. Instead, 1000 would be chosen by Dr. Mengele to be sent to the gas chamber. In this instance the selection method was based on height. The shorter boys would be killed.  Elsewhere thousands of Jews would be sent to their deaths this day.

1945:  Birthdate of pianist Misha Dichter.  Born in Shanghai, where his Polish parents had fled at the outbreak of World War II, Mr. Dichter came to Los Angeles with his family at the age of two and began his piano studies a few years later.  While still a student at Juilliard, he launched his international career with a stunning triumph at the 1966 Tchaikovsky Competition in Moscow.  Interestingly enough, on the Dichter's website, he is identified as Polish and his wife as being Brazilian-Polish.  Dichter is part of a long line of Jewish Pianists including Arthur Rubenstein and Vladimir Horovitz.

1945 Birthdate of Jack Goldstein, Canadian born artist.

1946(2nd of Tishrei, 5707): Second Day of Rosh Hashanah

1947: Today was the last day on which the Afabu, an American newspaper originally intended for “German speaking Jews around the world, published its list of Holocaust survivors marking the end of a project that had begun in September of 1944.

1947: The House Un-American Committee (HUAC) subpoenaed 24 "friendly"...and 19 "unfriendly" witnesses (mostly Jewish) summoning them to Washington.

1948: During Operation Velvetta five Spitfires flown by Israeli pilots began a 2,500 mile from Yugoslavia to Israel, much of which was over open water without modern navigational aids.  Two ran out of gas and were forced to land on the island of Rhodes.  The other three made it safely to Ramat David.

1949(4th of Tishrei, 5710): Sixty-seven year old American architect David Adler passed away at Libertyville, Illinois today.

1950: Premiere of “La Ronde” the film version of the Arthur Schnitzler play of the same name directed by Max Ophus.

1950:The Third Maccabiah, Jewish equivalent of the Olympic Games, opened today at the new stadium in suburban Ramat Gan, where about 30,000 persons watched a parade of athletes from twenty countries…Today’s ceremonies, featuring 500 Jewish athletes, including a team of forty-three from United States, were the first of their kind to be held in Israel and were the most colorful this state has seen…The only sad note of another otherwise gay afternoon was the Yizkor ceremony, when the flag was lowered to half-staff, and trumpets sounded notes of mourning for those who died since the last games in 1935.”

1951: Second baseman Al Federoff made his major league debut with the Detroit Tigers.

1951: Vincent Richard Impellitteri, Mayor of New York is made a citizen of Haifa.

1951: The negative reaction of the Arab countries to the latest UN peace proposal is tantamount to rejection as can be seen in the statement that appeared today in Le Jour the Beirut newspaper which comes close to being the voice of the Lebanese Foreign Office. In referring to the proposal by the UN Conciliation Commission, the paper said, “Let us say at once this is a plan based on the demands of the Zionists and which does not take into serious account the demands of the Arabs.  What the representatives of the United Nations proposed is a solution in accord with the desires of Israel and with its interests.  The United Nations is only interested in bringing the Arabs to bow before Israel.”

1952: During the Red Witch Hunt, Lewis Webster Jones, President of Rutgers, “announces his intention to appoint Trustee and Faculty committees to review the cases of professors involved in government inquiry” which include as targets Moses Finley who had appeared before the House Un-American Activities Committee.

1954: First broadcast of “Caesar’s Hour” “a one-hour sketch/variety show starring Sid Caesar with Howie Morris, Carl Reiner and Bea Arthur that was performed lived at the Century Theatre.

1956(22nd of Tishrei, 5717): Fifty-five year old British composer Gerald Raphael Finzi the son of John Abraham (Jack) Finzi and Eliza Emma (Lizzie) Leverson passed away today.

1957(2nd of Tishrei, 5718): Second Day of Rosh Hashanah

1959: NBC Sunday Showcase broadcast the first in a two part presentation of “What Makes Sammy Run” starring Larry Blyden and “Sammy Glick.”

1961: “Paris Blues” a movie made on location directed by Martin Ritt, with a script co-authored by Walter Bernstein and co-starring Paul Newman was released today in the United States.

1962: In Canada, Herb Gray began serving as a Member of Parliament for Essex West.

1962: The United States sold Hawk anti-aircraft missiles to Israel.  As useful as the military equipment was, the sale of the missiles was even more important as a sign of the Kennedy Administration's commitment to the defense of the state of Israel.

1963(10th of Tishrei, 5724): Unbeknownst to anybody, Jews were observing the last Yom Kippur during the brief presidency of John Kennedy.

1964(21st of Tishrei, 5725): Hoshana Raba

1964: U.S. premiere of “Lilith” directed, produced and written by Robert Rossen and filmed by cinematographer Eugen Schufftan.

1965(1st of Tishrei, 5726): Rosh Hashanah

1965: President Zalman Shazar’s New Year’s greeting published today read in part, “Though the road to peace with our neighbors is still long and strewn with snares, our determination and our united effort to win support both near and far for this most significant of goals are all the stronger.”

1965: “Winter Kept Us Warm,” a romantic drama directed and produced by David Secter who also wrote the script premiered “as the opening film of the Commonwealth Film Festival in Cardiff.

1967: Birthdate of Noreena Hertz, the English author and economist whom “The Observed dubbed one of the worlds’ leading young thinker” and who is also the “great-granddaughter of British Chief Rabbi Joseph H. Hertz” and wife of BBC Director Danny Cohen.

1968(5th of Tishrei, 5729): Forty-eight year old Dr. Ruth Silbowitz Achs, “a Brooklyn pediatrician who did research on babies’ palmprints as a means of reveling birth defects” and who “was director of the pediatric clinic at Kings County Hospital, associate professor of pediatrics at the Downstate Medical Center in Brooklyn and adjunct pediatrician at the Jewish hospital of Brooklyn passed away today.

1969(15th of Tishrei, 5730: Sukkoth is observed for the first time under President Richard Nixon.

1970: Following a Syrian supported attack on Jordan that was thwarted by the threat of Israeli intervention, King Hussein was still forced to sign an agreement which preserved the right of the Palestinian organizations to operate in Jordan. For Jordan, it was humiliating that the agreement treated both sides to the conflict as equals. It also meant that Jordan would serve as a base of operation for Palestinian terrorists.

1970: Ninety-three year old Hermann Ludwig Mass “one of the Righteous Among the Nations” passed away today.

1970: Birthdate of Canadian sports journalist Elliotte Friedman.

1972: In Los Angeles, Bruce Paltrow and Blythe Danner gave birth to Gwyneth Paltrow.

1973(1st of Tishrei, 5734): Rosh Hashanah

1974: “Cinderella Liberty” an off-beat love story directed by Mark Rydell and co-starring James Caan, Eli Wallach and Allan Arbus was released today in Belgium.

1974: “The 100,000th Soviet Jewish immigrant since the Six Day War arrived in Israel.

1977(15th of Tishrei, 5738): Sukkoth

1977: “One Day At A Time” starring Bonnie Franklin began its third season on CBS.

1978: The Knesset approved the Camp David Accords with 84 affirmative voted, 19 opposed and 17 abstentions.

1979: The President’s Commission on the Holocaust established by President Carter and chaired by Elie Wiesel submitted its report today in which it recommended the establishment of “a memorial with three main components: a national Holocaust memorial/museum; an educational foundation; and a Committee on Conscience.”

1980(17th of Tishrei, 5741): Fifty-nine year old labor union executive and foreign service officer Harry Hamilton Pollak passed away today.

1981: The official Yugoslav press agency Tanjug reported that A hijacked Yugoslav jetliner with 101 people aboard landed in Cyprus early today after Israel refused to let the plane land in Tel Aviv as the hijackers had demanded. The Israelis had no idea what the terrorists were planning to do once they landed.

1982(10th of Tishrei, 5743): Two days after “400,000 marchers demanded the resignation of Prime Minister Menachem Begin, Yom Kippur is observed

1984(1st of Tishrei, 5745): Rosh Hashanah is observed as President Reagan and former Vice President Walter Mondale face off against each other in the run for the White Office.

1984: “The Journey of Natty Gunn” starring Meredith Salenger in the title role, featuring Verna Bloom, with a script co-authored by Andrew Bergman and with music by Elmer Bernstein was released in the United States today

1986: Premiere of “Amen,” a sit-com created by Ed Weinberger, the son of a Jewish butcher from Philadelphia.

1986: NBC broadcast the first episode of season two of “The Golden Girls” co-starring Beatrice Arthur and Estelle Getty.

1989: “C.H.U.D. II: Bud the C.H.U.D.” a comedy horror film starring Tricia Leigh Fisher, the daughter of Eddie Fisher and featuring Norman Fell was released in the United States today.

1989: In Rosh Hashanah Journey To Hasidic Master's Tomb,” published today which is quoted in its entirety below, Ari L. Goldman describes the Rosh Hashanah pilgrimage of Bratslav Chassidim to the tomb of Rabbi Nachman of Bratslav.

Shortly before his death in 1811, Rabbi Nachman of Bratslav, a Hasidic master known for his mystical teachings, asked his followers to come and pray at his grave each year on Rosh ha-Shanah, the Jewish New Year. The custom was carried on at his tomb in the Ukrainian city of Uman until the Russian Revolution in 1917. Since then only a few of his followers could make the pilgrimage. They are known as the ''Dead Hasidim'' because they follow a deceased leader rather than a living one. With the opening of the Soviet Union in the last year, however, the dream of many Bratslav Hasidim is being realized. One thousand are planning to make the trip to be in Uman for Rosh ha-Shanah, which begins at sundown Friday. About 100 Bratslav Hasidim left on a Pan American World Airways flight from Kennedy International Airport last night amid joy and expectation. 'Imagine the Anticipation' ''It's like a person who hasn't seen his father in 40 years,'' said Noah Steinberg, a lawyer who lives in Brooklyn. ''Imagine the anticipation we feel.'' Accompanying Mr. Steinberg was his 6-year-old son, Nachman, who is named in honor of the movement's founder. The boy's mother and younger siblings stayed home; the trip was for males only. ''They call us 'the dead,' but we are alive and well,'' said Lieb Berger, executive director of the World Bratslav Organization. ''And with us lives Rav Nachman, whose writings and teachings we follow always.'' Mr. Berger said there are some 3,000 to 5,000 Bratslav Hasidim worldwide, most in Israel. About 300 live in the United States and Canada. They differ significantly from the dozens of other Hasidic groups, each of which is centered around a single living charismatic leader, known as the Rebbe. A Rebbe's followers, known as Hasidim, visit the leader for advice on both personal and religious matters and try to spend the major holidays with him. The leadership position of Rebbe is usually handed down from father to son or other male relative.

Most Hasidic groups, which draw their names from towns in Europe where their ancestors settled, consider themselves disciples of the 17th-century founder of Hasidim, Rabbi Israel ben Eliezer, known as the Baal Shem Tov. He founded a Jewish revival movement that stressed joy in prayer and religious experience. Rabbi Nachman of Bratslav was the great-grandson of the Baal Shem Tov. Rabbi Nachman taught that God was inherent in everything in the world, including evil. Thus, he said, even the man steeped in evil could easily find the Creator and repent. Hope in Melody and Dance In his writings, he said the world was essentially a dangerous place where hope could be found in melody, dance, constant self-criticism and communication with the Rebbe, even in the grave. Rabbi Nachman died at the age of 38. His modern followers are among the most mystical and spiritual of Hasidim since they have no temporal leader. Among the followers are Jews who once experimented with the mysticism of Eastern religions. Mr. Berger, the director of the Bratslav organization, said the Soviets helped to arrange the trip, freely issuing visas and helping to insure that the travelers would arrive before the start of Rosh ha-Shanah. Most of the visitors will be sleeping on Soviet Army cots set up dormitory-style in an abandoned factory within walking distance of Rabbi Nachman's tomb. While some Hasidim brought their children, one, 35-year-old Aaron Pinter, brought his father. While the son was dressed in the black garb of the Hasidim and had a long red beard, the father was in a gray suit and was clean-shaven. The senior Mr. Pinter would not give his age, but said that he fled Poland as a young man and lived for eight years in Siberia before coming to the United States. ''I never thought I would be going back,'' he said. ''I am not a Hasid, but it took Rav Nachman to bring me back.''

1992: The Jerusalem Post reported that Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin warned that peace with Syria would not be possible without ceding some territory on the Golan Heights. He added, however, that he and his government opposed a total withdrawal.

1992: In Los Angeles, Ken Lerner and his wife Patti Klein gave birth to actor Samuel Bryce "Sam" Lerner.

1992:  The Jerusalem Post reported that President George Bush was expected to send his proposal for $10 billion in loan guarantees for Israel to Congress. The request was part of a package deal designed to move this request through the legislative process as soon as possible.

1992:  The Jerusalem Post reported that remains of a large Roman sport stadium from the Herodian period were discovered at the site of the ancient town of Caesarea.  Caesarea is on the Mediterranean.  It was built in Roman times because the Romans could not stand the heat of Jerusalem.  Its famous amphitheater has survived to this day.  The modern town of Caesarea is fashionable seaside place complete with seaside restaurant.

1995(3rd of Tishrei, 5756): Tzom Gedaliah

1995(3rd of Tishrei, 5756): Eighty one year old Moscow born Israeli composer Alexander “Sasha” Argov passed away today in Tel Aviv.

1995: Peggy Charren received a Presidential Medal of Freedom acknowledging her almost 3 decades of advocacy. Frustrated with the educationally anemic cartoons filling her children's afternoons, education advocate and founder of Action for Children's Television (ACT), Peggy Charren began to push television stations and law makers to demand and develop more diverse and stimulating children's programming throughout the industry. Charren began her career in television as the director of the film department at station WPIX-TV in New York City, but she became concerned about the lack of educational children's programming after the birth of her two daughters. In 1968 Charren founded ACT as a non-profit organization devoted to encouraging the development of a more diverse range of children's educational programming. Responding to the efforts of ACT, Congress passed the Children's Television Act in 1990, which required each station to provide programs created specifically to educate children.

1998: The New York Times book section featured reviews by Jewish authors and/or about topics of Jewish interest including Bridges Across Broken Time: Chinese and Jewish Cultural Memory by Vera Schwarcz, Marc Chagall: 1887-1985 by Jacob Baal-Teshuva and From the Ashes of the Old: American Labor and America's Future by Stanley Aronowitz

2000: John Patrick Kenneally (born Leslie Jackson) VC passed away today. Born in 1921, he was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. Soldier who deserted from the Gunners, joined the Irish Guards and won the Victoria Cross with them during the Tunisian campaign for repulsing an entire company of Panzer Grenadiers with a Bren gun. John Patrick Kenneally was an assumed name. He was the illegitimate son of a wealthy Jewish textile manufacturer in Manchester. His mother was an 18-year-old un-married daughter of a Birmingham pharmacist, who was disowned by her family. She changed her name to Jackson, and had her son christened Leslie.

2001(10th of Tishrei, 5762): Yom Kippur

2001: On Yom Kippur, Shawn Green sat out a game for the first time in 415 games, to honor the most significant holiday and donated his day's pay of $75,000 to a charity for survivors of the New York 9/11 terrorist attacks.

2003(1st of Tishrei, 5764): Rosh Hashanah

2003: In an article entitled “Temple Treasured Traditions: Jewish community has always been a part of Dubque” The Telegraph-Herald traces the history of the Jewish community in Dubuque which dates back to 1833 when Alexander Levi immigrated from France.  During the 1880’s Dubuque had as many as 150 Jewish families, today 26 families belong to Temple Beth El, a small but vibrant outpost of Judaism on the banks of the Mississippi River.

2004: An article entitled “Chinese city embraces long-exiled Jewish community” by Mark Magnier published today described the return of the Jews to Harbin after a half-century exile.  The city is so eager to have the Jews return that it is spending 3.2 million dollars to refurbish the city’s main synagogue.

2004: In Tel Aviv as part of the annual, global City in Pink lighting campaign for the breast cancer struggle, the City Gat Ramat Gan was lit completely in bright pink light.

2005: Ariel Sharon narrowly defeated a leadership engineered by Benjamin Netanyahu challenge by a 52–48 percent vote.

2005: The Jerusalem Post reported that the California-based West Coast Chabad's annual star-studded telethon had made a special appeal for victims of Hurricane Katrina. The lineup of stars asking for donations includes Academy Award-winning actor Jon Voight, California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and former Los Angeles Lakers basketball legends Kareem Abdul-Jabbar and Earvin "Magic" Johnson. The telethon raised six million dollars last year.  The annual event which is now in its 25th year brings together Hollywood celebrities including non-Jews as well as Jews.  This year, donors are being given the opportunity to earmark a portion of their donation for Hurricane Relief. Chabad has a long, proud tradition of nonsectarian crisis intervention. That tradition of service includes drug-rehab centers, soup kitchens, and aid for the homeless, Chabad day schools and counseling for state prisoners.

2006: The International Forum “Let My People Live!” will be held this afternoon, at the Shevchenko National Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre of Ukraine in Kiev. “The forum will follow the official ceremony in remembrance of Babi Yar’s victims at the Babi Yar Memorial.”

2006: Jerusalem District Court sentenced a Jewish settler to four consecutive life sentences plus an additional 12 years in prison for murdering four Palestinian men.

2006: Avner Shalev, Chairman of the Yad Vashem Directorate will speak at the Let My People Live! International Forum a two-day commemorative even marking the 65th anniversary of the massacre of the Jews at Babi Yar.

2007: Rachel Feller gives a talk on the book that she and Steve Feller wrote: Silent Witnesses: Civilian Camp Money of World War II at Clark Alumni House Coe College. The book is on money of the Holocaust.

2007: Publication of Fire in the Blood by Irene Nemirovsky

2007: A revival of David Mamet’s Pulitzer Prize winning play “Glengarry Glen Ross” opened at the Apollo Theatre.

2007(15th of Tishrei, 5768): First Day of Sukkoth

2007(15th of Tishrei, 5768): Rabbi Avraham Elkanah Kahana Shapira passed way today “Shapira was one of the founders of an organization that declared that handing over parts of the land of Israel to gentiles, even with a peace agreement, contradicted halacha and was therefore forbidden” (This ruling is confusing since Solomon, the king noted for his wisdom did exactly that as described in The Book of Kings.)

2008: In Nyack, NY, David Shire and Didi Conn performed at a benefit concert for Barak Obama.

2008: Israeli choreographer Noa Sagie brings her new creation, “Breath 22” to the Dumbo Dance Festival 2008 in Brooklyn, New York.

2008: Several Jewish authors appear At the National Book Festival including Ellen Birnbaum, associate director of the 92nd Street Y Nursery School, co-author (with Nancy Schulman) of Practical Wisdom for Parents: Demystifying the Preschool Years; Tony Horwitz, a Pulitzer Prize-winning former foreign correspondent for the Wall Street Journal and staff writer for the New Yorker,  author of  Blue Latitudes, Confederates in the Attic, Baghdad Without a Map and A Voyage Long and Strange: Rediscovering the New World ; Walter Isaacson the author of Benjamin Franklin:  An American Life,  coauthor of  Wise Men: Six Friends and the World They Made and Einstein: His Life and Universe; David Maraniss, an associate editor of The Washington Post, who won the Pulitzer Prize for National Reporting in 1993 and who wrote They Marched Into Sunlight: War and Peace in Vietnam and America, When Pride Still Mattered: A Life of Vince Lombardi, First in His Class: A Biography of  Bill Clinton and Rome 1960: The Olympics That Changed the World ; Daniel Schorr, former foreign correspondent for CBS News, a senior news analyst for National Public Radio, three-time Emmy winner, a Peabody award winner for "a lifetime of uncompromising reporting of the highest integrity," as well as the Alfred I. DuPont-Columbia University Golden Baton, the most prestigious award in broadcasting and author of Come to Think of It: Notes on the Turn of the Millennium.

2009: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Louis D. Brandeis: A Life by Melvin I. Urofsky, Beg, Borrow, Steal: A Writer’s Life by Michael Greenberg and Dancing in the Dark by Morris Dickstein.

2009: The Washington Post features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Monuments Men: Allied Heroes, Nazi Thieves, and the Greatest Treasure Hunt in History by Robert M. Edsel

2009: The Times of London featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Dogs and the Wolves by Irene Nemirovsky; translated by Sandra Smith.

2009: At Playwrights Horizons in New York City, the final performance of “The Retributionists,” a play that “fictionalizes the story of Abba Kovner, a renowned partisan who led other “Avengers” to fight Nazis in the ghetto of Vilna, Poland, then hid and resisted in the nearby forests until the end of the war” at which time he “hatched elaborate plots to punish ex-Nazis and, in fact, any German: hunting down and killing officers, poisoning the water supplies of major cities and fatally spiking the bread delivered to SS guards in an American POW camp in Germany. Later, Kovner would renounce revenge, become an acclaimed Israeli writer and found the Diaspora Museum in Tel Aviv.”

2009: Premier of The Cleveland Shown, a comedic creation of Richard Appel.

2009(9th of Tishrei, 5770): Eighty-one year old Donald Fisher, the founder of Gap passed away today.

2009 (9 Tishrei, 5770): Sixty-nine year old William Safire, the Nixon speechwriter who became the New York Times “conservative columnist” and who fancied himself to be a “language maven” passed away today.

2009 (9 Tishrei, 5770): In the evening, Kol Nidre

2009: The Yankees and Red Sox moved their game from the evening to the afternoon “following an outcry from Jewish fans.” (As reported by JTA)

2009: Iran test fired two short-range missiles as its elite Revolutionary Guards began several days of war games today on the eve of the Jewish holiday of Yom Kippur.2010: The first Kleztival is scheduled to end today in Sao Paulo. The event was held to mark the inauguration of the Instituto da Música Judaica Brasil, or Brazilian Jewish Music Institute.

2010: A majority of Israelis regard non-Orthodox converts to Judaism to be part of the Jewish people, according to a survey published today, putting the general public at odds with religious authorities.  The survey, conducted for Israel's Ministry of Diaspora Affairs, found that 63 percent of respondents believed those converted by non-Orthodox rabbis should be regarded as Jews. Some 30 percent believed they should not. The Shiluv pollster questioned a random selection of 507 Israelis and gave a margin of error of 4.5 percentage points. The issue came to the fore in July with attempts in Israel's parliament to pass a law that would have tightened the Orthodox-run rabbinate's control over conversions. The restrictions have angered the Reform and Conservative movements, which have large followings overseas but are relatively small in Israel. Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu intervened and forced a compromise to "preserve the unity of the Jewish people." According to the Orthodox interpretation of Jewish law, only a person born of a Jewish mother or converted according to Orthodox procedure can be considered Jewish. The bill touched on a deepening rift between the world's two biggest Jewish communities, as American Jews are increasingly influenced by intermarriage and loosening ties to tradition, while religious life in Israel has become dominated by the strict Orthodox establishment. The poll also found that 68 percent of Israelis said Diaspora Jews who intermarried should be regarded as Jewish, while 21 percent said they should not. Diaspora Affairs Minister Yuli Edelstein said he hoped the findings of the survey would bring the two communities closer together. "Maybe following this in the political system, we can convince more people that whoever chose to go through a conversion in their community overseas in a Reform or Conservative manner and chose to join us here, we should choose to bring them closer and not push them away," he told Israel Radio. "If we want to bring about unity ... we should not boycott or strong-arm anyone." Under the current practice, Israel only partially recognizes conversions performed by non-Orthodox rabbis inside Israel, while those converted by non-Orthodox rabbis outside the country are automatically eligible for Israeli citizenship like other Jews

2011: Paul Krugrman, the recipient of the 2008 Nobel Prize in Economics is scheduled to appear at the 92nd Street Y in New York City.

2011: The Jewish Museum in New York City is scheduled to offer tours of their permanent collection, “Culture and Continuity,” with a special theme for Rosh Hashanah.

2011: Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and the eight senior cabinet members decided tonight to support the Quartet's initiative for renewed talks between Israel and the Palestinians.

2011: A week after his speech supporting Israel at the United Nations, US President Barack Obama offered his annual Jewish New Year wishes today, stating that the US "will continue to stand with Israel because the bond between our nations is unshakable."

2011:  US President Barack Obama succeeded in reaching out to Israelis with his speech last week to the General Assembly and his efforts to block the UN from unilaterally declaring a Palestinian state, according to a Keevoon Research poll sponsored by The Jerusalem Post this week. When asked about the Obama administration’s policies, 54 percent said they were more favorable toward Israel, 19% said they were more pro-Palestinian, and 27% called them neutral.

2012: In London, a book launch scheduled for today at the Weiner Library will feature a discussion of Professor Phillip Spencer’s Genocide since 1945.

2012: In Washington, DC, the Men’s Club of Adas Israel will be looking for volunteers for the annual building of the congregational Sukkah

2012: Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu took aim at the Iranian nuclear program, saying that the regime was using negotiations to stall and urging clear "red lines" on its uranium enrichment.

2012: The government is obliged to prevent scenarios such as the current one in which Ma’ariv workers have not received payments owed to them by law, Knesset Economics Committee Chairman Carmel Shama-Hacohen (Likud) said today.

2012(12of Tishrei, 5773): Reuven Rahamim, the father of Sami Rahamim, was shot and killed along with five others at Accent Signage Systems in Minneapolis, the company he founded, by a former employee. (As reported by Kyle Potter)

2013(23 of Tishrei, 5774): Simchat Torah

2013: In the evening, Temple Judah is scheduled to host another Musical Shabbat

2013: Larry Paul and Robyn Helzner are scheduled to lead a Carlebach-inspired Kabbalat Shabbat service at the Historic 6th & I Synagogue.

2013: During a telephone conversation between the Presidents of Iran and the United States President Obama noted his concern about Robert Levinson's disappearance to Rouhani, and expressed his interest in seeing him reunited with his family.”

2013: On the 13th anniversary of the Arab terrorist pogrom known as the 2nd Infitada young Arabs threw stones following Friday prayers at police forces near the Damascus Gate in Jerusalem's Old City. One officer sustained light injuries to his hand. Border Guard officers dispersed the rioters with stun grenades, among other crowd dispersal means, and arrested four people

(As reported by Noam (Dabul) Dvir)

2013: Plans were announced today for convening of the largest delegation of Knesset members at an overseas location.  The MK’s will be joined by Holocaust survivors at Aushwitz-Birkeneau as they obersed International Holocaust Remembrance Day in January, 2014.

2014(3rd of Tishrei, 5775): Shabbat Shuvah – the fast will have to wait until tomorrow

2014(3rd of Tishrei, 5775): Ninety-three year old  Egyptian born French fashion designer Gaby Aghion, the widow of Raymond Aghion passed away today.

2014: Mark Weisman, the Hebrew Hammer, scored two touchdowns as he led Iowa to its first Big Ten Conference win of the season at Purdue.

2014(3rd of Tishrei, 5775): Forty year old actress Sarah Goldberg passed away today.

2014: “Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas who delivered an anti-Semitic diatribe yesterday at the UN “ didn’t submit a resolution to the UN Security Council seeking a three-year timetable for an Israeli withdrawal from the West Bank due to unspecified “technicalities,” a Palestinian source told Israel Radio Saturday.”

2014: Brooks Newmark, a Jewish Conservative member of parliament since 2005 announced his unexpected resignation on Saturday as a newspaper reported he had sent an explicit photo of himself online

2014: The 13th annual Daniel Pearl Day of Music in Taipei is scheduled to start at 2:00 p.m. and run through 9:30 p.m.

2015: The New York Times features books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including recently released paperback editions of Timeless: Love, Morgenthau and Me by Lucinda Franks and God’s Bankers: A History of Money and Power at the Vatican by Holocaust historian Gerald Posner.

2015: Michael Didra reviews the recently released “Complete Works of Primo Levi” a boxed set which he describes as “a literary treasury on humanity.”

2015: The Jewish Historical Society of Greater Washington is scheduled to host a free tour “of Jewish Downtown Washington” this morning.

2015: As part of its Historic Jewish Atlanta Jewish Tours, the Breman Museum is scheduled to host a tour of Grant Park, a “city land mark that was surrounded by a thriving Jewish community in the early 20th century” whose residents included Leo and Lucille Frank.

2015: Yael Melmede’s “The Truth Box” is scheduled to be shown at the New York Film Festival which ends today.

2015: The Washington, DCJCC is scheduled to host “Family Medical History Matters: Hereditary Cancer in the Jewish Community - A Conversation about BRCA1 & 2 Mutations.”

2015(14th of Tishrei 5776): In the evening Erev Sukkoth

2016: At the University of Iowa Hillel, Sammy Miller is scheduled to do “a workshop introduction on Son of a Cantor” demonstrating the impact of cantorial music on the works of Harold Arlen and Irving Berlin and their impact on the Great American Songbook following “an upbeat performance by “Grammy nominated Sammy Mill and the Congregation.”

2016: In response to call from Acheinu, a “Day of Jewish Unity” is scheduled to take place a day after the first U.S. presidential debates.

2016: The Center for Jewish History, Jewish Studies Program in the College of Arts and Sciences at Cornell University and American Sephardi Federation are scheduled to present “An Intimate Rivalry: The Jews and Classical Islam,” lecture by cultural Ross Brahn who “offers a rich and complex portrait of early Jewish-Muslim relations that is characterized by the creative dynamics of minority-majority interaction.”

2016 The Skirball Center is scheduled to host a “discussion on Genesis and beginnings as author/editor Beth Kissileff speaks with Dara Horn, Tobi Kahn, Joan Nathan and Dr. Ruth Westheimer,” the “renowned experts, who all contributed to Ms. Kissileff’s book Reading Genesis, and talk about Genesis through the lens of their particular field, sharing new and intriguing perspectives on one of our most essential stories.”

 

 

 

 

 

 

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