Saturday, September 10, 2016

This Day, September 11, In Jewish History by Mitchell A. Levin


September 11

1526: After the Turkish Army had defeated the Austrians and seized the city of Buda, Sultan Suleiman I entered the city.  Some of the Jews had remained in the city and before the Sultan arrived, they met with Ibrahim Pasha before whom they humbled themselves and begged to be spared.

1683: Battle of Vienna began as an army of European Christians led by King Jan III of Poland fought to end the Ottoman siege of the Austrian metropolis that had begun in July.  The defeat of the Ottomans was the “high water mark” of Moslem conquests in Europe.  There are those who date the beginning of the slow decay of the Moslem dominated world from this event.  There will be those who contend that this event was the impetus for choosing 9/11 as the date to blow up the Twin Towers in 2001.  With the exception of Holland, Jews were doing better in the land of the Ottomans than they were in Christian Europe.  For example, the Ottomans had provided a home the Jews who were expelled from Spain. However, as Ottoman power was receding, Jews enjoyed a growing amount of freedom as economic and social reform took hold in different parts of Western Europe.  Whether or not the shift in power marked by this was “good for the Jews” is up for the debate; the important thing is that it took place and had a profound impact on the general society as well as the Jewish component.

1771: Birthdate of Mungo Park, the Scottish explorer who “noted the presence of Jews in the region of Timbuktu” having been told “by an Arab he met near Walata of there being many Arabic speaking Jews in Timbuktu whose prayers were similar to the Moors.”

1779(1st of Tishrei, 5540): Rosh Hashanah and Shabbat

1789:  President George Washington appointed Alexander Hamilton as the first Secretary of the Treasury.  Hamilton’s parentage is a little murky to say the least. He was born out of wedlock reportedly to a Jewish woman and received his early education from Jews before moving to the North American mainland. He would be the first in a long line of Jews who would play a major role in U.S. government financial policies.

1798(1st of Tishrei, 5559): Rosh Hashanah

1803: Birthdate of Léon Gozlan, the native of Marseille who gained fames as a novelist and playwright.

1817(1st of Tishrei, 5578): Rosh Hashanah

1823:  Fifty-one year old David Ricardo, one of the most influential of the classical economists, passed away.  Born in London in 1772, Ricardo was the third of seventeen children in a Sephardic Jewish family that immigrated from The Netherlands to England just prior to his birth. At age 14 Ricardo's joined his father at the London Stock Exchange. Ricardo rejected the orthodox Jewish beliefs of his family and eloped with Quaker, Priscilla Anne Wilkinson, when he was 21. His father was so unhappy with this that he abandoned Ricardo and never spoke to him again. Around the same time Ricardo became a Unitarian.

1824: Birthdate of Jakob Bernays the “German philologist and philosophical writer” who served as the chairman of classical philology at the newly founded Jewish Theological Seminary of Breslau.

1843(16th of Elul, 5603): Seventy-three year old businessman and philanthropist Lazarus Gumpel passed away in Hamburg.

1845: As signs of the blight that would lead to the Great Famine in Ireland continued to appear the Freeman's Journal reported on "the appearance of what is called 'cholera' in potatoes in Ireland, especially in the north. (The famine had little impact on Ireland’s comparatively small Jewish population but it provided an opportunity for Jews in England led by Baron Rothschild to come to the aid of the suffering, primarily Catholic populace of the Emerald Isle.

1847(1st of Tishrei, 5608): Rosh Hashanah

1847: Birthdate of August Seligman, the wife of Theobold Epstein and the mother of mathematician Paul Epstein.

1848: Baron Jozsef Eotvos, Hungarian statesman and who supported the emancipation of the Jews completed his service as Minister of Education of Hungary.

1852: Reports reached the United States that Marchand Ennery, the Chief Rabbi of Paris, had passed away in August.

1858(3rd of Tishrei, 5619): Shabbat Shuvah

1858(3rd of Tishrei 5619): Hette Steckler, a native of Rogasen, Prussia, the wife of Jackson, CA. merchant Charles Steckler passed away today.

1859: Estra (Therese) Wiesner and Rabbi Jonas Wiesner gave birth to Moritz Wiesner.

1860: The Jewish population of Baltimore must have reached a size where it was noticed by the general public.  A report published today describing how George Proctor Kane, the Chief Marshall of Police is strictly enforcing the Sunday closings laws states that "Cigar stores, lager-bier saloons, Hebrew establishments and all such are closed."

1860: Forty-three year old German historian Sigfried Hirsch who like his cousin and fellow historian Theodore Hirsch converted to Christianity passed away today.

1863: It was reported today that a group of 600 women and children who supposedly had husbands and fathers serving in the Confederate Army stormed through Spring Hill, Alabama carrying banners demanding “Bread or Blood.”  A Jewish merchant who was attempting to protect his store was arrested by the police and beaten for his efforts. 

1868: “Rabbi Isaac M. Wise, the founder of American Judaism and Rabbi Samuel Adler were the featured orators at today’s dedication of the new Temple Emanu-El Sanctuary on 43rd Street and Fifth Avenue which took place Erev Shabbat.

1869: Harper's Weekly featured a cartoon about a movement to oust August Belmont as chairman of the Democratic National Committee. Belmont was the German born Jewish financier who opened a private bank in the United States before the Civil War.  He was a former employee of and a close associate of the Rothschilds.  He was also a power in the Democratic Party both before and after the war.

1872: Samuel J. Pietrowski, a Polish Jew and the proprietor of a dry-goods store in Key West, Florida, was arraigned at the Tombs in New York City on charges of bigamy. The complaint was filed by Bertha Pietrowski who claimed that Samuel had married her twenty four years ago in Poland.  She claimed he moved to Leeds, UK where married and had five children before moving to the United States with his second family.  Bertha claimed she had borrowed the money to come to United States where she discovered Samuel’s new life as well as the fact that he was worth “several thousand dollars. [Unfortunately, there were many instances of men coming to America and deserting the wives and families they had left behind.]

1874(29th of Elul, 5634): Erev Rosh Hashanah

1874: “The Hebraic New Year,” published today reported that the year 5635 on the Jewish calendar begins tomorrow with the celebration of Rosh Hashanah.  The article described the solemnity of the holiday but also highlights the differences in the celebration among the Reform and the Orthodox.  The Reform now celebrate the holiday for only one day and their shortened service includes music played by an organ.

1877: “The Russian Army of Invasion” published describes miserable the conditions of Czar’s forces as they move forward to fight the Turks. The Russians are addicted to alcohol which is supplied by people in “long gabardines,” a disparaging term for the Jews who are making a fortune off of their monopoly.  The article paints a picture of suffering Russian soldiers being “poisoned by spoiled provisions” supplied Isaac and Jacob whose “Jewish purses can pay their protectors from their ill-gotten gains.”

1878: In Washington, DC, “the Hebrew Committee” has collected $4,608 to aid those in the Deep South suffering during the current Yellow Fever Epidemic.

1879: It was reported today that Prince Gregorie Stourdza has arrived in Bucharest to assume the leadership of all the parties opposed to the Jews receiving full rights of citizenship in Romania.  The proposed party is modeled after the American Party also called the “Know-nothings” a nativist political party that enjoyed some success in the 1850’s.

1880: It was reported today that on the day Simon Rosenheim allegedly set fire to the tenement in which he was living the place had received an anonymous letter containing these words: “To get insurance Polish Jew’ll set fire to his place…on Monday or Tuesday.”  The police arrested Rosenheim because the fire took place on Tuesday; he was a Polish Jew; and he lived at the tenement house described in the note. (Not exactly CSI material)

1881: In “What Germans Talk Of “ published today, Andrew White the President of Cornell and the former American Ambassador to Germany who has just returned from that country responded to a question about the “anti-Jewish crusade in Germany” by saying that “The worst of the trouble is over.  The sober second though has come and the Emperor of Germany has declared himself as opposed to the Jewish proscription.” After talking about the prominent role Jews play in finance and business, White said the Emperor thought “they were the best of his subjects” and that Bismarck has come around to that point of view.

1881: The Novoye Vremya reported from St. Petersburg “that it is proposed to appoint local commissions to consider the Jewish questions in places where the Jews predominate.

1882: The Chevry Bennei Bachemenim Anschel Schofchatchow, a Jewish charitable and benevolent society was incorporated today in the state of New York.

1882: It was reported that one of the railway lines from the coast of Egypt to Cairo passes by the ruine of Tel-el-Yahoodeh also known as the Mound of the Jews. (This is probably a refrence to Tel el-Yehudiyah  -Mound of the Jewess – which is supposed to cover the ruins of the Temple of Onais, a Jewish place of worship located in Helipolois.  For more see http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0015_0_15110.html

1882: In Dresden, Reverend Adolf Stoecker presided at the opening of the first Anti-Semitic Congress

1882: Birthdate of Paul Bekker, the native of Berlin the Director of the Wiesbaden Opera who was “deprived of his citizenship” in 1936 because “officials said ‘he favored Jews…”

1886(11th of Elul, 5646): Fifty year old Ludwig Lowe, whose business ventures included the armaments company Loewe & Company and who was a member of the Reichstag passed away today.

1886: In Charleston, SC, Rabi David Levy officiated at the wedding of Julia H. Dessauer and Morris Hornik, of Kingstree, SC.

1887: Based on information that first appeared in the Times of London, it was reported today that the “persecution of the Jews” has been revived in several parts of the Russian Empire. Besides being subjected to riots and attacks in outlying provinces, Jews in St. Petersburg have been interrogated by the police in an attempt to intimidate them so that they will not conduct business in the capital city.


1891: The Jewish Colonial Association is officially established by Baron de Hirsh. He donated two million pounds and incorporated the Association in London. His plan was to remove three million Russian Jews and settle them in agricultural areas in other countries. This was one of several movements to further Jewish settlement in Palestine before the birth of the Zionist movement.


                                                       OR

1891: The Jewish Colonization Association (JCA, in Yiddish ICA) was created today by Baron Maurice de Hirsch. Its aim was to facilitate the mass emigration of Jews from Russia and other Eastern European countries, by settling them in agricultural colonies on lands purchased by the committee, particularly in North and South America (especially Argentina).Colonies were funded within the United States in southern New Jersey, Ellington, Connecticut (Congregation Knesseth Israel), and elsewhere. A Canadian Committee of the JCA was established in November 1906 to assist in the settlement of the thousands of Jewish refugees fleeing Russia, and to oversee the development of all the JCA settlements in the country

1891: A critique of the platform adopted by the Republicans at their convention in Rochester dismissed the plank calling for an end calling for an end to the “cruelties and persecutions practiced upon the Jews in Russia” as “a rather awkward bid for the votes of a class” which is meaningless since the Democrats “will hardly” take “the opposite side.”

1891: In Brooklyn, U.S. Federal Judge Benedict “listened to additional arguments in the cases of the nineteen Polish Jews “ who are trying to overturn the decision of the Immigration Commissioner to deny them entry into the United States.

1893: The New York Times estimated that there are 225,000 Jews living in New York City.1893(1st of Tishrei, 5654): As Americans suffer through the Panic of 1893 (which had begun in January and was the worst economic crisis the country would suffer until 1929), Jews observed the first day of Rosh Hashanah

1893: New Yorkers who did not know that today was the Jewish New Year “were puzzled” by “the large number of stores and factories that were closed throughout the city.”
1895: In City Court, Judge Botty ordered the release of Samuel Lustbader, a kosher butcher who had been imprisoned following his failure to pay a judgment obtained against him by default in a slander suit brought by one of his competitors.
1895: It was reported today that during the month of August the United Hebrew Charities received contributions totaling $10, 702.66 and disbursed $7, 513.12 to the needy.  During this period, the charity received 2,805 applications for relief reflecting the needs of 9,350 people.

1896: Birthdate of Israel Mandelkern, a member of the Yiddish Theatrical Alliance. (Not to be confused with author by the same name who wrote Stepmother Russia, Foster Mother America.

1897:  It was announced from Odessa that the late Baron Hirsch's plant to colonize the Argentine Republic with Jews from Russia has been abandoned in favor of the establishment of Hebrew schools in Russia.

1898: Adath Jeshurun, which had been worshipping at 125 East 112th Street, dedicated its new synagogue at 112 East 110th Street in Harlem.  The congregation which is made up of Orthodox German Jews is using a facility that was previously home to the Portuguese Jews of Harlem.

1898: Herbert Louis Samuel, 1st Viscount Samuel and Beatrice Miriam Samuel, Viscountess Samuel gave birth to Edwin Herbert Samuel, 2nd Viscount Samuel who colorful career including serving in the Jewish Legion and serving as the last Director of the Palestine Broadcasting Service.

1898: In Chicago, Dr. Isaac M. Wise laid the cornerstone for the building that would The Reform Congregation of Isaiah Temple which was designed by the Jewish architect Dankmar Adler.

1898: It was announced today that any Jewish soldiers at Camps Wikoff or Black or who are in New York on leave or furlough should contact Phillip Cowen, publisher of The American Hebrew or William Mitchell, superintendent of the YMHA if they wish to attend services celebrating the Jewish New Year that begins on the evening of September 16.

1899: Reverend Henry Morgan Stone is scheduled to officiate at the funeral of James B. Eustis who served as U.S. Ambassador to France during the first court martial of Captain Dreyfus and who had spent the past summers writing a review of the case which he was on the verge of finishing at the time of his death.

1899: Approximately 25 to 30 businessman and clergy including Rabbi Rudolph Grossman, Rabbi Joseph Silverman and Father Barholomew Montruchio of Jersey City met in the office of Assistant District Attorney Maurice B. Blumenthal to discuss plans for a mass meeting to be held on September 16 to protest the verdict in the Dreyfus Court Martial.

1899: Jonas Weil, President of Zichron Ephraim, was named as the executor in the will of Daniel Woolf which Roeder & Bernard filed in the Surrogate’s Court today.

1899: Assistant District Attorney Maurice B. Blumenthal to planning to ask President William McKinley “to request a pardon” for Captain Dreyfus.

1899: As the attorney representing Dreyfus began working on his appeal today, it was discovered that the verdict had not been unanimous; but the product of a five to two vote.  Also the police had believed in the possibility of acquittal since they had formalized a plan to sneak Dreyfus out of the court disguised in civilian clothiers.

1899: “W.D. Stevens, a ship owner and Royal Commissioner declared that as a result of the Dreyfus verdict he will put his foot on French soil.  He adds that thousands of his countrymen will do the same.”

1903: Birthdate of Theodor W. Adorno, a German-born international sociologist, philosopher, and musicologist who was “the only child to the wealthy wine merchant Oscar Alexander Wiesengrund who had converted from Judaism to Christianity.  Adomo is an example of the many 19th & 20th century people lost to Judaism because a trip to the font made life more attractive.

1903: In Russia, during the Homel Pogrom, defense squads organized by the Zionists and Bundists fought back against the looting, murderous mobs.  The squads fought off the mobs for three days until Russian authorities intervened to end the violence.  The defense squads had been formed in response to the deadly events at Kishinev and gave the Jews a sense of pride and short lived self-confidence.

1903: Julia Richman, the Principal of P.S. 77, is nominated by the Board of district Superintendents to be District Superintendent succeeding Charles Haskell. "If appointed, Miss Richman will be the first female District Superintendent in the Manhattan."  There are two female District Superintendents serving in New York City but both of them are in Brooklyn.

1909: At Bordeaux, premiere performance of “Bacchus triumphant” an opera composed by Camille Erlanger.

1911: At the age of 24, Guy Zinn broke into major league baseball playing his first game with the New York Highlanders.

1911: Circuit Judge Rassieur of St. Louis, MO, denies incorporation to the Jewish Christian

 Association For Conversion of Jews to Christianity on grounds that it violates the religious liberty clause of the Constitution.

1911: In London, England, The Bethnal Green Board of Guardians rejected bids by Jewish contractors.

1912(29th of Elul, 5672): Erev Rosh Hashanah

1912(29th of Elul, 5672): Louis M. Lilienthal, a Rabbi in the Borough Park section of Brooklyn passed away today

1914: In the UK, at the start of WW I, a Royal Proclamation was issued that required “British subjects to have no links with companies doing business with Germany” which forced Sir Edgar Speyer to resign as a partner of the American bank controlled by his family.  This move did not quiet the whispering campaign aimed him that would eventually destroy his professional life.

1914(20th of Elul, 5674) Benjamin Aron Jacob Gutman passed away today.

1914: Birthdate of Sidney Hart, the London native who “retired as the highest ranking Jewish fireman in Britain” and who “represented the Southend and Westcliff Hebrew Congregation on the Board of Deputies.”

1915(3rd of Tishrei, 5676): Shabbat Shuva

1915(3rd of Tishrei, 5676): During WW I, Second Lieutenant Alexander Gorodisky passed away while serving with the Zion Mule Corps.

1916: “Hugh M. Dorsey, who is a candidate for the nomination for Governor in tomorrow’s primary and who was the Solicitor General during the Leo Frank case issued a statement today saying that he had told Governor Slaton not to commute Frank’s sentence. 

1916: Birthdate of Edwin Milton Sabol, the native of Philadelphia, the founder of Blair Motion Pictures, which created the visual world of the NFL.

1917: In France, George Wildenstein, the son of Nathan Wildenstein, and his wife gave birth to Daniel Wieldenstein the art dealer and race horse owner who headed the art dealership of Wildenstein & Co.

1917: Word was received from the War Department today by the Jewish Board for Welfare Work in the Army and Navy that “furloughs have been granted to Jewish soldiers…in order that they may be able to observe the Jewish New Year.

1918: After three years of service, Samuel Bortzell, the native of Isrkutsk, Russia who had move to Australia before WW I was discharged from the Australian Imperial Force (AIF) after having have fought at Gallipoli and on the Western Front.

1919: The funeral for 60 year old author and publisher Horace Traubel, the son of a Jewish lithographer Maurice Traubel and Katherine Grunder, who was not Jewish, was held today in New York.

1921:  The first Moshav, Nahalal, was found in the Jezreel Valley.  Less famous than that other experiment in collective living called the Kibbutz, a moshav was "a village of smallholders in which elements of cooperative and private farming were combined.  Nahal was the Biblical name of town in this area connected with the tribe of Zebulin.  The Jezreel was an area of abundant water, but the water was often stagnant.  The first fifteen years or so of settlement was spent draining the water to put an to the malarial swamps in the region..

1922: The British mandate in Palestine officially began.

1923(1st of Tishrei, 5684): Rosh Hashanah

1923: The Lithuanian General Census, which originally was supposed to be taken today, has been postponed because today is Rosh Hashanah.

1923: In his Rosh Hashanah message to the Jews of Britain Chief Rabbi Hertz “paints a gloomy picture of conditions affecting Jewry throughout the world.”

"Nearly five years have passed since the close of the most devastating of wars. The earth is still reeling like a drunken man. The inhabitants thereof are bereft of reason by the poison gas of racial antagonisms in a world that was nearly destroyed by hate, and is seeking to save itself by hate, and Israel is the greatest sufferer in these distracted days."The forces of reaction and race hatred everywhere have joined hands in the unholy work of reviling and slandering the Jew. We are back once more in the Dark Ages. New Jewish massacres and on an unprecedented scale are openly advocated and systematically planned."The Russian monarchists declare that in the event of their regaining power they will slaughter every Jewish man, woman and child in that land. Western Jews do not sufficiently realize the infinite danger that hovers over four million of our brethren in Russia."

1923:  Daf Yomi was initiated by Rabbi Meir Shapira of Lublin. At the Congress of the Agudath Israel in Europe in 1923, Rabbi Meir Shapira of Lublin had proposed that Jews all over the world study the same page of the Talmud (Daf Yomi) simultaneously as a sign of a unifying commitment to Judaism and Jewish learning. In this way, observant Jewish males could complete the study of the Talmud every seven and a half years with a formal celebration marking the end of the learning cycle and the beginning of the new one. The proposal was accepted and a special calendar was created. Jews everywhere began to study the Daf. Rabbi Shapira participated in the first completion of the cycle in 1931. Observant Jews then integrated the Daf Yomi program into their lives. Tossed into a stormy sea when his ship was wrecked, the great Talmudic sage Rabbi Akiva was given up for lost. This is how he later described his miraculous rescue to Rabbi Gamaliel: "A daf (plank) from the ship suddenly appeared as a salvation, and I just let the waves pass over me." When Rabbi Meir Shapiro, the rabbi of Lublin between the two World Wars, initiated the program for Jews all over the world to study the same daf yomi (daily page of Talmud), he explained the significance of this undertaking by paraphrasing Rabbi Akiva: "A daf is the instrument of our survival in the stormy seas of today. If we cling to it faithfully all the waves of tribulation will but pass over us." The entire Talmud is covered in seven years by those who keep to the prescribed daily pace. One individual who undertook such a project and help to give it a wider range of fame was the author Herman Wouk.

1923: The census was scheduled to take place today in Lithuania. However, because of the intervention of the Jewish National Council, the government of Lithuania, postponed it for a future, undisclosed date. (As reported by JTA)

1923: The Rosh Hashanah edition of the Jewish Tribune included “The Jew As a Philanthropist” in which Herbert Hoover paid “special tribute” to “the extraordinary generosity and liberality of the American Jew” in general and the Joint Distribution Committee in particular which had done so much to ameliorate the suffering of their co-religionist during the Great War and in the violent years that followed. (JTA)

1924: Birthdate of Canadian professor of Pharmacology, Rudolf Vrba.  Born Walter Rosenberg, Vrba would gain fame as an early escapee from Auschwitz who along with fellow escapee Alfred Wetzler told the Allies what was happening at the infamous concentration camp. 

1925: Birthdate of Alan Bergman who with his wife Marilyn Begman  has won three Academy Awards for Best Original Song and have been inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame.

1926(3rd of Tishrei, 5687): Shabbat Shuva (no Fast of Gedaliah because it is the Sabbath)

1927:  Birthdate of G. David Schine who gained notoriety as the buddy of Roy Cohn when Cohn was riding high as the chief counsel for Joseph McCarthy's Communist hunting Senatorial Committee. Without going into too great detail, this relationship ended up with McCarthy and Cohn accusing the United States Army of being involved in a Communist Conspiracy.  These charges helped to break the Republican Senator from Wisconsin's grip on national power.  As the lives of these two Jews prove, Jews are not all Einsteins and Salks.  Sometimes they are lesser lights who might have done better had they never crawled out from underneath their rock

1929 (6 Elul, 5689): Louis B. Marshall passes away. Marshall was a successful lawyer, conservationist, champion of the rights for minorities and a leader of the Jewish community. He was a co-founder of the American Jewish Committee (AJC) who worked to protect the rights of Jews in Europe as well as those who wished to create a Jewish home in Palestine as can be seen by his support of the Balfour Declaration.

1934(2nd of Tishrei, 5695): Second day of Rosh Hashanah

1934: Filming of Director John Stahl’s “Imitation of Life,” the cinematic version of Fannie Hurst’s novel came to an end today.

1936: In a review published today, Ralph Thompson described The Brothers Ashkenazi, a novel by I.J. Singer and translated from the Yiddish by Maurice Samuel as “serious, solid and eloquent” – a memorable piece of fiction that tells the story of the rise and fall of two Polish Jews.”

1936: In their speeches tonight “Dr. Goebbels and Dr. Rosenberg “exceeded all their past performances as violent Jew-baiters.”

1938: Shortstop Eddie Feinberg made his major league debut with the Philadelphia Phillies.

1938: Six Jewish constables were ambushed by terrorists as they escorted a group of telephone workers traveling between Jaffa and Gaza.  All six died but the workers escaped to the safety ofa nearby Jewish settlement.  When the shooting stopped, it was discovered that the attackers had taken the weapons, ammunition and uniforms of the dead Jewish policemen.  [Yes, they stripped the bodies of the dead!]

1940: The Jewish refugee ship Quanza stops to refuel at Norfolk, Virginia, after having been denied entry to the United States at New York and to Mexico at Vera Cruz. One passenger, a German Jew, is returned to the ship by U.S. Army guards after leaping overboard near the shore of Hampton Roads, Virginia. A State Department official granted the refugees visas at the behest of Eleanor Roosevelt enabling them to eventually disembark in the United States.

1940: Late dispatches from Palestine said tonight that at least 150 persons were killed today in the Italian bombing of Tel Aviv, modern Jewish city.

1941: Outfielder Sid Gordon made his major league debut with the New York Giants

1941:Rudolf Schoenheimer, German-American biochemist whose technique of "tagging" molecules with radioactive isotopes made it possible to trace the paths of organic substances through animals and plants and revolutionized metabolic studies, passed away.

 1941: Charles Lindbergh made an anti-Semitic speech on radio. The Lone Eagle or Lucky Lindy as he was called was an isolationist and part of the America First Committee.  He was impressed with the Nazis. He saw fascism as the wave of the future and believed that "the wave was rolling towards America. He saw World War II was being a continuation of centuries old European tribal feuds that had nothing to do with the United States.  He stood with those who believed that FDR's New Deal was "a Jewish concoction" and that a foreign policy supporting European democracies against the Nazis was the product of "Jewish interventionists."  In fact, Lindberg was scheduled to give a speech about why America should stay out of the war on the afternoon of December 7, 1941.  Of course reality overtook Lindbergh's fantasy.  In evaluating Roosevelt's reaction to the reports of the murder of European Jewry, one must be aware of the level of anti-Semitism in the United States at that time.  One must also be aware of the fact that even after Pearl Harbor there were plenty of people who believed that American involvement in the war was part of a Jewish plot. 

1942: Lucy Mandelstram, who was born in Vienna in 1926, her mother, and her sister were deported to Theresienstadt.

1942: As the Nazis wiped out the ghetto in Stolin, Poland, with the mass murders of 11,000 Jews, Jewish resistance is led by Moses Glazer and Asher Shapira

 1942: Meir Berliner, an Argentine Jew deported to the Treblinka death camp from Warsaw, stabs an SS officer, Max Bialas, to death with a penknife. In reprisal, Berliner and 150 other Treblinka inmates are executed.

1942: Five thousand Jews are deported from the Warsaw Ghetto to Treblinka. Among the deportees is noted author Hillel Zeitlin, age 71. Born in Belorussia in 1871, Zeitlin was raised as Chabad Chasid.  He was self-taught in secular subjects and came to question matters of religion and faith.  He became disillusioned with the secular world after the pogroms of 1905 and returned to Orthodox Judaism.  Zeitlin met death wrapped in his tallit and tefillin.

 1942: Ninety thousand Jews were sent to their deaths from the Warsaw ghetto. A total of 300,000 Jews were sent to Nazi killing camps during a 53 day period from Erev Tisha b'Av (the eve of the 9th day of Av) until Erev Rosh Hashanah (the evening on which Rosh Hashanah starts) that year.

1943: German troops occupied Kosovo-Metohien.

1943: The Nazis began the liquidation of the Minsk and Lida ghettos.

1943: One thousand Jews discovered hiding in Przemysl, Poland, are murdered.

1943: Starting on this date and ending 3 days later, the Jewish community at Minsk, Belorussia, is liquidated.

1943: Forty-sixth annual convention of the Zionist Organization of America opened this evening at Columbus, Ohio.

1943: The late Judge Julian W. Mack is scheduled to be honored with a special memorial service at the ZOA convention (JTA).

1944: Filming “Der Fuhrer schenkt den Juden eine Statdt” (The Fuher Gives the Jews a Town) comes to an end.  This bit of cinematic propaganda describing “the merits and virtues of the ghetto, was made at the command of authorities in Berlin under the immediate supervision of Karl Rahm, the last commandant of Theresienstadt.

1944: “Murder Incorporated” appeared today in Time magazine describing the scene at Majdanek.  You would never know from reading it that at least half of the victims were Jewish.

Fortnight ago a Soviet correspondent described the Nazi murder camp near Lublin. Last week TIME'S Moscow Correspondent Richard Lauterbach visited Maidenek with a party of non-Russian newsmen. His report: It was Sunday and the sun was hot. The Polish girls wore their best embroidered dresses to Mass and the men of Lublin chatted on street corners without a furtive, over-the-shoulder look. We drove out along the Chelm road about a mile from town. Dmitri Kudriavtsev, Secretary of the Soviet Atrocities Commission, said: "They called this 'the road of death.' " Kudriavtsev is a short man, with curly hair and a nice face. He has an even, soft way of talking. You could not guess that he has pored over more horrors in the past three years than any living man. Our car halted before a well-guarded gate. "This is Maidenek," Kudriavtsev said. I saw a huge, not unattractive, temporary city. There were about 200 trim, grey green barracks, systematically spaced for maximum light, air and sunshine. There were winding roads and patches of vegetables and flowers. I had to blink twice to take in the jarring realities: the 14 machine-gun turrets jutting into the so-blue sky; the 12-ft.-high double rows of electrically charged barbed wire; the kennels which once housed hundreds of gaunt, man-eating dogs. Gas Chambers. We got out to inspect the bathhouses. Said Kudriavtsev without emotion: "They came here first for a shower. Then the Germans said: 'Now you have had your wash. Go in there.' " He led us into one of four gas chambers. It was a solid grey concrete room, about 20 ft. square and 7 ft. high. A single large steel door sealed the entrance hermetically. There were three apertures, two for the pipes which brought in the gas, one, a thick glass peephole, protected by steel netting. It took about seven minutes for this "Zyklon B" to kill the occupants, as many as 250 at a time. Kudriavtsev was explaining: "The gas affects all parts of the organism. It is quicker when the body is warm, washed and wet." I took notes calmly, feeling little emotion. It was all so cold and bare. I wrote: "There are four chambers fed with these small, innocent, pale blue Zyklon crystals which give off cyanide when exposed to air. Two extra chambers for plain carbon monoxide. Maximum simultaneous capacity: 2,000." Kudriavtsev was still explaining: "On one day, Nov. 3, 1943, they annihilated 18,000 people—Poles, Jews, political prisoners and war prisoners."Death by Fire. We walked back into the sun. There was no horror left in Maidenek. It had evaporated with the Germans. We rode a little distance to some cabbage patches. The big, leafy cabbages were covered with a sooty, grey dust and next to them were high mounds of grey brown stuff. "This," said Kudriavtsev, "is fertilizer. A layer of human bones, a layer of human ashes, a layer of manure. This is German food production. Kill people; fertilize cabbages."The crematorium might have been a big bakeshop or a very small blast furnace. Here the Nazis carted the bodies, straight from the gas chambers. They cut them up scientifically. They put the chunks on iron stretchers, slid them on rollers into the five greedy mouths of the coke-fed ovens. They could disintegrate 1,900 people a day. "There was great economy," said Kudriavtsev. "These furnaces also heated the water for the camp."We heard about a young Polish girl who had refused to undress for a shower. The degenerate, sadistic Mussfelt who ran the crematorium ordered her shoved into the furnace alive. Her hair burned quick and bright. Then she crisped up like bacon on an over-hot skillet.Near the ovens were the remains of a room with a big stone table. Here gold fillings were extracted from the teeth. No corpse or piece of a corpse could be burned without a stamp on the chest: "Inspected for gold fillings."Skulls and Buzzing Flies. Kudriavtsev led us to some large, open graves. Here were buried the bodies of the camp's personnel, hastily shot and buried on July 21 in the last hectic days before the Red Army closed in. The pits stank in the warm sun. There were skulls and a piece of a Red Army cap and a buzzing of large flies. Around the pits, in the grass, poppies were growing. Orange red poppies. Big ones.Back in the camp we saw a room full of passports and documents. Papers of Frenchmen, Russians, Greeks, Czechs, Jews, Italians, Belo-Russians, Serbs, Poles. Records left behind by some of the 1,500,000 of 22 nationalities who were brought to Maidenek.820,000 Pairs of Shoes. We came to a large, unpainted warehouse. Not suspecting, I stepped up and went inside. It was full of shoes. A sea of shoes. I walked across them unsteadily. They were piled, like pieces of coal in a bin, halfway up the walls. Not only shoes. Boots. Rubbers. Leggings. Slippers. Children's shoes, soldiers' shoes, old shoes, new shoes. They were red and grey and black. Some had once been white. High heels, low heels, shoes with open toes. Evening slippers, beach sandals, wooden Dutch shoes, pumps, Oxfords, high-laced old-ladies' shoes. In one corner there was a stock of artificial limbs. I kicked over a pair of tiny white shoes which might have been my youngest daughter's. The sea of shoes was engulfing. In one place the sheer weight had broken the wall. Part of the wall had fallen out, and with it a cascade of shoes. Kudriavtsev said: "There are 820,000 pairs here and 18 carloads of the best were shipped to Germany. You will see the receipts at the Gestapo warehouse." Standing on the sea of shoes, Maidenek suddenly became real. It was no longer a half-remembered sequence from an old movie or a clipping from Pravda or chapters from a book by a German refugee living in Mexico City. The barbed wire had barbs which ripped flesh. The ashes on the big cabbages were the ashes of the brothers of the worn but pretty peasant women who had spoken to us that morning at Mass. "The loudspeakers from the camp kept screeching Strauss waltzes," a Polish woman in Lublin said to me. "The Beautiful Blue Danube can never be beautiful to us again." She paused and repeated the words so many Poles and Russians had said that day: "I hope you Americans will not be soft with the Germans."

1944: In Casablanca, Valentine Haroche, née Roubleva and Valentine Haroche gave birth to French physicist Serge Haroche  who “who was awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize for Physics jointly with David J. Wineland.”

1944: Victor Kugler, one of the people who helped to hide the Frank family, was transported from the prison in Weteringschans to a concentration camp in Amersfoort where he was selected for transport to Germany.

1947: Outfielder Mickey Rutner made his major league debut with the Philadelphia Athletics.

1947(26th of Elul, 5707: Sixty-nine year old Dr. Alex Kornfeld, the husband of Paula Mandl and the father of Peter and Ulrich Kornfeld and the father-in-law of Lorie Granitsch passed away today.

1948: Samuel Ralph "Subway Sam" Nahem appeared in his last major league baseball game as a member of the Philadelphia Phillies.

1949: A memorial plaque was put up at The Langenstein-Zwieberge concentration camp, an under-camp of the Buchenwald concentration camp to mark the site “of the common graves.”

1950 (29th of Elul, 5710): Erev Rosh Hashana

1951: According to reports published today, American actress Yvonne de Carolo will cut short her current tour of Israel and return to the United States so that she can be filming “San Francisco Story” a movie in which she shares top billing with Joel McCrea.  [Editor’s note: We have no idea why she was touring in Israel.]

1951: David Horowitz, Israel’s director-general of the Ministry of Finance, arrived in New York today. As Israel faces an economic crisis caused by the in-gathering of the exiles and the continued state of war with its Arab neighbors, Mr. Horowitz has the United States to address a number of Jewish organizations sympathetic to the growth of Israel.

1952: The Jerusalem Post reported that in a secret, silent ceremony that lasted 13 minutes, Foreign Minister Moshe Sharett and West German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer signed in Luxembourg an agreement under which the Bonn Government agreed to pay 3,450 million marks, in various goods, as reparations for the material damage suffered by Jews at the hands of the Nazis. The first goods were expected to arrive in 1953, but the much-needed oil, a part of the reparations deal, would arrive in Israel within weeks.

1958: “Wind Across the Everglades” produced by Stuart Schulberg and written by Budd Schulberg was released in the United States today by Warner Bros.

1959: U.S. Premiere of Director Sidney Lumet’s “That Kind of Woman” with a script co-authored by Walter Bernstein, filmed by cinematographer Boris Kaufman and co-starring Tab Hunter (Jewish father).

1960: It was reported today that the Library of Congress had purchased a rare piece of Lincoln Memorabilia using funds left by the late Alfred Stern of Chicago.  The item, a sales circular advertising the sale of various Lincoln election items such as pins and button, will join Stern’s collection in the Rare Book Room.

1961(1st of Tishrei, 5722): Rosh Hashanah is observed for the first time during the Presidency of John F. Kennedy.

1962: Heinz Krug, “one of a dozen Nazi rocket experts who had been hired by Egypt to develop weapons for” the Arab country committed to the destruction of the state of Israel vanished today, the victim it would later be revealed of an assassin’s bullet fired by foreman Nazi henchman Otto Skorzeny now in the employ of Mossad.

1965: Outfield Norm Miller made his major league debut with the Houston Astros.

1965(14th of Elul, 5725): Eighty-five year old Bethel Albert Herbert Solomons the Dublin born physician who was a noted rugby player as well as a supporter of Sinn Fein and the famous “1916 Rising,” a key moment in the Irish fight for independence.

1966: In London, The Destruction in Art Symposium chaired by Gustav Metzger, came to a close.

1969: In the aftermath of Israel’s successful raid on Egypt’s Red Sea coast called Operation Raviv, Egypt “launched a large 102-aircraft raid on Israeli positions in the Sinai, during which they lost a MiG-17, five MiG-21s and two Sukhoi Su-7s while claiming to have destroyed 3 Israeli aircraft.

1969: Giora Romm was taken prisoner today when the Egyptians shot down his Dassault Mirage.

1970: As part of the Dawson Field Hijackings, when members of the Palestinian terrorists group PLFP hijacked four jet and had forced them to fly to Jordan, the PLFP released over three hundred of the passengers.  The PLFP kept the Jews and Israeli citizens as hostages.

1972(3rd of Tishrei, 5733): Tzom Gedaliah

1972(3rd of Tishrei, 5733): Eighty-nine year old pioneer animator Max Fleischer whose Fleischer Studios brought to life several characters including “Popeye, the spinach eating sailor man” passed away.

1972: Avery Brundage, who would not do anything that might anger Hitler at the 1936 Olympics and who decided that the 1972 Olympics “must go on despite the murder of 11 Israeli athletes and coaches by Arab terrorist” is scheduled to “officially” step down “as president of the International Olympic Committee” today.

1973: Israel Police minister Shlomo Hillel spoke to the International Police Association about confronting terrorism (including aviation terrorism). "Surrender to terrorism," said Hillel "results not only in the decline of the value of law but also degrades every international moral authority, encourages the growth of murder, terrorism and global extortionism, and pushes the world into a state of anarchy and chaos." (As reported by Adam Soclof). 

1973: A possible terrorist incident was thwarted today when Australian authorities arrested a member of Al-Fatah.

1974: The first of two demonstrations was held today in Moscow “by Jewish activists demanding exit visas.”

1974: Sylva Zalmanson who had been freed after serving 4 years of a 10 year sentence at Leningrad Trail in 1970 arrived in Israel today.

1974: NBC broadcast of the long-running series “Little House on the Prairie” starring Michael Landon who also served as Executive Producer and Melissa Gilbert in the role of “Laura Ingalls Wilder” the author of the book on which the series was based.

1977: The Jerusalem Post reported that US President Jimmy Carter's previously submerged anger towards Israeli action in establishing new settlements came into the open when he agreed with reporters that the Israeli government was apparently openly defying the US and constituted an obstacle to peace. In Israel, however, Agriculture Minister Ariel Sharon, chief proponent of the settlement policy in the cabinet, said that the belt of the settlements he planned to establish would give Israel the security to reach "daring solutions" for peace with the Palestinian Arabs. Sharon:  settlements, peace with the Arabs - how much things change, how much they stay the same.

1978:  President Jimmy Carter, President Sadat and Prime Minister met at Camp David and agreed on a framework for peace between Israel and Egypt and a comprehensive peace in the Middle East.

1979: ABC aired the first episode of the second season of “Taxi” a sit-com created by James L. Brooks, Stan Daniels and Ed Weinberg and starring Judd Hirsch and Andy Kaufman.

1980(1st of Tishrei, 5741): As Illinois Congressman John Andersen mounts a third party run against Carter and Regan for the Presidency, Jews observe Rosh Hashanah

1981: Pitcher Larry Rothschild made his major league debut with the Detroit Tigers.

1982: At East Haddam, CT, the curtain came down on a revival production of “High Button Shoes,” a musical with music by Jule Styne and lyrics by Sammy Cahn that had opened at the Goodspeed Opera House in July.

1982: Detroit pitcher Larry Rothschild played his last major league baseball game.  He then went on to a career as major league coach and manager.

1987(17th of Elul, 5747: Seventy-two year old Canadian born American actor Lorne Greene who gained fame as “Pa Cartwright” – a family patriarch based on his father Daniel Greene – passed away today.

1987: “Today, Allan Bloom, philosopher and author of Closing of the American Mind: How Higher Education Has Failed Democracy and Impoverished the Souls of Today's Students, told undergraduates at DePauw University today. “You have four years of freedom to discover yourselves: the space between what is most likely the intellectual wasteland most of us leave behind and the inevitable dreary professional training that awaits you after the baccalaureate."

1988(29th of Elul, 5748): Erev Rosh Hashanah

1988(29th of Elul, 5748): Seventy-nine year old Cornell University professor Isaac Rabinowitz who was an expert on the Dead Sea Scrolls passed away today.

1988: Rabbi Arnold E. Resnicoff “was one of 100 religious leaders at” today’s “White House discussion with then President Bill Clinton on the way religion might combat violence in American schools.”

1988: “Miracle Mile” featuring Alan Rosenberg as “Mike” premiered at the Toronto Film Festival.

1989: “Eversmile, New Jersey” “an Argentine and British comedy with a script by Argentine writer Jorge Goldenberg was released in Canada today.

1992: “Sneakers” a computer comedy produced by Lawrence Lasker, the grandson of Albert Lasker, who also co-authored the script.

1993(25th of Elul, 5753):  Conductor Erich Leinsdorf passed away.

1994(6th of Tishrei, 5755: Shimon Avidan, “an Israeli soldier and officer, the commander of the Givati Brigade during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war,” passed away. Born Shimon Koch in Germany in 1911, he moved to Kibbutz Ayelet HaShahar in 1934 and then Ein Hashofet in Palestine. “He fought with the International Brigades during the Spanish Civil War. Avidan is also known for his activities in the Palmach in World War II. He led the "German Unit" of the Palmach, which was responsible for conducting guerilla operations against the Axis powers.[1] In 1945 he commanded the Saison operation against the Irgun and Stern Gang.[3] During the 1948 war he was the operational commander of Operation Nachshon, Operation Barak, Operation Pleshet and Operation An-Far. His troops also fought at Nitzanim as well as joining Operations Death to the Invader and Yoav. He resigned from the army after, according to Chaim Herzog, 'his extreme left-wing philosophy proved to be irreconcilable with Ben-Gurion's policies'. In 1975, he was appointed as the internal comptroller of the Ministry of Defense by the minister Shimon Peres.

1997: At the Toronto International Film Festival premiere of “Mr. Jealousy” directed by Noah Baumbach who also wrote the script.

1998: “A Simple Plan,” the movie version of the novel of the same name directed by Sam Raimi and music by Danny Elfman premiered at the Toronto International Film Festival today.

1998: “The Rounders,” which provides a dark view of the world of high stakes poker” co-starring Martin Landau, featuring Josh Mostel (son of Zero Mostel) and with a script by David Levien and Brian Koppelman was released in the United States today by Miramax Films.

1998: “L.A. Without a Map” featuring Lisa Edelstein premiered at the Toronto International Film Festival today.

1999(1st of Tishrei, 5760): Rosh Hashanah 5760

1999: On the first day of Rosh Hashanah, The Shanghai government permitted the Jewish community to use Ohel Rachel for 24 hours. This would be the first time a Jewish service was held at the Ohel Rachel Synagogue since 1952. Evening and morning services were held, with approximately 120 Jews in attendance. This was the highest attendance the modern Shanghai Jewish community had seen!

2001: Today marked Cpl. Dustin H. Schrage’s first day in the United States Marine Corps. The young Jewish Marine would lose his life while swimming across the Euphrates River in the Al Anbar province in 2004.

2001: The September 11 attacks destroyed the World Trade Center in New York City, part of The Pentagon in Washington, D.C., and downed a passenger airliner in Pennsylvania. In total, almost 3,000 were killed.  In one of the most offensive bits of anti-Semitic propaganda several websites, some of which were sponsored by Arab money, claimed that Jews had been warned to stay away from the WTC and/or that the attack was part of a Mossad conspiracy. The number of dead Jewish Americans and Israelis belied the canard, but truth never bothers an anti-Semite.

2001: Silverstein Properties owned the World Trade Center and will be represented by Proskauer Rose in litigation that will result from the attack and its aftermath.

2001: In an odd twist of fate Larry Silverstein, the owner of Silverstein Properties was at the dermatologist this morning instead of eating breakfast with new tenants at Windows on the World.

2001: Following today’s attacks in Washington, DC and New York City, demand for Robert D. Kaplan’s analysis of events as can be found in “The Coming Anarchy: How scarcity, crime, overpopulation, tribalism, and disease are rapidly destroying the social fabric of our planet” and Warrior Politics increased.

2001: Following today’s terrorist attacks Geraldo Rivera “accepted a pay cut and went to work for the Fox News Channel as a war correspondent.”

2001: “In the wake of today’s attacks, Martin S. Bergman wrote an article concerning its implications on psychoanalysis called ‘Psychoanalytical Reflections on September 11.’’

2001: Following today’s attacks, “the Boston Symphony Orchestra cancelled a scheduled performance of extracts from” “The Death of Klinghoffer” “partly in deference to a member of the Tanglewood Festival Chorus, who lost a family member on one of the hijacked planes, as well as due to perceptions that the work was overly sympathetic to terrorists.”

2001: Following today’s terrorist attacks British Labour MP and Zionist emerged as a “terrorism expert” thanks to the “reports on social violence published through his think-tank, the Centre for Contemporary Studies.”

2001: Sixty-three year old Alice Trillin, who in addition to all of her own accomplishment was considered to be the inspiration for her husband Calvin Trillin, passed away today.

2002: The Museum of Jewish Heritage - A Living Memorial to the Holocaust will join with its colleague museums across the nation to participate in "Museums Celebrate America's Freedoms" to celebrate the freedoms that sustain the nation's strength.

2002: New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg “lit an eternal flame to mark the first anniversary of the attacks on Washington, DC and New York City by Arab terrorists.

2003: “Sharon Delighted with Gift from Kochi” published today described the Prime Minister’s joyful reaction with being given “replicas of the Copper plates from the `Magna Carta' of the Jews of Kochi, which has the oldest synagogue outside Israel. According to some scholars, the Copper plates given by the then rulers of Kochi during the arrival of the Jews to that place, dated back to the 11th century. But the traditional date according to the Cochin Jews is 379 AD.”

2004:  Nathan Cooper is called to the Torah as a Bar Mitzvah at Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 

2004: The 61st Venice International Film Festival which saw the premiere of “To Take a Wife” directed by Ronit and Shlomi Elkabet who also wrote the script” came to a close today.

 2005: The funeral for painter and Israel Prize laureate Lea Nikel is held at Kidron Cemetery. She passed away over the weekend at the age of 86. Nikel is the “grande dame of Israeli painting.” She was known as the “queen of abstract painting” and “queen of color and composition.  The works of this famous abstract expressionist hang in galleries throughout the world including London’s Tate Gallery

2005: Today “a ceremony was held when the last Israeli flag was lowered in the IDF's Gaza Strip divisional headquarters.”

2005, United States Senator Jon Corzine, the Democratic candidate for Governor of New Jersey, endorsed Loretta Weinberg for State Senate held by Byron Baer who was retiring. [Weinberg was Jewish; Corzine was not.

2005: Jewish authors continue to add to the richness of the general culture as they write on a variety of subjects. Where God Was Born by Bruce Feiler received less than glowing reviews in the Sunday New York Times.  This is the third in Mr. Feiler’s series on the Bible and religion, two things that he apparently did not study at an earlier age. Dvorak: Romantic Music's Most Versatile Genius by David Hurwitz which has now appeared in paperback received favorable reviews in the Sunday Washington Post book section.  Hurwitz takes the unconventional stand that the relationship between Brahms and Dvorak was not a one way street.  He contends that Brahms benefited from Dvorak’s influence every bit as much did Dvorak benefit from that of Brahms.

2005: Sidney Ferris Rosenberg failed to show up to host the Giants' pre-game show

2006: (Elul 18) Celebration of the birth of Israel ben Eliezer, known as the Baal Shem Tov (Master of the Good Name) of simply the Besht.  He is the founder of the movement that would eventually come to be known as Chasidism.  There is too much to this man’s life and too many sources available to warrant even the most elementary summary.

2006: (Elul 18) Celebration of the birth of Rabbi Schneur Zalman of Liadi, founder of the Chabad Lubavitch branch of Chasidism.

2006:  In the Time Magazine edition of this date a report appeared that Leonard Nimoy, the Jewish actor who portrayed Mr. Spock had published a book entitled Shekina, which explores the mythological feminine aspect of God. 

2006: Seventy-nine year old German historian Joachim Fest who specialized in works about the Nazis and Hitler passed away today.


2006: Leonard Woolf by Victoria Glendinning was published today by Simon and Schuster


2007: The board of Deputies of British Jews released a statement “accusing the New Statesman, a weekly journal published in London of again demonstrating its ‘hostility to Israel’ and of being ‘mischievous’ and ‘irresponsible.’”

2007: Elul 29 – The Shofar is sounded for the last time in 5767.

2008:Setting the Stage,” Beit Lessin's ninth annual revelation of new plays by local playwrights opens at ZOA House in Tel Aviv, there will be 10 staged readings, a musical special to open the proceedings and peer-awarded prizes for those who are part of four other full productions. "Israeli plays are the beating heart of Israeli theater," says Beit Lessin General Manager Tzippi Pines, who has positioned her theater as a nurturing cradle for new playwrights.

2008: In Manhattan the Center for Jewish History in collaboration with Levinas Ethical Legacy Foundation, Société International de Research Emmanuel Levinas, and the North American Levinas Society presents “Renewing the Colloque: Celebrating Levinas’ Talmudic Readings” during which human rights activists, rabbis and philosophers join in an evening of study and discussion in the spirit of the famous Paris colloquia at which Emmanuel Levinas delivered profoundly ethical Talmudic lessons for our day.

2008” According to documents released today, Ruth Greenglass, “a key prosecution witness whose testimony helped send Ethel Rosenberg to the electric chair gave a different account at trial than she did before the grand jury in the famous Cold War spying case”

2008: Israel conveyed its displeasure to Washington today over remarks reportedly made by US Consul General Jacob Walles that it had agreed to start negotiations with the Palestinians over Jerusalem. The comments prompted a bitter row among Kadima's would-be leaders. According to government sources, Walles's comments, which appeared in the Palestinian daily Al-Ayyam, were "highly inappropriate," since there is a US-Palestinian-Israeli agreement not to go public with what is being discussed by the negotiators. The paper quoted Walles as saying in an interview that US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice told both sides during her visit here last month that the basis for the negotiations was an Israeli withdrawal to the pre-1967 lines, including from east Jerusalem. Walles said changes to those lines were possible should both sides agree.

2009 (22nd of Elul): Yahrzeit of Joseph B. Levin

2009: William Blake’s World: A New Heaven Is Begun opened today and runs, at the Morgan Library & Museum in New York. Blake was a leading painter and poet during the Romantic Age. According to some, Blake was influenced by Kabbalah and that the dozen or so Hebrew inscriptions in his etchings and watercolors show that he was fluent in Hebrew. According to others “close analysis of the works, some of which are on exhibit at The Morgan Library & Museum, reveal that Blake had not even mastered the letter aleph. Reading Kabbalah in Hebrew without knowing the first letter of the aleph-bet would be as implausible as tackling Finnegan’s Wake with barely a grasp of the English alphabet.”

2009: Art Capital Group withdrew its lawsuit against Annie Leibovitz and extended the due date for repayment of the $24 million loan which included an agreement, under which Leibovitz retains control over her work and will be the "exclusive agent in the sale of her real property (land) and copyrights".

 2009(22nd of Elul, 5770): Eighty-one year old comedy writer Larry Gelbart, the man who gave us the television version of “M*A*S*H passed away today. (As reported by Robert Berkvist)

2009: The Toronto International Film Festival features screenings of A History of Israeli Cinema Part 1 (Historia Shel Hakolnoah and A History of Israeli Cinema Part 2 (Historia Shel Hakolnoah Israeli).  Both films are directed by Raphaël Nadjari who “was born in Marseille, France, and now lives in Israel. He began his career in French television before turning to cinema. He has written and directed the features The Shade (99), I Am Josh Polonski's Brother (01), Apartment #5c (02), Avanim (04), which won the Prix France Culture (Cinéma) for French filmmaker of the year at the Cannes Film Festival, and Tehilim (07). A History of Israeli Cinema (09) is his first feature documentary. “

2009: Israeli archaeologists have uncovered one of the earliest depictions of a menorah, the seven-branched candelabrum that has come to symbolize Judaism, the Israel Antiquities Authority said today. The menorah was engraved in stone around 2,000 years ago and found in a synagogue recently discovered by the Kinneret. Pottery, coins and tools found at the site indicate the synagogue dates to the period of the second Jewish temple in Jerusalem, where the actual menorah was kept, said archaeologist Dina Avshalom-Gorni of the Israel Antiquities Authority. The artist might have seen the menorah during a pilgrimage and then recreated it in the synagogue, she suggested. A small number of depictions of the menorah have surfaced from the same period, she said, but this one was unique because it was inside a synagogue and far from Jerusalem, illustrating the link between Jews around Jerusalem and in the Galilee to the north.

The menorah, depicted atop a pedestal with a triangular base, is carved on a stone which was placed in the synagogue's central hall. The temple in Jerusalem was destroyed by Roman legions in 70 CE. The Arch of Titus in Rome, erected to mark the Roman victory, depicts troops carrying the menorah from Jerusalem to symbolize the defeat of the Jews. The menorah became a Jewish symbol and is featured today on Israel's official emblem. Most other depictions of the menorah were made only after the temple's destruction, and if this finding is indeed earlier it could be closer to the original, said Aren Maeir, an archaeology professor at Bar-Ilan University in Israel.

"If you have a depiction of the menorah from the time of the temple, chances are it is more accurate and portrays the actual object than portrayals from after the destruction of the temple, when it was not existent," he said. The ancient prayer house was discovered in the town of Migdal, usually identified as the birthplace of the New Testament's Mary Magdalene, whose name is thought to be based on the town's.

2009: Several rockets fired from southern Lebanon slammed into Israel today triggering retaliatory artillery fire across the border, the Israeli military said

2010(3rd of Tishrei, 5771): Shabbat Shuva

2010(3rd of Tishrei, 5771): Eighty-six year old Harold Gould, an actor who succeeded in film, theatre and television who was never the star but was always there passed away today. (As reported by Bruce Weber)

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/14/arts/14gould.html?pagewanted=print

2010: After a 39-year absence, today the Israeli women’s national volleyball team qualified for the 2011 European Championships.

2011(12th of Elul, 5772): Eighty-seven year old Israeli tycoon Yuli Ofer passed away today. (As reported by Elad Benari)

http://www.israelnationalnews.com/News/News.aspx/147776

2011: Alisa Weilerstein, Carolin Widmann and Matan Porat are scheduled to perform Beethoven’s Triple Concerto in C major, op. 56 at the 14th Jerusalem International Chamber Music Festival.

2011: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including That Used To Be Us: How America Fell Behind in the World It Invented and How We Can Come Back by Thomas L. Friedman and Michael Mandelbaum,

2011: The 2011-2012 Religious School Year is scheduled to begin today at Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, Iowa.

2011: In conjunction with the 10th anniversary of the terrorist attacks on Washington and New York, the ADL has issued “Decade of Deceit: Anti-Semitic 9/11 Conspiracy Theories 10 Years Later.”Decade of Deceit: Anti-Semitic 9/11 Conspiracy Theories 10 Years Later

2011: The Seattle Jewish Chorale is scheduled to take part in an inter-faith service “Remember9/11: Blessed are the Peacemakers” which is one of many observances marking the tenth anniversary of the terrorist attack on Washington, DC and New York City.  Rabbi Daniel Weiner of Temple de Hirsch Sinai is scheduled to co-officiate at the service.

2011: Shots were fired from Egypt across the border with Israel today, near the site of last month's terror attack in which eight Israelis were killed.

2011: Israel vowed to develop and defend gas platforms recently discovered in its waters, Energy Minister Uzi Landau said today, after Turkey declared its plan to boost naval patrols in the eastern Mediterranean in a deepening diplomatic feud

2011: Turkish hackers are preparing to launch a wave of cyber-attacks on sensitive Israeli internet sites, the head of a major Israeli website building company warned today

2011: The Los Angeles Times reviewed Just My Type: A Book About Fonts by Simon Garfield

2012: For those looking for a “Jewish” way to remember what this date means consider the following

2012: If Iran decides to make a nuclear weapon, the United States would have a little more than a year to act to stop it, US Defense Secretary Leon Panetta said today

2012: The chairman of Yad Vashem has been appointed the deputy chairman of the International Auschwitz Council. The appointment of Avner Shalev by Polish Prime Minister Donald Tusk was announced by Yad Vashem today.

2012: Following a New Yorker article that appeared yesterday exposing details of the Israeli bombing of a Syrian nuclear facility in 2007, the IDF chief of staff at the time flatly today denied knowledge of the operation.

2013: “Writing Jews in Contemporary Britain” featuring a range of speakers including Nathan Arbrams of Bangor University sponsored by The Pears Institute for the study of Antisemistism in collaboration with the University of Kent and University of Sheffield is scheduled to take place at the University of London.

2013: In London, the Weiner Library co-hosts the second a final day of a “Conference to Mark the 70th Anniversary of the Creation of the United Nations War Crimes Commission in 1943” chaired by Justice Richard Goldstone.

2013: Bulgaria’s President Rosen Plevneliev announced on the anniversary of the 9/11 terror attacks in the US that Bulgaria “experienced our September 11” last year in Burgas, in which alleged Hezbollah operatives murdered five Israelis and a Bulgarian national. (As reported by Benjamin Weinthal)

2013: To honor the memory of the nearly 3,000 people killed in the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, including five Israelis, the Keren Kayemet LeIsrael-Jewish National Fund held its 12th annual memorial ceremony with the US Embassy this afternoon. The memorial, held at the 9/11 Living Memorial in the Arazim Valley in Jerusalem, was attended by US Ambassador Daniel B. Shapiro, KKL-JNF World Chairman Efi Stenzler, Intelligence Minister Yuval Steinitz, as well numerous other dignitaries and mourners. (As reported by Daniel K. Eisenbud)

2014: In Rockville, MD, the Magen David Sephardic Congregation is scheduled to present The Israel-Gaza War: From A Local, Regional & International Perspective With Moran Stern.”

2014 UK Jewish Film, a cultural charity dedicated to developing an environment in which Jewish themed films entertain, educate and enlighten diverse audiences in the UK and internationally, is scheduled to host the final showing of “Wakolda,” a film “set in 1960s Argentina, about an innocent family who unknowingly welcome Dr. Josef Mengele into their home.”

2014: “A senior Hamas official said that his movement may seek to negotiate with Israel, claiming that Islamic faith does not prohibit such contacts.”  But this does not changed the movement’s 1988 charter which states in article 13 that “there is no solution for the Palestinian question except through jihad. Initiatives, proposals and international conferences are all a waste of time and vain endeavors.” (As reported by Elhanahn Miller)

2014: “Jerusalem district firefighters and rescue volunteers, alongside US Marines and families of 9/11 victims, marked the 13th anniversary to the September 11 terrorist attacks that left nearly 3,000 people dead in a special ceremony held in the Jerusalem Hills.”

2014: Lewis Black is scheduled to perform at the National Arts Centre Theatre in Ottawa.

2014: At the Toronto International Film Festival premiere of “The Cobbler” starring Adam Sandler, Dustin Hoffman and Ellen Barkin.

2015: “Journeys” “the second in a series of three-crowd sourced exhibitions produced in collaboration between the Jewish Museum of London and the Cultural Institute at King’s College” is scheduled to come to a close.

2015: “Patrick Devedjian, a right-winger who served in the governments of president Jacques Chirac and Nicolas Sarkozy” “stirred up controversy” today “after saying Germany ‘took our Jews and gave us Arabs’ as France began taking some of the thousands of refugees arriving in Germany.”

2015: “President Obama plans to host Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu of Israel for a meeting in November, the White House said today, marking the start of efforts to repair a troubled relationship between the United States and Israel badly frayed over the nuclear agreement with Iran.”

2015: In Santa Rosa, CA, Lewis Black is scheduled to perform at the Wells Fargo Center for the Arts.

2015: Final Shabbat of 5775 begins this evening.

2016: The Illinois Holocaust Museum and Education Center is scheduled to host “Symbolic by Design” a tour and talk that will described “how renowned Chicago architect Stanley Tigerman infused each space in the Museum with historical and emotional symbolism.”

2016: Frank Stern, a native of Frankfurt who went from Switzerland to England before sailing for the United States “on an armed merchant ship” in 1940 is scheduled to talk about his experiences as “a Holocaust survivor.”

2016: In Atlanta, GA, the Breman Museum is scheduled to host a workshop presented by the Jewish Genealogical Society of Georgia presenting “new research techniques from Yad Vashem.”

2016: Temple Emanu-El and the American Jewish Committee NYC are scheduled to participate in a 15th Anniversary Interfaith Commemoration and Walk in Remembrance of 9/11 that will start at Temple Emanu-El that will include members of the Fifth Avenue Presbyterian Church and the Islamic Society of Mid-Manhattan

2016: The Blue is scheduled to host a show this morning “premiering songs from Israeli jazz guitarist Assaf Kehati’s upcoming 4th album.

2016: In Des Moines, Iowa, Beit Sefer Shalom, the Jewish Federation Community School, is scheduled to host a family breakfast before classes resume this morning.

2016: Religious School is scheduled to resume at Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, IA.

2016: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Here I Am by Jonathan Safran Foer, Where The Jews Aren’t: The Sad and Absurd Story of Birobidzahn, Russia’s Jewish Autonomous Region by Masha Gessen and  She Made Me Laugh: My Friend Nora Ephron by Richard Cohen.

 

 

 

 

 

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