July 7 In Jewish History
1274: Pope Gregory X confirmed a bull issued in 1272 banning charges of blood ritual.
1307: King Edward I, the monarch who expelled the Jews from England, died.
1320: In Pastoureaux (Southern France), an unnamed shepherd started a crusade against the Jews. It spread throughout most of southern France and northern Spain destroying one hundred and twenty communities. At
1358: Hundreds of Jews in Catalonia were murdered
1520: Cortes defeats a force of Aztecs who had chased him out of
1572: King Sigismund II Augustus, one of the monarchs who invited Jews to settle in Poland, passed away.
1690(1st of Av): Rabbi Hillel ben Naphta Zevi of Altona, author Bet Hillel, novella on the code passed away
1733: Forty-one Jews settled in the colony of Georgia. Among them were Spanish, Portuguese, German and English Jews.
1743(23rd of Tammuz): Chaim ben Moses ibn Attar also known as the Ohr ha-Chaim after his popular commentary on the Pentateuch. Born at Meknes, Morocco in 1696, he became a leading rabbi in his native land before leaving for Eretz Israel in 1733. He finally arrived in Jerusalem in 1742 “where he presided at the Beit Midrash Knesset Yisrael.” He is buried on the Mount of Olives where his gravestone may still be seen.
1836: Joseph II of
1860: Birthdate of composer Gustav Mahler. Mahler converted to Catholicism to further his career, a move that earned him derision from his critics and no relief from the anti-Semites. Mahler passed away in 1911.
1860: Birthdate of Abraham Cahan. From 1903 until his death in 1951, Cahan was the editor of the "Jewish Daily Forward", the most popular and most enduring of all Yiddish newspapers.
1862: John Wood, Drummer, of Company A, Thirty-sixth Regiment N.Y.V., died in the Jews' Hospital. The Jew’s Hospital (later known as Mt. Sinai) had been built in the 1850’s to meet the health needs of New York’s burgeoning Jewish population. Its role changed during the Civil War as it became a major health care facility for treating the sick and wounded of the Union Army.
1871: Daniel Joseph, the father of Sir Otto Jaffe established the Belfast Hebrew Congregation “which worshipped at the Great Victoria Street synagogue.
1879: The Executive Board of the Council of the Union of American and Hebrew Congregations met this morning with Moritz Loth presiding and Lipman Levy acting as secretary. The board met to prepare for the upcoming meeting of the Council which was scheduled to begin on the following day.
1881: In Kentucky, Governor Blackburn has declared today to be a day of public fasting and prayer where all business is suspended so that citizens can go to churches “or other places of worship” to pray for the recovery of President Garfield who has been shot by an assassin. [For Jews, the importance of this is that the governor has acknowledged that there are other houses of worship than those used by Christians.]
1882: As the Freight Handler’s strike in New York continues cargo fails to leave the port despite the availability of large numbers of foreign born workers including Russian Jews to work the docks. According to critics, they lack the skill and knowledge to work effectively. As the strikers become more desperate, incidence of violence increase as can be seen by the stone-throwing attack on Jews at the 30th Street Yards.
1882: The current labor strife between the freight handlers and the railroad companies is described as battle between Teutonic and Celtic Races on the one hand and Russian-Semitic and Latin volunteers on the other hand. In a tactic that would become quite common during labor disputes, the owners and their supporters would try and pit worker against worker; in this case Germans and Irish against Russian Jews and Italians.
1882: It was reported today that in Russia, Count Tolstoi, the Minister of the Interior has ordered the authorities at the frontier “to do all this is possible to facilitate the return of the Jews.”
1882: The newly formed Propaganda Verein, most of whose members were Jewish, met tonight at the Golden Rule Hall on Rivington Street. The evening’s theme was “The Jewish Question” – the future of the Jewish race and the anomaly of the persecution of Jews.
1883: “The Alleged Passover Murder” published today described recent event in the trial of Jews accused of ritual murder of a Christian girl, Esther Salomossy, at Nyreghaza, Hungary. Two of the accused claimed that their confessions had been obtained by force and coercion. The defense counsel told the court that the people of Tisza-Eglar, where the alleged murder had taken place have “been taught that it was not wrong to testify falsely against the Jews” if the interests of the country required a conviction .
1884: In Boston, Isaac Jacobs, a Polish Jew who is the prime suspect in the murder of Etta G. Carleston, is expected to make his next court appearance on charges of having stolen a watch a chain.
1884: “Case of Pauper Immigrants” published today, described evidence gathered by the Emigration Commissioner that the clerks at Castle Garden were not be vigilant in seeing to it that immigrants who lacked funds or financial sponsors were kept from entering the country. Among those metntioned were Henry Brolsky, his wife and six children had arrived aboard the SS Assyrian Monarch. According to Brolsky, the Hebrew Society of London had paid for their passage. He said he had family in St. Louis, but had no funds to make the trip. Another example was an un-named family from Poland who had arrived on the SS Australia. Their passage had been paid for by the Hebrew Society of London. The immigrants claimed they had been told that the Commissioners of Emigration would provide them with funds once they had arrived. [The report cited examples of non-Jews as well. The issue of “pauper immigrants” would bedevil the immigration debate among Jews as well as the general society until World War I staunch the human flood tide.]
1884: Birthdate of Lion Feuchtwanger, German -born dramatist and narrator who escaped to the United States at the outbreak of World War II. He passed away in his California home in 1958.
1887: It was reported today that Albert Weinschenk, a young German Jew who shot himself after his non-Jewish mother-in-law claimed that he was a bigamist is not expected to survive his self-inflicted wound. [The facts will never all be known but apparently inter-marriage was not always a case of “Abie’s Irish Rose.”
1887: The trustees of Gates of Hope suspended Rabbi E.B.M. Browne from his position as leader of the congregation after a special committee of investigation found that guilty of charges of “conduct unbecoming a minister.”
1887: J.E. Phillips presided over tonight’s meeting at the Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue where the Jewish citizens discussed plans for a possible celebration of the 400th anniversary of the expulsion from Spain and Columbus’ first voyage to the New World.
1887: Birthdate of artist Marc Chagall. Born Moishe Zakharovich Shagalov (Moishe Segal) in
1899: Birthdate of movie director George Cukor. Cukor had a long and distinguished career that included two Catherine Hepburn – Spencer Tracy classics. But he may be most famous for the movie that he did not direct. Cukor was the first director for "Gone With the Wind" but he was fired before he could complete the project. He passed away in 1983
1901: Birthdate of producer Sam Katzman. Katzman’s work includes a series of Superman serials and early Elvis Presley films.
1901: The New York Times reports on the popularity of Montefiore Isaacs, the Union Club Member who is a nephew of Sir Moses Montefiore. The popular bachelor is known for his skill as magician which he freely shares for charitable events as well as his knowledge of Shakespeare.
1902: Herzl appears before the Royal Commission.
1903: The funeral of Albert F Hochstadter, prominent businessman and a Trustee of Temple Emanu-El is scheduled to take place today at this famous New York Jewish house of worship.
1904: Theodor Herzl is laid to rest at the Döblinger Friedhof. Thousands of Jews took part in the funeral procession. In his will Herzl asked that his body be buried next to his father, "to remain there until the Jewish people will carry my remains to Palestine."
1904: As a sign of the political right’s loss of power in the wake of the Dreyfus Affair, the government banned the religious orders from teaching in France. When Pope Pius X strenuously objected, the French broke diplomatic relations with the Vatican.
1907: Birthdate of Abraham "Abe" Ellstein (Yiddish: אַבֿרהם "אײב" עלשטײן, Avrom Ellstein, July 7, 1907, New York - 1963) was an American composer for Yiddish entertainments. Along with Shalom Secunda, Joseph Rumshinsky, and Alexander Olshanetsky, Ellstein was one of the "big four" composers of his era in New York City's Second Avenue (Manhattan) Yiddish theatre scene. His musical Yidl Mitn Fidl became one of the greatest hits of Yiddish-language cinema. He was born on the Lower East Side, Manhattan, at that time an Eastern European Jewish immigrant area.
1920: In London, Rebecca Sieff, Dr. Vera Weizmann (wife of Israel's first president, Dr. Chaim Weizmann), Edith Eder, Romana Goodman and Henrietta Irwell founded Women's International Zionist Organization (WIZO)
1920: Arthur Meighen, who was pro-Zionist, begins his first term as Prime Minister of Canada.
1933: Mr. and Mrs. Sydney Ginsburg of 21 Bialik Street in Tel Aviv are the proud parents of a newly born son. Mrs. Ginsberg is the former Ella Bach.
1936(17th of Tamuz, 5696): Tzom Tammuz
1937: The Peel Commission Report describing the investigation of the 1936 Arab Riots was published. The Commission recommended the partition of Mandatory Palestine into two states. The Zionist Congress would, while rejecting the actual borders, agree to consider the proposal. The Arabs rejected it out of hand.
1938: British troops clash with an armed band of Arabs trying to cross in Palestine from Trans-Jordan. This did not stop other Arab infiltrators from joining their brethren in the fight against the British and the Jewish citizens of Palestine.
1940: In an article entitled “Palestine Season Closes,” Dr. Peter Gradenwitz describes the recently ended musical season of the Palestine Symphony Orchestra. The season included thirteen concert series in Tel Aviv, Haifa and Jerusalem as well as additional performances at various agricultural colonies that brought the total of performances to 80.
1940(1st of Tammuz, 5700): Five thousand Jews of Kovno executed by Nazis.
1941 (12th of Tammuz, 5701): Thirty-two Jews are killed in Mariampole, Lithuania.
, a collaborationist military
force, Légion des Volontaires Français (French Volunteer Legion), is
1941 (12th of Tammuz, 5701): Two thousand Jews are murdered at Khotin, Ukraine
1942(22nd of Tammuz, 5702): One thousand Jews from Rzeszów, Poland, are killed at the Rudna Forest. Fourteen thousand are deported to the Belzec death camp.
1942: Himmler held a meeting in
1943: Birthdate of Joel Siegel who would become a household icon while serving as Entertainment Editor on GMA from 1981 through 2007.
1943(4th of Tammuz, 5703): Saul Kozlowski, an 18 year old Communist was arrested by the Gestapo in Vilna, Lithuania. The Gestapo wanted to the known the identity of leader of the underground known as “The Lion.” After hours of torture, Kozlowski identifies Isaac Wittenberg, a Jew living in the ghetto, as being “the Lion.” As the Germans turned away to discuss their next step, Kozlowski grabbed a knife and slit his own throat.
1944: Approximately 437,000 have been deported from
1944: British Prime Minister Winston Churchill informs Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden that he is in favor of the Royal Air Force bombing
1944: In Lithuania, partisan forces, including the Jewish Brigade led by Abba Kovner, join the Soviets in the attack on Vilna.
1948: The settlers who were defending Kfar Darom against Egyptian attacks agreed to be evacuated. Kfar Darom had been cut off from direct military help since the end of June. Air drops of supplies failed to reach the embattled settlement because of Egyptian anti-aircraft. Their stubborn resistance helped to slow the Egyptian advance on Tel Aviv and bought time for the Israelis defending the approaches to the major Jewish population centers. The successful evacuation took place during the night of July 7-8.
1947: Harriet Shapiro married Fred Rochlin in a “small living room…packed to capacity with relatives and friends” at the house on Sentinel Avenue in Los Angeles, California.
1948: During the War for
1956(28th of Tammuz, 5716): Isa Kremer Born in Beltz, Bessarabia. 21 October 1887. Died Cordoba, Argentia, 7 July 1956. Possibly the first women to bring Yiddish song to the concert stage in Russia, was known as an international balladist. Married Israel Heifetz and had one daughter, Toussia, 1917. Yiddish singer and opera star. She studied in Italy, and came to US. Operatic debut in La Boheme in 1902. Joined a group of intellectuals in Odessa with her husand and began to sing Yiddish songs. Due to the Russian revolution, escaped to Poland and then to America. Represented by Sol Hurok for her American debut at Carnegie Hall 29 October, 1922. Sang also in vaudeville Palace Theatre debut in 1927. "Mein Shtetle Belz" was written for her by Olshanetsky and Jacobs for the show "Song of the Ghetto." Traveled throughout Canada and US on concert tours. In a tour of Argentina in late 1930s met Gregorio Bermann. In 1938, moved to Argentina. Isa Kremer sang on the stage in many languages, including Yiddish. She was widely covered by the press; both English and Yiddish reviews of her concerts appeared all over the US, Europe and South America. Her papers are held in Buenos Aires Jewish Center. To read a more complete essay on the life and work of Isa Kremer, open this pdf file.
1964: Tens of thousands of Israelis paid honor tonight to Zeev Jabotinsky, whose remains were flown to Tel Aviv from the United States for reburial.
1965(7th of Tammuz, 5725): Moshe Sharett, second Prime Minister of Israel, passed away. Born Moshe Shertok in
1973(7th of Tammuz, 5733): Seventy-eight year old Max Horkheimer, the German born philosopher and sociologist who sought refuge in the U.S. during the Nazi after his academic credentials were revoked and his institute was closed. [When you read the NY Times obit, see below, you will be hard pressed to find the simple statement that he was Jewish.]
1980(23rd of Tammuz, 5740): Famed writer Dore Schary passed away. Born Isadore Schary in 1905, Schary dropped the "Isa" from Isadore to create his first name. Like so many other Jews of his era, Shary helped create the cinematic version of the American Myth. He won an Oscar for the screenplay "
1986(30th of Sivan, 5746): Rosh Chodesh Tammuz
1986: The United States Supreme Court struck down Gramm-Rudman deficit-reduction law. Senator Warren Rudman was an apparent anomaly on two counts. First he was elected from
1992: The comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 rashes into the planet Jupiter. According to David Levy, one of the trio who discovered the comet, it was the widely watched such phenomena in history. Canadian born David Levy was an English major in college. His career in astronomy began as an amateur. He sees a definite connection between his Jewish heritage and astronomy. For example, Pesach always comes at the full moon, the night sky on Yom Kippur is always the same and Shabbat does not end until three stars can be seen in the sky. His Judaism and his astronomy are so intertwined that he and his bride decided they wanted to be married under the night sky.
1998: In the following articled entitled “Claims for Art Collection Pose a Challenge to Hungary,” Judith Dobrzynski describes the efforts by the Nierenberg family to retrieve a portion of the art collection that was successively seized by the fascists and the communists.
Martha Nierenberg was one of the lucky ones. When the Nazis invaded her native Hungary on
2002: The New York Times featured reviews of books by Jewish authors and/or of special interest to Jewish readers including “New York: Capital of Photography” by Max Kozloff.
2003(7th of Tamuz, 5763): Izhak Graziani, Bulgarian-born conductor, passed away. Izhak "Ziko" Graziani studied music in his native Bulgaria before moving to Israel where he became conductor of the IDF Symphony Orchestra in 1948.
2005: Outfielder Adam Greenberg made his major league debut with the Chicago Cubs.
2005: Outfielder Adam Stern made his major league debut with the Boston Red Sox.
2007: At the Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion Museum in New York, an exhibition called “Cinema Judaica: The War Years” comes to an end. This unprecedented exhibition of iconic
By August 1941, a Senate sub-committee investigated
2007: In an article entitled “Beyond The Myth, Art Endures,” The New York Times reports on
2008: U.S. District Court Magistrate Judge Jon Scoles ruled during a detention hearing for Juan Carlos Guerrero-Espinoza, 35, and Martin De La Rosa-Loera, 43 that the two Agriprocessors Inc. supervisors arrested last week for aiding and abetting illegal workers at the Postville meat processing plant to possess and use fraudulent identity documents will remain in federal custody until their trials. The men are upper-level supervisors at the plant. Scoles’ decision was based on several considerations, including the weight of evidence and criminal history. Both men had a history of illegal conduct, including entering the
2008: The Washington Post reports on the arrival of Jewish pilgrims in
It's an uncommon sight for an Arab country: hundreds of joyous Jewish pilgrims gathering without fear around a rabbi's tomb, greeted by local Muslim officials who share a prayer with them at a synagogue. Yet most of the 400 Jews who converged on the Moroccan coastal town of Safi _ some from nearby cities, others from as far as France or Israel _ at a weekend pilgrimage said they felt welcome here. While religious tensions flare in Jerusalem and beyond, in Morocco, Jews and Muslims say they nurture a legacy of tolerance and maintain common sanctuaries where adherents of both religions pray. Decades of emigration to Israel by Morocco's Jews and terrorist bombings in Casablanca that targeted Jewish sites haven't diminished the draw of these annual pilgrimages. During the festival that began Friday, visitors prayed and feasted around the shrine of Abraham Ben Zmirro, a rabbi reputed to have fled persecution in Spain in the 15th century and then lived in Safi, where he is buried with six siblings. A half-Jewish, half-Muslim band played local tunes during a banquet, including a song in French, Arabic and Hebrew with the line: "There is only one God, you worship Him sitting down and I while standing up." The pilgrims were joined Sunday by Aaron Monsenego, the great rabbi of Morocco, who prayed alongside the regional governor and several other Muslim officials at the shrine's synagogue for the good health of Morocco's King Mohammed VI and his family. "It's very important for us to pray altogether," Monsenego told The Associated Press. Regional governor Larbi Hassan Sebbari said, "We're also very proud of it: it gives a lesson to other countries of what we do together without any taboo." While several Arab states refuse to recognize the Jewish state's right to exist, reject Israeli visitors and ignore the remnants of their local Jewish heritage, Moroccans insist it is not the case in this moderate Muslim nation and U.S. ally. Once home to some 300,000 Jews, Morocco hosts the Arab world's only Jewish museum, funds Jewish institutions and frequently holds events to celebrate Judeo-Moroccan heritage. Still, the Jewish population here has dwindled to about 4,000 _ most in Casablanca. Economics, fears of living in an Arab state and sporadic discrimination drove hundreds of thousands of Moroccan Jews to Israel, Europe or America over the past few decades. Many left in 1948 when the state of Israel was created, or in 1956 when Morocco won independence from France. Other waves followed after the Israeli-Arab conflicts of 1967 and 1973 caused riots in some Moroccan towns. Jewish leaders who stayed say they practice their religion freely and that synagogues are well protected by police, especially since the 2003 bombings in Casablanca. And despite the bombings, Casablanca _ Morocco's commercial capital _ still boasts 32 active synagogues. "There was never any racism in Safi," said Haim Ohana, one of only 10 Jewish people remaining in a town where 6,000 Jews once lived. "People left from here because they were poor," said Ohana, who helped organize the pilgrimage and runs several businesses. The pilgrimage rituals are called Moussem in Arabic and Hilloula in Hebrew. Many of the pilgrims, including ultra-Orthodox Jews from Israel and French and Canadian businessmen, are émigrés who say they come to pray in Safi because of their emotional ties to Morocco. Therese Elisha, an Israeli, said she makes the pilgrimage every other year. "This is the town where I grew up, the synagogue where I prayed," she said. "I feel at home." "We're maintaining a bridge over the divide of the exodus," said Simone Merra, a human resources manager in Paris. Some of Morocco's Jews wonder how long their community will remain. Nadia Bensimon, who runs a fashion boutique in a coastal town, said she had no plans to leave. "But that could change if the Islamists become too powerful," she said. Morocco's main Islamist opposition party _ Adl wal Ihsan _ enjoys broad support, but it is banned from politics; secular parties dominate parliament. Though most of his relatives now live abroad, Ohana said his family traces its arrival in Morocco to 2,076 years ago. "As for Safi, we've been here for nine centuries," he said. "It's my town; I'd see no reason to leave."
2009: Starting tonight and continuing on each successive Tuesday night during July the amphitheatre in Liberty Bell Park offers a different Jerusalem performing artist each week. This Jerusalem Municipality project is made possible through cooperation with The Jerusalem Foundation and the International Cultural Center for youth.
2009: The funeral for Anita Rabinowtiz, the wife of Rabbi Stanely Rabinwoitz is scheduled to take place at Adas Israel in Washington, DC followed by interment at the congregation’s cemetery in southeast Washington.
2009: “In Bruges” is the first film shown at the film festival, Summer Movies at the Merkaz. The Merkaz describes itself as “a unique combination of an absorption center, community center and activism center located in the heart of the German Colony, one of the most beautiful, peaceful and dynamic neighborhoods in Jerusalem.”
2010: The 7th AICE Australian Film Festival is scheduled to show tense political thriller, Balibo, in Tel Aviv.
2010: Thia evening at Manhattan’s Plaza Hotel, the Israeli prime minister addressed a roomful of more than 300 Jews on the subjects of Iran, his government’s eagerness for direct peace talks with the Palestinians and the swell meeting he had just had with President Obama at the White House. But then, in an off-the-cuff remark to a question on Jerusalem from the audience, Benjamin Netanyahu dropped a hint that his government’s insistence on Israeli sovereignty over all of Jerusalem might not be ironclad. “Everybody knows that there are Jewish neighborhoods in Jerusalem that under any peace plan will remain where they are,” Netanyahu said in response to the question read by the executive vice chairman of the Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations, Malcolm Hoenlein. The implication of Netanyahu’s remark -- that other neighborhoods of Jerusalem may not remain “where they are,” becoming part of an eventual Palestinian state -- was the first hint that the Israeli leader may be flexible on the subject of Jerusalem. Until now, Netanyahu has insisted that Jerusalem is not up for negotiation.
2011: “Rothschild Fine Art,” an exhibition featuring objects’ des art from Rothschild Fine Art, a premier gallery in the cultural center of Tel Aviv, is scheduled to open today at ARTHamptons Art Fair in Bridgehampton.
2011: D.C. Councilman Tommy Wells is scheduled to take part in the Jewish Community Relations Council’s noontime series at the Lillian and Albert Small Museum.
2011: Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu was scheduled to fly to Sofia today for meetings with Bulgarian Prime Minister Boyko Borisov and President Georgi Parvanov. Netanyahu will be accompanied on the trip to Bulgaria by some eight ministers who will take part in a joint government meeting. He is slated to return to Israel this evening.
2011: An Israel Defense Forces soldier was wounded lightly by an explosive device planted near his tank in the southern Gaza Strip this morning. The soldier was mildly hurt from shrapnel in the device and the tank was unharmed. This is the first significant incident in the strip after a few months of relative calm in the area, and it appears as though tensions are on the rise. Earlier this week Israel Air Force planes attacked a Palestinian cell that planned to fire rockets from Gaza to Israel. There have been at least three incidents in which militants have shot rockets from Gaza toward the Negev in Israel, and several attempts to shoot at Israeli vehicles near the strip.
2011: The Environmental Protection Ministry ordered the Eilat Ashkelon Pipeline Co. (EAPC) to cease their work in the Nahal Zin and surrounding nature reserve following last week's devastating jet-fuel oil spill after the ministry found that the company was not effectively carrying out the cleanup but rather exacerbating the environmental damage. EAPC responded to the ministry's order, saying that fault lies with the digging contractor, which had failed to follow instructions from environmental authorities and had ruptured the pipeline in the course of its work, Israel Radio reported.
2012: The egalitarian-traditional minyan at Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids is scheduled to celebrate “Red White and Blue Shabbat” while beating Iowa’s unprecedented heat wave with “Sundaes on Saturday” where congregants will build their own Cool Kosher Concoctions.
2012: One of Israel's top contemporary troupes, Vertigo Dance Company, is scheduled to perform Mana at Jacob’s Pillow in Beckett, Maine.
2012: Israeli cellist Yoed Nir is scheduled to perform at the Super Bock Rock Festival in Lisbon, Portugal
Copyright; July, 2012; Mitchell A. Levin email@example.com