Sunday, September 18, 2016

This Day, September 19, In Jewish History by Mitchell A. Levin


September 19

335: Dalmatius is raised to the rank of Caesar by his Uncle Constantine I who had turned the Roman Empire into a Christian entity.  Following the death of Constantine, his successor Constantius II reportedly had Dalmatius murdered along with other members of his family whom he considered a threat to his rule.  Constantinus consolidation of power was not a good thing for the Jewish people because he was responsible for a whole series of laws and regulations that were “explicitly anti-Jewish.” 

1187: Saladin breaks Camp at Ascalon, and moves towards his ultimate goal of taking Jerusalem

1356: The English decisively defeated the French, led by King John II at the Battle of Poitiers.  The English captured the French king and held him for ransom.  The Dauphine, the future King Charles V, served as regent during his father’s imprisonment.  He authorized the return of the Jews to France “in order to use the taxes to enable him to pay his father's ransom.”  When he assumed the throne, Charles V would continue to honor the promises he had made to the Jews during his regency. 

1590(20th of Elul): Today three years before he passed away, Moshe Alshich granted smichah to Chaim ben Joseph Vital.  Alshcich was born in Turkey in 1508 but settled in Safed where he was a disciple of Rabbi Joseph Caro.

1590(20th of Elul): “Rabbi Judah Arye Moscato…whose principle fame rests on his exegesis, Kol Yehuda of Al Charzari, which was printed for the first time in Fano, Italy in  passed away today

1635(7th of Tishrei): Gitele Loew the wife of Rabbi Simon Brandeis and the mother of Rabbi Samuel Brandeis passed away today in Prague.

1657: During the Swedish invasion of Poland, a period called the Deluge, the Polish king gives up his claims over Prussia in return for aid in fighting the forces of Charles X, the Swedish monarch. This was a period of great suffering for the Jews of Poland who treated badly by the invading Swedes and treated even worse by the various Polish military forces. 

1659: Tobiah Bacharach and Israel ben Shalom were executed today on an accusation of ritual murder.

1724(2nd of Tishrei, 5485): Gluckel of Hamelin passed away

1759: Birthdate of French banker Olry Hayem Worms, whose first wife was Blumele Levi and whose second wife was Flore Zacharie.

1777: During the American Revolution, the First Battle of Saratoga begins.  The victory at Saratoga was critical because it brought the French into the war on the side of the Americans. Colonel David Salisbury Franks, the highest ranking Jewish officer in the American Revolution distinguished himself during this pivotal battle in American history.

1785(15th of Tishrei, 5546): Sukkoth

1798(9th of Tishrei, 5559): As the naval forces of the Second Coalition assert their control over the Mediterranean in their on-going fight with Napoleon, Jews on both sides hear the chanting of Kol Nidre this evening. 

1807: In Charleston, SC, Isaac Da Costa married Miss Jane Samuel.

1812 (13th of Tishrei, 5573): A.M. Rothschild passed away.

1816: In London, Sir Isaac and Isabel Goldsmid gave birth to their second daughter Rachel who became Countess D’Avigdor when in June, 1840 she married Count Salamon Henri D’Avigdor whose father was a member of Napoleon’s Sanhedrin.

1827: Birthdate of Leo Herzberg-Frankel who worked as the chief clerk of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry in his native Brody for 40 years while he pursued his literary career.

1838: Birthdate of General Charles Gones who “when confronted with overwhelming evidence that Ferdinand Walsin Esterhazy was guilty of the espionage that Alfred Dreyfus had wrongfully been convicted of, Gonse simply overlooked it and refused to recognize Dreyfus's innocence.”

1841: In Cincinnati, Ohio, German Jewish immigrants organized Congregation B’nai Yeshurun

1842(15th of Tishrei, 5603): Sukkoth

1847(9th of Tishrei, 5608): Jews living in California hear Kol Nidre for the first time this evening as citizens of the United States as a result of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

1847: François Guizot became Prime Minister of France under King Louis Philippe I

1849(3rd of Tishrei, 5610):Tzom Gedaliah

1857(1st of Tishrei, 5618): Rosh Hashanah

1857: The New York Times reports on the dedication of a “House of Israel,” a new synagogue in Baltimore, MD “where the ladies of the congregation established a free school for religious instruction.”

1857: Hermann Mayer Salomon Goldschmidt discovered Asteroid 48 Doris.

1857: Hermann Mayer Salomon Goldschmidt discovered Asteroid 49 Pales.

1859: George Bush “an American biblical scholar, pastor, abolitionist and Christian Restorationist academic” passed away. Bush, who is reportedly related to the two Americans of that name “published a book entitled ‘The Valley of Vision; or, The Dry Bones of Israel Revived’” in 1844. “In it he denounced “the thralldom and oppression which has so long ground them (the Jews) to the dust,” and called for “elevating” the Jews “to a rank of honorable repute among the nations of the earth” by re-creating the Jewish State in the land of Israel. This, according to Bush, would benefit not only the Jews, but all of mankind, forming a “link of communication” between humanity and God. “It will blaze in notoriety...". “It will flash a splendid demonstration upon all kindreds and tongues of the truth.”

1861(15th of Tishrei, 5622): Sukkoth (I can find no record of a Sukkah being built by either Union or Confederate troops.)

1862: During the Civil War, Philadelphian Henry Straus began serving as the Assistant Surgeon in the 150th Regiment popularly known as the “Bucktail Regiment.”

1862: Federal forces under the command of Lt. Colonel Gabriel Netter clashed with a much larger force of Confederates near Owensboro.  Netter refused to surrender and was killed during the ensuring clash. Netter was one of the many Jews who served in the Union Army during the Civil War.

1863:  During the Civil War, Union and Rebel forces clash at the Battle of Chickamauga. Frederick Kneffler was cited for bravery at the battle of Chickamauga. This Jewish resident of Indianapolis, attained the rank of Major General while commanding the 79th Indiana

1864: A citation awarding the Medal of Honor to Corporal Isaac Gause, was issued today for his valor on the battlefield on September 13. The citation was issued to the Jewish trooper serving with Company, 2nd Ohio Cavalry “Capture of the colors of the 8th South Carolina Infantry while engaged in a reconnaissance along the Berryville and Winchester Pike.”  This would have meant that Gause was serving in the Army of the Shenandoah under the command of General Philip Sheridan.  The campaign successfully drove the Rebels from the Shenandoah Valley which was a key source of supply for the Confederate Army.  Capturing another unit’s colors was the epitome of success and called for unusual bravery because in those days military units fought ferociously to avoid having their flags captured.

1866(10th of Tishrei, 5626): Yom Kippur

1866: An article entitled “Yom Kippur” published today states thatYesterday at sunset began the most important of all Jewish” festivals “that of the ‘Yom Kippur,' or Day of Atonement--a feast which is more generally observed by the Hebrew race throughout the world than any other of their numerous festivals.”

1868: When the Battle of Beecher Island came to an end Sigmund Shlesinger a native of Hungary serving with Forsyth’s Company of Scouts was among the survivors.

1870: The Italian Army laid siege to Rome, the capital of the Papal States.  The one day siege would prove successful.  Rome would become the capital of a newly unified Italian nation.  And Italy would go from one of the worst places in Europe for Jews to live to one of the best.

1870: In New York City, Marcus Witmark and Henrietta Peyser gave birth to Julius P. Witmark, the husband of Carrie J. Rosenberg who sang as a “boy soprano” until the age of 15 and later joined the family firm of M. Witmark and Sons, Music Publishers.

1875: “Whitewashing Shylock” published today  provides a refreshingly different view of the famed character from the “Merchant of Venice.”  The real villains are Antonio, the Merchant of Venice who was “humbug and a tuft-hunter” who falsely portrayed himself as a man of wealth and Bassanio.  They sought to cheat Shylock and use the fact that he was a Jewish moneylender to their advantage. The only weapon left to Shylock was cunning which “he sharpened up for this occasion.

1876(1st of Tishrei, 5637): As the United States celebrates its centennial, Jews observe Rosh Hashanah

1879(2nd of Tishrei, 5640): Second Day of Rosh Hashanah

1879: In New York City, Nathan Strauss and Minnie Gladken gave birth to illustrator Malcolm Atherton Strauss whose works appeared in numerous publications including Life magazine and the New York Herald.

1881: It was reported today a committee of Jews representing communities all over Russia has arrived in St. Petersburg with the hopes of meeting with the Minister of Interior. They plan to present him with a petition asking for “an official public declaration of liberty for all creeds and suspension…of the laws sanctioning the expulsion of Jews from certain localities.

1881: President James Garfield dies from an assassin’s bullet. Garfield was shot by a disgruntled office seeker named Charles Guiteau.  This brought the long simmering battle over political patronage jobs in the federal government to a boil.  Garfield’s death provided the impetus for the passage of the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act.  The Pendleton Act created a system of federal service positions that were filled based on merit not political patronage.  This civil service system based on ability would provide career opportunities to future generation of Jewish professionals.

1881: In Schenectady, NY “Isaac Levy, wholesale liquor dealer, and Lewis Behr, tailor, draped their shops in black for the fallen president” James Garfield.  Jews had already expressed their sorrow by holding special prayer services at Gates of Heaven when the President had been shot. (As reported by the Schenectady County Historical Society)

1884(29th of Elul, 5644): Erev Rosh Hashanah

1884(29th of Elul, 5644): In Leadville, CO, Rabbi Sachs, a recent graduate of Hebrew Union College led the services dedicating the new building that would house Temple Israel.

1884(29th of Elul, 5644):  Forty-four year old attorney and author Leon da Silva Solis-Cohen, the son of Myer David Cohen and Judith Simha Solis, the husband of Lucia Mannes Ritterband and veteran of the Keystone Battery who was medically discharged from the Union Army passed away today

1884: One of the major wholesale houses in the clothing trade – Rindskopf Brothers & Co – failed today.  Simon Rindskopf, Morris Rindskopf, Raphael Buchman and Jacob Rosenthal, the company’s partner “filed an assignment in the County Clerk’s office for the benefit of their creditors.”

1885(10th of Tishrei, 5646): Yom Kippur

1885: Birthdate of Richard Lert, the Austrian born American “music director and conductor of the Pasadena Symphony and co-founder of the Music Academy of the West in California” who was the brother of “stage director Ernst Lert.”

1885: Rabbi Gottheil will deliver the Yom Kippur sermon at Temple Emanu-El

1885: Rabbi H. P. Mendes will deliver the Yom Kippur sermon at the 19th Street Synagoue.

1885: Rabbi De Sola Mendes will deliver the Yom Kippur sermon at Shaary Tefila

1885: Rabbi Kohut will deliver the Yom Kippur sermon at Ahavas Chesed

1885: Rabbi Henry S. Jacob will deliver the Yom Kippur sermon at the Madison Avenue Synagogue.

1885: Rabbi I.C. Noot will deliver the Yom Kippur sermon at B’nai Israel on east 4th Street in New York City.

1886: Three hundred Romanian Jews arrived in New York aboard the SS Egypt.

1887(1st of Tishrei, 5648): Rosh Hashanah

1887: Rabbi Gottheil is scheduled deliver the Rosh Hashanah sermon at Temple Emanu-El

1887: Rabbi H. P. Mendes is scheduled to deliver the Rosh Hashanah sermon at the 19th Street Synagogue

1887: Rabbi De Sola Mendes is scheduled to deliver the Rosh Hashanah sermon at the 44th Street Synagogue

1887: Rabbi Henry S. Jacobs is scheduled to deliver the Rosh Hashanah sermon at the Madison Avenue Synagogue. The sermon will be based on the text “Not unto us, O Lord, not unto us, but unto Thy name give glory, for Thy mercy, and for thy truth’s sake.”

1887: Rabbi Kohut scheduled to deliver the Rosh Hashanah sermon at Ahavas Chesed.

1889: “A Library’s Record” published today provides a description of the success enjoyed by the Maimonides Library which was established by B’nai B’rith in New York.  In the past year, the library has acquired 2,781 volumes bringing its total collection to 32,326 books.  The percentage of books in circulation has increased from 32 per cent to 37 per cent.

1890: Benston Fuerstenbaum, who had spent the last three months in jail on charges of breach of contract reluctantly, married Goldie Fromner in City Court which had been decked out with a Chupah under which a rabbi performed the ceremony.

1890: In Brooklyn Police Commissioner Hayden promised a group of “prominent” Jews that he would “have a force of police on hand to keep anarchist Johann Most within bounds” during the protest he is planning on holding on Yom Kippur.

1891: Aaron Jatkowski is being held on charges of having assaulted Charles Lieberman when the latter sought to stop a drunken party at the synagogue in Newark, NJ

1891: Several Jewish families moved away from Milville, NJ, today as the strike called because Flint and Green Glass Works had hired 14 Jews worsened.

1892: Alexander Berkman who was being tried for having attempted to assassinate Henry Clay Frick and who was serving as his own lawyer was brought to the courtroom where he discovered that the jury had already been empaneled thus depriving of him a chance to question those who would sit in judgment on him.

1892: “The Leonard Wing” of the Republican Party in New Orleans nominated attorney Morris Marks who has been head of the Hebrew Widows and Orphan’s Home to run against Captain Burr Wood, the handpicked candidate of former Governor Warmoth.

1892: Birthdate of life long New York, the law school graduate turned composer and songwriter whose hits included “I’m Gonna Sit Right Down and Write Myself a Letter,” “Walking My Baby Back Home” and “Where the Blue of the Night Meets the Gold of the Day.”

1893(9th of Tishrei, 5654): Kol Nidre

1893: “Rabbi Louis Lustig and a score of laymen” escaped to safety when a fire broke out on the second floor of a frame building at 180 Rivington Street where they had been conducting Yom Kippur services.

1893: A group of Jewish anarchists calling themselves the “Gruppe Proletariat” began a 24 hour vigil at the Clarendon Ballroom where they spent much of their time giving speeches denouncing “religion in general and” Judaism in particular. 

1894: Birthdate of Dov Hoz, the native of Orsha who made Aliyah in 1906 and who a leading labor Zionist, founder of the Haganah and the founder and CEO of "Aviron," a pioneer of aviation in Israel that trained pilot and established flight lines in Israel and outside.

1895: According to a list published today, the following charities each received a bequest of 100 dollars from the late Mrs. Rebecca Kastor: Mount Sinai Hospital, Hebrew Benevolent and Orphan Asylum, Home for Aged and Infirm Hebrews, Hebrew Free School Association, the Ladies Bekuscholm Society and the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society.

1895(1st of Tishrei, 5656) Rosh Hashanah

1895: Approximately 200 Russian Jews arrived in Norwich, CT having traveled there from Liverpool via Quebec.

1898: “Anti-Semitic Movement Threatening In Algeria” published today described the attempts undermine the well-being of the Jewish community there including the rising influence of Édouard Adolphe Drumont, the founder of the Anti­-Semitic League of France and the plans of the new Governor  “to suppress the Jewish Consistories in Algeria.”

1898: Stanford E. Moses who had served as Assistant Engineer aboard the U.S.S. Brooklyn during the Spanish-American War was promoted today Passed Assistant Engineer and assigned to the U.S.S. Oregon.

1899: L'Osservatore Romano, the Vatican's official newspaper, runs a story about a Christian boy found dead in Hungary, his blood drained out by Jews who wanted it for their ghastly, superstitious rituals

1899(15th of Tishrei, 5660): Sukkoth

1899: Sixty-six year old Auguste Scheurer-Kestner, the French Protestant political leader who became a staunch defender of Dreyfus passed away today

1899: Following a passionate campaign by his supporters, including leading artists and intellectuals like Émile Zola, Dreyfus was pardoned by President Émile Loubet and released from prison

1899: “The mass meeting that is being organized by Maurice Blumenthal…’to protest against the action of the Dreyfus court-martial and to have the wrong right’” which will include speeches by Jews and non-Jews is scheduled to be held this evening at Cooper Union.

1899: Eighty-two year old Charles Patrick Daly, author of The settlement of Jews in North America, passed away today.

1901:  Birthdate of Hungarian born, American movie producer Joseph Pasternak. His more than ninety movies include Anchors Away and Date With Judy.

1901: As memorial services were held today for the late President William McKinley, approximately five hundred Jews attended services at the Sons of Israel Synagogue, where Rabbi Leventhal led prayers for Teddy Roosevelt who was now President of the United States.

1901: In Charleston, SC, Rabbi B.A. Elzas officiated at the wedding of Sam T. Weil and Hattie Sternberg.

1903(27th of Elul, 5663): Seventy year old German Jewish businessman Ernst Jacob Oppert best known for his attempt to use the remains of deceased Korean to create a business advantage, passed away today.

1904(10th of Tishrei, 5665): Yom Kippur

1904: Birthdate of Avot Yeshurun, a Ukrainian born “Israeli poet who wove Arabic and Yiddish idiom into a unique and influential form of Hebrew verse.”

1905: In Zurich communist writer Erich Vallentin and his wife gave birth to Judith Vallentin who as Judith Auer would become a fighter against the Nazis – a stance for which she would be hung in 1944.

1909: Birthdate of Richard Edward “Dick” Fishel, the star University of Syracuse football player who went to play for the Brooklyn Dodgers, a team in the NFL.

1910: In New York City, Bessie Ida Ginsberg and movie producer Jesse Lasky, Sr. gave birth to author Jesse L. Lasky, Jr.

1908: Birthdate of Victor Frederick Weisskopf an Austrian-born Jewish American theoretical physicist who worked on the Manhattan Project and then later worked to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons.

1911: An agreement was reached that ended the strike of garment makers guaranteeing that high fashioned clothing will be available for the fall and winter seasons.  The employers were represented by Julius Henry Cohen and the workers were represented by Meyer London.  Men of the quality of Louis Brandeis and Louis Marshall will serve on the Board of Arbitration established by the settlement.

1911: In London, England the Behtnal Green Board of Guardians reverses its previous decision to reject the bid of Jewish contractors, but the Jews decided not to accept the contract.

1912(8th of Tishrei, 5673): Mrs. Lina Scheindling passed away today.

1913: David and Eva Cohen, both of whom were buried in the Ahavash Sholom cemetery in Baltimore County, MD, gave birth to Aaron Cohen

1915: It was reported today Leon Sanders of President of the Hebrews Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society had spoken at the afternoon Yom Kippur service being held for 100 Jews at the immigration station on Ellis Island on the topic “The Od World and the New.”

1916: It was reported today that the Federation for the Support of Jewish Philanthropic Societies “was organized recently for the purpose of collecting and receiving donations for member society or for equitable distribution among them, it being the idea of the organizers that more could be obtained for philanthropic work through a pooling of interests and that the distribution of benefits would be more businesslike.”  (Editor’s Note – sounds like a one hundred year old description of the reasons for the existence of United Way.)

1916: In New York, Dr. Rachmiel Auerbach, and, Sonia Lubove Kamenetsky, a feminist and Labor Zionist gave birth to Hilda Auerbach who gained fame as poet Hilda Morely

1917(3rd of Tishrei, 5678): Tzom Gedaliah

1917: Anti-Jewish riots in Tunis cause five Jews to be injured, and their shops pillaged and vandalized.

1917: Furloughs granted to U.S. soldiers and sailors so that they could observe the Jewish New Year came to an end.

1918: The British under General Allenby began the last major offensive against the Turks in that part of the Ottoman Empire that would later include the state of Israel.  The Jewish Brigade would play an active role in this campaign, which would include the conquest of the land east of the Jordan and all the way to Damascus.

1918: Once again, another Battle of Megiddo begins – this time it is the Ottomans versus the British Imperial forces fighting on the biblical battlefield.

1923(9th of Tishrei, 5684): Erev Yom Kippur

1925(1st of Tishrei, 6586): Rosh Hashanah

1925: At Temple Ansche Chesed, Dr. Jacob Kohn delivered a sermon on “God and Man as the Builders of a People.”

1925: At the Montefiore Congregation in the Bronx, “Dr. Jacob Katz, the Jewish chaplain at Sing Sing spoke about the significance of the Shofar.”

1925: At Shaary Tefila in Far Rockaway, Dr. Norman Sale told congregates that “The call of the shofar rouses us to self-investigation” compelling “us to hark back to the days of Sinai’s breathless experience.”

1925: At the Institutional Synagogue, Rabbi Herbert S. Goldstein told congregants that “the Jews the world over hear this day the sounding of the Shofar as a call to awake from spiritual lethargy to spiritual zeal and to arouse us to repent and resolve to lead and to live a life full of faith, piety and good deeds.”

1925: At Congregation B’nai Jeshurun, Dr. Israel Goldstein delivered a sermon on “The Jew Today” in which he said “the most obvious contrast between the conditions of the Jew today and his condition 100 years ago when our congregation was founded is the situation in Palestine, the land of eternal promise.”

1928:The New Moon,” an operetta with music by Sigmund Romberg and book and lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein II, Frank Mandel, and Laurence Schwab opened on Broadway at the Imperial Theatre.

1929: New York attorney Jonah Goldstein and his wife arrived in Palestine aboard the SS Bremen.  Goldstein had been sent by Jewish organizations in the United States to assess the philanthropic needs of the community in Eretz Israel and to report on the real facts behind the Arab violence including the behavior of the British mandatory government.

1929: According to the Jerusalem correspondent of the London Financial News, the total amount of damages from the recent Arab inspired violence in Palestine will exceed five million dollars.  Damages in Hebron are reported to be in excess of three quarters of a million dollars. 

1929: In an article telegraphed tonight, “the Jerusalem correspondent of The Daily Mail reports that continuance of peace ‘hangs by a slender thread.’”  Furthermore the situation is so tense, that the only guarantee of security lies with the presence of a British military presence.

1931: Final session of the 154th New York State Legislature in which Carol Pack represented the third district of Bronx County in the State Assembly.

1934(10th of Tishrei, 5695): Yom Kippur

1934: A German carpenter, Bruno Hauptmann, who would be prosecuted by Attorney General David T. Wilentz, the Jewish immigrant from Latvia, was arrested today in connection with the kidnapping of Charles A. Lindbergh, Jr., the infant son of “The Lone Eagle.”

1934: Detroit outfielder and slugger Hank Greenberg refuses to play on Yom Kippur.

1934: Birthdate of Brian Epstein, manager of the Beatles.

1936: Birthdate of Cyril Kitchener Harris, the Glasgow, Scotland native who served as Chief Rabbi of South Africa from 1987 to 2004.

1936: Seventy-five year old Meier Dizengoff, the Mayor of Tel Aviv, is stricken with pneumonia. The illness will prove fatal.

1936: “Dr. Alexander Rosenfeld, vice president of the Maccabee Sports Organization, the governing sports body in Palestine,” today described “an ambitious sports program now under way in Palestine” that has at is objective participation in the 1940 Olympic Games to be held in Japan.

1936: Today “at a meeting of Cabinet Ministers including Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden and Malcolm MacDonald, Dominions…it was decided to delay making a declaration on martial law in Palestine until the situation further develops.”

1936: In Romania, “a military court sentenced five Jews two of whom were women, to ten years’ imprisonment for having shouted ‘Down with fascism!’ during a demonstration on the city’s main street.”

1937: The Palestine Post reported that Palestine Arabs welcomed the statement made by Egyptian Foreign Minister Butrus Ghali Pasha, expressing firm opposition to the country's partition. The Arabs declared that they might boycott the new League of Nations Commission which was expected to come to Palestine for an ad-hoc inquiry on how to effect and determine details of such partition.

1939: German forces occupied the Polish city of Lukow and began killing the local Jews.

1940: Nazi decree forbidding non-Jews to work for Jews in their homes or businesses was promulgated.  This ban included forbidding gentile women from working in Jewish homes, which seems a little odd given the conditions under which the Jews were living by 1940.

1941: Birthdate of Cass Elliot.  Born Ellen Naomi Cohen in Baltimore, Maryland, she changed her name to Cass Elliot and moved to New York to seek fame and fortune on Broadway.  She would later gain fame as Mama Cass singing with the Mamas and the Pappas.

1941: Germany captured Kiev. This military victory opened one of the darkest chapters of the Holocaust.

1941(27th of Elul, 5701): Thousands of Jews are murdered at Zhitomir, Ukraine

1941: As per the Nazi decree of September 1, 1941, the Jews of Slovakia, Bohemia, and Moravia are required to wear identifying Yellow Stars.

1942(8th of Tishrei, 5703): Seventy-three year old Solomon “Sol” Peyser, the son of Philip Peyser and Natalie Ann Kilinski and the husband of Eva Dux who had served as President of Rodef Shalom in Newport News, VA, passed today following which he was buried in Washington, DC, his home town.

1942: Three thousand Jews of Tuczyn were ordered into a ghetto. Five days later Germans and Ukrainians raided the ghetto. As resistance is put up by a small band of Jews armed with axes and petrol resisted the attack. Two thousand Jews made their escape to the forests. One thousand of them were found and shot. Three hundred starving women and children came back to the ghetto. In all, only 15 would survive the war.

1942: Today, as captured on film, the local police deported the Jews from Hollerich, Luxemburg.

1944(2nd of Tishrei, 5705): Rosh Hashanah II

1944: After the Danish polices balked at providing the protection demanded by the Nazis the German army arrested 1,960 policemen and deported them to German concentration and prisoner-of-war camps. (These are the same Danes who a year earlier had rescued most of their Jewish countrymen and took them to Sweden.)

1944(2nd of Tishrei, 5705): Almost the entire population of the Klooga Camp was killed in the German attempt to silence the witnesses. The number included 1,500 Jews and 800 Russian prisoners-of-war.

1944(2nd of Tishrei, 5705): “A few days before the Soviet army liberated the Klooga slave labor camp in Estonia, the Germans and their Estonian collaborators murdered more than 2,000 Jews”

1944: The Continuation War, the sideshow to WW II fought between the Finns and the Soviets came to an end today when the Finns surrendered to the Russians.  The Finns had been forced to ally themselves with the Germans, since the Allies had refused to come to their aid when the Russians invaded the country.  There were Jews serving in Finland’s Army which ironically meant that the Nazis had “Jewish allies.”

1944: In Tel Aviv, Moshe Sneh, one of the leaders of the Haganah and his wife gave birth to Efriam Sneh who would have made any Jewish mother proud since he was both a doctor and a general in the IDF.

1945: Birthdate of musician David Bromberg. Bromberg grew up in Tarrytown, New York. Inspired by the music of Pete Seeger and the Weavers, among others, he began studying the guitar at age 13. After graduating from Tarrytown High School, he enrolled at Columbia University intent on a career as a musicologist. According to one critic, the man who backed up Bob Dylan “fits no pigeonholes. He is part of everything contemporarily musical. He is a product of blues, country, jazz, folk, and classical music. From his early success as a guitar virtuoso, Mr. Bromberg has developed into a brilliant entertainer.”

1948: Laurence Steinhardt completed his service as U.S. ambassador to Czechoslovakia.

1950: More than one thousand peoples including the acting Mayor of New York, Foreign Minister Sharett, Ambassador “Aubrey Eban, Counsel General Arthur Lourie, a delegation of the city’s jurists and leaders of the Jewish community attended funeral services led by Rabbi Edward E. Klein for City Magistrate and Zionist leader Morris Rothenberg at the Stephen S. Wise Free Syngagouge.

1950: CBS broadcast the first episode of “Danger” a drama anthology series for which Sidney Lumet directed “hundreds of episodes.”

1950: “The Toast of New Orleans” a musical directed by Norman Taurog, produced by Joe Pasternak, with a script co-authored by Sy Gomberg and music by Nicholas Brodszky premiered in New Orleans.

1951: The Israeli Cabinet approved submitting an offer to sign non-aggression pacts with her four Arab neighbors to the United Nations Palestine Conciliation Commission meeting in Paris.

1951: The 37th annual convention of Hadassah comes to a close in Atlantic City, NJ.  During the convention, Mrs. Samuel W. Halprin, national president of Hadassah, presented “an analysis of the future role of the Zionist movement and the stand taken on various controversial issues that were discussed at the World Zionist Congress.”  Mrs. Halprin had led the 32 member Hadassah delegation to that recently held meeting.

1951: According to a survey conducted by the government of Israel that was released today, ‘rationed and other available supplies constituting Israel’s austerity food basket in 1950 provided adequate nourishment…However, part of the public faced malnutrition because it could not afford buy all the supplies to which it is entitled or because it rejected part of the austerity diet because of food habits.”  The team used the consumption of 2,400 calories as the baseline and a quarter of those interviewed in the sample consumed 2,400 or fewer calories per day.  [Ed. Note: For those who have only known Israel as prosperous nation with a reasonably high standard of living, it may come as a shock that economic privation was the order of the day during much of state’s early years of existence.]

1952: The Jerusalem Post announced that Dr. E.F. Shinnar, who led the Israeli delegation to the reparation talks at The Hague, was expected to accept the post of the head of the Israeli Reparations Purchasing Mission in Germany. He had just completed successful negotiations with British oil companies concerning regular oil deliveries to Israel from German sterling credits placed at Israel's disposal for the next two years.

 1952: The US bars Charlie Chaplin from reentering the country after a trip to England

1952: Television debut of “The Adventures of Superman” – the small screen version of the legendary hero created by two Jewish boys, Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster in 1938.

1954: “The seventh season of Philco Television Playhouse began” tonight with a performance of Paddy Chafefsky’s “Middle of the Night” which would open on Broadway in 1956 with Edward G. Robinson (born Emanuel Goldenberg) in the leading male role.

1960(27th of Elul, 5720): Seventy-year old Gerald Rufus Isaacs, 2nd Marquess of Reading the British barrister who held several positions under Prime Ministers Churchill and Eden including Minister of State for Foreign Affairs and was the husband of Eva Violet Mond, the daughter of the 1st Baron Melchett passed away today leaving the way open for his son Michael to assume his titles.

1961(9th of Tishrei, 5722): Kol Nidre is chanted for the first time during the Presidency of John Kennedy.

1963(1st of Tishrei, 5724): Rosh Hashanah

1963: In Rye, UK, Sarah Venetia d'Avigdor-Goldsmid, the daughter of Sir Henry Joseph d'Avigdor-Goldsmid, 2nd Baronet, DSO and Rosemary Margaret d'Avigdor-Goldsmid passed away today in a sailing mishap.

1963:  The Dodgers' regular rotation called for Sandy Koufax to work the last game. But Koufax refused because he does not pitch on the Jewish holidays.  

1964: U.S. premiere of Michael Roemer’s “Nothing But a Man” co-starring Yaphet Kotto.+

1964(14th of Tishrei, 5725): Erev Sukkoth

1964: Funeral services were held today for Ann Klauber Berson the wife of Leonard R. Berson and daughter of Ethel Klauber and Leo Klauber, Treasurer and Board Member of the Emanu-El Midtown Y.M.Y.W.H.A.

1964: At noon today, in Brooklyn funeral services were held for Samuel Abramowitz, the husband of Lillian Cohen Abramowitz and father of Judyth A. Weisser and Marcia A. Aronson

1968: U.S. Premiere of William Wyler’s “Funny Girl” a musical based on the life of Fanny Brice starring Barbra Streisand.

1969: “Marlowe” a detective movie reminiscent of the 1940’s genre featuring music by Peter Matz was released in Germany today.

1969: Time publishes “The War and the Woman”

1970: “There Was A Crooked Man” a dark, comedic western directed and produced by Joseph Mankiewicz and starring Kirk Douglas was released in France today.

1971: William F. Albright passes away at the age of 80. This American Methodist archaeologist was Professor of Semitic languages at Johns Hopkins for nearly 30 years, he penned over 1,000 articles and books, and led several Near Eastern expeditions which excavated the biblical sites of Gibeah, Bethel and Petra. Albright was not Jewish, but his work has certainly had its impact on our understanding of how the ancient Israelites might have lived.

1972(11th of Tishrei, 5733): A parcel bomb sent to Israeli Embassy in London kills one diplomat.

1974: Drummer Max “Weinberg's first public performance came today, at The Main Point in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania.”

1975: “Alexander Slepak, 23, elder son of Moscow activist Vladimir Slepak, was sent to prison on charges of “loitering.”

1975: In France, Jews begin a weeklong show of solidarity with the Jews in the Soviet Union.

1976(24th of Elul, 5736): Proving that some people never really retire, Rabbi Moses J. Shragowitz of Congregation Knesset Tifereth Israel in Port Chester, N.Y., passed away today in Glenville, Conn., while conducting a memorial service. He was 81 years old and had served the Port Chester congregation since 1937.

1976(24th of Elul, 5536): Ninety year old Yehezkel Abrmasky, the Lithuanian born rabbi who served five years in Siberia for opposing Stalin before arriving in London where he served as head of the United Synagogue’s Beth Din from 1935 to 1951 and then retired in Jerusalem, passed away today.

1977: The Jerusalem Post reported that fund-raisers abroad agreed to help Prime Minister Menachem Begin to finance housing for 45,000 Israeli families living in sub-standard flats. Begin asked the UJA contributors to double their efforts in honor of the state's 30th anniversary.

1977: Ed Koch won the Democratic Mayoral Runoff Primary today.

1977: At a meeting between President Carter and Foreign Minister Dayan in Washington, Carter renewed his opposition to any more settlements on the West Bank.

1980: “Ordinary People” co-starring Judd Hirsh, featuring Dinah Manoff, with music by Marvin Hamlisch was released in the United States today by Paramount Pictures.

1980: “Fifty-three year old Moscow refusenik Dmitri Shchiglik, a mechanical engineer, was sentenced to one year imprisonment on charges of “parasitism.”

1980: “Melvin and Howard” a comedy written by Bo Goldman was released today in the United States by Universal Pictures.

1981: Simon and Garfunkel reunited for a concert in New York City's Central Park.

1982(2nd of Tishrei, 5743): Second Day of Rosh Hashanah

1984: Birthdate of Danny Valencia the Miami native who played baseball at UNC, Greensboro and the University of Miami before being drafted by the Minnesota Twins in 2010.

1986: “Where the River Runs Black” an American movie filmed entirely in Brazil produced by Joe Roth was released today in the United States.

1988: Israel launched its first satellite for secret military reconnaissance.

1991: NBC broadcast the first episode of the 8th and final season “The Cosby Show” created by Ed. Weinberger today.

1993(4th of Tishrei, 5754): Since the 3rd of Tishrei fell on Shabbat Tzom Gedaliah is observed today.

1996: NBC broadcast the first episode of Season Six of “Seinfeld” this evening.

1997: “In & Out” a comedy produced by Scott Rudin, written by Paul Rudnick with music by Marc Shaiman was released by Paramount Pictures today.

1997: “Hacks” a movie about script writing featuring Tom Arnold and  Lisa Kudrow was released today in the United States.

1999: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or about topics of Jewish interest including Waging Peace: Israel and the Arabs at the End of the Century by Itamar Rabinovich, The Schools Our Children Deserve: Moving Beyond Traditional Classrooms and Tougher Standards by Alfie Kohn and A Joyful Noise: Claiming the Songs of My Fathers by Deborah Weisgall. In this case the father was “her father, the modernist opera composer Hugo Weisgall, who was born in Bohemia but grew up largely in America; like so many European Jews, he lost family during World War II, but he also served as an American G.I. and bore specific scars from helping to liberate Terezin.”

2002(12th of Tishrei, 5763): Shoshana (Rosanna) Siso, 63, of Gan Yavneh; Ofer Zinger, 29, of Moshav Petza'el; Solomon Hoenig, 79, of Tel Aviv; Yossi Mamistavlov, 39 of Or Yehuda; Yaffa Shemtov, 49, of Tel Aviv and Jonathan (Yoni) Jesner, 19, of Glasgow, Scotland were murdered and 70 more people were injured when a Palestinian terrorists set off a bomb aboard a bus on Allenby Street as passed in front of the Great Synagogue in Tel Aviv.

2003: In a letter of this date, Kenneth Jacobson, Associate National Director Anti-Defamation League reported the acceptance of Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi’s apology for his comment that Benito Mussolini was a benign dictator and expressed regret for the pain it caused the Jewish community. 

2004: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or about topics of Jewish interest including The Falls by Joyce Carol Oates, My Old Man by Amy Sohn and an essay by Philip Roth entitled “The Story behind the Plot against America.”

2004: The third season of the television series “The Wire” a gritty look at the world of crime, police and politics in Baltimore created by David Simon, commenced airing in the United States

2005: Sixty years after the end of World War II, German elections took a strange twist.  In reporting on the elections held over the weekend, Haaretz quoted assurances by both of the major candidates that they would maintain positive relations with Israel and work to fight any outbreak of anti-Semitism in Europe. 

2005: President Moshe Katsav laid the foundation stone for Estonia's first synagogue since the Holocaust when the Nazis boasted there was not a single Jew left in the Baltic nation. Katsav also laid a wreath at the site of the Klooga concentration camp deep in the Estonian forest. Klooga was closed in 1944 after the SS shot the last of its prisoners, who included Jews from Estonia and elsewhere in Europe. "At this place, on this day, Jews from Vilnius, Poland and other countries were killed," Katsav said in a ceremony at the Klooga site attended by Estonian President Arnold Ruutel, 40 students from Tallinn Jewish school and local Jewish leaders. Today, around 3,000 Jews live in Estonia. Their chief rabbi, Shmuel Kot, told Reuters at the Klooga ceremony that the local Jewish community now wanted to look ahead. "We are looking to the future and part of the future is the visit of the president of Israel to Estonia and the laying of the foundation stone for the first synagogue since 1944," he said. Katsav, who spent the day in Estonia as the first leg of a Baltic tour also taking in Latvia and Lithuania, said he did not see any residual anti-Semitism in Estonia.

2006: At a noon an official ceremony took place in Bordeaux’s Jewish cemetery, attended by senior dignitaries from the local Jewish community as well as Israeli representatives during which the bodies of Herzl’s children Hans and Pauline Herzl were removed from the cemetery and taken to Israel for reburial.

2006: In a sad commentary on the 21st century, Yale University announced the creation of the first university based center in North America dedicated to the study of anti-Semitism.  Yale cited a growing number of anti-Semitic episodes around the world as the driving force behind this.  In the announcement Yale officials did not say whether they considered the admission of an official of the Talbian as a student at Yale one of these harbingers of a growth in anti-Semitism.

2007: The Tenth Annual Israeli Music Celebration ends with a piano concerto by Paul Ben Haim, performed by Gila Goldstein and the Jerusalem Symphony at the Jerusalem Theater's Henry Crown Hall. Ben Haim, considered the father of Israeli classical music, immigrated to Palestine from Germany in the early '30s.

2007: In New York as part of the Jews & Justice Program, The Center for Jewish History & American and the Jewish Historical Society present “Jewish Lawyers in the Civil Rights Movement” which features a prestigious panel that explores the Jewish community's involvement in this important historical movement in the United States.

2007: A bill protecting travelers from denial of life insurance simply because they travel to Israel cleared the U.S. House of Representatives in a 312-110 vote. The measure now needs to be approved by the Senate and signed by the president. It comes in the wake of cases where insurers modified coverage because of the perceived danger of travel to countries such as Israel. The law, if passed, would specify that insurers can't consider past or future "lawful foreign travel" in providing coverage, though there would be exceptions for destinations with high alerts from the Center for Disease Control and where there is ongoing military conflict involving armed forces of a sovereign nation.

2007: The secretary of the ministerial committee wrote to the lawyer representing Neta Shoshani, informing him that 10 days earlier the committee had extended the ban on publication of some of the documents and photos pertaining to Deir Yassin for five more years, until 2012.

2007: After serving as acting chancellor for 14 months, George R. Blumenthal was named the 10th Chancellor of UC Santa Cruz.

2008: At the Hyman S. & Freda Bernstein Jewish Literary Festival Georgetown University Professor Jacques Berlinerblau discusses Thumpin' It: The Use and Abuse of the Bible in Today's Presidential Politics

2008: Today in a “radio interview with Aimee Allison and Philip Maldari on Pacifica Radio's KPFA 94.1 FM in Berkeley, California, Joseph Stiglitz implied that President Clinton and his economic advisors would not have backed the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) had they been aware of stealth provisions, inserted by lobbyists, that they overlooked.”

2008: “After having performed at a college event with frequent collaborator Travis Barker, Adam Michael Goldstein was seriously injured when a Learjet in which he was traveling crashed on takeoff in Columbia, South Carolina. The crash killed both crew members and two other passengers, and critically injured Goldstein and Barker

2009 (1 Tishrei, 5770): Rosh Hashanah – 5770 טובה לשׁנה

2009 (1 Tishrei, 5770): Ninety four year old Milton Meltzer, noted historian and author, passed away today. (As reported by Dennis Hevesi)

2009 (1 Tishrei, 5770): Eighty-four year old Stuart Hample, who brought laughter to people of all ages, passed away today. (As reported by Bruce Weber)

2009: In “Hollywood Fights Back Against Anti-Israel Sentiment” Tina Daunt described how members of the American entertainment community are dealing with the actions and statements of their counterparts who claim that they are not anti-Semites, just opposed to Israel.

2010: A screening of “Jaffa” is scheduled to take place at 14th Annual Jewish Film Festival of Dallas (TX).

2010: Israel is ready to enter peace negotiations with Syria "right away," Shimon Peres told the United Nations General Assembly. In his address today in New York to the international body's annual meeting -- the Nation's Millennium Development Goals summit -- Peres also said he believed that a two-state solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is the only "peaceful alternative," adding, "and I believe that we shall succeed."

2010: The Washington Post featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including “The Balfour Declaration: The Origins of the Arab-Israeli Conflict” by Jonathan Schneer

2010: On the day after Yom Kippur, Ryan Braun of the Milwaukee Brewers “hit a two-run homer, accounting for all of Milwaukee’s runs in a 9-2 loss. Braun had played on Yom Kippur when he went 3 for five to help his team defeat the San Francisco Giants. (As reported by Ron Kaplan)

2010: In a surprising turn of event, Prime Minister Netanyahu will fly to Washington, DC today.  The visit follows a meeting held at Sharm el-Sheikh with Palestinian Authority chairman Mahmoud Abbas where discussions were held concerning “core issues” a term that “refers to Israeli concessions, including the status of Jerusalem and the holy sites within it, as well as final borders and the Arab demand that descendants of Arab residents who fled decades ago be allowed into Israel.”

2011(20th of Elul): Yahrzeit of Dr. Jacob  Levin, of blessed memory, beloved husband of Betty, loving father of Michael (Gigi Cohen) Levin, Stephen (Dian Garton) Levin, Sharon (Philip) Wein and Lawrence (Sandra Morrison) Levin and proud Zaide to a whole tribe of grandchildren.   To his brother Joe, he was the incomparable “Yaenkel” and to me his was my wonderful Uncle Jack – living proof that good guys finish first.

2011: A Middle East Forum sponsored by The Jewish Community Relations Council of Greater Washington featuring Elliot Abrams, David Makovsky and Amos Yadlin is scheduled to take place tonight at the JCC of Northern Virginia.

2011: The Amerigo Trio – Inbal Segev, cellist; Glen Dicterow, violinist; Karen Dreyfus, violist – is scheduled to perform at the 2011 New York Chamber Music Festival

2011: Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu - who is scheduled to fly to the US tomorrow evening – said tonight that he would like to meet with Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas in New York. "I call on the PA chair to open direct negotiations in New York, that will continue in Jerusalem and Ramallah," Netanyahu said.

2011: A 26-year-old man from the West Bank settlement of Eli was arrested on today on suspicion of being involved in a vandalism and sabotage attack on an IDF base earlier this month. 2012(3rd of Tishrei, 5773): Fast of Gedaliah

2012(3rd of Tishrei, 5773): Eighty-nine year old attorney and negotiations expert Gerard I. Nierenberg passed away. (As reported by William Yardley)

2012: “In the Shadow of Memory: Legacies of Lidice” is scheduled to be shown in Washington, DC, as part of the film series “Docs in Salute” which focuses “on interesting personalities who have been touched by Jewish themes.

2012: Team Israel is scheduled to play South Africa in the opening round of the World Baseball Classic (WBC)

2012: The funeral of Haim Hefer who passed away yesterday is scheduled to take place today.

2012: The IDF held a surprise large-scale drill on the Golan Heights today, as turmoil continued to rock Syria across the northern border

2013: The Alexandria Kleztet is scheduled to perform in Towson, MD

2013(15th of Tishrei, 5774): Sukkoth

2013: “Palestinians in the Gaza Strip fired a rocket at southern Israel this morning. The projectile triggered an air raid siren in the Hof Ashkelon Regional Council area and landed in an open area near the security fence bordering Gaza.” (As reported by Yaakov Lappin)

2014: “The results of a competition for a memorial” for the victims of the attack on the Israeli team at the 1972 Munich Games are scheduled to be announced today. (As reported by Times of Israel)

2014: The Coe College Music is scheduled to host the Homecoming Showcase Concert under the direction of Musical Maven William S. Carson

2014: The Israel Ballet is scheduled to perform at the Phasa Morgana Festival.

2014: The Vengerov Festival, featuring violinist Maxim Vengerov is scheduled to open at the Charles Bronfman Auditorium.

2014: Speaking at the United Nations, Iran’s deputy Foreign Minister said that “that destroying the Islamic State will require Israel leaving Palestine,” a strange comment coming from the representative from a nation that has called for the destruction of Israel.

2014(24th of Elul, 5774): Seventy-nine year old director, screenwriter and author Avraham Heffner who won the Ophir Award passed away today.

2014: “A Jewish museum in Vienna returned a painting, ‘The Coffee Hour’ that was seized by the Nazis in 1938 to the artist's grandnieces today, part of a wider move in Austria to deal with art illegally acquired after Germany annexed the country in 1938.”

2014: Comedian and social commentator Lewis Black is scheduled to appear in Albuquerque, NM.

2014: In Omaha, Nebraska, graveside services are scheduled to be held at Beth El Cemetery for Dr. Guinter Kahn who escaped Nazi Germany to become a leading dermatologist and who is survived by “by the love of his life, Judy Felsenstein; son and daughter-in-law Bruce and Deborah Kahn, grandchildren Nathan and Emma Kahn; daughter Michelle Kahn, and brother and sister-in-law Marcel and Ilse Kahn.”

2015(6th of Tishrei, 5776): Shabbat Shuvah

2015(6th of Tishrei, 5776): Seventy-nine year old Mishael Cheshin, a former Justice on the Israeli Supreme Court lost his battle with cancer today. (As reported by Yaron Druckman, Telem Yahav, and Raanan Ben-Zur)

2015: In Phoenix, Lewis Black is scheduled to perform at the Comerica Theatre.

2015: The final performance of “A Happy End” a “new play by Iddo Netanyahu” is scheduled to be presented by the City College of New York’s Division of Humanities and the Arts today.

2016: The 16th Annual National Conference of the Jewish National Fund is scheduled to come to an end in NYC.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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