Wednesday, July 17, 2013

This Day, July 18, In Jewish History by Mitchell A. Levin

July 18 In History

64: During the reign of Emperor Nero, the Great Fire begins in Rome.  After the fire, Nero avoided the initial inclination to blame the blaze on the Jews.  Instead, he targeted the nascent Christian sect which had recently become active in the city.  Possibly Nero who saw himself as a god felt personally threatened by Christianity which also worshipped a Divinity who had come to earth in human form.

392: “Emperors Valentinian II, Theodosius I, and Arcadius order that anyone who disturbs the Catholic faith must be exiled.” This edict is actually not aimed at the Jews but at those Christians who deviate from accepted religious principles.  Of course, this use of state power to protect Catholicism is one more indication of the “second class” status that the Jews are having to do deal with.

1195: The Moslem Almohads (‘Proclaimers of the Unity of Allah’) score a great victory over the Christian Catilian King Alfonso VIII at the Battle of Alacros.  The Almohads were a sect of Moslem fundamentalists who invaded the Iberian Peninsula from North Africa.  They were determined to defeat the Christian forces fighting to take Iberia back from the Moslems.  As part of their agenda, the Almohads also punished the Moslems living in Spain for having become ‘soft’ and moderate in their views on Islam.  They also punished the Jews of Spain who lived among the Moslems for being agents of their corruption. Many Jews would flee Spain as the Almodhades consolidated their power, thus marking the end of the Golden Age.  One of those departing because of the Almodhades was Maimonides and his family.

1290: Edward I (England), pressured by his barons, the Church and possibly by his mother, announced the expulsion of all the Jews. The expulsion came on Tisha B’Av, adding to that days list of Jewish sorrows. By November approximately 4000 had fled. The Jews had to pay their own passage, mostly to France. They were allowed to take movables (i.e. clothing). A number of Jews were robbed and cast overboard during the voyage by the ship captains. The Jews did not return to England until 1659. This was the first national expulsion of the Jews.

1716: A decree banishing Jews from Brussels was today; but it was not enforced: a gift to the crown overcame all difficulties. A similar decree issued forty years later had the same result. Several Jews received the right of citizenship in Brussels. Among them was one named Philip Nathan, who, in 1783, requested the government to assign a place for a new cemetery for the Jews; the old one, situated near the Porte de Namur, having disappeared in consequence of the dismantling of the fortress1860: A report of the bankruptcy case of Lord William Godolphin Osborne includes a list of his creditors among whom was a “Jew money lender.” 

1784: In New York, the Trustees of Shearith Israel met to discuss the expansion of the Jewish cemetery.  After he was re-elected as Chairman, Myer Myers informed his colleagues  that, “Mr. Hayman Levy and Mr. Solomon Simson had bargained with Mr. Isaac Roosevelt for the ground adjacent to the Burying place for eighty pounds, one half to be paid on delivery of the deed, and the other half in twelve months or sooner." “The board voted to purchase the land.”

1800: Birthdate of Daniel Levy Maduro Peixotto  the eldest son of Moses Levy Maduro Peixotto who was born in Amsterdam, educated in Curaçao and gained fame as an American “physician, scholar, author, and philanthropist.”  

1829: Birthdate of Babette Steinhardt the native of Dresden who will become Babette Seligman following her marriage to Joseph Seligman

1838: “In reaction to various political revolts that have given freedom to Jews, Pope Gregory XVI issues an edict critical of how Catholic measures against Jews have fallen by the wayside in recent years.” The Pope wrote: "The unfortunate political events that recently afflicted the Pontifical dominions have produced among other disorders the failure to observe Apostolic Constitutions and the other Edicts regarding the Jews." (As reported by Austin Cline)

 1862: It was reported today that the will of Isidor Bemlord, which has now been admitted to probate, leaves $500 to the Jews' Hospital in New York City.

1864: A review of The History of Friedrich the Second, Called Friedrich the Great by Thomas Carlyle reports that “a closely printed chapter of twenty-two pages is devoted to M. Voltaire’s ‘powerful Jew law-suit,’ a wretched and obsolete stock-jobbing squabble.”

1870: The First Vatican Council decrees the dogma of papal infallibility. The First Vatican Council had been summoned by Pope Pious IX  who repealed certain laws aimed at limiting occupations open to Roman Jews and opened the doors of the Ghetto and yet was also known as the Pope who refused to return Edgardo Mortara and insisted on him being raised as a Catholic.

1873(23rd of Tammuz, 5633): Sir David Salomons, 1st Baronet, a leading figure in the 19th century struggle for Jewish emancipation in the United Kingdom passed away. . He was the first Jewish Sheriff of the City of London and Lord Mayor of London, and one of the first two Jewish people to serve in the British House of Commons.

1876: At today’s opening session of the American Philological Society in New York, Dr. George R. Entler read a paper on “The Origin of the Hebrew Article” that disputed “the theory that the Hebrew article ‘ha’ has the same origin as the Arabic ‘al.’” According to Entler, “in Hebrew both the article and the conjunction ‘vav’ are derived from the substantive ‘avah’ and connected with the demonstrative pronoun ‘hu.’”

1877(8th of Av, 5637):Erev Tish'a B'Av

1877: Rabbi H. P. Mendes of Manchester, England, officiated at Tisha B’Av services this evening at the synagogue on West 19th Street in New York City.  The only light in the sanctuary came from “four candles on the reading desk and the little tapers” with which the worshippers were provided.  Rabbi Mendes is the newly appointed assistant for Rabbi J.J. Lyons

1877: Judge Hilton denied reports that he was weakening or wavering in what he termed as his ban on “Seligman Jews” from the Grand Union Hotel in Saratoga Springs, NY.

1877: An article published today described the role of M.A. Shaffenburg  a German Jew who had been serving as U.S. Marshal for the Territory of Colorado, in the election of Jerome B. Caffee to the U.S. Senate from Colorado.

1878: It was reported today that Isaac Schwartz who owned a dry goods store on 3rd Avenue in New York filed for bankruptcy today.  He showed liabilities of $10,029 with no assets.

1880(10th of Av, 5640): Since the 9th of Av fell on Shabbat, Tish'a B'Av is observed today.

1882: Samuel Obreight, a young Jew who became the subject of a sanity hearing after he married Mary Myers, a Christian, appeared in court today.  The judge decided to release him in the custody of his wife until he can make a final ruling.

1882: Rudolpha Leischinsky, a young Jewish woman recently arrived from Europe, is scheduled to be transferred to the Emigrant Insane Asylum on Ward’s Island today.  She had originally been taken to Bellevue after a failed suicide attempt.

1882: It was reported that Rebbeca Gold, the wife of a Russian Jew committed suicide last night in Athens, GA. The death remains a mystery but she left a mirror and two knives in a cradle by the side of her young infant.

1882: The striking freight handlers continued their efforts to keep foreign born workers away from the docks.  While Italian workers were fed sandwiches, the Russian Jews were getting three meals including a dinner consisting of boil meat prepared by a Jewish cook.  Both groups will be getting $.25 a day as an additional incentive not to cross the picket line.

1883: In Hungary, the court that is trying several Jews on charges that they murdered a Christian girl, Esther Salomossy, went to Tisza Ezlar today where Moritz Scharf was forced to look through the key-hole in the door of the synagogue through which he claims to have seen the murder committed. It was obvious that the witness could have only seen one person at a time and that it was impossible to have seen a group of people.  [In early reports, Scharf claimed that his testimony came only after he had been abused and threatened.]

1884: Four families of Jewish immigrants who are being held at Castle Garden have sent a request of the Commissioners of Emigration to be allowed to “join their friends’ in New York City who are willing to support them so that they will not become “public charges.”

1885: Rebecca Marcus who owns a grocery store on Broome Street charged Solomon Schulman, a Russian born rabbi with larceny in Essex Market Court.  She claimed he came into her store and stole $31.  He denied the charge and said he was in the store to collect the $8 she owed him for tuition.

1887: It was reported today that the Hebrew Standard has declared that “a diet of crabs and lobsters is not only un-Jewish” it is also unhealthy.

1888: At the bride’s home in St Kilda, Australia, the future Sir Isaac Alfred Isaacs married 18-year-old Deborah (Daisy), daughter of Isaac Jacobs, a tobacco merchant who had been president of the St Kilda Hebrew Congregation and in 1889-90 was to be president of the Chamber of Manufactures.

1890: As of today, the Sanitarium for Hebrew Children has received $5,132.25 to be used for summer excursions.

1890: “The Secretary of the United Hebrew Charities has learned that the family of Solomon Rasinkoff” which was mistakenly sent back to Europe by the Hamburg Line several weeks ago is now in Russia.  The steamship company has offered to bring the family back to New York if the Hebrew Charities can raise the funds to get them from Russia to the port of Hamburg.

1891: The twenty-three Jews who arrived from Rotterdam aboard the Massadam will be returned to that port by the ship that brought them to the United States. Five other Jews who had arrived from Glasgow will suffer a similar fate.  (This method is part of the government’s plan to make the trafficking in pauper immigrants a losing business proposition for the shipping lines.)

1891: In a letter to the Washington Star, Simon Wolf explained decision of the Democratic National Convention at Cleveland to adopt a plank for its platform “regarding the Czar’s treatment of the Jews in Russia.”

1892: The governor of Pennsylvania has issued the papers seeking the extradition from Canada  of two Jewish peddlers named Harris and Charley who are accused of killing another peddler in Wyoming County

1892: In his quest to create an anti-cholera vaccine, Dr. Waldemar Haffkine, a Russian born Jew, risked his own life by testing his vaccine for the first time on himself.

1892: Arthur Richard of New York inspected the Jewish colony at Chesterfield, CT.  The colony which is home to forty families and contains hat factory as well as a creamery plant, is the first such colony funded by Baron Hirsch in New England.

1893: The manager of the Thalia Theatre at 46 Bowery “has declared vengeance” against those who vandalized his theatre on July 15.  The vandals acted in response to a boycott against Isidor Lindemann and his Windsor Theatre by the Hebrew Trade Unions that had spread to the Thalia.

1894: Birthdate of Isaac Emmanuilovich Babel. Born in Odessa, Babel would survive the Pogroms of 1905 and go to become a journalist and author in the Soviet.  Arrested by Stalin, he died in Siberia in 1940.  He would be exonerated after Stalin’s death.

1894: “Sectarian Appropriations” published today provided a breakdown of the excise money collected that had been collected in 1893 and distributed to different charitable organizations including $178, 275 that went to Protestant and Jewish institutions as compared with $609,748.32 to Catholic institutions.

1895: “Col. Waring’s Little Helpers” published today described the formation of a children’s street clean brigade which was formed during a meeting at the Hebrew Institute.

1896: First and only meeting between Herzl and Baron Edmond de Rothschild, whose financial sponsorship the Zionist leader was seeking.

1897: “Women Here and There” published today includes a description of a club named after Louisa Mae Alcott located in Boston that was started by Jewish women to provide educational and cultural programs for young Jewish girls including concerts, workshops and “talks on various subjects…of the most elevating tendencies.

1898: The will of the late Jacob Berk was filed for probate in the Surrogate’s office today.

1898: “For Jewish Publications” published described the work of the JPS which includes the recent publications of Dreamers of the Ghetto by Israel Zangwill and “an index volume of Graetz’s History the Jews  as well as the upcoming publication of Jewish Services in the Synagogue and the Home by L.N. Dembitz.

1902: Mark Matveyevich Antokolski, the Litvak who became a world class sculptor was buried in St. Petersburg today.  The train carrying his body from Paris where died made a special stop in his native Wilno before reaching its final destination.

1903: Wenzel von Plehv is ready to receive Herzl. Von Plehv was the Czar’s Minister of the Interior, and like many of his class and nationality, an active anti-Semite.

1906: “The court, all chambers united, gave its judgment. After a lengthy review of the case it declared unanimously that the whole accusation against Dreyfus had been disproved, and it quashed the judgment of the Rennes court-martial sans renvoi. The explanation of the whole case is that Esterhazy and Henry were the real culprits; that they had made a trade of supplying the German government with military documents; and that once the Bordereau was discovered they availed themselves of the anti-Jewish agitation to throw suspicion on Dreyfus” (As reported by Global

1906: Birthdate of Clifford Odets, the native of Philadelphia who wrote the script for the play "Waiting for Lefty" and the screenplay for "Sweet Smell of Success."

1907: In Harrogate (UK), Rose Samson Hart and Simeon Hart gave birth to Herbert Lionel Adolphus Hart (H.L.A. Hart) who became a Professor of Jurisprudence at Oxford and authored numerous legal tomes including The Concept of Law.

 1911(22nd of Tammuz, 5671): Rabbi Dr. Hermann Adler CVO, the Chief Rabbi of the British Empire from 1891 to 1911 passed away. The son (and successor as Chief Rabbi) of Nathan Marcus Adler, the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica writes that he "raised the position [of Chief Rabbi] to one of much dignity and importance. “Born in Hanover, like his father, he had both a rabbinical education and a university education in Germany, and like him he subscribed to a modernized Orthodoxy. He attended University College School in London from 1852-54. He graduated at Leipzig; he later received honorary degrees from Scottish and English universities, including Oxford. He was head of a congregation in Bayswater during his father's lifetime, and his father's assistant from the time his father's health began to deteriorate in 1879, before succeeding him on his death in 1891.In 1909 he was appointed a Commander of the Royal Victorian Order. Adler wrote extensively on topics of Anglo-Jewish History and published two volumes of sermons. He was a vigorous defender of his co-religionists and their faith, as well as their sacred Scriptures.

1913(13th of Tammuz, 5673): Edward Selig Salomon “a German immigrant to the United States who served as a Union brigadier general in the American Civil War and later became governor of Washington Territory and a California legislator” passed away. In an unusual twist, Salomon fought with Union Armies in the East and the West. He distinguished himself at the Battle of Gettysburg where he had two horses shot out from under him.  He then led his regiment in Sherman’s victorious campaign that led to the capture of Atlanta.  Salomon was appointed to his post as territorial governor of Washington by President Grant which provides further proof that the latter was not an anti-Semite.

1917: A draft of what would become the Balfour Declaration was submitted to Lord Balfour.

1921: In Brooklyn, Solomon Goldman, a jeweler, and the former Sarah Goldstein, who had immigrated from Russia gave birth to “Jacob E. Goldman, a physicist who as Xerox’s chief scientist founded the company’s vaunted Palo Alto Research Center, which invented the modern personal computer…” (As reported by John Markoff)

1922:  Birthdate of American academic and philosopher, Thomas Samuel Kuhn.

1923: Birthdate of William M. Birenbaum, the product of the Waterloo, Iowa school system who became the nationally known university administrator who helped rescue Antioch College from looming insolvency during his tenure as president there in the 1970s and ’80s. (As reported by Maraglit Fox)

1925:  Adolf Hitler publishes his personal manifesto Mein Kampf.

1928(1st of Av, 5688): Rosh Chodesh Av

1934: The Jewish National Fund Council for Greater New York is sponsoring this evening’s farewell dinner for Bronx dentist and JNF activist Dr. Solomon Deutsch at the Farm Food Vegetarian Restaurant. Dr. Deutsch and his family are making Aliyah. (As reported by JTA)

1934: In one of several efforts by Zionist leaders to reach a compromise with the Arabs, David Ben-Gurion and Dr. Magnes met with Auni Abdul Hadi, the leader of the movement devoted to Palestinian Arab independence.

1934: A lengthy article in a Nazi newspaper attacked Egyptian Jews. The Germans stated some Jewish boys insulted the Swastika flag on the German Consul's car. The paper stated the boys were arrested.

1937(10th of Av, 5697): Tisha B’Av observed because the 9th of Av fell on Shabbat.

1939: The entire Jewish community of Palestine, regardless of political persuasion, participated in a general strike aimed at protesting Colonial Secretary Malcolm MacDonald’s announcement that Jewish immigration would be banned for the next six month.

1940: Chiune Sugihara “a Japanese diplomat who served as Vice-Consul for the Empire of Japan in Lithuania” began issuing life-saving visas to Polish and Lithuanian Jews in violation of instructions from his superiors.

1940: The Florence Times described plans for the arrival of Dr. Leopold Wallach from Stuttgart, Germany who will become the Rabbi at Temple B’Nai Israel in Sheffield, Alabama

1941: “The first news of the Eastern killings reached England through intercepted German police messages which told of the mass shooting of ‘Jews, Jewish plunderers, Jewish bolshevists’…in numbers ranging from a hundred to several thousand at a time.”

1942: SS Captain Theodor Dannecker inspected Camp Gur, the internment facility in southwestern France and order the inmates to prepare for transportation to Eastern Europe.  Unbeknownst to them, this meant Auschwitz.

1942: Nine hundred Jews fled to the woods near Szarkowszczynzna as the Germans entered the town. Six hundred of them did not make it to safety and were killed

1943(15th of Tamuz, 5703): Two hundred slave laborers are murdered at Miedzyrzec, Poland.

1943: One thousand Jews are deported to Auschwitz from Paris

1944: The Jews living on the island of Rhodes were ordered to assemble for what would become a transport of Hungary. The community dated back to 1492, the time of the expulsion of the Jews from Spain.

1947: The British seized the SS Exodus carrying 4000 "illegal" immigrants. Its defiance of the British navy and its ultimate return to Germany formed one of the most dramatic episodes in post-war Jewish history. This was only one of many ships seized, turned around or actually sunk as the Jews defied the British blockade and tried to make their way to Palestine.  This episode gained additional fame because it provided the core for the famous novel and film Exodus.

1947: Dr. Joshua Cohen was among those on board the SS Exodus when it was seized by the British. “With limited medical equipment, Cohen” had “set up impromptu clinics on every deck to care for more than 4,500 passengers, including 655 children.”  Following the seizure of the ship, After the British had seized the ship, Cohen negotiated with the British doctors to have many of the wounded sent by ambulance to Haifa.  Following his experience on the Exodus, Cohen returned to the UK, only to be recruited by the British Army. He eventually returned to Israel and served for four years in the Israeli Medical Corps. Later, he was director general of the Poriya Hospital outside Tiberias, as well as deputy director of Rambam Hospital in Haifa.

1947: Mordechai (Motke) Eldar who had survived Auschwitz, Sachsenhausen, Mauthausen and Gunskirchen and his sisters were among the passengers on the Exodus whom the British would forcibly ship back to Hamburg.   Eldar returned to Tel Aviv a year later. He joined the IDF where he served for thirty years reaching the rank of Colonel.

1948: The HMCS Norsyd, a flower class corvette was re-commissioned today as the INS Haganah

1948: On the final day of Operation Dekel, Israeli forces take the villages Sh’ab and Al-Birwa.

1948: Benjamin (Ben) Dunkelman, a Jewish veteran of the Canadian Army, commanded the 7th Brigade and its supporting units throughout Operation Dekel that came to an end toda.

1948: As part of Operating Death to the Invander, Israeli continued their  offensive in the Negev attacking Egyptian invaders at Hatta and Karatiyya. After initial Israeli success, the Egyptians counter-attacked with tanks.  An Israeli soldier named Ron Feller risked his life in a successful effort to destroy two of the tanks using a hand held anti-tank weapon for which he had only two rounds. He received the Hero of Israel Citation for his bravery.

1948:  A fourth and final attack by Israelis on the fortress of Latrun failed.  Latrun would remain in the hands of Jordan’s Arab Legion until 1967. 

1948: Israeli forces take Ayin Karem ending the threatened Egyptian invasion of Jerusalem.

1948: During the War of Independence, after ten days of fighting (July 8- July 18), a second truce went into effect.

1948: As of today, the entire lower Galilee from Haifa Bay to the Sea of Galilee was under Israeli control.

1948:  Over the next thirty-six hours, Dr. Stanley Levin, a volunteer surgeon from South Africa “performed 28 successive surgeries” without stopping for a break.

1948: Modi Alon scored his third aerial victory today when he shot down a Royal Egyptian Air Force Spit fired piloted by Wing Commander Said Afifi al-Janzuri.  The Spitfire had been the backbone of the RAF during the Blitz in 1940.  Alon had received served in the RAF during the war but had flown the American made P-51.

1948: Birthdate of Graham Spanier who was forced to resign as President of Penn State University for his role in the school’s sex abuse scandal.

1951: The Jerusalem Post reported that while the Knesset voted for equal rights for women, the word ba'al (the word for husband which literally means also a master) was replaced with ish (man, meaning husband as well). The Women's Equal Rights Bill was unanimously opposed at the annual conference of four Israeli kadis (Moslem religious officials), held in Jerusalem. The kadis, however, eased the divorce laws for separated wives. Henceforth Israel's Arab women whose husbands were abroad would become eligible to remarry, if they wished to press divorce proceedings.

1967: Germaine Ribière, a French Catholic member of the Resistance born in 1917 “was recognized as a Righteous Among the Nations by Yad Vashem.

1970: Menahem Eini was taken prisoner when his F-4E Phantom II was shot down during the War of Attrition.

1970(14th of Tammuz, 5730): Shmuel Hetz was killed when his F-4E Phantom II was shot down during the War of Attrition.

1976: The Jerusalem Post reported that during his electoral campaign, Jimmy Carter, the US presidential candidate, announced that he believed strongly that "Israel made enough concessions, and it was time that Arabs made some."

 1978: Egyptian & Israeli officials begin 2 days of talks.

1979: A fifteen-day conference co-sponsored by Sarah Lawrence, the Women's Action Alliance and the Smithsonian Institution, began on this date at Sarah Lawrence College. Intended for female leaders, it was attended by a diverse range of participants representing 43 different women's organizations. The institute was organized by Sarah Lawrence professor Gerda Lerner One of the pioneers of women's history, Lerner hoped to introduce a diverse group of varied backgrounds to the possibilities of women's history. Lerner described the 15-day course as equivalent to a semester-long seminar. In addition to ongoing afternoon workshops and evening cultural events, each morning's program featured one lecture by the seminar instructors. Joining Lerner as the principle instructors were Alice Kessler-Harris and Amy Swerdlow, both pioneering feminists and women's historians.

1982(27th of Tammuz, 5742): Eighty-five year old “Roman Jakobson, an internationally known authority on Slavic languages and literatures” passed away today at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston which was not far from his home  in Cambridge, Mass.

1983(8th of Av, 5743):Erev Tish'a B'Av

1994(10th of Av, 5754): In Buenos Aires a car bomb exploded outside the building housing the AMIA, the Asociación Mutual Israelita Argentina (Argentine Israelite Mutual Association, or AMIA) building killing 85 people and wounding more than 200 others in what remains the most deadly anti-Semitic incident anywhere since World War II and came two years after 29 people died in a similar attack on the Israeli Embassy in Argentina.

1995: Ehud Barak succeeded David Libai as Interior Minister.

1997(13th of Tammuz, 5757): Sir James Goldsmith, a flamboyant British-French financier who maintained three families, homes in four countries and used his billions to fight the European Union, passed away today at the age of 64 after having battled pancreatic cancer for four years.  His father was Jewish.  His mother was not.

1999: The New York Times reviews books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including “Spinoza: A Life” by Steven Nadler.

2001: Daniel C. Kurtzer presented his credentials as U.S. Ambassador to Israel.

2004: At the Teatro dell'Opera di Roma,  the fifth and final performance of the Biblical opera "Nabucco" by Giuseppe Verdi in which acclaimed Israeli theatre and opera director Jacobo Kaufmann,  directs and designs the scenery. He is the first Israeli ever to be hired to direct an opera in Italy.

2004: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including the recently released paperback edition of “In Praise of Nepotism: A History of Family Enterprise From King David to George W. Bush” by Adam Bellow, the son of novelist Saul Bellow, who succeeds in canvassing much of Western history (not to mention Confucian and Hindu traditions) to argue that kinship is ''both natural and necessary.''

2004: With President Néstor Kirchner looking on, Argentine Jewish leaders today marked the 10th anniversary of a deadly anti-Semitic attack here by delivering blistering attacks on his predecessors and European institutions they say have blocked efforts to bring the perpetrators to justice. The bombing killed 85 people and wounded about 300 at a Jewish recreation and education center, commonly known as AMIA, its Spanish initials. Though a group of police officers are on trial for having procured the vehicle in which the bomb was placed, Argentina has been thwarted in efforts to prosecute Iranian government officials it says organized the attack.In a sharp speech, Abraham Kaul, the president of the community group, criticized Britain's refusal to allow the extradition of a former Iranian ambassador to Argentina who was indicted here last year, and also complained about a lack of cooperation in Switzerland in determining how the attack was financed. ''They have betrayed us,'' Mr. Kaul said. But the harshest criticisms were reserved for Carlos Saúl Menem, who was president of Argentina at the time of the bombing and has been accused by a defector from Iranian intelligence of having deliberately undermined the official inquiry into the attack. Mr. Menem is now living in self-imposed exile in neighboring Chile rather than submitting to questioning in relation to corruption charges pending against him here.'' Carlos Menem is the culprit and is a criminal fugitive,'' said Marina Degtiar, who spoke on behalf of relatives of the victims. Because of Mr. Menem's efforts to cover up the case, she said, ''so many facts still lie with impunity beneath the ruins.'' There has long been resentment here over the botched investigation, but the anger has grown in recent months as a result of the train bombings that killed 190 people in Madrid in March. Although the Spanish government initially blamed the attack on Basque separatists, its ability to identify and apprehend fairly quickly the people suspected of being Islamic militant organizers has been repeatedly contrasted here with the Argentine government's ineptitude or unwillingness to act. In recent months, there has also been talk here of seeking ''a Lockerbie solution,'' in which Argentina would relinquish some of its legal claims so that the accused Iranians could stand trial in a third country. But Iran, which threatened to ''adopt appropriate measures'' if Argentina did not revoke the indictments, has offered no indication it is interested in such a deal. With the recent release of government documents, ordered by Mr. Kirchner, Jewish community groups are also pushing for a belated investigation into a Syrian link to the attack. Among the questions they have raised is why Mr. Menem, himself of Syrian descent, allowed various Syrian citizens who were then under surveillance to leave Argentina in the wake of the bombing, including one who is said to be a cousin of Hafez al-Assad, who was then the president of Syria. Mr. Kirchner, who took office 14 months ago, is the first Argentine president to attend the annual AMIA ceremonies. In April, he described the unsolved case as such ''a national disgrace'' that it required him to ''find the historical truth,'' and on Sunday he was hugged, kissed and greeted with cries of ''keep on pushing, Mr. President,'' by relatives of many of the victims. But his wife, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, generated criticism last week when in an interview with a local Jewish publication she suggested that some Jewish leaders aided in the cover-up. Mrs. Kirchner, a prominent senator and member of a legislative commission that also investigated the bombing, was understood to be referring to an ally of Mr. Menem who controlled a financially troubled bank that received questionable government support. Mr. Kirchner is scheduled to meet Monday with members of a delegation representing the American Jewish Committee. In an interview, David A. Harris, executive director of the group, said resolving the AMIA case will ''require extraordinary political will and courage'' and urged Mr. Kirchner ''to translate good intentions into concrete results.'' ''That is going to be a mountain of a challenge,'' Mr. Harris said. ''It's late in the day.''

 2005: Rabbi Aaron Sherman officially assumes the pulpit at Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 

2006: The following were among a total of 43 Israeli civilians (including four who died of heart attacks during rocket barrages) and 116 IDF soldiers were killed in the Israel-Hizbullah war: Andrei Zelinsky, 36, of Nahariya.

2007: The 93rd annual national Hadassah Convention comes to an end.

2008: In Cedar Rapids, Iowa, weather permitting, Temple Judah is scheduled to celebrate Friday night Shabbat Services in the new Silber Family Outdoor Sanctuary.

2008: In an article entitled “The Floods of 2008,” George C. Ford describes the impact of the worst natural disaster in the history of Cedar Rapids on the Siegel family, who has been prominent members of the business community for over six decades and pillars of the Jewish community.

Sixty-eight years after Siegel’s Jewelry & Loan opened in downtown Cedar Rapids, the business was forced to relocate following last month’s flooding. Ken Siegel and his brother, Jary, who operated the store at 105 Third Ave. SE, signed a lease for a vacant store at 3525 First Ave. SE within days after learning the extent of the damage to their business.
“When we were finally allowed back into downtown to check our business on June 16, we found the windows were broken and blackened,” Ken Siegel said. “Looking inside the store, we saw the walls were buckled in, display cases had been flipped upside down and torn apart and there was really complete devastation.” Although Jary Siegel and store employees had moved merchandise like plasma televisions and guitars from the basement to the top of the showcases on the first floor, the floodwaters destroyed virtually everything but jewelry stored in two safes. “All of our retail jewelry and diamonds were stored in the safes,” Ken Siegel said. “Unfortunately, the safes had digital locks that were shorted out by the floodwaters and we were stuck for about a week. We looked all over the country for someone to get the safes open until Jeremy at John’s Lock & Key in Cedar Rapids was able to get them open.” Siegel said more than 3,000 envelopes containing diamonds and other jewelry had to be opened by hand. “We had between 10 and 12 people cleaning the jewelry, matching the diamonds with certificates, creating new paperwork and cataloging each item,” he said. “We also had about 3,000 or 4,000 DVDs in our inventory. We were able to recover about 2,000, but we had to throw away the cases because they were submerged. “We literally lost thousands of items. I would estimate that we lost at least $250,000 worth of merchandise.” Cy Christenson, 92, who has repaired watches at Siegel’s since 1976, lost all of his tools as well as “enough parts and crystals for five shops,” according to Siegel. “We’re still recovering customers’ watches left for repair.” Siegel said getting the business up and running was a priority. “We’re in essence like a bank, so if a bank closes, customers get upset when they can’t get their money,” he said. “We’re also a loan institution as well, so we had hundreds of people calling to find out if they could get their merchandise.” Siegel said customers who pawned merchandise other than jewelry likely will not be able to redeem their items.
 “The national pawn contract says that we’re not responsible for catastrophic events like fire and floods,” he said. “We have insurance for everything but flooding.” Siegel said customers who pawned merchandise usually were loaned anywhere from 50 percent to 60 percent of the value when it was pawned. “Most of the customers we have talked with have been very understanding,” he said. Asked if the business will return to the building it bought in 2005 after being a tenant for 65 years, Siegel does not have an answer. “We’re trying to rescue a $500,000 investment,” he said. “We would like to go back downtown. We love the downtown area, but we will have to see what develops over the next few years.”

2009: Fifteenth anniversary of the AMIA bombing attack.  The following was sent to us by an anonymous Argentine Jew whose pain has not been dimmed by the passing of time.

The AMIA Bombing was an attack on the Asociación Mutual Israelita Argentina (Argentine Israelite Mutual Association, or AMIA) building in Buenos Aires on July 18, 1994, that killed 85 people. Carried out under Carlos Menem's presidency (1989-1999), it was Argentina's deadliest bombing. Argentina is home to a Jewish community of 200,000, the largest in Latin America. It was one of the Largest Attacks against Jews after the holocaust. I'm an Argentine Jew, not only I've lost people close to my life in this attack but our lives as Jews in Argentina changed forever, we lost everything we had, including our voices. As we continue to hear the silence of the international community and the lack of care of our own community. Now isn’t it sad to read the level of ignorance that the Jewish community worldwide has about this. I have questioned myself every year, why? Why would people care so little about this? They attacked us for not only being Jews but as they see us as a way to attack Israel, so at least for that basic reason, even if you don't care about the Jews in Argentina, don't you care about an attack towards Israel? Even if Israelis didn't die.. We died due to that... As every year not only I ask tons of people if they know about this day, and obviously they are totally ignorant, Do you think you might have a little place in your heart to remind yourselves that we as well represent the Jewish population, that 85 people died and 300 severely injured and put this solemn day of remembrance in your little calendar... I'd say just for respect. Just at least for respect even if you don't care....I'm the daughter of a holocaust survivor... the same way I remember all of my family and all of the victims of the holocaust, I as well make a very special place in my heart to remember the AMIA and the Bombing of the Israeli embassy in Argentina. And we still don't have support, and we still don't have justice, and still the world continues to ignore our cries of help....Shame shame, shame on ignorance... shame that people just don't care.

[Ed. Note; We hope that by publishing this as it was written, we have in some small way atoned for previous failure to note this tragic event in our people’s history.  Zachor – Remember and remember we will.]

2009: The Jerusalem Film Festival features a screening of Harlan-In the Shadow of the Jew Suss.

2010: In Bethlehem, PA, table games began today at a casino owned by Sheldon Adelson

2010:Controlled Chaos and Brawny Braininess Watcha Clan with Charming Hostess” are scheduled to appear on the final day of the 25th Annual Jewish Music Festival in San Francisco.

2010:  The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including   Where I Live: New and Selected Poems 1990-2010 by Maxine Kumin, the Philadelphia born Jewish poet.

2010: Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu leaves for Egypt today to discuss with President Hosni Mubarak the possibility of launching direct negotiations between Israel and the Palestinian Authority.

2010: Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu today said he opposes the conversion bill proposed by Yisrael Beiteinu, which would give sole authority over Israel's conversions to the Chief Rabbinate, saying it will "tear apart the Jewish people."

2011: In an article published today entitled “Roseanne’s New Reality” the aging Jewish born comedian reveals that “every Friday night for Shabbat from sundown until 2 a.m., she gets high, drinks red wine, and does a meditation Rav Berg taught her.”

2011: In an article published today entitled “Egypt’s Rising Power” examined the career of Amr Moussa the leading candidate to be the next President of Egypt. What his “supporters love most “about him “is his long and vocal history of anti-Israel diatribes.”  Moussa insisted that he would honor the treaty despite his opposition to Sadat’s peace moves.

2011: A 50-year-old Jewish man from the Beit Zayit suburb of Jerusalem was arrested by police today afternoon on suspicion of being responsible for the forest fire in Jerusalem yesterday.

2011: The Malaysian government-backed newspaper said in an editorial that foreign Jewish groups will try to use a current push for reform to interfere in the country. “At a time when the drumbeats in the name of human rights are getting boisterous, it will give the best opportunity for pro-Jewish groups to interfere in any Muslim countries," the Utusan Malaysia daily said in an editorial today. "Muslims and Malaysians should not allow any party, especially the Jews, to discreetly interfere in the country’s administration." "The success and prosperity of Malaysia as a model Islamic nation has created jealousy to a certain country and this is made worse by Malaysia’s firm stand in fighting against violence by the Jews in Palestine," the editorial continues. "The Jews will find ways to destroy our prosperity and well-being. "We probably think that this is a misplaced concern, but we must not forget the fate of certain countries which have been victims of the hidden hands," it concludes. The editorial does not provide evidence of a Jewish plot. Malaysia has no diplomatic ties with Israel and supports the Palestinian cause. Some 20,000 people marched in the Malaysian capital of Kuala Lumpur on July 9 demanding electoral reform.

2012: Center for Jewish History and American Jewish Historical Society are scheduled to present screenings of “Hester Street” and “Sweatshop Cinderella.”

2012: The Illinois Holocaust Museum & Education Center is scheduled to present “A Magical Eve with James Conlon” during which Maestro Conlon will share insights about his "Breaking the Silence" series featuring music from composers whose work had been silenced by the Nazis.

2012(28th of Tammuz, 5772): One-hundred two year old Rabbi Yosef Shalom Eliashiv passed away today. (As reported by Matti Friedman)

2012(28th of Tammuz, 5772).Seven people were killed and 32 injured when a bomb exploded on an Israeli tourist bus at the airport of the Bulgarian city of Burgas today, the 18th anniversary of the Iran-sponsored attack on the AMIA Jewish center in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Six of the victims died on the spot, and the seventh in the hospital following the attack, Bulgarian officials confirmed. Two of the victims were said to be Bulgarian -- the bus driver and tour guide.(As reported by Yaakov Katz, Herb Keinon, Yaakov Lappin)

2013: In Waukee, Iowa is scheduled to sponsor “Keeping The Homeland Safe: Israel and Iowa Together” featuring Sheriffs Paul A. Fitzgerald, Ted Kamatchus and Bill McCarthy.

2013: The Maccabiah Games are scheduled to officially open this evening at Teddy Stadium in Jerusalem.

2013: The late André Tchaikowsky's opera "The Merchant of Venice" is scheduled to be premiered at the Bregenz Festival.

2013: In New Orleans, “The World of Fiddler on the Roof” a three part program sponsored by Reform Congregation Gates of Prayer and Orthodox Congregation Beth Israel is scheduled to begin this evening with “Marc Chagall’s World.”  For more see Crescent City Jewish News  the place to go for news about the Jewish community of Greater New Orleans

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