July 8 In Jewish History
1099: In a move reminiscent of Joshua at Jericho, during the First Crusade 15,000 starving Christian soldiers march in religious procession around Jerusalem as the Muslim defenders look on. This seemingly desperate move is part of the preparations for the final successful Crusader assault that will take place on July 15 following which the Moslem and Jewish citizenry would be slaughtered by those who claim to fight in the name of the man who said “love thine enemies.”
1510: A printed edition of Halikhot Olam, Talmudic dissertations by “Rabbi Jeshua ben Joseph Ha-Levi was published at Constantinople
1654: According to some sources, Jacob Barsimon left
1663: Jews were already living in Rhode Island when The British Crown granted a charter the colony founded by Roger Williams, which guarantees freedom of worship. The Jews had arrived in Newport in 1658. Reportedly, these were Sephardic Jews who had fled from Brazil to avoid another round of the Inquisition.
1690(2nd of Av): Rabbi Aaron ben Moses Teomim of Worms, author of Mate Aharon passed away.
1721: Elihu Yale passed away. While serving as the English governor of Madras Yale had a romantic relationship with a Portuguese Jewess who was the wife Jacques (Jaime) de Paiva (Pavia), a successful Jewish trader and businessman. The wife, Hermonia de Paiva, went to live with him, causing quite a scandal within Madras' colonial society. Hermonia and the son fathered by Yale both later died in South Africa. [The next time you look at the Hebrew Letters in Yale’s seal, you might remember Hermonia.]
1755: This evening during the Emden-Eybeschütz Controversy, Jacob Emden’s house was broken into and his papers seized and turned over to the "Ober-Präsident," Von Kwalen. Six months later Von Kwalen appointed a commission of three scholars, who, after a close examination, found nothing, which could inculpate Emden.
1776: The Liberty Bell was rung to summon citizens of
1805: Simon Mussina, merchant, newspaper editor, and attorney, was born to Zachariah and Nancy Mussina in Philadelphia today,
1805: Rothschild writes the Landgrave seeking the status of “Protected Jew” in Kassel so that he could business there while still living in Frankfurt. The request was rejected. The need for such a request was symptomatic of the crazy quilt of regulations designed to limit the business opportunities for Jews.
1807: Rothschild wrote to his son Nathan telling him that that Czar Alexander and Napoleon had met at Tilsit. He expressed the hope that peace would prevail. In the end, his hopes proved to be unfounded.
1822: Percy Bysshe Shelley, the English poet whose work includes “The Wandering Jews Soliloquy” passed away.
1838: A band of Druze attacked the Jewish community of Tzfat. This incident is a far cry from the relations today between the Druze and the Jews. Founded in the early 11th century, the Druze faith was initially based on the doctrines of Shi’a Islam. As with other such groups who deviated from Islam, the Druze have been at odds with the dominant Moslem populations in the countries where they live –
1836: Birthdate of British statesman Joseph Chamberlain. Regrettably, Joseph Chamberlain’s greatest claim to fame was the fact that he was the father of Neville Chamberlain, the great appeaser of the Hitler period. Jews should remember him as a British political leader who was sympathetic to Herzl and his cause. In 1903, Chamberlain was one of those who worked to offer
1847(24th of Tamuz, 5607): Rachel Lindo, the widow of the late David Lindo, and the oldest member of the local congregations passed away at the age of 85 in Bridgetown, Barbados.
1850: Birthdate of Frederick de Sola Mendes the native of Montego Bay, Jamaica, West Indies who gained fame as a rabbi, author, and editor. The son of Abraham Pereira Mendes, he was educated at Northwick College and at University College School, London, and at the University of London where he earned a B.A. in 1869. “Subsequently he went to Breslau, Germany, where he entered the university and studied rabbinics at the Jewish Theological Seminary of Breslau. Mendes received the degree of Ph.D. from Jena University in 1871. Returning to England, he was licensed to preach as rabbi by Haham Benjamin Artom, in London, 1873; in the same year he was appointed preacher of the Great St. Helen's Synagogue of that city, but in December removed to New York, where he had accepted a call to the rabbinate of Shaaray Tefillah congregation (now the West End Synagogue); he entered upon his duties there January 1, 1874. Mendes was one of the founders of the American Hebrew. In 1888 he took part in the Field-Ingersoll controversy, writing for the North American Review an article entitled "In Defense of Jehovah." In 1900 Mendes joined the staff of the Jewish Encyclopedia as revising editor and chief of the translation bureau, which positions he resigned in September 1902. Associated with Dr. Marcus Jastrow and Dr. Kaufmann Kohler, he was one of the revisers of the Jewish Publication Society of America Version of the Bible. He also translated Jewish Family Papers: Letters of a Missionary, by "Gustav Meinhardt" (Dr. William Herzberg). Of his publications the following may be mentioned: Child's First Bible; Outlines of Bible History; Defense not Defiance. He contributed also the article on the "Jews" to Johnson's Encyclopedia. In 1903 he became for a time editor of The Menorah, a monthly magazine. In conjunction with his brother Henry Pereira Mendes, and others, he was one of the founders of The American Hebrew (1879), to whose columns, as to those of the general press, he was a frequent contributor. He passed away in 1927.
1871: Isaac Hyman who used to be a City of Marshal in New York City was ordered to pay seven dollars a week in support payments after he had been arrested today on charges of abandoning his wife.
1872: Birthdate of Aaron Gumbinsky who gained fame as the songwriter Harry Von Tilzer whose tunes included "A Bird in a Gilded Cage", "Cubanola Glide", "Wait 'Til The Sun Shines Nellie", "Old King Tut", "All Alone", "Mariutch", "I Love My Wife, But Oh You Kid!", "They Always Pick On Me", "I Want A Girl Just Like The Girl Who Married Dear Old Dad", And The Green Grass Grew All Around and many others.
1877: Delegates representing American Hebrew congregations from the principal cities in the United States are scheduled to hold the opening session of their convention at Concordia Hall in Milwaukee. Approximately 150 delegates are expected to attend. The primary aims of the meeting are to consolidate all of the Reform congregations under one central body that will, among other things, create a uniform service to be followed by all members. “The convention will also discuss the feasibility of securing lands in the West and South” for Jews who have not been able to “establish their own homes and businesses.
1877: “Prejudices,” a reprint of an article from Macmillan’s Magazine, published today reported that “The past generation of Englishmen has been so generous to Jews that” it would be “ungrateful” to accuse present day Englishmen “of being consciously repelled by the idea of a poor Jew being worthy of admiration. But 15 centuries of hatred” are not easily “wiped out” by the passage of legislation. “A deep unconscious undercurrent of prejudice against the Jew” still exists among Englishmen. This “unconscious Judaeophobia” exists alongside “a tacit of assumption that modern Judaism is a lifeless code of ritual instead of a living body of religious truth.”
1877: According to a paper that Mr. E.G. Ravenstein presented to the Statistical Society of London, the population of Russia has been increasing at the rate of 1.1 per cent per year with “the Jews being the most prolific” group in the Czar’s Empire.
1877: It was reported today that for several years the “American Hebrews” in New York “have united to furnish poor Christian children in Industrial Schools with warm and nourishing food.”
1877: According to reports published today Judge Hilton’s decision to ban Joseph Seligman (and all Jews) from his hotel in Saratoga Springs, NY has caused quite a stir among Jews and Gentiles in San Francisco, CA. The Seligmans are quite well known to Californians and are well thought. A ban like the one adopted in Saratoga Springs would not find any support on the west coast since the Jews are viewed as being patriotic citizens who are always ready to “extend their aid and assistance” whenever it is needed. The Jews are viewed as being “valuable and…respectable” members of the community, “good neighbors and …businessmen” whom the “hotels are very glad to have” as customers.
1878: William Evarts, the U.S. Secretary of State in the administration of President Rutherford B. Hayes, has complied with a request made by M.S. Isaacs of New York, President of the Board of Delegates of the American Israelites and Simon Wolf of Washington, DC, the Vice President of the Board of Delegates of the American Israelites. He “has instructed” the U.S. “Consul at Tangiers, Morocco to co-operated with the representatives of other governments in using his good offices” on “behalf of the oppressed Israelites in the Empire of Morocco. The instructions are similar to those given several years to…the Consul at Bucharest which proved so beneficial for the relief and protection of the Jews” in Romania who were being persecuted at that time.
1879: Moritz Loth of Cincinnati presided over the opening session of The Sixth Council of the Union of American and Hebrew Congregations at Standard Hall in New York City. Rabbi Gustav Gottheil of Temple Emanu-El offered the opening prayer followed by Moritz Ellinger’s opening address.
1879(17th of Tammuz, 5639):Tzom Tammuz
1880: An untitled article published today credited the Jews with developing the first principles of what we now call the insurance industry. The Babylonian Talmud contained a systemized code that articulates “the principle of sharing among a number the loss of a single individual.
1882: “A New Socialistic Society” published today provided an insight into the divisions within Jewish socialists when it reported that among the officers elected were a Corresponding Secretary in German and a Corresponding Secretary in Russian. Added to the mix was the fact that the first speaker of the evening whose topic concerned the future of the Jewish race was named Allen McGregor.
1883: It was reported today that the outbreak of Cholera in Egypt is so serious that the British are considering transferring their troops from the land of Nile to Malta or Cyprus. If the plague reaches Cairo the Jewish population will find itself at great risk since most of it is confined to a quarter that consists of narrow streets without drainage or proper sanitation of any kind.
1885: It was reported today that after the latest conscription deadline had passed nearly 16,000 Jewish draftees had failed to report for military service. This meant that the Jews had missed their quota by more than 50% of the mandated total. Jews were not the only ones who avoided serving in a military that was meant to brutalize them and in which there was no opportunity to enter the officer corps. Bashkirs, Tartars and Mennonites were among other groups who sought to avoid service in the Czars army using such tricks as injuring their fingers and lessening the measurement of their chest since a conscript is rejected if his chest does not measure at least half the length of his stature.
1885: Birthdate of Ernst Bloch. Bloch was a German Marxist. He fled
1888: The Executive Board of the Union of Hebrew Congregations held its annual meeting today in Cleveland Ohio simultaneously with the annual meetings of the Board of Trustees and Managers of the Jewish Orphan Asylum and the Montefiore Home for Aged and Infirm Israelites. Eight Governors of Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati were elected by the board including Solomon Simon of New York City.
1889: “Hebrew in Convention” published today described plans for the upcoming meeting of the Council of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations which will be held in Detroit, Michigan. The council is made up of lay and rabbinical delegates representing organizations with an aggregate membership of almost 600,000 members.
1893: Birthdate of Fritz Perls father of Gestalt therapy. He developed his therapy during the 1940’s. It should not be confused with Gestalt psychology developed during the 19th century.
1894: Solomon Schechter worked “in the library at what was known as the Old Schools” sorting fragments of Hebrew manuscripts that had been found in the Cairo Geniza.
1895: In New York City, during a public meeting in Irving Hall, Jewish residents of the Tenth Ward protested against the failure of the Board of Education to appoint one of their co-religionists as a School Trustee. The demand was based on the fact that 95 per cent of the students in the ward are Jewish.
1899: Birthdate of lawyer and public servant, David Lilienthal. A lawyer by profession, Lilienthal's twin passions were improving the human condition and converting natural resources. He was able to further both of these when he became the first Chairman of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in 1933. This major power producing and flood control project was the most important thing to improve the lot of a mass of Southerners since the end of the Civil War. Lilienthal later served as the first chair of the Atomic Energy Commission. He passed away in 1981.
1902: Herzl visits Lord James in his quest to gain great power support for a Jewish home in
1903: Herzl writes to Polish author Pauline Korvin-Piatrovska and asks her to intervene for him with the Russians. In the mean time, Wenzel von Plehve, the Russian Minister of the Interior and an anti-Semite calls for the suppression of the Zionist Organization in Russia
1907: Florenz Ziegfeld staged his first Follies on the roof of the New York Theater in New York City.
1910: The Queen of Holland appoints Joseph Carasso, Inspector of the Bank of Salonica, to be Consul for Netherlands at Salonica.
1912: Birthdate of Moses M. Weinstein “a Queens Democrat who served in the State Assembly, with stints as majority leader and acting speaker in the 1960s, and nearly two decades as a trial and appellate judge of the State Supreme Court.”
1912: The body of Julia Richman, the prominent New York educator who died unexpectedly while in France arrives in New York aboard the S.S. Lapland and is taken to Temple Ahawath Chesed
on Lexington Avenue.
1918: Birthdate of economist and Federal Reserver governor Sherman Joseph Maisel, the Buffalo, NY native and Harvard graduate “whose research on housing markets shaped decades of federal policy on mortgages.’
1923: Birthdate of Fred Kort, who survived Treblinka to become the founder/CEO of Imperial Toy Corporation and a noted philanthropist who “gave millions to dozens of Jewish causes, including Yad Vashem in Jerusalem, Bar-Ilan University, the Anti-Defamation League and Israel Bonds.”
1927: Birthdate of Esther Frances Masserman, who as the author E.M. Bronera “explored the double marginalization of being Jewish and female, producing a body of fiction and nonfiction that placed her in the vanguard of Jewish feminist letters.” (As reported by Maragalit Fox)
1933: Birthdate of comedian and actor Marty Feldman. One of his most memorable films was "Young Frankenstein."
1934: Birthdate of Marvin Levin, the Chicago native who became a successful developer in Sacramento, CA, where he “alerted the FBI to corruption in the California Legislature in the 1980s and played a pivotal role in the ensuing sting operation.”
1935: Birthdate of Steve Lawrence. Born Sidney Leibowitz,
1936: The Palestine Post reported that the High Commissioner, Sir Arthur Wauchope, in his personal, special radio broadcast, condemned all recent crime and violence. Eliahu Said was shot dead on his way to his small tile factory on the outskirts of Tel Aviv. A bomb was thrown at the Neveh Shalom police station. One British officer, a soldier and six policemen were injured in an Arab-set ambush between Tulkarm and
1936: The second international conference on Jewish Social Work opens in London
1938: British Marines patrol the streets of Haifa where more than a hundred people have been killed in clashes between Arabs and Jews in the central part of the port city.
1940(2nd of Tamuz, 5700): David Benvenisti, Sephardic representative of the Tel Aviv Municipal Council, passed away the age of 48. Benvenisti was born in
1941(13th of Tammuz, 5701): Moses Schorr, Rabbi, Polish historian, politician, Bible scholar, Assyriologist and orientalist died at the NKVD's 5th concentration camp in Posty, Uzbekistan. Rabbi Schorr had fled east to the Soviet Zone to avoid capture by the Nazis. Instead of freedom, he found himself in the clutches of the Soviet security apparatus. While his life was a testament to scholarship and community service, his death serves as a reminder that the Jews of Europe died because they really had no place to go.
1941(13th of Tamuz, 5701): The Ponary Executions begin. Hundreds of Jews were taken to the resort of Ponary, stripped of all belongings, marched to the edge of a fire pit and then shot into the pit. Ponary was near
1941: Jews in the Baltic States (
1941(13th of Tammuz, 5701): Hundreds of Jews are killed at Noua Sulita, Romania
1942: Today’s entry in the diary of Adam Czerniakow, the head of the Judenrate in Warsaw, reflected his understanding of the impending doom facing the Jewish People.
1942: Seven thousand
Jews are murdered at the labor and extermination camp called Janówska ( Lvov, Ukraine ) Ukraine
1942: Jewish partisan Vitka Kempner and two others leave the Jewish ghetto at
carrying a land mine with which they hope to disable a German military train on
tracks five miles to the southeast. Vilna,
1944: Between July 8 and July 13, Red Army troops and Jewish partisans kill about 8000 German soldiers at Vilna. The Soviet forces were commanded by Colonel General I.D. Cherniakhovsky, reportedly the youngest of the leading Russian generals. When “asked if he was a Jew, Cherniakhovsky said, ‘My parents were.’”
1944(17th of Tammuz, 5704): In France, Marianne Cohn was killed along with five non-Jewish resistance fighters who were trying to escort a group of Jewish children to safety.
1944: Liquidation of the Kovno Ghetto
1944: There was a temporary halt to the deportation of the Hungarian Jews. By now some 437,000 Hungarian Jews had been deported. Another 170,000 still remained. Adolph Eichmann had other plans for them
1947: Dr Chaim Weizmann appeared before the United Nations Special committee on
1948: With the reluctant approval of the General Staff, the order was given to abandon Kfar Darom. The Israelis conducted the evacuation under the cover of darkness carrying their weapons and two Torah Scrolls after having destroyed the supplies and equipment they could not carry
1948: During the War of Independence, the First Truce comes to an end a day earlier than planned when Egyptian forces begin their attacks in the Negev.
1948: Operation Dekel began today with the 7th Armored Brigade under the command of Ben Dunkelman in the lead.
1948: Today marks the first day in the Battles of Ten Days during which the Golani Brigade “managed to repel the Arab Liberation Army attack on Sejera from Lubya, and helped capture Nazareth and eventually Lubya in Operation Dekel.”
1950: In Tel Aviv, Jaffa and Haifa, Leftists, including Communists and members of Mapam marched in protest against the government’s policy regarding fighting in Korea.
1951, The Jerusalem Post reported that the Foreign Minister Moshe Sharett made his first official visit to Nazareth. The State of Israel, Sharett told some 5,000 Arabs at an outdoor assembly, first in Hebrew and then in Arabic, considered
1954: Birthdate of David Aaronovitch a regular columnist for The Times, and author of Paddling to Jerusalem: An Aquatic Tour of Our Small Country and Voodoo Histories: the role of Conspiracy Theory in Modern History He won the George Orwell Prize for political journalism in 2001, and the What the Papers Say "Columnist of the Year" award for 2003.
1973(8th of Tammuz, 5733): Ben-Zion Dinur, a Russian born Zionist activist, educator, historian and Israeli politician who had made Aliyah in 1921 passed away.
1976: Chaim Herzog, Israel’s chief delegate to the UN met with Secretary Kurt Waldheim today after Waldheim issued a statement calling on the world community “to act urgently against ‘increasingly pervasive and pernicious practice of terrorism.’” The statement was only issued after Waldheim had been criticized by the United States for describing the raid on Entebbe as a “serious violation of the sovereignty of Uganda” without making reference to the hostages facing death at the hands of their captors who had been welcomed by the Ugandans.
1976: The Jerusalem Post reported that for the sixth successive month this year,
1976: The Jerusalem Post reported that a facsimile edition of the Aleppo Codex - the oldest complete manuscript of the Hebrew Bible - was unveiled to the press in Jerusalem. The Aleppo-Codex was written in
1980: The Eldridge Street Synagogue was designated as a New York City Landmark.
1986: Kurt Waldheim was inaugurated as President of Austria despite controversy over his service in the Nazi Army during World War II. Waldheim had already served as Secretary-General of the U.N. His Nazi past increased a growing antipathy among some Jews for the international body.
1986(1st of Tammuz, 5746): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz
1996: Ariel Sharon succeeded Yitzhak Levy as Minister of National Infrastructure.
2003: Wikipedia, the informational website, introduced its Hebrew language version.
2004(19th of Tammuz, 5764): Seventy-seven year old Rabbi Albert Hoschander Friedlander passed away. Born in Germany his family escaped to Cuba before finally settling in Vicksburg, MS. After graduating from the University of Chicago and the Hebrew Union College he carved out a career as a leader of the Reform Movement who championed Civil Rights and inter-faith activities that would improve relations between Christians and Jews.
2006: Andy Ram became the first Israeli to win a grand slam tennis title when he partnered
2007: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including More Sex Is Safer Sex: The Unconventional Wisdom of Economics by Steven E. Landsburg, the Jewish economics professor who also wrote Why Jews Don’t Farm and The Last Novel by David Markson which In rhythm and tonality, if not in content, hints at the incantations of the Kaddish.
2007: TheMarker newspaper won the Platinum Award for the most effective advertising or marketing campaign at the 2007 Effie Awards in
, an International Conference
on the Dead Scrolls comes to an end. Israel
2008: The New York Times describes the release of the
Among the first features produced in the State of Israel, “Hill 24 Doesn’t Answer” was also the last film to be directed by Thorold Dickinson, a British director best known for the gothic thrillers “Gaslight” (1940) and “The Queen of Spades” (1949). “Hill 24,” released in 1955, has no obvious gothic elements but manages to be just as claustrophobic and doom-laden as Dickinson’s more famous films. Dickinson begins with a series of shots of bodies face down in the dust, suggesting that all will not turn out well. Then he shifts into a complex flashback structure, as three members of a small Israeli unit trying to claim a hill overlooking Jerusalem in the last days of the 1947 conflict recount how they came to be there. A former British officer (Edward Mulhare) is drawn to the Israeli cause by his infatuation with a beautiful student (Haya Harareet); an American tourist (Michael Wager) becomes obsessed with visiting the Old City of Jerusalem; an Israeli officer (Arich Lavi) finds himself face to face with a former German soldier fighting on the Palestinian side. If the film was meant as propaganda, it’s of a particularly perverse kind: there are no calls to glory, no heroic exploits to invite imitation, only the spectacle of a few individuals acting on a sense of personal obligation with little expectation of success. Dickinson stages much of the action at night, and the Israeli raid on the Old City becomes a study in combat noir, exploring all the expressionist possibilities of Jerusalem’s narrow streets and vertiginous drop-offs.
2009: In Jerusalem, The Sala Manca Group presents a program entitled “Köken Ergun : 3 Films, Projects and Talk” in which the Istanbul born video artist shows three of his works “I, Soldier,” "Tanklove,” and "Wedding” and then talks about his research and project at Betselem archives, and how those materials relate to his own work.2010: Samuel Estreicher is scheduled to discuss an amicus brief he filed on behalf of the American Jewish Committee, et al., in the Christian Legal Society v. Martinez Supreme Court case, involving competing values of non-discrimination and freedom of association and the international law aspects of the Gaza blockade at noon time meeting sponsored by The DC Hadassah Attorneys' Council
2010: Brandeis University today named Frederick M. Lawrence, dean of George Washington Law School and a former Boston University law professor, as its eighth president. Lawrence, a prominent civil rights scholar who once headed the national legal affairs committee of the Anti-Defamation League, will succeed long-time president Jehuda Reinharz in January when he steps down after 16 years to lead a Jewish foundation focused on leadership education.
2011: Massada College, which was founded in Adelaide in 1975, and is the only Jewish school in South Australia, is scheduled to cease operating today.
2011: Jennifer Chaddick and her family are scheduled to participate in Shabbat Eve services at Temple Judah as part of her Bat Mitzvah weekend.
2011: The Israeli trade office in Taiwan said today that it had accepted Taiwan's apology for photos on a government website showing students in Nazi uniforms. "I really appreciate the mature and responsible reactions by the authorities of Taiwan," said Simona Halperin, head of the Israel Economic and Cultural Office. Taiwan's Defense Ministry posted online an announcement this week of its new summer military camp, which showed three of the students wearing Nazi uniforms. After a visit from Taiwan Deputy Defense Minister Yang Nien-tsu, Halperin said the apology was "very respectful and very immediate." "I believe this was an act of ignorance, not an act of intention," she said. She said her office was willing to strengthen cooperation with Taiwan authorities in educating Taiwan's people about the Holocaust. In recent years, there have been several incidents of Taiwan people wearing Nazi uniforms "for fun," drawing protests from the Israeli trade office
2011: Police diverted two passenger aircraft that landed at Ben-Gurion International Airport today and detained at least 250 suspected pro-Palestinian activists that landed at the airport for questioning. Participants in the "Air Flotilla" arrived on three other flights as well. Police said that 69 activists have been denied entry. Four of those denied entry were sent back to their original destinations, while the rest were taken into custody until flights could be arranged, Army Radio reported
2012: The New York Times features reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including Superman, Larry Tye’s definitive work about the comic book creation of Cleveland Jews Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster and the recently released paperback edition of Reckless Endangerment: How Outsized Ambition, Greed, and Corruption Created the Worst Financial Crisis of Our Time by Gretchen Morgenson and Joshua Rosner
2012: “This History of Invulnerability” by David Bar Katz is scheduled to have its final performance at Theatre J-DCJC.
2012: The Illinois Holocaust Museum and Education Center and the Chicago Yivo Society are scheduled to co-host the Second Annual Sarah Lazarus Memorial Concert.
Copyright; July, 2012; Mitchell A. Levin firstname.lastname@example.org