Monday, July 25, 2016

This Day, July 26, In Jewish History by Mitchell A. Levin


July 26

412: “Emperors Theodosius II and Honorius ban compulsion of public service or court appearances for Jews on the Sabbath or any other Jewish holy day. Thus all legal issues involving Jews must be completed between Monday and Friday, and the Jewish Sabbath receives general protection. By the same token, Jews should not summon Christians to court on Christian holy days.”

657: Caliph Muawiya defeated Caliph Ali at the Battle of Siffin.  Muawiya was the founder of the Umayyad dynasty.  Earlier, he had been instrumental in the founding of a synagogue in Tripoli (in modern day Lebanon).  The Umayyads would take control of Jerusalem, allow the Jews to live openly in the city and build one of their most famous mosques.  This battle may be “ancient history” to westerners but for some followers of Islam it resonates in the Sunni vs. Shiite conflict we see in the 21st century.

1139: Count Alfonso, who declared independence from Leon,  proclaimed himself the first king of Portugal and entered history as King Alfonso I. King Afonso I of Portugal entrusted Yahia Ben Yahi III, a Sephardic Jew born in Cordoba with the post of supervisor of tax collection and nominated him the first Chief-Rabbi of Portugal.

1267: Clement IV issued “Turbato corde” a Papal Bull that forbids Christians from embracing Judaism.

1267: Clement IV is Turbato Corde, a papal bull dealing with heresy, forbidding any action by Jews that would lead Christians to convert and establishing the Inquisition at Rome.

1305: Today, Rashba, who “was opposed to the philosophic-rationalistic approach to Judaism often associated with Rambam, and” who “was part of the beit din (rabbinical court) in Barcelona that forbade men younger than 25 from studying secular philosophy or the natural sciences (although an exception was made for those who studied medicine) wrote: ‘In that city [Barcelona] are those who write iniquity about the Torah and if there would be a heretic writing books, they should be burnt as if they were the book of sorcerers.’” Rashba is the Hebrew acronym for the title and name of Rabbi Shlomo ben Aderet, “a Medieval rabbi, halakhist, and Talmudist. The Rashba was born in Barcelona, Spain, in 1235. He became a successful banker and leader of Spanish Jewry of his time. He served as rabbi of the Main Synagogue of Barcelona for 50 years. His teachers were the Ramban and Rabbeinu Yona. Among his numerous students were the Ritva, Rabbeinu Behaye, and the Ra'ah. The Rashba was considered an outstanding rabbinic authority, and more than 3,000 of his responsa are known to be extant. Questions were addressed to him from Spain, Portugal, Italy, France, Germany, and even from Asia Minor. His responsa, which cover the entire gamut of Jewish life, are concise and widely quoted by halakhic authorities. The Rashba's responsa also illustrate his opposition to messianism and prophetic pretensions as a general phenomenon, with examples against Nissim ben Abraham and Abraham Abulafia. The Rashba defended Rambam (Maimonides) during contemporary debates over his works, and he authorized the translation of Rambam's commentary on the Mishnah from Arabic to Hebrew.” He passed away in 1310.

1309:  Henry VII is recognized King of the Romans by Pope Clement V.  Pope Clement V is first pope to threaten Jews with an economic boycott in an attempt to force them to stop charging Christians interest on loans.”

1534: After a papal commission had attested to atrocities committed by the Inquisition against pseudo-Christians, Pope Clement VII issued a brief to the nuncio of the Portuguese court to press for the release and absolution of 1200 imprisoned Marranos.  The Pope would die before action could be taken on his order and the effort ended with his death.

1555: The Jews of Rome were forced into a ghetto by order of Pope Paul IV

1581: Adoption of the Plakkaat van Verlatinghe (Act of Abjuration), the declaration of independence of the northern Low Countries from the Spanish king, Philip II. For Christians this is part of the battle between Protestants and Catholics; for Jews it is a conflict that will result in the independence of the Netherlands, a Protestant nation that would be a haven of tolerance for European Jews.

1605: A Jesuit Missionary traveling though China wrote a letter describing his meetings with Ai T'ien, a Chinese Jewish teacher. Most of what we know regarding the Kaifeng Jewish community is from this correspondence.

1612: Birthdate of Murad IV during whose Sultanate the Jews of Salonica suffered such severe financial losses that many of them were forced to migrate to Izmir.

1645: Alexis Mikhailovich succeeded his father as the “second czar of the Roman of dynasty.” The czar employed a Jewish physician named Stephan von Gaden. Unlike many other Russian rulers who pursued anti-Jewish policies, this Czar’s record is a mixed bag. “During his reign a considerable number of Jews lived in Moscow and the interior of Russia.”  “From the edicts issued by Alexis Mikhailovich, it appears that the czar often granted the Jews passports with red seals (gosudarevy zhalovannyya gramoty), without which no foreigners could be admitted to the interior; and that they traveled without restriction to Moscow, dealing in cloth and jewelry, and even received from his court commissions to procure various articles of merchandise.”  On the other hand he expelled Jews from various “newly acquired cities” in Poland and Lithuania.

1669: It was finally decided, today to expel a number of Jews from Vienna and Lower Austria; 1,346 persons were affected by this decree of banishment. In their dire need the Jews of Vienna once more sent a memorial to the emperor; but in vain, for the commission had attributed to them all kinds of crimes.

1670: The last Jews left Vienna, following expulsion orders. According to tradition, this took place on Tish'a b'Av.

1719 (10th of Av): Rabbi Samuel Filorintin, author of Olat Shemel passed away today.

1773: In Montreal, 38 year old Ezekiel Solomon and Marie Elizabeth Louise Dubois gave birth to Samuel Solomon

1788: New York ratified the United States Constitution and becomes the 11th state of the United States. The fate of the Jewish people and the state of New York has been intertwined since the earliest days of settlement in what is now the United States.  For example, Isaac Moses was a co-founder of the New York Chamber of Commerce in 1768.  There were approximately 350 Jews living in New York City at the time of the American Revolution.  Many of them fled during the British occupation and did not return until after the war.  Jews were active in New York politics from the early days of the Republic as can be seen by Solomon Simpson’s role as a founder of the famed Tammany Society (the cornerstone of the Democratic Party) in 1794.

1788: British “colonists” settle in Sydney, Australia.  These “colonists” were part of an English transport of convicts shipped to New South Wales.  Australia was founded as penal colony.  According to at least one source there were eight Jews among the first shipment of eight hundred prisoners including “sixteen year old Esther Abrahams of London sentenced for stealing a piece of lace.”

1799: Birthdate of Oskar Ludwig Bernhard Wolff the German Jewish author who “published under the pseudonym ‘Pliny the Youngest.’”

1803: Birthdate of Johann Jacob (Joseph Isidor) Sachs the German physician who practiced in Berlin where he also “was a prolific writer.”

1806: Napoleon formed the Conference of Notables to deal with the relationship between the Jews and the French State. It consisted of 112 deputies from all parts of the French Empire. At the assembly, led by the financier Abraham Furtado and Rabbi Joseph David Sinzheim, the delegates were confronted with a questionnaire on polygamy, usury, loyalty and intermarriage. Pleased with their answers, he decided to reenact the Sanhedrin, with representatives from all congregations under his careful direction. Even though the assembly was to be held on the Sabbath (some claim as a loyalty litmus test) it was decided to attend and not risk the wrath of the Emperor.

1806: In Dessau, author and publisher Moses Philippson and Marianne Levy-Wust gave birth Phoebus Moses Philippson the author and physician who married his cousin Sara Gottshalk in 1832 and then married her sister Pauline in 1849 after his first wife’s death.

1815: Birthdate of Dr. Robert Remak, “embryologist, physiologist, and neurologist” who was denied academic tenure and credit for his work because he was Jewish.

1816(1st of Av, 5576): Rosh Chodesh Av

1832: In Brono, Johanna Jeitteles and Dr. Aloys Isidor Jeittels gave birth to women’s right activist Ottilie Bondy.

1844: Today, during the last weeks of his life, Aron Chorin wrote from his sick-bed a declaration expressing his full accord with the Rabbinical Conference of Brunswick, and on August 11 he sent an address to the conference of Hungarian rabbis at Páks. He died at Arad, Hungary.

1844: Sixty-four year old Carl Streckfuss the Prussian privy council who in 1833 wrote a treatise, “On the Relation of the Jews to the Christian States” in which he expressed reluctance “to recommend a universal emancipation because of the alleged moral and deficiencies of the common type of Jew. (As reported by Jacob Katz)

1846(3rd of Av, 5606): Eighty-three old Esther Mordecai Russell “the first-born daughter of Mordecai Moses Mordecai and Zipporah "de Lyon" Mordecai” who was the wife of “Dr. Philip Moses Russell, a Jewish Surgeon's Mate, who received a special commendation from General George Washington for his services at Valley Forge” passed away today in Philadelphia.

1847: The Republic of Liberia declares its independence.  One hundred years later, in November of 1947, Liberia would be one of 33 nations to vote for partition which would lead to the creation of the state of Israel.

1850: On Friday Rev. S. M. Isaacs, of New York, officiated at the dedication of the new Synagogue in Buffalo, NY.  Those attending donated a sum of six hundred dollars following the ceremony.  Rev. Isaacs is the spiritual leader of Gates of Prayer in New York City.

1856: Birthdate of William Rainey Harper, the Professor of Hebrew at Yale, whose writings included “The Jews of Babylon” and “The Return of the Jews from Exile.” He was the first President of the University of Chicago where Emil Gustav Hirsch was among the first faculty members.

1858: Sir Lionel Nathan Rothschild (the first Lord Rothschild), took his seat in the House of Commons after a long and bitter fight. The Christian oath was amended so that non-Christians could also serve in the House. He became the first Jew to sit in the House of Commons because a new oath of office was agreed upon that did not refer to Christianity.

1861: In Hamburg, Emmeline and Berman Bernays gave birth to Martha Bernays the wife of Sigmund Freud.

1861: At the start of the Civil War Elias Leon Hyneman, the son of Benjamin Hyneman, enlisted as a volunteer in Company C, Fifth Pennsylvania Cavalry. He fought in the Peninsula Campaign of 1862, at Gettysburg in 1863 and in the Wilderness in 1864 before being taken prisoner.  He died at the infamous Andersonville Prison.

1862: The following telegram was sent today:

To Brif.-Gen. J.T. Quimby, Columbus, Ky.:

GENERAL: Examine the baggage of all speculators coming South, and, when they have specie, turn them back. If medicine and other contraband articles, arrest them and confiscate the contraband article. Jews should receive special attention.

(Signed) U.S. Grant  Major-General

1863(10th of Av, 5623): Just weeks after the Union victories at Gettysburg and Vicksburg, Tish'a B'Av was observed today because the 9th of Av fell on Shabbat.

1865: Birthdate of Philip Scheidemann, German political leader and first Chancellor of the Weimar Republic. Scheideman was not Jewish but his first government included four Jews which provided ammunition for the anti-Semites and opponents to this post-war attempt at democracy in Germany.  He left Germany when the Nazis came to power and died in exile in Denmark. 

1865: In Philadelphia, Joseph Lodge No. 14 of the Free Sons of Israel “began operations” today

1869: Birthdate of anarchist Emma Goldman.

1874: Birthdate of Dr. Sergei Aleksandrovich Koussevitzky the Russian born conductor best known for his long tenure as music director of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, a position he held from 1924 to 1949.

1881: It was reported today that Young Men’s Hebrew Association of Harlem plan on taking an excursion to Staten Island next month.

1881: Birthdate of Clara Ferrin, the native of Tucson, AZ who taught at Stafford Elementary School before marrying merchant David Bloom becoming Clara Ferrin-Bloom a local civic and Jewish communal leader.

1891: Riots took place at Baerwald, Pomerania during which “a quantity of Jewish property was destroyed.”

1882: In San Francisco, Samuel L. Sachs disappeared after having shot his wife today.  Sachs, the son of Louis Sachs, a co-owner of Sachs, Heller &Co is Jewish which his wife, whom doctors say will survive her wounds, is the daughter of Thomas Shanon, a prominent Christian who has severed as Collector of the Port.

1882: As the Freight Handler’s strike continued things became so violent that a group of Russian Jews working at the Red Star dock in Jersey City began fighting among themselves.

1883: In New York, the Board of Estimate and Apportionment disbursed over $32,000 to a variety of charities including $1,870.57 to the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society.

1885: “The Summer Boarding House” published today provided a 19th century bucolic vision of the Catskills which would become home to the Borscht Belt in the 20th century.

http://www.hvmag.com/Hudson-Valley-Magazine/August-2014/History-of-Borscht-Belt-Hotels-and-Bungalow-Colonies-in-the-Catskills/

1886: “Life at Saratoga” published today reported that the section of Broadway that separates the Grand Union from Congress Hall is referred to as “the Red Sea” because it separates Jew from Gentile.  Ever since Judge Hilton announced his policy of banning all Jews from the Grand Union, New York Jewish Gentry led by the Seligman family, has been staying at the Congress.  According to Colonel Texas Ochiltree only two suspected Jews have stayed at the Grand Union – Jacob Hess and Abraham Hummel.  The latter is considered to be a Bulgarian so he does not pose a threat.

1886: Several New York rabbis and a representative of the Hebrew Immigration Society met with Immigration Superintendent Jackson at Castle Garden.  They asked him not send the Russian Jews currently staying at Ward’s Island back to Europe.  They offered to post bonds so that the immigrants would not be treated as paupers.  Jackson said he would refer the request to the Committee of Commissioners of Emigration.

1887:  L. L. Zamenhof publishes Dr. Esperanto's International Language. The father of Esperanto was a physician, the son of Lithuanian Jews.  Before his work with Esperanto, Zamenhof had published a Yiddish grammar book.

1887: Birthdate of Reuben Leon Kahn, the Lithuanian-American immunologist who developed the Kahn Test for syphilis.

1888(17th of Av, 5648): Thirty five year old Leopold Wiesner the son Estra (Therese) Wiesner and Rabbi Jonas Weiesner passed away today.

1890: The officers of the synagogue on Stone Avenue in Williamsburg that was incorporated today include Alter Birn, President; Jacob Alter, Vice President, Joseph November, Treasurer; Wolf Jakobowits, Secretary; Loeb Waldmann, Isaiah Zwinckel and Louis Zwickel, Trustees.

1890; “Amusements” in The Los Angeles Herald previewed the upcoming performance of the “Shatchen”  a drama by Charles S. Dickson featuring Frank Mordaunt.

1890(9th of Av, 5650) Shabbat Chazon: Erev Tish'a B'Av

1890: Even though the Cloakmakers strike was settled, “very little work was in any of the factories” today because most the workers were Jews who do not work on Saturday.

1890: The headquarters of the Cloakmakers’ Union on Ludlow, Suffolk and Orchard street were decorated with American and Red flags while the workers praised Joseph Barondees “who had so completely vanquished the manufacturers.

1891: “Phases of City Life” published today described the relation between the new chef at the Democratic Club and famed thespian Sarah Bernhardt.  Emanuel Bernard is her cousin and she adopted one of his girls, part of a family 15 children, after he wife died two years ago.

1891: While in London, Colonel John Weber, the former Congressman who is now the Commissioner of Immigration at Ellis Island said that “reports” of “the reshipment of destitute Russian Jews from England” “are unfounded.  (There was a belief in the United States that western European countries and Great Britain were buying tickets for eastern European immigrants to travel to America.)

1891: Officials at the Hamburg-American Packet Company issued “indignant denials” to charges that the company is providing Russian-Jewish passengers tickets “at reduced rates.”  The “exiles’ committee pays full price for each passenger” but the company allows them to deduct the commission associated with these bookings.

1891: France annexes Tahiti. The first Jew probably arrived in 1769 with Capt. James Cook. According to Virtual Jewish History, Alexander Salmon, a Jew, moved to Tahiti, and later entered the Tahitian royal family when he married Arrioehau, a Polynesian princess. Today there are approximately 200 Jews living in Tahiti.


1892(2nd of Av, 5652): Forty two year old Yonah Halevi Ettinger who was born at Brody in 1850 passed away today.

1893: “No Mercy For Sick Children” published today described events surrounding the eviction of a widow, Mrs. Sarah Goldstein  and her eight children which resulted  which has led to a suit against her landlords Theodor Fischer and Marshal George Haztzel in which she is being represented by Maurice B. Blumenthal.

1895: Rabbi Gustav Gottheil officiated at the funeral of Abram C. Bernheim a partner in the firm of Shekan & Bernheim which was held this morning at Temple Emanu-El on Fifth Avenue.

1895: In Russia, today is the deadline for all Jews “who had resided in Moscow for a long time” to comply with the government’s order to lead the city.  All other Jews living in Moscow have already been driven out under a government program that began last summer.

1895: The will of Bertha May was filed for probate in the office of the Surrogate today.

1896: The condition of Henry Clay Frick, the steel magnate who was shot by Jewish anarchist during the Homestead Steel Strike was said to be improving and that he would soon be out of danger.

1896: “Webb Charged With Abduction” published today described the case of Dora Henry and George Webb, the 16 year old Jewish girl and 20 year old Lutheran man who were secretly married but never lived together after the ceremony.

1896: According to Meyer Schoenfield, the contractors will join the tailors, most of whom are Jewish, today in their strike against the manufactures

1896: The clothing salesmen will join the tailors in their strike today if the owners refuse their demand for a ten hour work and a guarantee that they will not be laid off during “slack season.”

1899: Dr. J.H. Hertz addressed a meeting of “Uitlander” on the issue of excluding Russian and Romanian born Jews from the right to vote in South Africa. Hertz would later be expelled from the country for this and other similar addresses on this subject.

1897: Rabbi Kaufman Kohler was the principal speaker at today’s session of the National Jewish Chautauqua Assembly in Atlantic, NJ.

1897: A group of Jews who had gone to Woodside to visit the new Mount Sinai Cemetery and were robbed and beaten by a group of thugs, are in the jail in the town hall after having been charged with using the grounds as a picnic grounds which is against the law.  In the meantime, their attackers have not been captured.

1898: During the Spanish American War the 6th Massachusetts Regiment whose members included Phillip Tworoger of Boston, in Company A; Johan Hamberg of Adams in Company B; Alfred J. Hermans of Boston in Company H and Jacob Ostreicher and Benjamin Baker both from Lowell and both in company C to part in the battle at Guanica which helped to secure Puerto Rico for the United States.

1899(19th of Av, 5659):Sixty-three year old Emil Breslaur a graduate of the Julius Stern Conservatory who composed music as well as taught music theory passed away today in Berlin.

1901(10th of Av, 5661): Mme. Hortense Levi, “a sister of the late Baroness de Hirsch” passed away today in Belgium.

1909(8th of Av, 5669): Erev Tish'a B'Ava

1911(1st of Av, 5671): Rosh Chodesh Av

1914: Birthdate of Isaac Cohen the native of Wales and son of immigrants from Lithuania who began his rabbinic career “at Harrow and Kenton Synagogue in Middlesex in 1935,” earned a “PhD from Edinburgh University for research into Talmudic thought” and was he Chief Rabbi of Ireland for twenty years.

https://groups.google.com/forum/?nomobile=true#!topic/alt.obituaries/gqdzeamWVF4

1915: Following Governor Harris’ visit to the Georgia Prison Farm where he had gone to investigate the attack on Leo Frank, he expressed how appalled he was at conditions at the facility “tears rolled down his cheeks as he talked about them.”

1915: After converting to Judaism, Beatrice Venetia Stanley Montagu officially put an end to Prime Minister Asquith’s quest for her hand, by marrying Edwin Samuel Montagu.

1916: It was reported today that four as yet to named member of the commission chaired by Dr. Judah L. Magnes will be joining him in Europe to help with the investigation of how American funds intended to aid Jews in the war zones of Russia, Germany and Austria.

1919: Famed painter and President of the Royal Academy Sir Edward John Poynter passed away.  Poynter was noted for his large canvases many of which drew on Biblical themes – “Visit of the Queen of Sheba,”  “King Solomon” and “Israel in Egypt.”  The latter was his first great artistic and commercial success.

1920: In Paris, Béatrice de Camondo and composer Léon Reinach gave birth to their daughter Fanny who passed away in 1944.

1922: On New York’s Lower East Side, William and Bella Berger gave birth to “character actress” Anna Berger

1926: Featherweight Harry Blitman fought his first professional bout at Bacharach Ball Park in Atlantic City, NJ

1926: In Amsterdam, diamond cutter Emanuel Emden and seamstress Rosa Emden-Devries gave birth to Bloeme Emden a childhood friend of the Frank girls who survived the Holocaust and gained famed as Bloeme Evers-Emden a teacher and psychologist who has written four books on the “hidden children” of WW II.

1928(9th of Av, 5688): Tish’a B’Av

1928: Birthdate of Sarah A. Oppenheim-Barnes the Dublin born daughter of a diamond cutter who followed in father’s footsteps before become a leader “British Conservative politician” who served as an MP alongside her son Phillip Oppenheim.

1928: Birthdate of director Stanley Kubrick.

1928: Birthdate of Sarah A. Viner the native of Dublin and daughter of a diamond cutter who rose to become an MP, government minister and life peer known as Sally Oppenheim-Barnes, Baroness Oppenheim-Barnes and who served in Parliament with her son Phillip Oppenheim.

https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0015_0_15146.html

1929: “The Last of Mrs. Cheney” a film adaption of the Broadway play by the same name produced by Irving Thalberg and starring Norma Shearer was released in the United States today.

1929: Birthdate of Netiva Ben Yehuda “an Israeli author, editor, and former soldier of the Palmach” whose “writings, including a dictionary of Hebrew slang (written with Dan Ben Amotz) and several books on pre-state Israeli music, made her one of the aforementioned fighting force's most famous members.”

1929: Birthdate of Bulgarian born pianist Alexis Weissenberg. (As reported by Margalit Fox)

1933: The German government adopts a statute leading to the “de-naturalization of Jews” living in the Reich.

1934: In Jersey City, NJ, Michael and Esther Novick gave birth to Dr. Peter Novick, the University of Chicago history professor who challenged the seemingly overbearing centrality of the Holocaust among American Jewry.

1934: The Palestine Post reports that on July 14, 1934 a Jewish delegation from Adrianople spoke with the Turkish government, to ensure they do not remove all the police from the Adrianople towns in order to prevent the looting of abandoned homes.

1935: “The Interior Minister Wilhelm Frick announced today that a law forbidding marriages between Jews and non-Jews would shortly be promulgated, and recommended that registrars should avoid issuing licenses for such marriages for the time being.”

1936: It was reported today that Rabbi Max J. Wohlgelernter, executive director of the Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations has assumed the chairmanship of the American Committee Appeal for the Relief of Jews in Poland” which “is a non-sectarian organization…conducting a drive for $1,000,000.”

1936: It was reported today that no women were included in commission headed by Earl Peel that was selected by the British government “to inquire into unrest in Palestine” “because the government feared that Arabs and Orthodox Jews would object to negotiating with them.”

1936: According to the annual report of the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee made public today by Joseph C. Hyman, “the Joint” “expended $300,000 in 1935 for the rehabilitation of the Jews in Germany.”

1936; The Palestine Post reported that a serious catastrophe, which might have involved a serious loss of life, was avoided only by chance when rails were loosened only a few minutes before a passenger train from Haifa was due to reach Lydda. A goods train, however, was derailed near Ras el-Ain. The Jerusalem water-pipeline pumping station was also sabotaged there. 

1938: As Arab violence continued to grow, a group of 80 American tourists who had arrived in Jerusalem yesterday are scheduled to leave for Jaffa today where their ship is waiting for them.  The group arrived from Egypt at the same time that an explosion rocked Haifa.  Ensuring concerns about their safety forced cancelation of part of their tour.

1939: Adolf Eichmann “established a Central Office for Jewish Emigration the purpose of which is to expel Jews from the Czech region now controlled by the Nazis. Eichmann was in charge of the previous office of Jewish emigration that had been established in Vienna in 1938.”

1939: Birthdate of Oscar Baylin Goodman, the native of Las Vegas who became a leading defense lawyer and the 21st Mayor of Las Vegas.

1940: Birthdate of Michael “Mike” Slive the Uitca, NY, born law school graduate who became Commissioner of the SEC (Southeastern Conference, not the Securities and Exchange Commission) who is also a member of Temple Emanu-El in Birmingham, Alabama.

1941: The Germans occupied Boguslav, a city in Kiev, today.  By the end of the year they will have murdered most of the Jews in the town, living alive only some artisans whom they would execute in July of 1943.

1941: Max Dormoy, a friend and colleague of Leon Blum, was assassinated today.

1941: In the second of a pogrom and roundup of Jews in Lvov, three of Rabbi Ben Zion Halberstam's sons-in-law Rabbi Yecheskel Halberstam (son of Rabbi Yeshayale Tchechoiver), Rabbi Moshe Stempel and Rabbi Shlome Rubin were taken prisoner.

1942: Isaac Asimov married Toronto native Gertrude Blugerman with whom he had two children – David and Robyn Joan – before divorcing her in 1973.

1943: In New York City, Ruth Hurok and theatrical producer and publicist Barry Hyams gave birth to Peter Hayms, the grandson of “impresario” Sol Hurok, stepson of blacklisted conductor Arthur Lief, borther of casting director Nessa Hyams whose career has included directing a trio of sci-fi flics: “Outland,” “Capricorn One” and “2010.”

1943: American born expatriate poet Ezra Pound was indicted for treason today for his pro-Fascist, anti-American (and anti-Semitic) radio broadcasts that he made after Italy declared war on the United States.

1944: The Soviet army enters Lvov, a major city of western Ukraine, liberating it from the Nazis. Only 300 Jewish survivors left, out of 160.000 Jews in Lvov prior to Nazi occupation.

1944: The first German V-2 hits Great Britain. The V-2 was vast “improvement” over the V-1.  Unlike the V-1 which was essentially a flying bomb, the V-2 was a true Guided Missile, posing a much greater threat to the British and the Allied forces already in Europe.  Anglo-American military leaders were forced to alter their strategy to deal with this immediate threat.  This diverted forces from driving into the German heartland which prolonged the war and the agony of the Holocaust.

1944: “Step Lively” a movie version of “Room Service,” play co-authored by Allen Broetz who also wrote the script for the film was released today in the United States.

1944: Henri Paul Gaston Maspero, the French sinologist and son of Egyptologist Gaston Maspero and his wife  were arrested in Paris after which he was sent to Buchenwald where died at the age of 61 after he could no longer endure the Nazis’ brutal treatment.

1945: The Labour Party wins the United Kingdom General Election, removing Winston Churchill from power. Labor’s Prime Minister Atlee betrayed the hopes of Jewish leaders by continuing to enforce the White Paper.  The new Foreign Minister would demonstrate a streak of anti-Semitism when he declared that the Jewish survivors of the Holocaust were “pushing their way to the head of the cue” demonstrating the pushiness which is a Jewish trait.

1946: The Czech government, through the influence of its foreign Minister Jan Masaryk, opened its borders to Jews wishing to flee Poland. Within 3 months over 70,000 Jews using transportation paid by the Czechs would use this route on the way to Eretz-Israel.

1946: Warner Bros. distributed “Two Guys from Milwaukee,” a comedy co-authored by I.A. L. Diamond with music by Friedrich Hollaender.

1948: Operation Shoter came to a successful conclusion as the three villages south of Haifa in an area called the “Little Triangle” surrendered to Israeli forces.

1949: In Kansas City, KS, premiere of “She Wore A Yellow Ribbon” with a closing narration by Irving Pichel which helps to make this one of the finest movies of its type ever made.  (Excuse the editorializing but it is a personal favorite.)

1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that the former Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin el-Husseini, called in Cairo on heads of all Arab states to check the "brutal campaign of terror," carried out by the Jordanian authorities against Palestine Arabs, accused of carrying out the assassination of King Abdullah of Jordan. The new Jordanian Cabinet included only four Palestinians, out of 11.

1951: David Ben-Gurion visited Jerusalem as part of his successful campaign for re-election as Prime Minister.  Included in the trip were visits with evacuees from the Jewish Quarter of the Old City.

1951: Six years after the end of WW II , Canada, Italy, New Zealand, the Netherlands formally ended their state of war with Germany today.

1952: King Farouk I of Egypt abdicated in the wake of a coup led by Gamal Abdel Nasser. Nasser was the power behind the throne and did not immediately take power.

1953: Armistice signed today ended the Korean War. Over 150,000 Jewish men and women served in the military during the Korean Conflict. Israel supported the American war effort in Korea and “sent $100,000 in foodstuffs to South Korea.”

1955: There was an 82.8% voter turnout as Israelis went to the polls to choose the members of the 3rd Knesset.

1956: Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal. This action would lead to the Suez Crisis in the fall of 1956 that would include a lightning strike by Israeli troops across the Sinai that would take all of one hundred hours.

1956: Haim Laskov replaced Yitzhak Pundak, as the commander of the IDF armored forces.

1960(2nd of Av, 5720): Rogers Adolphe Pinner “senior partner of the Mutual Electric Company” passed away. He was the son of Moritz and Melissa Pinner; the husband of Effie Woodruff; and the father of Karl Pinner.

1963: Pitcher Alan Koch made his major league debut with the Detroit Tigers.

1965: Birthdate of Jeremy Piven the New York born actor who was raised in Evanston, Illinois and is best known for his role as Ari in the television series “Entourage.”

1969: Operation Boxer continued with more strikes by the IAF.

1969(11th of Av, 5729: Composer Frank Loesser passed away at the age of 59.  His Broadway hits include Guys and Dolls, The Most Happy Fella, and How to Succeed In Business Without Really Trying.

1971(4th of Av, 5731): Forty-eight year old Diane Arbus the photographer who used the camera to create a unique form of black and white art, passed away today.
http://www.biography.com/people/diane-arbus-9187461

1973(26th of Tammuz, 5733): Sixty nine year old hydraulic engineer Hans Albert Einstein “the second child and first son of Albert Einstein and Mileva Marić” passed away today.
http://www.einstein-website.de/biographies/einsteinhansalbert_content.html

1976: In “6 Film Studios Vie Over Entebbe Raid,” Robert McFadden describes the intense interest to be first to make hey at the box office by telling the story of the Israeli rescue mission that took place less than three weeks ago.
http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive/pdf?res=F60A15F63F551B7493C4AB178CD85F428785F9

1976: In “Book About Raid Says 50 Israeli Agents Paved Way in Kenya,” Robert Tomasson reviewed 90 Minutes at Entebbe in author William Stevenson reveals the key role that intelligence gathering played in the successful rescues of the Jewish hostages.  The book takes on an added authoritative tone since Stevenson is the author of A Man Called Intrepid.
http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive/pdf?res=F60A15F63F551B7493C4AB178CD85F428785F9

1979(1st of Av, 5739): Rosh Chodesh Av

1979(1st of Av, 5739): Seventy four year old Sir Charles Clore, the descendant of Lithuanian Jews who was a successful businessman, art collector and philanthropist passed away today.
http://www.jta.org/1979/07/30/archive/sir-charies-clore-dead-at-74

1981: New York Mayor Ed Koch is given Heimlich maneuver in a Chinese restaurant.

1982: Yuval Ne’eman began serving as the first Minister of Science and Development

1984: The second congress of The European Association for Jewish Studies (EAJS) came to an end.

1985: “European Vacation” a National Lampoon inspired comedy directed by Amy Heckerling and featuring Maureen Lipman was released in the United States by Warner Bros.

1987: ''East End Synagogues: From the Shtiebel to Duke's Place,'' an exhibit at the Heritage Center in London is scheduled to come a close.

1987: The third congress of The European Association for Jewish Studies (EAJS) opened at Schloss Glienicke under the presidency of Professor Arnold Goldberg.

1992: After 205 performances the curtain came down on “The Substance of Fire” a Holocaust related play by Jon Robin Baitz today at the Lincoln Center Newhouse Theatre.

1993(8th of Av, 5753): Eight-four year old author and Academy Award winning screen writer passed away today.
http://www.nytimes.com/1993/08/11/obituaries/daniel-fuchs-novelist-and-screenwriter-84.html

1996(10th of Av, 5756): Uri Munk, 53, and his daughter-in-law, Rachel Munk, 24, of Moshav Mevo Betar, were killed in a drive-by shooting attack near Beit Shemesh. 30-year-old Ze'ev Munk, Rachel's husband, was critically wounded and died in the hospital the following week.

1997: “Early Rabbinic Judaism,” a colloquium sponsored by the The European Association for Jewish Studies (EAJS) came to an end.

1998: The New York Times featured books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The International Encyclopedia of Dance, edited by dance historian Selma Jeanne Cohen and the recently released paperback edition of The Puttermesser Papers by Cynthia Ozick

2000: A federal judge in New York approved a $1.25 billion settlement between Swiss banks and more than a half million plaintiffs who alleged the banks had hoarded money deposited by Holocaust victims.

2000: Following the failure of the peace negotiations sponsored by President Clinton with Prime Minister Ehud Barak, Yassar Arafat returned to Gaza having rejected a compromise peace agreement because doing so would be, in his words, signing his own death warrant.

2001: Seventeen year old Ronen Landau was shot by terrorists today in Jersualem.

2002(17th of Av, 5762): Four people including a rabbi were killed and two children were wounded by terrorist gunfire south of Hebron.

2004: Premiere of “The Village” a horror film produced by Scott Rudin, with Adrien Brody and Jesse Eisenberg

2006: Hezbollah fired an additional 130 rockets into northern Israel wounding at least five Israelis.

2006(1st of Av, 5766): Rosh Chodesh Av

2006(1st of Av, 5766): In an act of unbelievable self-less courage, Major Roi Klie threw himself on a live grenade, sacrificing his life so that his comrades would live.  The action took place on the second day of the Battle of Bint Jbeil. 

2006(1st of Av, 5766): The following were among a total of 43 Israeli civilians (including four who died of heart attacks during rocket barrages) and 116 IDF soldiers were killed in the Israel-Hezbollah war: Maj. Ro'i Klein, 31, of Eli; Lt. Amihai Merhavia, 24, of Eli; Cpl. Ohad Klausner, 20, of Beit Horon; Lt. Alex Schwarzman, 23, of Acre; St.-Sgt. Shimon Dahan, 20, of Ashdod; Cpl. Asaf Namer, 27, of Kiryat Yam; St.-Sgt. Idan Cohen, 21, of Jaffa; Sgt. Shimon Adega, 20, of Kiryat Gat; Lt. Yiftach Shrier, 21, of Haifa.

2007: The Vilna Shul / Boston Center for Jewish Heritage presents a screening of “Shalom Y’All,” a documentary that examines life of Jews living the South.

2007: Aluf David Ben Ba’ashat ended his service as commander of the Israeli Navy. 

2007(11th of Av, 5767): Ninety-four year old  Senetta Yoseftal the wife of Giora Yoseftal, founder of Kibbutz Galed who served as an MK passed away today.
http://www.jpost.com/Israel/Former-MK-Senetta-Yoseftal-passes-away-at-95

2008: In Jerusalem, Beit Avi Chai's Saturday night concert series continues with a performance by Rona Keinan, daughter of the famous Israeli author Amos Keinan and singer of “Through Foreign Eyes” – her 2006 hit single - fame. Keinan, who began singing at a young age and quickly rose to prominence through her collaboration with noted Israeli artists including Dana Berger and Eran Zur, is also an icon of Israel's gay and lesbian community.

2009: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including A Safe Haven: Harry S. Truman and the Founding of Israel by Allis Radosh and Ronald Radosh and Is real is for Real: An Obsessive Quest to Understand the Jewish Nation and Its History by Rich Cohen

2009: The Washington Post featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Essays of Leonard Michaels. “Leonard Michaels writes in perfectly shaped sentences. This would be cause for admiration and celebration in any writer, but surely it is far more so for one who did not begin to speak English until he was 5 years old. His parents immigrated from Poland to Manhattan's Lower East Side only steps ahead of the Holocaust – ‘When the Nazis seized Brest Litovsk, my grandfather, grandmother, and their youngest daughter, my mother's sister, were buried in a pit with others’ -- and in their tiny apartment the language spoken was Yiddish. That, and Jewishness, permeate his writing, as no one knew more keenly than he did;”

2009: The Cedar Rapids Gazette published an article entitled “Morocco challenges Mideast mind-set on Holocaust” which described the North African Kingdom’s attempt to deal with the Shaoh.
http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3751982,00.html

2010(15th of Av, 5770): Tu B’Av

2010: Rabbi Zerach Greenfield, an expert scribe, is scheduled to be at Tifereth Israel in Columbus to check your Tefillin and discuss repairs and for questions about any other ritual objects that people need reviewed.

2010: A screening of Hungry Hearts is scheduled to take place at the Castro Theatre during the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival.

2010: The parents of missing Druze soldier Majli Halabi demanded today that authorities investigate convicted murderer Yichya Farhan regarding the case of their son, according to Israel Defense Forces Radio. Farhan told the Ma'ariv news service over the weekend that he has information that could lead to solution of the Halabi case. Halabi's father Nazbi told reporters at a news conference in family's Daliat-Al-Carmel home, "Although there's a chance that he's lying, it's the state's obligation to check the matter thoroughly."

2010: After three years of renovation, the Israel Museum in Jerusalem reopened to the public firmly reestablishing itself as Israel’s national museum and the most important repository of Jewish culture in the world.

2010: The head rabbi of a prominent yeshiva in the West Bank settlement of Yitzhar was arrested today for writing a book that allegedly encourages the killing of non-Jews. Rabbi Yitzhak Shapira is the alleged author of the book "The King's Torah," which deems as legal, according to "Jewish law," the killing of non-Jews.

2010: The Israel Air Force demolished a weapons plant in northern Gaza early on Monday morning. The operation came in response to recent attacks by Gaza terrorists on Israelis in the western Negev. Planes also took out two smuggling tunnel along the border between Gaza and Egypt. Pilots reported direct hits, and all planes returned safely back to base.

2010(15th of Av, 5770): Six members of the IDF - Lt. Col (Res.) Avner Goldman, 48, from Modi'in; Lt. Col. Daniel Shipenbauer, 43, from Moshav Kidron; Maj. Yahel Keshet, 33, from Hatzerim; Maj. Lior Shai, 28, from Tel-Nof; Lt. Nir Lakrif, 25, from Tel- Nof; and Staff Sergeant Oren Cohen, 24, from Rehovot – were killed when their helicopter crashed in Roumania.

2011: The International Master Course for Violinists is scheduled to begin at Kibbutz Eilon “amid the scenic mountains of the western Galilee.”

2011: Following his appointment as “chief of the Washington Bureau of the New York Times” four days ago, David Leonhardt wrote “his final Economic Scene column, ‘Lessons from the Malaise,’” today.

2011: Avi Issacharoff, the Palestinian and Arab Affairs Correspondent, Haaretz, is scheduled to deliver an address entitled “Shifting Sands: The Mainstreaming of Hamas, Hezbollah and the Muslim Brotherhood” in Waukee, IA.

2011: The Hamas government in the Gaza Strip hanged a father and son at dawn today for collaborating with Israel, a government spokesman said. The two were found guilty of helping Israel target a top Hamas leader and identify other militants who were later killed by Israeli forces, said Ihab Ghussein, a spokesman for the Interior Ministry in Gaza.

2011: Protesters in Tel Aviv's impromptu "tent city" housing protest dismissed Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu's latest plan today, saying that he was trying to create divisions within the protesters, by offering discounts only to students.

2011: An Israeli orchestra broke a taboo today as it played the music of Adolf Hitler's favorite composer, Richard Wagner, in Germany. Some 700 spectators in Wagner's hometown of Bayreuth loudly applauded the Israel Chamber Orchestra as its 34 musicians concluded their concert with the Siegfried Idyll, becoming the first Israeli ensemble to perform a Wagner piece in Germany.

2011: The Anti-Defamation League is organizing a free "community briefing" tonight on First Amendment religious freedoms which will explain why it is concerned about Texas Governor Rick Perry's Christian-only day of prayer in Houston next month

2011: “Olive and the Bitter Herbs” is scheduled to have its first preview performance at 59E59 Theaters  

2012: University of Pennsylvania Law School Professor Harry Reicher is scheduled to deliver a lecture entitled “The Future of International Justice” at the Illinois Holocaust Museum & Education Center

2012: “Harbor of Hope” is scheduled to have its West Coast Premiere at the San Francisco Jewish Film Festival while “Sharqiya” is slated to have its California Premiere at the same venue.

2012: The 12th Annual Summer Institute for Synagogue Musicians, Mifgash Musicale is scheduled to come to an end today at the HUC-JIR campus in Cincinnati, OH.

2012: Jibril Rajoub, the former head of the Preventive Security Force and current president of the Palestinian Olympic Committee, expressed his approval the IOC’s decision not observe a moment of silence at the opening of the Olympics in memory of those athletes murdered at the Munich Olympics.  Apparently the killers do not want to be reminded of their crime.

2012(7th of Av, 5772): Ninety-four year old Miriam Porat, the first woman appointed to the Supreme Court of Israel passed away today. (As reported by Tomer Zarchin)
http://www.haaretz.com/news/national/israel-s-first-female-supreme-court-justice-and-state-comptroller-dies-at-94-1.453806
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/27/world/middleeast/miriam-ben-porat-israeli-judge-and-civic-watchdog-dies-at-94.html?_r=2&hpw&

2013: “Jew New York” an exhibition at Zach Feuer Gallery and Untitled Gallery is scheduled to come to an end today. (As reported by Nathan Burstein)

2013: In Coralville, Iowa, Agudas Achim is scheduled to host the final session of the “Yiddish Film Festival.”

2013: Mercedes Bend, Boom Pam, Vaadat Charigim are among the bands scheduled to perform in Jerusalem at the Indie City Music Festival.

2013: San Diego Mayor Bob Filner’s announcement today that he will undergo two weeks of intensive therapy amid sexual harassment allegations me with a negative reaction from members of the city council (As reported by Tony Perry)

2013: “Los Angeles Mayor Eric Garcetti said Friday that he “won’t be pushed” into a quick deal on a new labor contract for workers at the Department of Water and Power. (As reported by Michael Finnegan and Kate Linthicum)

2013: In Paris, prosecutors said that Dominique Strauss-Kahn is to stand trial on charges of pimping. In France, the offense of “pimping” covers a wide range of crimes includes aiding or encouraging prostitution. Strauss-Kahn is expected to go on trial along with 12 other defendants, including high-flying businessmen and a law-enforcement officer also accused of involvement in the alleged vice ring. If convicted, he could face up to 10 years in jail and a fine of just under $2 million.  Strauss-Kahn's lawyer, Henri Leclerc said Strauss-Kahn was being targeted by investigators because of his high profile “and everyone will realize that there is nothing in this case.” (As reported by Kim Willsher)

2013: In what might be called a tale of Three Jewish Musketeers “In Tug of of War Over New Fed Leader” published today described the competition between Janet Yellin and Lawrence Summers, both of whom are Jewish, to replace Ben S. Bernanke who is also Jewish as Federal Reserve Chairman is described.

2013: 60th anniversary of the end of the Korean Conflict

2013: “Israel has agreed to release 24 Israeli Arab prisoners serving life sentences who were incarcerated before the 1993 Oslo Accords, having already agreed to free 82 pre-Oslo Palestinian prisoners, Israel Radio reported today. The releases would be carried out in phases, the radio report said, in parallel with progress at Israeli-Palestinian peace talks which are set to resume next week. (As reported by Michal Shmulovich and Elhanan Miller) 

2013: Art Ginsberg the founder of Art’s Deli in Los Angeles who kibitzed with his customers “amid the knishes and the kreplach” was buried today at Sholom Memorial Park in Sylmar. (As reported by Steve Chawkins)

2014: “Vertigo,” a leading Israeli dance company is scheduled to perform on the open night of the
American Dance Festival in New York.

2014: The demonstration by “several thousand left-wing activists in Tel Avi…calling for an end to bloodshed in Gaza and a return to negotiations with the Palestinians” was cut short “when Hamas unilaterally ended a humanitarian truce with Israel and resumed rocket-fire from Gaza.”

2014: “The Hidden Passages,” an exhibition organized by Avi Lubin, a curator and head of the theoretical studies and the visiting artists at the postgraduate program, Ha’midrasha Art school.

2014: “Israel agreed to halt its military offensive in Gaza for 12 hours starting this morning amid intense international efforts to seal a broader cease-fire deal and a new explosion of violence in the West Bank, where at least six Palestinians were killed during clashes with Israeli forces.” (As reported by Isabel Kershner and Michael R. Gordon)

2015(10th of Av, 5775): Tisha B’av observed

2015: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including The Hirschfeld Century: Portrait of an Artists and His Age by Al Hirschfeld.

2015: At the Los Angeles Museum of the Holocaust (LAMOTH), Tomas Kovar, a native of Slovakia, is scheduled to talk about his experiences surviving the Holocaust.

2015: In Memphis, TN, at 4pm, members of Temple Israel are scheduled to share their personal stories of destruction, inspiring renewal, and hope, followed by a thoughtful learning session with Rabbi Feivel Strauss, and lovely, hopeful songs sung by Rabbi Bess Wohlner and our Music Director Abbie Strauss followed by a reading and discussion of a brief excerpt from the Book of Lamentations.

2016: Three days after Monica Lewinsky’s 43rd birthday, 69 year old President Bill Clinton is scheduled to address the Democratic National Convention which will not be chaired by Debbie Wasserman Schultz as previously planned.

2016: The 92nd Street Y is scheduled to host a musical evening – “Kings of Stride.”

2016: In New York, The Jewish Museum is scheduled to conduct a docent led tour of the exhibition “Roberto Burle Marx: Brazilian Modernist.”


 

 

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