Monday, September 19, 2016

This Day, September 20, In Jewish History by Mitchell A. Levin


September 20

357 B.C.E.: Birthdate of Alexander the Great.  Alexander's eastern conquests would bring the Jews in contact with Greek Culture.  The conflict between Greek and Jewish values would become a dominant motif in Jewish history over the next several centuries.  The Jewish view of Alexander was positive, if somewhat idealized.

1187: Saladin begins the Siege of Jerusalem.  When the siege ended in October, the Moslems recaptured the city leading to the near collapse of Christian control in the Holy Land. Saladin allowed the Jews to return to the City of David from which they had been banned by the Christian Crusaders. (Did they realize that this meant Jesus would not have been able to live in Jerusalem?)  Saladin’s victory would lead to the Third Crusade.

 1540: The first auto da fe in Lisbon of those forcibly converted to Christianity (conversos) is held. The term auto da fe literally means act of faith.  In point of fact it was a public execution in the form of a burning at the stake.

1563: Maximilian II whose reigned was “a golden age for the Jews in Prague” becomes King of Bohemia

1590: French playwright and poet Robert Garnier, the author of Les Juives, passed away. “Les Juives is the moving story of the barbarous vengeance of Nebuchadnezzar on the Jewish king Zedekiah and his children. The Jewish women lamenting the fate of their children take a principal part in this tragedy, which, although almost entirely elegiac in conception, is singularly well designed, and gains unity by the personality of the prophet.”

 1701: In Great Britain, Bevis Marks Synagogue inaugurated.

“Situated in the City of London, just off the ancient thoroughfare of Bevis Marks, the Synagogue was opened in 1701 and the oldest still in use in Britain. Jews first arrived in England with William the Conqueror, but following an edict of Edward I, were expelled from England in 1290. For more than 350 years there were no Jewish communities or places of worship in Britain. In Catholic countries the cruelties of the Inquisition forced some Jews to convert outwardly to Catholicism whilst, in secret, adhering to the faith of their fathers. In the early 17th century some of these crypto-Jews, known as Marranos', came from Portugal via Hamburg or Amsterdam, to settle in the City of London. But they were still forbidden to practice their religion openly. In 1655 a group of such Jews addressed a petition to Oliver Cromwell, requesting freedom to worship and to re-admit Jews to England. Cromwell gave tacit approval and, as a result, in 1656 the upper floor of a house in Creechuch Lane (a stone's throw from Bevis Marks) was opened for use as a place of worship. Towards the end of the century a new synagogue was planned on the Bevis Marks site. Construction was entrusted in 1699 to Joseph Avis, a Quaker, and the building was completed in 1701 at a cost of £2650; it is said that Mr. Avis refused to make a profit from building a house of God and returned all surplus money to the Congregation. It is also believed that Princess (Later Queen) Anne presented an oak beam from a Royal Navy ship for use as a roof support for the Synagogue building. In 1992 and 1993 the Synagogue suffered great damage from terrorist bomb attacks on the City of London. Nearly £200,000 was raised by donation and has since been spent in repairing and renovating the structure to return it to its former glory. As it approaches its tercentenary, the Bevis Marks Synagogue appears much as it did on its opening day in 1701.”

1721: Thomas Dogget, the Anglo-Irish actor who played “the role” of Shylock “comically, even farcically” passed away.  (Dogget was one of a whole host of actors who played the role of the Jew without ever knowing any of them)

1725: In Moravia, a fine of 1,000 ducats “was imposed on anyone who allowed Jews to come into possession of real estate, particularly customhouses, mills, wool-shearing sheds, and breweries.” (As reported by Jewish Virtual Library)

1741: Handel completed the first act of “Samson,” a work based on the Biblical figure described in the Book of Judges.

1761: On the exact anniversary of the first auto-de-fe in Portugal, Gabriel Malagrida was burned alive on the Terreiro do Paço at Lisbon. He was to be the last victim burned in Portugal at any auto-de-fe.

1775: Maria Theresa issued an order allowing Jews to “keep tanneries” which was the third of three orders that would appear to show a desire to improve the economic conditions of the Jews

1779(10th of Tishrei, 5540): Yom Kippur

1779: Birthdate of Karl Streckfuss, the Prussian privy council who in 1833 wrote a treatise, “On the Relation of the Jews to the Christian States” in which he expressed reluctance “to recommend a universal emancipation because of the alleged moral and deficiencies of the common type of Jew. (As reported by Jacob Katz)

1789(29th of Elul, 5549): Erev Rosh Hashanah

1798(10th of Tishrei, 5559): Yom Kippur

1798: Birthdate of Philipp Freiherr von Schey Koromla, the native of Guns who became a successful businessman and was the first Hungarian born Jew to become a member of the Austrian nobility.

1800(1st of Tishrei, 5561): Jews observed Rosh Hashanah for the last time with a member of the Federalist Party serving as President of the United States.

1800: As of this Rosh Hashanah, Rabbi Nachman had returned from Palestine where he had lived since 1789 and had taken up residence in Zlatopol where the resident had asked him to name the leader for the High Holiday Services.

1800: Moses David Friedman, the son of Dawid Friedman and Rachel Friedman gave birth to Abraham Friedman.

1812: A.M. Rothschild is buried next to ancestor Iassk Elchanan who died in 1585.  Elchanan was the first one whose tombstone was marked with the emblem of a shield which gave rise to the Red Shield.

1817(10th of Tishrei, 5578): Yom Kippur

1817: In Bernberg, Saxony, Nathanael Reichenheim and Zipora Cäcilie Reichenheim gave birth to Ferdinand Reichenheim the husband of Fanny Reichenheim.

1819(1st of Tishrei, 5580): Rosh Hashanah

1838(1st of Tishrei, 5599): Rosh Hashanah

1838: Birthdate of Nathan Barnet, the native of Pozan who became mayor of Patterson, NJ and was a founder of the Miriam Barnet Hebrew Free School.

1847(10th of Tishrei, 5608): Yom Kippur

1848: Creation of The American Association for the Advancement of Science whose Jewish members have included Stephen Jay Gould, American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist and historian of science who served as the organizations president in 2000.

1850: “Emperor Franz Joseph remitted the war-tax today but ordered that the Jews of Hungary without distinction should contribute toward a Jewish school fund of 1,000,000 gulden; a sum they raised within a few years.”

1851: Birthdate of British playwright Henry Arthur Jones, author of “Judah” in 1890 and “The Triumph of the Philistines” in 1895.

1856: During the week ending today, of the 461 people who died in New York, only one of them died at The Jew's Hospital.

1863: During the American Civil War, the 15th Regiment Kentucky Volunteer Cavalry, a Union unit that had been formed under the command of Lt. Col. Gabriel Netter left Paducah, Kentucky, and headed for McLemoresville, Tennessee. (Netter was one of several Jews to serve as ranking officer in the U.S. Army)

1865(29th of Elul, 5625): Erev Rosh Hashanah

1865: Today's “City News” column reported that “This evening the series of annual Jewish holidays commences. The first of these is known as Rosh Hashanah, (the New-Year.) It begins this evening and terminates on Friday night. The origin of the festival is given in Leviticus xxiii., 23, 24, 25. Though not one of the three great festivals on which the male population of Israel was to appear before the Lord, it is nevertheless considered as one of the first among the principal holidays, and as such has ever been celebrated by the Sons of Jacob. A peculiar rite of this festival is the blowing of trumpets, and this is not only observed, but the hearing of the same is obligatory on all Jews. With this festival begins an era called the ten days of repentance, which is terminated by the Yom Kippur, (Day of Atonement.) This festival of New-Year is observed very strictly by the Israelites of this city, no business being transacted, and the synagogues being thronged by hundreds of devout worshipers.”

1869(15th of Tishrei, 5630): Sukkoth is observed for the first time during the Presidency of U.S. Grant.

1870: During the fight for the unification of Italy, Victor Emanuel seized the Capitol city of Rome. This victory would lead to the end of Rome’s Ghetto which had stood for three centuries.

1874: Vice President Jesse Seligman chaired today’s regular meeting of the Board of Trustees of the Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum Society of New York.  The trustees unanimously adopted a motion challenging the veracity of charges of mismanagement which had first appeared in the Era magazine and then were reprinted in the New York Times.  The motion referred to the charges as “false and malicious” stating that they were made out of “animosity and malice” aimed at the chief officer of the society.  The motion called for the establishment of an independent committee to investigate the charges and report on their “truth or falsity.”

1874(9th of Tishrei, 5635): Erev of Yom Kippur

1874: Dr. Solomon Adler, the senior rabbi and Dr. Gustav Gottheil, his assistant, will deliver sermons in German and English during the Kol Nidre Serve at Temple Emanu-el, the major Reform congregation in New York City.

1876(2nd of Tishrei, 5636): Second Day of Rosh Hashanah

1880(15th of Tishrei, 5649): Sukkoth

1881: It was reported today that 116 Russian Jews have left Antwerp bound for New York.

1881: Vice President Chester A. Arthur was sworn in as President following the death of President Garfield. In 1882, during Arthur’s single term as President, the United States finally ratified the Red Cross Treaty enabling the American Red Cross to join the international body.  President Arthur appointed Adolphus Simeon Solomons as one of three delegates to represent the country at the Geneva Congress, where he was elected vice-president. This was one of the earliest moves to give an American Jew a prominent position in public affairs. Solomons had been a driving force behind the creation of the American Red Cross.  It was at his home that a proposal was approved to form the Association of the American Red Cross and incorporate it in Washington, D.C. Solomons was born in New York where he began a printing business which he would later move to Washington, D.C. and expand into a full-scale publishing house. A Civil War veteran, Solomons worked to establish numerous institutions that would aide both the general population and the Jewish community.  He helped establish the first school for nurses in Washington and one of the first shelters for homeless men.  He helped to establish Mt. Sinai Hospital and the Russian Jews Immigrant Aid Society.

1883: Birthdate of Albrecht Alt, the German theologian who wrote “Israel and Egypt” as part of his doctoral and who served as the Provost at the Evangelical Redeemer Church in Jerusalem.

1884(1st of Tishrei, 5645): Rosh Hashanah

1884: In Leadville, CO, Temple Israel celebrated the Jewish New Year for the first time in its brand new building.

1984: In San Francisco, opera singer Julie Rosewald led the music service at Temple Emanu-El making her the first woman to perform the Rosh Hashanah liturgy.

1884: “Forced Out Of Business” published today, described the demise of Rindskopf Brothers & Co.  The company, which began operating in Cincinnati in 1854 before moving to New York in1866 was forced into bankruptcy by its inability to obtain financing during the economic downturn as well as its failure to change its business practices. Morris Rindskopf, one of the principles of the company, is a well-known philanthropist who is the treasurer of the Hebrew Orphan Asylum and the United Hebrew Charities neither of which are involved in nor threatened by the bankruptcy.

1885: “Dr. Pusey’s Daniel” published today provides a detailed review of Daniel the Prophet, a compilation of nine lectures delivered at Oxford by E. B. Pusey.

1887(2nd of Tishrei, 5647): 2nd Day of Rosh Hashanah

1887: Birthdate of Ette Levy who would be buried 73 years later in Natchitoches, LA

1888(15th of Tishrei, 5649): Sukkoth

1890: Birthdate of poet Rachel Bluwstein Sela, Zionist lyric poet known as “Rachel the Poet.”
She died at the age of 41. Flowers of Perhaps: Selected Poems of Rachel is an English translation of some of her works.

1890: In Vienna, a sub-Lieutenant started beating an old Jew before he was stopped by a Prussian officer who turned him over to a police officer.

1890: Misses Ella and J.M. Drefyus were among the passengers who arrived in New York aboard the SS La Champagne.

1890: “City and Suburban News” published today described plans that Anarchist Johann Most has announced for a mass meeting at the Labor Lyceum to be held on Yom Kippur designed to mock the Day of Atonement.

1891: Rabbi H. P. Mendes delivered the sermon at the dedicatory services for the new synagogue on Staten Island in Richmond Turnpike, Tompkinsville which were attended by approximately 350 people.

1891: In New York, the Addison Literary Society hosted a debate styled “Resolved that the civilized nations of the world should enter a protest against Russia’s barbarous treatment of her Jewish subjects.”

1891: In Milville, NJ, the lockout at the Flint and Green Glass Works of Whitall, Tatum & Co which came in response to a strike sparked by the employment 14 Jews entered its second day.

1892: In Zutphen, Holland, a Polish shoemaker and his wife gave birth to Joseph Lefkowitz who gained fame as Joseph Leftwitch, the Anglo-Jewish critic who was one of the “Whitechapel Boys”, the author of a biography of Israel Zangwill and the creator of the Golden Peacock.

1892: In Fort Worth, TX an unidentified Jewish merchant was accidently shot in the leg by Ollie Bowles who was trying to shoot the man who had just been acquitted of trying to murder him.

1892: An unnamed Jewish resident of Chicago wrote a letter to former President Grover Cleveland who was running for President expressing his gratitude for the statements of support for the Jews of Russia in the platform of the Democratic Party.

1893(10th of Tishrei, 5654): Yom Kippur

1893: The Hebrew Anarchist continued their tradition of mocking the observance of Yom by holdholding balls and enjoying other entertainments.  This year’s events were held at the Clarendon Hall where attendees paid fifteen cents to enjoy the speeches and merriment.

1893: Rabbi Louis Lustig and his congregation will not be worshiping at their usual house of prayer at 180 Rivington Street because of a fire that broken out at eleven o’clock last night after Kol Nidre Services.

1895(2nd of Tishrei, 5656): 2nd day Rosh Hashanah

1895: The Russian Jews who arrived in Norwich, Ct yesterday from Quebec and are planning to take a steamer to New York City that they are following this “round-about route…to escape the rigid Custom House inspection” that greets immigrants who arrive in New York from Europe.

1895: “Silver Dollar” Smith, a Jewish saloon owner and member of the Tammany machine went looking for William Smith in an attempt to get him to press charges against Martin Engel, a Tammany leader.

1896: A new Charles Frohman melodrama is scheduled to open in Boston today which will eventually be brought to New York

1898: Colonel Dreyfus was released from prison on Devil's Island. This is the famous Dreyfus of "The Dreyfus Fair" that rocked France and provided the impetus for Theodore Herzl to become the father of modern Zionism.

1898: Herzl began a journey that would take him to Paris, The Hague and London on business of the Jewish Colonial Trust (Bank).

1899: Birthdate of German-born American philosopher, Leo Strauss.

1899: French President Emile Loubet pardoned Dreyfus.

1899: In Kirchhain (Prussia), Hugo and Jennie Strauss gave birth to German-American political philosopher Leo Strauss

1899: After hiding out in a villa with his anti-Semitic comrades, Max Regis, the former mayor of the city and “a notorious Jew baiter” went into Algiers “stirring up anti-Jewish demonstrations, during which the windows of several shops owned by Jews were smashed.

1901: “New Jersey Honors President’s Memory” published today described services held in houses of worship all over the Garden State including the Camden’s Sons of Israel Synagogue attended by 500 Jews who heard speeches by Joseph Roterman , Frank Auerbach and Rabbi Leventhal from Philadelphia.

1902: Louis and Emma Sachs gave birth to Solomon Sachs who would be murdered by the Nazis at Sobibor.

1906(1st of Tishrei, 5667): Rosh Hashanah

1908: In Houston, TX, members of Congregation Adath Heshurun dedicated their new synagogue.

1911: In New York, a case of Jew versus Jew British boxer Matthew “Matt” Wells defeated World Featherweight Champion Abe Attell known as “the Little Hebrews” in a non-title bout.

1914: This afternoon, former Deputy Attorney General Maruice B. Bluementhal spoke at the Young Folks’ League saying that “Americans not only uphold neutrality but disapprove of the war in toto” yet “our hearts go out to three hundred thousand Jewish soldiers in the Russian Army, who having bled and suffered at the hand of their country on account of being Jews, are now suffering and dying for their country because, as Jews, they are loyal to the flag under which they live.  Theirs is a martyrdom which demonstrates the moral and intellectual superiority of the oppressed Jews over his oppressor.”

1914(29th of Elul, 5674): Erev Rosh Hashanah

1914: Tonight, at Temple Emanu-El Rabbi Joseph Silverman delivered a Rosh Hashanah sermon on the topic of “Peace” using as his theme the words of Isaiah,“Peace, peace to him that is far off, and to him that is near saith the Lord.”

1914: Cantor Epstein and Rabbi Straus officiated at tonight’s service at Adath Abraham Temple.

1914: Rabbi Samuel Schulman conducted services at Temple Beth-El on Fifth Avenue.

1914: Four thousand worshippers attended services conducted by Rabbi Jacob Tarlav of the People’s Synagogue which were held at the Educational Alliance building on East Broadway.

1916: After having referred Joseph Barondess’ motion that teachers and clerks be allowed to be “absent from their duties so they could observe Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur the New York City School Board was scheduled to hold a special meeting to decide on the request which had been watered down from “with pay” to “excused without pay.”

1916: Hugh M. Dorsey, the man responsible for the infamous prosecution of Leo Frank was told today by his chief support Thomas E. Watson that he was not to issue any statements in support of Woodrow Wilson.

1916: “Henry Morgenthau, former Ambassador to Turkey, explained” today ‘that this appeal for a ‘Ten Thousand Club,’ whose members were to contribute $1 each to a Woodrow Wilson campaign fund was not intended as a sectarian appeal to the Jews” and that publication of the appeal in Yiddish newspapers was just the first of many appeals that would be made in foreign language papers read by immigrants.

1917: Birthdate of Arnold "Red" Auerbach. This New York native earned as bachelors and master’s degrees from George Washington University.  Despite his father's initial lack of enthusiasm for his interest in athletics, Auberbach coached the Boston Celtics to nine straight NBA championships in the 1950's and 1960's.  However, sheer numbers do not do justice to the impact of this Hall of Fame coach.  During his career, the Celtics were the dominant force in professional basketball.  Auberach's Celtics were a force beyond the hardwood courts, as they provided a venue where African-American athletes could shine in a way not known before in American sport.

1918(14th of Tishrei, 5679): Erev Sukkoth

1918: M. Politis, Minister of Foreign Affairs, announces Greek governmental approval of the suggestion by Dr. Chaim Weizmann to the Greek representative in Egypt, that a volunteer military corps be developed for Palestine, from among the Jews of Salonica.

1918: During WW I, General Allenby’s forces entered the Jezreel Valley and began two days of fighting that would lead to the capture of Afula (later known for its Pistachio nuts) and Megiddo, the site of the biblical battle of Armageddon. [One can only wonder what the Jewish forces serving with Allenby felt as they trod this land on the eve of the holiday simply known as “The Chag.”]

1918: Birthdate of George Lachmann Mosse, the German born American cultural historian who co-founded “The Journal of Contemporary History.”

1923(10th of Tishrei, 5684): Yom Kippur

1924: In Manhattan, Alexander and Eugenia Moshinsky gave birth to Albert Eliot Moshinsky who gained fame as Albert Marre, the Tony Award-winning director. (As reported by Dennis Hevesi)

1925(2nd of Tishrei, 5686): 2nd day of Rosh Hashanah

1925: “The fourteen Yiddish theaters in Greater New York, opened the season of 1925-26 on the second day of Rosh Hashanah and all have played to capacity houses.”

1925: Birthdate of Eliezer Zborowski, the Polish born Holocaust survivor who started the American and International Societies for Yad Vashem (As reported by Douglas Martin)

1926: “The Ramblers,” a Bert Kalmar and Harry Ruby musical that featured such songs as “All Alone Monday” and “You Smiled at Me” opened at the Lyric Theatre.

1927:  Birthdate of Henry Taub a founder of the payroll company that grew into the global giant Automatic Data Processing, also known as ADP.

1928: Birthdate of Dr. Joyce Brothers who first gained national fame as a quiz show contestant on the "$64,000 Question."

1934: “Spring Parade” a comedy produced by Joe Pasternak and co-starring Franciska Gaal was released today.

1934: As his career was winding down featherweight Harry Blitman entered the ring for the 74th time and emerged victorious by a TKO.

1936:  In a time when most Jews were supporting FDR, friends of Republican Presidential candidate Alf Landon, expressed their gratification over a statement by Felix M. Warburg, New York banker and philanthropist, announcing his support for Governor Landon.

1936: “Christianity Is Held To Be Bolsehvistic” published today described how “the neo-pagan German Action is carrying our Chancellor Hitler’s attack against “Jewish bolshevism by arguing “that Christianity is also a Jewish product” because the “Jew’s Bible” which contains “numerous passages” that “are easily recognized as Bolshevist class theories” is the foundation of Christianity making it, like Bolshevism, a Jewish product.

1936: It was reported today that “the Polish Ambassador has informed the British Foreign Office that the population of his country is growing by 400,000 annually with the highest rate of increase among the Jews and that an outlet for them is much desired” which would explain why “Colonel Josef Beck, Polish Foreign Minister will be presenting a plan to the League of Nations calling for the emigration of 75,000 Jews annual from Poland to Palestine.”  (Editor’s Note – Lost among the Holocaust Histories is the reality of virulent anti-Semitism in pre-war Poland and the desire of the Poles to ride their country of the Jews which happened to be violation of the treaties creating the modern state of Poland.)

1936: “A campaign to raise $500,000 for the settlement of 1,000 European Jewish families in the Russian all-Jewish territory of Birbobidjan was announced” today “at a meeting of the American Committee for the Settlement of Jews in Birobidjan” which “was attended by delegates from 250 Jewish organizations and societies have a membership of more than 50,000 persons.”

1936: “Predicting a bloody conflict between believers in God and the forces of the anti-Christ, the Reverend Robert E. Woods delivered a message at high mass in St. Patrick’s Cathedral where he “warned Catholics, Protestants and Jews they must be prepared to take aggressive measures to defend their faith in ‘the one and only true God.’”

1937(15th of Tishrei, 5698): Sukkoth

1937(15th of Tishrei, 5698): Sixty-six year old Kuhn, Loeb & Co partner, Felix Moritz Warburg, the grandson of Moses Marcus Warburg “one of the founders of M.M and the husband Jacob Schiff’s daughter, Frieda whose philanthropy included leading the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee and the founding of the American Friends of Hebrew University passed away today.

1937: The Palestine Post reported that Egypt, in an outspoken declaration made by its foreign minister, Butrus Ghali Pasha, officially objected to any planned partition of Palestine. Butrus Ghali explained that Jews and Arabs, "both descendants of Abraham," had lived together amicably for centuries and could continue to live so in our own time and day.

1937:  The Post reported that Mr. K.W. Blackburne, assistant district commissioner for the North of Palestine, informed local mukhtars (village heads) that they would be held responsible for any terrorist activities which might take place within their territories. Whenever found guilty they would have to pay damages and defray the expenses of the special punitive police posts, established in their villages.  This tough talk was not backed up with action as the British government did little or nothing to put an end to Arab terror.

1938: “Father John LaFarge, an American Jesuit tasked with writing an encyclical for Pope Pius XI to condemn racism and anti-Semitism, turns his work over to Wladimir Ledochowski, the Father Superior of the Jesuits in Rome.”

1938: “The seven bishops of Austria, led by Cardinal Theodore Innitzer, Archbishop of Vienna, issue a letter complaining about that the relations between the Catholic Church and Nazi Party have not developed as they had originally envisioned.

1939: All radios owned by Jews in Greater Germany were confiscated.

1939: Today, the Evening Standard today published a cartoon depicting Hitler greeting Stalin after the invasion of Poland, with the words: "The scum of the earth, I believe?". To which Stalin replies: "The bloody assassin of the workers, I presume?";

1940: Breendonck concentration camp opens in Belgium.

1941(28th of Elul, 5701): Several thousand Jews, mostly women and children from Kovno, Lithuania, are executed at the local synagogue after being held there for three days.

1941(28th of Elul, 5701): Just 17 days after celebrating her 84th birthday, Emma Hays Eckhouse, the daughter of Abraham Hays and Fanny Kahn and the widow of Moses Eckhouse who was active in many civic and Jewish communal organization as can be seen by her service a volunteer probation office in the Indianapolis Juvenile Court and vice president of the Hebrew Ladies’ Benevolent Society, passed away today after which she was buried at the Indianapolis Hebrew Congregation Cemetery South

1941: Policemen in Kiev, Ukraine, adopt armbands identifying the wearer as a member of the Nazi-sponsored Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists.

1942(9th of Tishrei, 5703): Erev Yom Kippur

1942(9th of Tishrei, 5703): In Letychiv, Ukraine, the SS starts a two day murder spree that claims the lives of at least 3,000 Jews.

1943(20th of Elul, 5703): One thousand Jewish inmates of the camp at Szebnie, Poland, are trucked to a nearby field, stripped naked and executed with machine guns. The bodies are burned and the bones thrown into the Jasiolka River. Those who had been ordered to pile the dead bodies onto a pyre were then shot to death as well.

1943: Jacob Kapler, a Jew assigned to the body-burning detail at the Babi Yar, Ukraine, mass-murder site, finds a key that fits the padlock on a bunker in which he and other laborers are locked each night.

1944(3rd of Tishrei, 5705) Tzom Gedaliah

1944: The Jewish Brigade Group is formed by the British high command. After a long battle by Chaim Weizmann and Moshe Sharret, the British agreed to the establishment of a Jewish Army to fight alongside British troops. In all over 5000 people from pre-state Israel including many who had fled from Europe enlisted. Seven hundred of them lost their lives. After the war they formed the nucleus for those working to get Jews from Italy and the Balkans by legal or illegal efforts.

1944: Joseph Ratzinger, the future Pope Benedict XVI, joins the Whermacht

1945: The Jewish Agency for Palestine makes its first claim for restitution from Germany for crimes Nazis committed against Jews.

1945: Eleanor Roosevelt and Mrs. Henry Morgenthau, Jr. visited the refugee camp at Fort Ontario where most of the population was Jewish.

1946: In Haifa, Lilly and Eliyahu Goldenberg gave birth to David Goldenberg who gained fame as Israeli entertainer and television personality Dudu Topa

1947: Mayor Fiorello La Guardia passed away.  New York's "Little Flower" had an Italian father and a Jewish mother.  La Guardia never "traded on his Jewish origins" for political purposes.  At the same time, he suffered numerous times because of them.  For example, his career in the Foreign Service ended before it began, despite his linguistic skills, when it was explained to him that a Jewish parent would prove detrimental to his future.  He was the victim of numerous anti-Semitic slurs from political opponents.  At one point the Democrats ran a Jewish candidate against him thinking it would be to their advantage.  However, La Guardia (a Republican) had the last laugh when he challenged his opponent to a debate so long as the language of the match was Yiddish.  The opponent demurred because his linguistic skills were less than La Guardia's who then went on to win the election.

1950(9th of Tishrei, 5711): For the first time since 1945, the sounds of Kol Nidre mix with the sound of America at war – on the Korean peninsula.

1950: Orchestra conductor Serge Koussevitzky left New York on an Air France aircrafts on his way to Israel where he will conduct the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra.  “He will give fifteen concerts in Tel Aviv, Jerusalem and Haifa.”

1951: As the infant Jewish state copes with the economic challenges brought on by immigrant absorption and having to defend itself against a cordon of states dedicated to its destruction. David Horowitz presents Israel’s plans for dealing with the situation at the National Economic Conference at Washington, D.C.’ Shoreham Hotel.

1951: Jewish Film Distributors, local film distributors for Carmel Film of Tel Aviv has announced through Nathan Axelrod, head of the company that “Rebirth of a Nation,” a 90 minute documentary and first of a new series of Israeli made features will have its American premiere at the Stanley Theatre.

1951: In a speech given at the Jerusalem Shoe Company marking the end of Industry Week Israel’s Finance Minister Eliezer Kaplan announced “a program to mobilize $300,000,000 for new industrial projects in the next three years.  In his speech Kaplan declared, “Some think Israel needs pity.  But I say we need assistance.  We are building at a tremendous tempo and Israel is surmounting its difficulties.

1952(1st of Tishrei, 5713): Rosh Hashanah

1952: Birthdate of Randy Grossman who played tight end for Temple (where else would a Jewish boy play) University before going on to a career with the Pittsburgh Steelers with whom he earned four Super Bowl rings.

1953(11th of Tishrei, 5714): Seventy-four year old “Abraham Panken, a retired merchant” and “a vice president of the Greater New York Aid Society and the Council for Older People” “ who was a brother of Justice Jacob Panken and the father of former state Senator Harold Panken” passed away today.

1953: The New York Times includes a review of Saul Bellow’s latest novel, “The Adventures of Augie March “about “a West-Side-Chicago Tom Jones…of depression years with a ‘weak sense of consequence.’”

1955(4th of Tishrei, 5716): Fifty-eight year old Academy Award winning screenwriter and playwright Robert Riskin passed away today.

1955: CBS broadcast the first episode of “Navy Log” the anthology series that gave Don Devlin “his first acting role” and that featured theme music by Irving Bibo and Fred Steiner.

1956(15th of Tishrei, 5717): Sukkoth

1956: First appearance of The American Examiner which resulted from a merger of the Brooklyn Examiner and The American Hebrew

1959: In Cologne, the Roonstrasse Synagogue which was originally dedicated in 1899 and destroyed during Kristallnacht was reopened with a formal dedication ceremony today.

1959: Beth Shalom Synagogue, in Elkins Park, PA, was inaugurated, a few months after the passing away of the architect who designed it, Frank Lloyd Wright. The synagogue is considered a Wright masterpiece.  The synagogue would later be placed on the list of National Historic Landmarks.

1960: Pitcher Larry Sherry loses gives up two runs in the 9th as the Cards defeat the Dodgers 3 to 2.

1961(10th of Tishrei, 5722): Yom Kippur

1961(10th of Tishrei, 5722): Forty year old Andrzej Munk movie director and script writer died today  as a result of a car crash in Kompina, Poland in a head-on collision with a truck

1961: Birthdate of Lisa Allred Bloom, the daughter of Gloria Allred who followed in her mother’s footsteps by becoming a lawyer and television personality.

1963(2nd of Tishrei, 5724): Second Day of Rosh Hashanah – the last time that the Jewish New Year would be observed under the abbreviated presidency of John Kennedy.

1967: 20th Century Fox released “Two for the Road” which was produced and directed by Stanley Doan, the son of Jewish parents from South Carolina.

1970(19th of Elul, 5730): Sixty nine year old Arturo Rosenblueth, the Mexican doctor who was a pioneer in the field of cybernetics, passed away today.

1971(1st of Tishrei, 5732): Rosh Hashanah

1971(1st of Tishrei, 5732): Seventy-two year old Russian born American businessman and philanthropist Louis Schweitzer passed away today.

1972: In Jerusalem, one postal worker was injured by a letter bomb.

1972: Nobody was injured today when a letter bomb exploded in Tel Aviv.

1974(4th of Tishrei, 5735): Eighty-six year old Henry Austryn Wolfson “a scholar, philosopher, and historian at Harvard University, the first chairman of a Judaic Studies Center in the United States” passed away today.

1975(15th of Tishrei, 5736): Sukkoth

1975: On ABC, premiere broadcast the first episode of “Saturday Night Live With Howard Cosell” (not to be confused with the late night Saturday night program).

1976: In Washington, DC, of Joan Lurie (née Marx) and Eric Lawrence "Rick" Bernthal, a lawyer with Latham & Watkins LLP gave birth to actor Jonathan Edward “Jon” Bernthal, the brother of Nicholas and Thomas Bernthal and the grandson of Syracuse University basketball player and violinist Murray Bernthal.

1976(25th of Elul, 5736): Seventy-one year old Kermit Bloomgarden, the Broadway producer whose productions included “The Diary of Ann Frank” passed away today.

1976: CBS broadcast he first episode of season five of “Maude” a sitcom created by Norman Lear and starring Bea Arthur as Maude

1977: The Jerusalem Post reported that the military government destroyed a terrorist's house in Beit Hanina.

1977: CBS broadcast the first episode of “Lou Grant” produced by Gary David Goldberg.

1977: The Jerusalem Post reported from Washington that US President Jimmy Carter and Israeli Foreign Minister Moshe Dayan wound up their talks amid continuing differences between their governments on the question of the Palestinian representation at the reconvened Geneva Peace Conference and the establishment of new settlements in the administered areas. Israel announced that it would not soften its stand against the proposal allowing Arabs to attend the Geneva Conference in a single, unified delegation which might include the Palestine Liberation Organization. Given the distance of time, the Likud (Begin then; Sharon now) has certainly changed its stance on this issue.

1979: Assassination of French left-wing militant Pierre Goldman who had also been convicted of several robberies.  Goldman was the son of Alter Mojze Goldman, a Polish Jew who was active in the French Resistance during World War II.

1980(10th of Tishrei, 5741): Yom Kippur

1980: Avraham "Avi" Cohen, an Israeli playing football for Liverpool (UK) caused a stir when he played in today’s match with Southhampton which ended with a score of 2-2.  There were those who thought he should have followed in the footsteps of Hank Greenberg and Sandy Koufax and not played on Yom Kippur.

1981: Final performance of Hanoch Levine's ''Ya'acobi and Leidental,'' a contemporary Israeli comedy running at the La Mama annex

1982(3rd of Tishrei, 5743):Tzom Gedaliah

1984: NBC broadcast the first episode of “The Cosby Show” a sit-com created by Ed Weinberger.

1984: NBC broadcast the first episode of the third season of “Family Ties” a sitcom created by Gary David Goldberg.

1985: Birthdate of Canadian mixed martial artist Sarah Kaufman who has opted not to follow the faith of her father.

1990(1st of Tishrei, 5751): Rosh Hashanah

1990: NBC broadcast the first episode of season seven of “The Cosby Show” a sit-com created by Ed Weinberger.

1991: “The Fisher King” which marked the film debut of Dan Futterman was released today in the United States by TriStar Pictures.

1992(22nd of Elul, 5752): Seventy-nine year old sculptor Reuben Kadish passed away.  (As reported by Roberta Smith)

1994(15th of Tishrei, 5755): Sukkoth

1994(15th of Tishrei, 5755): Seventy-four year old Michael Dekel, the native of Pinsk who fought in the Red Army during WW II, before making Aliyah in 1949 passed away today.  An MK, he served in several different cabinet posts.
1996(7th of Tishrei, 5757): Eighty-three year old Hungarian mathematician Paul Erdős passed away today. (As reported by Roberta Smith)

1998: “The musical revival group 42nd Street Moon in San Francisco, presented a staged concert of Redhead,” “a musical with music composed by Albert Hague and lyrics by Dorothy Fields, who with her brother, Herbert, along with Sidney Sheldon wrote the book/libretto” for the last time tonight.

1998: Outfielder Gabe Kapler made his major league debut with the Detroit Tigers.

1998: The New York Times book section featured reviews by Jewish authors and/or about topics of Jewish interest including “The Brink of Peace: The Israeli-Syrian Negotiations” by Itamar Rabinovich.

1998: In “The Lost Tribe of Natchez,” Jennifer Moses describes the fate of the Jewish community of Natchez, Mississippi.

1999(10th of Tishrei, 5760): Yom Kippur

1999: Speaking at a high school in Des Moines, Iowa, Republican presidential candidate Steve Forbes and editor of Forbes magazine tells the students that the Ten Commandments should be displayed in all schools because they are "the basis for this civilization." “The Ten Commandments gave us Judaism from which flowed Christianity.”

2001: Twenty-six year old Sarit Amrani was shot by members of the Al-Aqsa Martyr’s Brigade.

2002: This afternoon, “the University of Tennessee will dedicate the newest addition to the Tennessee athletic complex, the Wolf-Kaplan Center” which “is named in honor of the two donors who made the lead donation to make the facility possible, Drs. Robert J. Kaplan and Rodney Y. Wolf, both of Memphis.”

2002: Ninety-one year old Necdet Kent, the Turkish diplomat, who while serving as vice-counsel in Marseilles from 1941 to 1944 risked his life to save Jews, passed away.
“When Kent heard that Turkish Jews who were living in France were rounded up by the Nazis, he personally went to the train station and demanded the release of all Jews who were Turkish citizens. According to Arnold Reisman, “When the guards refused to comply, he got into the wagon with them. A German officer ordered him to get off but Kent refused to leave unless they let his Turkish citizens off as well. Angrily, the officer said no, you can go with them and closed the door. After three hours of extreme cold and filth, the train arrived at the next station. Obviously realizing a possibly explosive international incident had to be quickly diffused, the German officer who opened the door to the wagon apologized profusely and allowed Kent to leave and take all the people in the wagon with him, never looking at papers, never checking to see if they were Turkish citizens or not.” He saved 80 Jewish lives.”

 2003(23rd of Elul, 5763): Eighty-nine year old Bernard Manischewitz, whose family name is synonymous with kosher food passed away today. (As reported by Douglas Martin)

 2005: Yedioth Ahronoth reported that that there is more ethnic diversity in the U.S. Jewish community than previously believed. New research finds 20% of Jewish America is ethnically and racially diverse; study shows increase in diverse Jews mirrors changing racial, religious character of America. New research debunks the commonly held view that America's Jews are a monolithic people of exclusively white European ancestry. In a new book scholar Gary A. Tobin and co-authors and show that American Jews are a multiracial people - perhaps the most diverse people in history. Of the nation's 6 million Jews, roughly 1.2 million, or 20 percent, consist of African-American, Asian-American, Latino, Sephardic (of Spanish and Portuguese descent), Middle Eastern, and mixed-race Jews. This minority within a minority is growing, and has the potential to change the traditional debate over the future of American Jewish life, the authors say. Prior estimates of the size of this community of Jews ranged between 10 and 14 percent.

2005: Rabbi Miri Gold, of the Birkat Shalom congregation in the Gezer community, who is a Reform rabbi, petitioned the High Court of Justice demanding that she be appointed to the official position of chief rabbi of her community. Gezer regional council already employs some 16 rabbis, whose salaries are paid for by the state. Rabbi Gold already acts as Gezer community's chief rabbi and provides religious services throughout the area. Gezer's official web site also acknowledges her as the official rabbi.

2005 (16th of Elul, 5765): Nazi hunter Simon Wiesenthal passed away at the age of 96.

2005: The Zionist Central Council of Greater Manchester presented the Herzl Award to Jonathan Hantman.

2005: Jonathan Letham received a MacArthur Fellowship

2005: IDF temporarily entered the northern Gaza Strip, constructing a buffer zone parallel to the border near Beit Hanoun before pulling out.[

2006: During the “Cash for Honors” investigation, Lord Levy (Michael Levy) was questioned for a second time and then released on bail. It would take another 9 months before that no charges would be brought against.  The wheels of justice grind slowly.

2006: Rabbi Sir Jonathan Sacks, the Chief Rabbi of the United Hebrew Congregations of the Commonwealth broadcasts his New Year message In A Strange Land on the BBC One

2006: In accordance with Herzl’s last request, his children, Hans and Pauline Herzl, are interred beside him in Jerusalem’s Ht. Herzl Cemetery.

2006: A bill introduced by Congressman Henry Waxman “that would lift the bank on federal money for subway tunneling in his district passed the House by a unanimous vote.

2007: Israeli Daniel Sharon is arrested in Lebanon on suspicion of involvement in murder and spying. Further investigation will establish that he is a convert to Islam and a self-identified homosexual.  He will be released in mid-October, 2007.

2007: An IDF Spokesperson's Unit video of St.-Sgt. Ben-Zion Henman, filmed only moments before the soldier was shot to death during operations in Nablus, was released.

2007: The 107th annual meeting of the Jewish Federation of Metropolitan Chicago was held today at the Hyatt Regency Chicago, 151 E. Wacker Drive, Chicago. Daniel C. Kurtzer, the United States Ambassador to Israel from 2001 to 2005 and current Commissioner of the Israel Baseball League, was the guest speaker. Midge Perlman Shafton, who has been active in the Chicago Jewish community for more than 30 years, was honored with the 45th annual Julius Rosenwald Memorial Award, the highest honor bestowed by the Federation.

2008: In Washington, D.C., journalist and philosopher Bernard Henri-Lévy presents the annual Gerald L. Bernstein Memorial Lecture drawn from his new book, “Left in Dark Times: A Stand Against the New Barbarism,” at the French Embassy.

2008: Selichot observances begin at Temple Judah with a wine and cheese reception and a viewing of the Israeli film, Joy, followed by services.

2008(20th of Elul, 5768): Eighty-five year old Russian history expert, Marc Raeff passed away today. (As reported by Bruce Weber)

2008 (20 Elul): Yahrzeit of Jacob Levin; gone from this world, but not from our worlds and our hearts.

2008 (20 Elul): In Manhattan, Joseph Shenker, who as the first president of La Guardia Community College in New York was a leader in having students combine on-the-job experience with their studies, passed away at the age of 68. For the last 13 years he was provost of the C. W. Post campus of Long Island University  and lived near the campus in Brookville, N.Y.

2009: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including “I Shudder: And Other Reactions to Life, Death, and New Jersey” by Paul Rudnick and the recently released paperback edition of “A Path Out of the Desert: A Grand Strategy for America in the Middle East” by Kenneth M. Pollack.

2009: The Los Angeles Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including “The Possibility of Everything" by Hope Edelman

2009: A memorial service was today to celebrate the life of the artist Julius Schulman whose last exhibition was at Craig Krull Gallery in Los Angeles.

2009 (2 Tishrei, 5770): Second Day of Rosh Hashanah

2009: IDF troops killed two Palestinian militants and wounded three in an incident along the Gaza border late this afternoon. The IDF said in a statement that a border patrol fired tank and artillery shells at a group of Palestinians seen planting a bomb at the Gaza border fence.

2010: Center for Jewish History, Center for Traditional Music and Dance and World Music Institute is scheduled to present a program entitled “The Hidden Musical Treasures of Romania.”

2010: Former President Jimmy Carter’s new book, White House Diary, which includes his criticisms of President Clinton’s and President Obama’s policies in Israel including the building of settlements on the West Bank is scheduled to go on sale today.

2010: The winner of the People’s Choice Award is scheduled to be named today by Sukkah City, an international Sukkah-building competition based in New York City that has pitted famous and not-so-famous architects against one another in an attempt to create deliberately temporary structures of beauty, art and artifice.

2010: New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg announced in a ceremony  that “Fractured Bubble” by Henry Grosman and Babak Bryan and “Shim Sukkah” by Tinder, Tinker had won New York’s first international succa design competition, winning the People’s Choice and jury prizes, respectively.

2011: An international conference on anti-Semitism that coincides with the 70th anniversary of the murder of 33,771 Jews at Babi Yar later this month is scheduled to take place in the Kiev today. It is part of a series of memorial services and conferences will be held across Ukraine over the coming month remembering Jews slain by the Nazis in the aftermath of Operation Barbarossa 70 years ago. The event, organized by the Inter-Parliamentary Coalition for Combating Anti-Semitism with the support of the Ukrainian parliament, is aimed at battling anti-Semitism and educating future generations against racism..

2011: “HaHov” (The Debt) is scheduled to be shown at the JCC in Manhattan.  This is the original Israeli film version of Hollywood film starring Helen Mirren which is called “The Debt.” Both films are based on a 1965 Mossad mission to capture a Nazi that does not succeed and that comes back to haunt the participants 30 years later.  According to at least one reviewers, the facts may be the same but the emphasis and treatment are different.

2011: Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said today at a Likud party conference that he is aware he will come under heavy pressure as he prepared to leave for New York. Netanyahu added that "it is much easier to win applause from world nations by extensive concessions we make, and then we see what we get.

2011: Ehud Barak has convinced Nigeria to not support the Palestinian statehood bid, a statement from the Defense Ministry reported today. 2012: Mish Galprin, author of Reimagining Leadership in Jewish Organizations is scheduled to deliver a lecture titled “Ten Practical Lessons to Help You Implement Change and Achieve Your Goals” in Washington, DC

2012: Iran deliberately provided false information about its nuclear program to Western investigators and the International Atomic Energy Agency, a senior Iranian official has confirmed.

2012: Steve Feller is scheduled to deliver a lecture titled “Light Fantastic: A Forum on the Understanding of the Nature of Light” at Coe College in Cedar Rapids, Iowa.

2012: In “NFL to honor NFL Films' Steve Sabol on Sunday” published today, Gregg Rosenthal described plans to honor the man whose cinema skills and foresight helped to popularize professional football.

2012: Sarah Silverman made a public service announcement (PSA) criticizing new voter identification laws that create obstacles to the ability of certain U.S. populations to vote in the November presidential election, i.e., young, old, poor, and minority citizens” that “was financed by the Jewish Council for Education and Research (JCER) and was co-produced by Mik Moore and Ari Wallach.”

2012: Support for President Barack Obama among Jews in the state of Florida is down 7 percent on 2008, according to an American Jewish Committee (AJC) poll released today.

2013: “Fill the Void” is scheduled to open in Boise, Idaho.

2013(16th of Tishrei, 5774): Second Day of Sukkoth

2013(16th of Tishrei, 5774): Tomer Hazan, a Sergeant in the Israeli Air Force was murdered tonight after being “lured to the village of Beit Amin by Nidal Amar.”

2013: In London, Dr. Robert Friedman is scheduled to lecture on the story behind his latest work, 28 Letters: The Short Life Of Renée (Baba) Friedmann On Not So Calm Waters

2014: As of today, Joan “Hamburg is heard on WABC-770 from 1 to 3 on Saturday afternoon.

2014(25th of Elul, 5774): Eighty-four year old actress Polly Bergen who converted to Judaism in 1957 passed away today.
 
2014: Rabbi Ari Israel, the Executive Director of University of Maryland Hillel is scheduled to speak on “Israel and Judaism: forming Positive Jewish Identities at Any Age or Stage.”

2014: Gidi Gov and Berry Sakharoff are scheduled to appear at the Phasa Morgana Festival.

2014: The Vengerov Festival, featuring its namesake violinist Maxim Vengerov who came to I

2014: “The daily L’Echo reported that “the Belgian authorities have prevented several attacks by jihadist fighters returning home from Syrian and by sympathizers with the Islamic State extremist group.” (As reported by Times of Israel)

2014: It was announced today, that “a large stalactite and stalagmite cave” has been “discovered in the Jerusalem hills” the location is being kept secret, so as to ensure the public does not enter before steps have been taken to ascertain how the ancient cavern and its formations can be preserved.” (As reported by Itamar Sharon)

2014: An Israeli drone crashed in southern Lebanon near the border between Israel and Lebanon.

2014: Zemer Chai joined with the clergy of six Maryland synagogues in a unique community Selichot service, in partnership with the Jewish Community Center of Greater Washington.

2015: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Court and The World: American Law and the New Global Realities by Stephen Breyer, Sisters In Law: How Sandra Day O’Connor and Ruth Bader Ginsburg Went to the Supreme Court and Changed the World by Linda Hirshman and The Social Sex: A History of Female Friendship co-authored by Marilyn Yalom

2015: Hungarian natives and Holocaust survivors Eva and Les Aigner are scheduled to deliver a lecture on their experiences at the George R. White Library on the campus of Concordia University.

2015: The YIVO Institute for Jewish Research is scheduled to host “Both Ground and Plow: Looking for Vilna” during which Rita Gabis will discuss “her quest to recover Vilna through poetry and personal memory.”

2015: The Jewish Community Center of Northern Virginia is scheduled host two former members of the House of Representatives speaking on “The Partisan Divide: Congress in Crisis.”

2015: In Cedar Rapids, IA, Rabbi Todd is scheduled to begin teaching Temple Judah’s first ever class in “Biblical Hebrew.”

2015: At the Jewish Museum, “Revolution of the Eye: Modern Art and the Birth of American Television” is scheduled to come to a close today.

2015: The by American Jewish Historical Society, American Sephardi Federation, in partnership with the Mizrahi Film Series, the Taub Center for Israel Studies, the Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies Department, and the Kevorkian Center for Near Eastern Studies, New York University are scheduled to host a “reading, screening and discussion to celebrate the publication of Yitzhak Gormezano-Goren’s Alexandrian Summer in English, and Amit Goren’s film premiere of Alexandrian Summers Again and Forever.”

2015: The Toronto International Film Festival which has included screenings of “Rabin, The Last Day,” Ido Haar’s documentary “Thru You Princess,” “Demolition” starring Jake Gyllenhaal and “Spotlight” starring Leiv Schreiber” is scheduled to come to a close today.

2015: Andy Samberg is scheduled to serve as m. c. of tonight’s 67th Annual Primetime Emmy Awards.

2016: The Jewish Historical Society of Greater Washington is scheduled to conduct a noontime walking tour of “Jewish Downtown Washington.”

2016: A-WA “an Israeli band made up of the three sisters Tair, Liron, and Tagel Haim” is scheduled to perform at “The Knitting Factory.”

2016: The Oregon Jewish Museum and Center for Holocaust Education is scheduled to host a talk “by Suzanne Hertzberg, the author of Katherine Joseph: Photographing an Era of Social Significance as part of the opening the exhibition “Secrets of the Greatest Generation: Stories Our Mothers Never Told Us.” 2016: “Defying the Nazis: The Sharps' War,” a new film directed by Ken Burns and Artemis Joukowsky is scheduled to shown on PBS at 9 pm EDT and 8 pm CDT.

 

 

 

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